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Full text of "Pcelarstvo -knjige"

^eo Haconnca Ilnejiap 

Ca^pacaj: 

KaKO rrcejie XHBe 3hmh 05 

noja^aBaite iraejimbHX ^pyniTaBa 07 

noHarjajte irqejia BO^OHonia 08 

KaKO o6e36e^HTH 3aje^HHue nojieHOM 09 

Je/iHOCTaBHO apMHpaite caTHHX ocHOBa 10 

Xnj,pojiH3a caxap03e y CHpyny 1 1 

PyqHH Hocan KoniHHne 12 

Tajeifce nnejia y pa3JiHHHTHM KoiHHHuaMa 14 

^BOMaTH^HO J1P y3 rpejaH>e 18 

flo^aBaite oroiorjeHe MaTHue 31 

PyqHH Hocan KOHiHHua 34 

KaKO npoH3BecTH mohhh KpeM 35 

CrapocTcafra... 37 

TpaGex 40 

YnoTpeGa CTapnx MaTHua 42 

npecejbaBaibe rraejia H3 BpniKe y caH^iyK 43 
HajrjiaBHHJH TexHOJiouiKH nocTynuH y npoH3BO- 

Hibn ajiKoxojiHHX nnfra Ha 6a3H Me^a 45 

OGoraheHa noraqa 3a rraejie 57 

YnoTpeGa aMHTpa3a y cy36HJaity Bapao3e 59 

lllapji fla^aH 62 

AKO HHCTe3HaJlH... 65 

Mhcjih HCTaKHyrHx iraejiapa 66 

n^ejiapeifce HP koihhhhom 67 

EjieKTpHHHO rpejaite KoniHHua 74 

nponycHa Moft h KBajiHTeT omio,HH>aKa 83 

rioJHJiHite 86 

y3pouH cmpthocth nnejia y 3hmckom nep. 87 

YHHinTaBaite ocHH>aKa 88 

npeBejiH cmo 3a Bac 89 

nnejiapcTBo JloibCKe 91 

IleTap M. npoKoninoBHH 96 

OrpaHHHaBaH>e MaTHue y Jie^eH>y 98 

...pa3Boja nnejiHifcHX ^pyniTaBa y npojiefte 102 

MoryhHOCTH h noTpeGe H3rpa^H>e cafta 106 

Majia KouiHHHHHa 6y6a 110 

O yji03H MaTHue y rrcejiHH>eM ^pyuiTBy 113 

IlHeJIHIfeH BOCaK 115 

CeoGa miejiHH>HX ^pyunaBa 118 

CenimGa nnejia 121 

BecTH H3 CBeTa 123 

Mo^oia HHCTe 3HajiH 125 

MerjeOT 129 

lloKa3aTejb KBajiHTeTa MaTHua 131 

flo^aBaibe h 3aMeHa MaTHua 133 

npojiehHH pa3Boj nqejiHftHX ,opyiHTaBa 137 

nnejiapibe OapapoBOM kohihhhom 140 

KaKO canyBaTH njieTapy 147 

O nqe-JiaMa h Me^y y £ejTHMaKH>H»ceBH. 149 

rpejaite nnejiHH^HX 3aje,u,HHua 2 153 



Ylpon3Bojiiba MaTHHHor MJie^a Ha TaJBaHy 157 

fle^a JecTpHHa nojioniKa 159 

LUeftepHa noraqa (cTaicieHKa) 160 

n^ejiapeH>e ca JTP h £H3ajiHHpM 161 

JoBaH MepJiHHr 162 

HaHHHH ycneiHHor 3HMOBaita 2 163 

HaHHHH ycneiHHor 3HMOBaH>a 1 170 

fla jih cy Ha noKony OTKpHha.... 176 

npecejLaBaH^e nnejia H3 BpiHKape 185 

J\n3ajmn,a HacTaBaKa KoniHHne 178 

JleHeH>e nponojincoM 179 

Pen BHine o anHTOJiy 182 

npHJior nonyjiapH3auHJH 4>aiiejiHJe 184 

KaMHJi fla^aH 186 

3HaHaj noJHJia 187 

yTHuaj KOJiH^HHe xpaHe Haja^HHy ... 190 

Mo/iH(J)HKOBaHH HocaH paMOBa 192 

Bpe^HOCT Me^a 193 

nponojiHC JieK 3a MHore Gojiecra 196 

Ajiepraja Ha miejiHH>H OTpoB 198 

Ba3,nyniHH o^cTpaH^HBan nnejia 199 

J^BeTHH npax, HaHHH £o6HJaH>a 200 

MaTHuajajioByina h MaTHua HHCTau 202 

IlHejiapeH>e h aH^HJiaraHKH hiok 203 

BapoajaKoGcoHH 206 

yKJiaH>aH>e Bapoe TpyTOBCKHM JierjioM 212 

Me# - npHpo^HH KOH3epBaHc 216 

LllTaje 6Hon^ejiapeH>e 218 

npBa KibHra o n^enapcTBy Ha cpncKOM 219 

npojieliHO npnxpaH>HBaH>e irqejia 220 

MojieKyjiapHa peBOJiyuHJa.. 225 

Me.ii 3a j,o6po 3,iipaBJbe h jyr xhbot 226 

HeKe MeTo^e 6op6e npoTHB Bapoe 227 

Moryfteje noSojbiuaTH nnejiHHoy nainy 230 

3aHHMJbHBOCTH H3 CBeTa 235 

3HaHaj o^raJHBa^Kor ^pyniTBa y cejieKHHJH 237 

Moja KOMGHHOBaHa MeTo^a n^ejiapeita 240 

nHejiHH^a 3aje,iiHHLia y 3hmckom nepHo^y 245 

OapapoB CHdeM n*iejiapeH>a 249 

Ha nnejiHH>aKy Bjia/jHMHpa Xytba^HJa 253 

Kojihko (He) 3HaTe o pojeity 255 

nnejiapcTBO y MafjapcKoj 257 

lllTaje ji03a JieKa h KaKO je o^pej,HTH.. 258 

Annrap/i - hobh KOHuenT 6op6e .. 259 

3a £o6po 3HMOBaH5e 268 

A(J)pHKaHH30BaHe nnejie 263 

CHTHHue Koje to HHcy 264 

MaTH^Ha peiueTKa 3hmh 267 

IlocTOJbe 3a KoiHHHue 268 
Bp3e MeTo^e - o^pe^HBaHie KBajiHTeTa Me^a 270 

Y3roj n^ejia h reHeTHKa y EBponn 278 

HeoGHHHH ^BOMaTHHHH CHTeMH 2 285 

HeKe CHTHHue Koje to HHcy 5 287 

3aHHMJbHBOCTH 289 



Tpa6ex 292 

ITo^ifca^a orjie^ajio n*iejiHH>e 3ajejiHHHe 294 

Heo6HHHH JIBOMaTH^HH CHCTeMH 295 

TpyroBH 298 

n^enapcKH hox h Hocan paMOBa 299 

Jlenrap MTBa^Ka rjiaBa 301 

XoroBa KaceTa 3a Mejj y nojiycany 303 

BocHJtaK kojj, nnejiapa 305 

Heo6HHHa xpaHHjrana 307 

AnHTOJi nojj JiynoM CTpyqraaKa 308 

CBOJCTBa H KBaJIHTeT CaTHHX OCHOBa 309 

Tonibeifce BOCKa 312 

MpaBJta KHcenHHa - Bapoa 317 
JloHainaH>e nnena npH caKyrubaH>y xpaHe 320 

n^ejiHitH Mejj - CTaH/japji 323 
YTHuaj CTapeita cana Ha KBajiHTeT nnena 329 

O MaTHuaMa THxe CMeHe 333 

OepoMOHH 334 

Hexe CHTHHixe Koje to HHcy 4 335 

OopMHpaite h Hera pojeBa 337 

IloJHTxGeHH HaroH 340 

IlpoH3BO,HH>a 6arpeMOBor Me/ia 343 

Jlpo(J)HJiaKTHKa h neHeH>e 346 

Koihhhhkh HHKyGaTop 347 

IljiaT(J)opMa 3a cejberae KouiHHua 349 

fle6jioKa^a miejiHH>er rHe3/ia 350 
CreneH 3apaaceHOCTH, e(J)HKacHOCT JieKOBa 351 

JleTO h perynaTop neia 353 

npojiefiHH pa3Boj nnejiHH^HX jjpyniTaBa 355 

3nMCKa HBpda xpaHa 361 

ITpHxpaHa nnejiHHjHX JjpyniTaBa 363 

Mjieraa cypynca y nnejiapcTBy 365 

3aMeHa noneHa 366 

ITpeMeniTaHje nqejiHH^HX JjpyniTaBa 369 

Bapoa noa kohtpojiom 371 

ApMHpaH>e caTHHX ocHOBa 383 

Pa3BpcTaBaHse pe3epHor cana 385 

Me^HniHH HacTaBiiH 388 

noHamajte Bapoe.. 389 

Majia KoniHH^HHa 6y6a y EBponn 390 
Maj^HHa jjynmna y 6op6n npoTHB Bapoe 391 

IT^ejiapH pyxe k ce6n 392 
OKcajiHa KHcenHHa, ncnapaBaite, onpe3 393 

CTpec npoicieTCTBO Hainer BpeMeHa 396 

UlyMCKH Mejj 398 

OnaCHOCT CHCTeMHHHH HHCeKTHUH^H 399 

HeBOJbe ca BHpycHMa 400 

PacnpaBa o MaTHuaMa 402 

JXsHwmh. Merjy miejiapHMa 406 

Bpoiuypa h Ha Maf)apcKOMJe3HKy 407 

JJeSjbHHa caTHHX ocHOBa 408 

npeMeniTaHje nnejiHitHX JjpyniTaBa 409 

IT^ejiapHua 410 

EBO^HJa pa3BHJia pojeBe 413 



3aiHTHTHe Mepe npH pajjy ca OKcajiHOM 416 

OKcajiHa, npHMeHa, HcmrraBaikay ... 418 

IlpHMeHa OKcajiHe KHcejiHHe 420 

OKcajiHa y cy36HJaH>y Bapoe 423 

IlpenopyKe 3a OKcajiHy KHcejiHHy 425 
Tonepamnrja iraejia Ha 3HMCKe TpeTMaHe..428 

TpeTHpao caM OKcajiHOM 432 

McnapaBaH>e OKcajiHe.... 436 

BanopH3ep 438 

EKO-HHna-Bap-03 443 

KBajiHTeTHO 3a3HMJbaBaite 445 

YTHuaj pace h pa3MenrraH>a Jierjia Ha ... 447 

Ka/i cy ce h HyKJieycn pojhjih 450 

Be3 KOMeHTapa 451 

Bockob MOJLau 452 

Me/utHKa 454 

Co(J)opa 456 

OepoMOHH 457 
OTKpHBaH>e MHHa noMohy iraejia h Jiacepa460 

OpraHCKa miejiapcKa npoH3BojjH>a 461 

Ahtoh JaHina 462 

TeHe BpaH^H 463 

rio/j^a^a 3a nerapy 3aje/iHHne 465 

OTKJianaH>e cana ToruiHM Ba3/iyxoM 466 

ITaKeTHH pojeBH 469 

BnpycH onacHHJH ojj, Bapoe 471 

Bapoa, CTpec h BHpycn 477 

Be3 caTHe ocHOBe 478 
yTBprjHBaH>e CTeneHa 3apaxeHOCTH BapoM479 

MpaBJta KHcejiHHa 485 

McKycTBa - MpaBJta KHcejiHHa 486 

flejcTBO (J)ypMHTOMa Ha Bapoy 487 

BeniTaHKO pojeite y npncycTBy Bapoe 489 

npeKHjjaite pojeita 493 

npeKHJjaite pojeita - HacTaBiba^e 495 

OopMHpaH^e pojeBa nocne GarpeMa 496 

O^p^caTH pajjHO pacnojioxeite 498 

MpexacTa no/aita^a npnoTHB Bapoe 500 

KBajiHTeT MaTHua h H>HXOBa Maca 506 

OopMHpaH^e oflraJHBa^KHX 3ajejjHHna 507 

PoaHTejLCKO-CTapTep-GHJi^ep-apyuiTBO 508 

Jlnna maBHa nama BaniKHpHJe 509 

Me^oHOCHOCT Jinne 510 

Tjie^H^HJa Me^oHOCHO /xpBO 512 

reorpa<})CKO h GoTaHH^KO nopeicio Mejja 514 

Mejj h KHcejiHHa y xejiyuy 516 

KopHinheH^e GarpeMOBe name 517 

3auiToje kophcho Meperae KoniHHne 518 

tberoBO BenH^aHCTBO paM 521 

KaMeH cnoTHnaita Ha KopaK no iimta 525 

Bpoj MaTH^ntaKa - KBajiHTeT MaTHue 527 

KajieH/xap H3BorjeH>a Manma 528 

KaKO ycneniHO 3aMeHHTH MaTHuy 529 

BHOJiornja miejiHiter Kpnejta 532 



BejiH GarpeM Ha ^ejiy 536 

floGHJaite Me/ia 540 

floBecTH nnejie y CTaite npHpo/iHor poja 545 

McxycTBOM jj,o npHHOca 548 

npHxpaH^HBaifce y npaKCH 551 

n^ejiapeite JiHCH>aHOM 555 

Yiviene n^enapeiba 559 

JlaToreHHM ribHBHHaMa npoTHB Bapoe 561 

npojiehHH pa3Boj nnejiHiBHX 3ajejjHHua 563 

MapTOBCKH HcnHT npe^ iraejiaMa 569 

KaKO h 3auiTO jio qncTor BOCKa 571 

McnapHBa^ MpaBJte KHcejiHHe 574 

Cejao caM <J)aHejiHJy 576 

Macjia^aK 578 

Me^JLHKa, Mea MejjJbHKOBau h rraejie 589 

rpejaite miejiHH>er rHe3Jia 581 

O 3arpeBan>y nHejiHH>er rae3Jja 584 

ETOJioniKe ocoGHHe y cejieKHHJH iraejia 585 

rinejiap cajyroncTOKa CpGnje 588 

OueHa CTaita jjpyuiTBa nocMaTpajteM 589 

Ciaiwp^ioauHJa KBajiHTeTa nponojinca 590 

MBa, BpGnua, Maua 593 

IJaHapHKa 594 

TpH BaxHa npaBHJia 595 

KoH3epBHpaH>e noneHa 597 

EceHHHJajma yjta npoTHB Bapoe 598 

Baji3aM o,ii nponojinca h Gejior JiyKa 602 

BojiecT ^e(J)opMaiiHJe KpHJia 603 

MivnmaKJionpHJj h OKOJiHHa 605 

MciuiaTHBOCT CTauHOHapHor mejiapeiba 606 

YHHBep3ajiHa no/jH>aqa c-1 609 

KaKO iraejie BHJje 616 

Y3roj TpyTOBCKHX JiapBH 617 

3nMCKa noraqa Heonxo^Ha hjih niTeTHa 620 

YGojj, nnejia 622 

CHTHHue Koje to HHcy 623 

flpeH, jjpnjeH, jpeHaK 625 

JoBa upHa, joBa 626 

MnKpoGnojiouiKa HcnpaBHOCT nojieHa 627 

nponojiHC Kao JieK y HH(|)eKHHJaMa ypoT.. 628 

OnacHOCT HeKOHTpojincaHor yKpniTaH>a.. 630 

JleHeH>e oneKOTHHa, paHa h qHpeBa Koace 632 

KoHTpojia Bapoe 633 

IlHejiHH>aK Ha BeTpy 639 

riorana HpKHa noTpeGa 640 

riorana HyacHO 3Jio 643 

KBajiHTeTHH ycjioBH 3HMOBaH>a 648 

Moj HaHHH n^ejiapeita 651 

npenie^H 6e3 OTBapaH>a 652 

BocaK, caTHa ocHOBa, cane 653 

AMepHHKa Tpynex ..Jieneike.. 655 

MnpHCHa MeMopHJa kojj nnejia 658 

npar h CTeneH 3apa;aceHOCTH BapooM 659 

PaM rparjeBH^aK 663 



OKcajiHa KHcenHHa h cnrypHOCT pa^a 665 

IlHejiHHjH KajieH/iap 667 

OTKpHBeH HOBH nHeJIHH>H ^GpOMOH 668 

PaHO Jierno 670 

Moja ^eceTopaMHa J\B KoniHHua 671 

Ym napyje, CHara KJiajje Bajta 673 

McxpaHa nnejia 677 

Moxe ce h 6e3 norana 680 

KoHTpojia aMepH^Ke Tpyjieacn 68 1 

Y3^ax 3a£OBOJbCTBa 686 

BpeMe 3a ceTBy (^auejiHJe 689 

O upHOM Mejjy h Mopajry 69 1 

IloMorHHTe cna6e ojaqajre jaKe 693 

IloBehaH>e n*iejiHH>aKa 6e3 yMaH>eH>a npH. 697 

yipoipi MacoBHor cTpaaaita nnejia 697 

IlqJHJiHna 3a rraejie 700 
Pa/j ca MajiHM ocMo^eiiHHM onjiojjH>auHMa701 

Hh or Bp6e kjihh, hh ojj 3eTa CHH...Bp6e.. 707 

riyr #o ycnexa 710 
KaKO nocTynHTH y cjryqajy TpoBaita irqeji.711 

IloMop nnena yBe^ejy 713 

IIhcmo 3a anpHji 714 

Kajj on jjoGpor nocTOJHJom Gojte 717 

OapapoBa KoniHHHa Ha moj Ha^HH 718 

npBO ueHTpH({)yra na poj"? 722 

npHpo^HO pojerae 725 
Hh or Bp6e kjihh, hh or 3eTa CHH..Bp6e2.728 

floGpo Momhhjio jjoKJie ja Jia MeKaM 730 

KoMepHHj'ajiHO ojjrajaH^e MaTHua 732 

M3B03 Me/ia 737 

Y3roj Maxima noMony Hhhot anapaTa 740 

OopMHpan>e naKeTHHX pojeBa 743 

BojioBCKHJe3HK, BOJiyjaK, na^je rHe3Jjp... 749 

Hobo Jinne THMOJia 751 

JleHeite H03eM03e 6e3 aHXHGnoxHKa 753 

^Ba ^pyniTBa yjejjHoj koiuhhuh 755 

Ecnap3eTa, cnaTKa jjeTejiHHa 758 

Xhbot nHena y npHpojjHOM CTaHHHiTy 759 

lllTa neKa nnejiape y EBponn 766 

BHJiouiKa KOHTpona BoiHTaHor MOJtiia 770 

TpojaHCKa Tparejjnja nHejiHH>e 3ajejjHHue 772 

HayHHTe 3aniTO Mejj KpHCTanHine 778 

BeniTa^KH Mejj (HHBepTOBaHH niehep) 780 

nncMO 3a cenTeM6ap 782 

flonyHa HejjocTajyhe name 784 

CneuH(J)HHHOCTH nHejiapeH>a ynjiaHHHH. 786 

noneHCKa HcxpaHa h pa3Boj jjpyiHTBa 788 

AnHTepannja 798 

noneHCKa HcxpaHa h pa3Boj JxpyiHTBa 2 798 

KoHaHHO^OKa3H 808 

dpHULeHH h oce 813 

OauejiHJa yjeceitoj ceTBH 816 

JoBaH n. JOBaHOBHh 818 

Sjio^hh Hajj nnejiaMa 820 



IIhcmo 3ajaHyap 823 

KiMire HHTaj, a HcxycHe nnraj 824 
LUnpeite h KOHTpona aMepHHKe Tpyne^H 828 

MeTO/i CTpecaiBa Moxe cy36HTH AT 831 

Er30THHHH BHpycH 832 

TpyroBCKO Jierjio-OTKpHBaH>e Bapoe 837 

Pa/i ca MpaBibOM KHcejiHHOM 839 

lipBeHa KpajLHua 841 

XeMHJCKa KOHTpojia Bapoe Hennca 842 

PoTauHJa npenapaia npoTHB Bapoe 843 

BejiH GocHibaK 844 

IlojieH Kao OTHcaK npcia 847 

fla^aHKe Ha ^erapH To^nca 848 

rinejiap y HHBajnnicKHM KOJinnHMa 849 

IIhcmo 3a <j>e6pyap 850 

OeGpyap Mecen, ozuiyKe 852 

CnOKOJHO 3CHBHM 3HMH 855 

BepTHKajiHH ocMo^ejiHH onjio^itaK 856 

Moj H36op THna KoniHHne 859 

MaTH^Ha peineTKa 862 

HaJTaita yoKGnpeHa MaraqHa peineTKa 865 

J^eHe Me^a y HeMaHKOj 866 

HoBa GojiecT nnejia-Nosema ceranae 868 

IIhcmo 3a MapT 870 

riora^e HHcy 3HMHHna 872 

IloJHJia 3a nnejie 873 

Ho3eM03a 876 

flonpHHOc nnejiapa niHpeH>y Gojiecra 878 
KaKO nnejiapcxa npaxca yraqe Ha Bapoy 880 

TpyroBCKHM JienioM npoTHB Bapoe 882 

MMao caM .. aMepH*n<a Tpynex Jienra 883 
BejinqHHa oiuio,ziH>aKa-KBajiHTeT MaTHua 885 
Ilepra h H^eHa npHnpeMa Ha nqejiHH>aKy 887 

3aniTHTa ^OMahe nnejie h Me#a 889 

OiepaJMO Me/iBe^e 892 

rinejia 6naro MyapHX Bohapa 893 

JLy^H h HejLyzpi 894 

HOBOCTH O a3HJCKOJ H03CM03H 895 

IIhcmo nnejiapHMa 3a anpHJi 897 

Oj,p^caBaH>e pa^Hor pacnojioaceH>a.. 900 

^BOMaTHHHH CHCTeM ,naje BHine 903 

npHxpaH>HBaH>e rrqejia 908 

Hayxa roBopH, npHpo^a no^ceha 910 

CaicynHTe nojieH 914 

rajinheBO noJHJio 916 
HyKJieyc 3a TpaHcnopT h ncnopyKy pojeBa 917 

IIhcmo 3aMaj 918 

Ka/ia h KaKO 3anoqeTH nnejiapeike 922 

npoHSBO^Hia Me^a y cany 924 
npnnpeMa 3a name h npoH3BO,iiH>a pojeBa 926 

IlpHpo/iHH poj £ohoch cpefiy 930 

Ilyr no #o6pe Marane 932 

Y3roj MaTHua Ha moj Ha^HH 937 

Kannteite y npoHonieity Maraua 938 



GAUCHO (HMHj,aKJionpH^) Ha nojbHMa 940 

TajraneB Kanyn 3a MaTH*ntaKe 941 

Bnme or 6pahe 944 

IIhcmo 3ajyH 946 

OopMHpaH>e hobhx ^ipyniTaBa 949 

MaTHua H3 BonnaHor HBeTa 955 

Cy36HJaH>e Bapoe y opraHCKOM rrqejiap.. 957 

CBeTCKO nyao 3BaHO nojieTajbKa 961 

Bpyfie rraejie y npa3HHM nejinjaMacana.. 963 

CjioBeHHJa Ha eBponcKH HaHHH 964 

Me^ Tonn cyBHinHe KHJiorpaMe 966 

3HanaJHO OTKpnhe Hauler n^ejiapcTBa 971 

IIhcmo 3ajyji 973 
IleT HajGoibHX TexHHKa 3a HeroBajte poje..977 

O pacTy nonyjiannje Bapoe 980 

Me/iJbHKa h mqr Me^JtHKOBau 983 

EBpona yno30paBa xeMHKajinje y Me,zry 987 
CycneH^OBaH yB03 6pa3HJicKor Me^a y EY 988 

Bnara... h 3HMCKa BeHTHJiannja KoniHHue 989 

AP1GARD kojx nnejiapa 995 

AP1GARD ajiTepHaTHBa 3a MpaBJty.. 997 

Ahtohho HaHeTH y CpGnjn 1000 

KaKO JierajiHO o^rajaTH MaTHue 1002 

AnnneHTap 1004 

IIhcmo 3a OKToGap 1006 

Moryhn y3poun ryGmaKa tokom 3HMe 1009 
..HH(J)eKnHJa noBpe^a Koje HanpaBH Bapoa 1013 

BnnieHaMeHCKa MpexacTa noRYbma 1018 

YnoTpeGa napHHX TonHOHHKa 1022 

TonHOHHK 100% 1024 

Ilnejie TpeGa bojicth Kao *uiaHOBenopo.. 1026 

Xhbothh BeK nnejia pa^HJinna 1028 

A\iHTpa3 3a h npoTHB 1032 

KoH(J)epeHiiHJa H3 anHJioraje 1040 

Nosema ceranae y CpGnjn 1044 

MaTeMaTHKaje HaJBaacHHJa... 1045 

IIlTaje to perncTpauHJa 1048 

IIhcmo 3a ^eueMGap 1049 

2 KOH(J>epeHUHJa H3 anHaojioraje 1052 

3hmckh TpeTMaH OKcajiHa HaKanaBaH>e 1056 

..anHMe/iHKa 2006 1059 

Cto ro^HHa or cmpth T)ep30Ha 1064 

90 ro^HHa oji cmpth JoBaHa >KHBaHOBana 1065 

BaxHe HH({)opManHJe 1068 



riqejiap" 1997 



KaKO nnejie 3CHBe 3hmh 




ri4ert0B0ACTB0, 1983. 6p. 1. 

H y TOKy 3HMe - niejie cy aKTHBHe 

3a pa3JiHKy on BehuHe MHceKaxa Me,n,0H0- 
CHe nqejie npexo 3HMe He cnaBajy 3hmckh 
caH Ben aKTHBHO npou3Boae noTpe6Hy to- 
njioTy Heo6xojiHy 3a h>hxob xhbot. Tonjio- 
Ta je/jHe nMene je He/ioBOJbHa /ra 6h ce caivia 
M36opHJia ca 3hmckhm xjia/iHonaMa. Ho, 
BHiue xaibana nqejia, CKynjteHe y rycTy Ma- 
cy- KJiy6eiy, cyMHpajy CBOJy TonjiOTHy 
eHeprnjy, Koja 36or KapaKTepHCTHHHe 
CTpyKType KJiy6eia 6HBa caqyBaHa, iijto 
niejiHH>eM apyuiTBy OMoryhaBa jj,a 
npejKMBHHaK Beoivia jaKe Mpa3eBe. npeMa 

TOMe, flpyUITBeHH HaHMH >KHBOTa IIHeJia KOfl 

HiHxje H3rpa/j,HO cacBHM noce6aH HaHHH 
npe3MMJbaBaH>a, npM KOMe cy OHe BeoMa aK- 
THBHe. 

npnnpeMa nqejiHtber ApyniTBa 3a 

jkhbot npeKO 3HMe noHHH>e joui y TOKy Jie- 

xa. npeparjyjyfiH HeKxap m CTBapajyhH on 

iberauen, nnejie npaBe Beoivia xpaHJbHBy m 

KOHHeHTpOBaHy BHCOKOKajiopHiHy xpaHy. 

Pe3epBe Mefla OHe CKJia/THniTe y ropn>eM jie- 

y rae^na, KaKO 6h ra HecMeTaHO kophcth- 

jie y 3HMCKHM ycjioBHMa. rinejie „3a- 

neiafiyjy" pe3epBe Mena HenpOMOiHBHM 

BouiTaHHM noKJionuHMa, kojh cnpeiaBajy 

pa3pet)HBaH)e Mejiay ycjioBHMa BJiaxHOCTH 

Kao h H>eroBO 3rymH>aBaH>e na m KpHCTajin- 

3au,njy y ycjioBHMa cyBor Ba3,n;yxa. Ilqejie 

cy CTeKJie cjioco6hoct jia H3 Tena He H36a- 

uyjy CBOJe (peKaiiHpajyfie eKCTpeMeHTe 6e3 

o63Hpa Ha CHdeMaTCKy ynoTpe6y xpaHe. 

OHe noTnyHoycBajajy nieftee Mejja, aiJiaH- 

KacTa KOHCTpyKHMJa ,ae6ejior 3aj,H>er upeBa 

OMoryhaBa jj,a ce yBeha H>eroBa 3anpeMHHa 

MHMe 3aApxe y cbom Tejiy HecBapeHe Ma- 

TepHJe/TonpojienHorH3JieTa. 

ITHejiHH>e ApyiuTBO y TOKy CBOjer /ryror 
eBOJiyuHOHornepMO,aacTeKJiojeMHoroHH- 
CTMKaia ycrviepeHMx Ha ckohomhiho 
TpomeH>e Me/ja y jeceH - 3hmckom nepHO/iy. 
Toivie Tpe6a /jo/jaTH HaroHCxo MCTepMBaH>e 
TpyxoBa nocjie Me.ao6paH>a. 

V noMeiKy OHe hx nperoHe c Me/jHHx 
caxoBa Ha 3w/iOBe m nojj,H>aiy koiuhhuc Ta- 
ko TpyTOBM on rnana ry6e CHary h nieiie 
hx OH/iajiaKO H36auyjy Hancube, rae HCTpa- 
Aajy. 

Cnpe.viajyhH ce 3a 3HMy nnejie jicmoce 
nponojinc kojhm, y civiecn ca bockom, 3aTBa- 
pajy pynwue a nponene Ha kouihhhh h 



F..0. Tapanoe 

necTO H)HMe CMajtyjy JieTO. Ha H>eMy ocTaB- 
jbajy caMO hckojihko OKpyr/inx OTBOpa. 

Poj ce yBeK HacejbaBa y ixynsby jkhbot 
ApBexa. nponojiHCOM nnejie npeMa^y TaBa- 
Huuy ocTaBJbajyhH 3H/jOBe He/iMpHyie, Ka- 
ko 6h Kp03 h>hx, yHyTap ApBeTa y/ia3mia 
BJiara, iiito y 3HaTHOJ MepH 3aniTHftyje 
nqejiHtfeM CTaH on HaroMHJiaBatta cyBHiiiHe. 
BJiare, Koja cc ocjio6aQa y TOKy Meia6o- 
jin3Ma nnejia y 3mmckom nepHO/jy. 



Moptpojiornja 3hmckhx nnejia 

3uMCKa reHepauHJa nnejia ce (pH3no- 
jiouikh pa3JiHKyje on JieTH>e h npojieTH>e. y 
Tejiy niejie CKJiajiHiiiTe ce pe3epBe a30THe 
MaTepHJe, Macx h rjiHKoreH, MeH>a ce HaHHH 
MeTa6ojiM3Ma. Ako ce koji JieTH>HX nnejia 
ochobhm npouecM CTBapaH>a Tonjioxe Bpuie 
nofl jiejcTBOM (^epMeHTa OKCH,aa3e, pa- 
3JiaxyhM mehepe y3 noMon KuceoHHKa H3 
Ba3,nyxa, to ko,o, 3hmckhx aojia3e no 
H3pa>Kaja npouecn MeTa6ojiM3Ma nojx aej- 
ctbom rpyne (p e P MeHaxa /iexM/iporeHe3a, 
kojh KOpMCTe KHceoHMK, Be3aH ca Mamhy, 
KOJHJe c' jeceHH CTBOpeH y xejiy nnejie. Koji 
3HMCKHX nnejia ^opMMpa ce ucno,a xHTMHa 
h Me5y-yHyTpainH>HM opraHHMa jie6e^H 
cjioj MacHor TKHBa kojh ce koa JieTH>MX 
nnejia He pa3BHja y TaKBOM cxeneHy. 

Ko,a miejia, Koje ce cnpeMajy 3a 3HMy, 
CHH*.aBa ce caapacaj cjio6o,aHe Bojie y nejiH- 
ja\ia Tejia; Boaa H3 cjio6oz[Hor CTaH>a npena- 
3h y Be3a;io. Taj npouec je Hapo^HTO aKTH- 
BaH KO,a HHcetcaTa kojh ce 3hmh 3aMp3Hy. 
Bjiaro/iapenH Heiviy TaKBH hhcckth, y npo- 
jiene, ca OTonji>eH>eM ce iiohobo Bpahajy y 
aKTHBan *MBOT. Cjio6o4Ha BO^a, 3aivi- 
p3HyBuiH ce, pyiiiM CTpyKTypy hejinja h hji- 
ceKT THHC 

y Be3aHOM naK CTan>y Bojia He Mp3He. 
TiejiHJe Tena cy onyBaHe, y H>H\ia ce npo- 
ay^caBa BeoMa cnop MeTa6ojiH3aM Ha paqyH 
MacTH h apyrax MaTepHja npHnpeMJteHHX 
3a 3MMy. 

nnejie ce 3mmh najia3e y „toji;ihm" ycjio- 
BHMa, TeMnepaTypa H>HXOBor xejia MaK Ha 
nepH^jepHJH KJiy6eTa He cnyuna ce HHace 
0^6 °C. 

JXyro BpeMeHa nnejiapH cy ce hochjih 
MHiiiJby-Mory JiHce nqene caqyBaiH npeKO 
3HMe y CTaH>y aHH6no3e, CMeuiTajytlH hx y 



4>pH>KMjj,ep c Te.vinepaTypOM Majio hhxom 
o^0°C. MeTjyrHM, HcnHTHBaHiacy noKa3ajia 
jiaje neivioryhe ocTBapHTH npe3MMJbaBaH>e 
n i iejia 6e3 noTpouiH>Be Me,aa. 



BpeMe o6pa30BaH>a KJiy6eTa 

y jeceH> ce CMaityje a 3aTHM h npeciaje 
nojiaraHie jaja h HeroBawbe Jierna. JXpymrna 
cacxapHM MaTMuaivia pa^nje npecTajy ca H3- 
BoT)eH>eMnoTOMCTBa, acaMJia^HM-KacHHJe. 
Ca 3axjia5eH>eM niejie ce nocTeneHO CKyn- 
jbajy y cpe/jHHH rHe3,n;a. CHHxeibe TeMne- 
paType npe cbhx oceTe nMejie Ha KpajjtHM 
caTOBHMa h Tajja ce OHe ycMepaBajy ycMepy 
npeiviaTonjioTH, tj. npeivia cpe/jH>MM caTOBH- 
Ma me je rpynncajia rjiaBHa Maca miejia h 
rae ce Hajia3H MaTHua. TaKO noMHH>e jja ce 
(popMHpa 3mmcko KJiySe. y noieTKy je oho 
He36njeH0 h HecTa6MJiH0 o6pa3yje ce Hofty 
a pacna/ia /J,aH>y c noBenajteM xeMnepaType 
Ba3,ayxa. Ako ce TeMnepaTypa no/jHrHe on 
12 — l^ C nnejie oSaBJbajy npo^iHCHH JieT. 
Me^yTHM, c HacTynoM CTauHe xjia^Hohe 
o6pa3yje ce nocTeneHO KJiy6e Koje onciaje 
3a CBe BpeMe xjiajj,Hor nepno^a. 

y jjynjbaMa ApBefia 3hmcko KJiySe nnejia 
yBeK ce pa3MeiiiTa Ha rpaHHUH H3Merjy Me/i- 
hhx caTOBa (rope) h npa3HHx (Rone). Ochob- 
Ha Maca rmejia pa3MeuiTa ce y npa3He caTO- 
6e,o6pa3yjynn „Jioxy" KJiy6eTa. TopH>H /jeo 
KJiy6eTa yBeK oSyxBaTa cahe c Mejj,OM uito 
OMoryhaBa nMenaMa jj;a HMajy xpaHy y 3a- 
rpeBaHOM jejiy KJiy6eTa. TaKaB CMeimaj 
KJiy6era rapaHTyje HcxpaHy CBaKe nnejie 
xoja ce Hajia3H y H»eroBOM caciaBy. OaBOJe- 
Ha nnejia or KJiy6eTa, y xjiajj,HO BpeMe, HeH3- 
6e*.H0 CTpa/ia. 

KaKO ce TpouiH xpana KJiy6e ce nojiaKO 
npeMeuiTa yBHC npeMa Mejiy. TaKBO KpeTa- 
H>e je noTHyHonpHpo^HO.HaKOJHM caTOBn- 
Ma ce KJiy6e ^opM^pa- 110 y jeceH Ha thm 
caTOBHMa he ce HahH h y npojiehe caMO Ha 

BellOJ BHCHHH. 

3a BpeMe xjiaiiHor nepnojia 3HMe 
apyiiiTBO noTpouiH 8 - 10 Kg Mejj,a h aKO ce 
KJiy6e CMecTHJio Ha 6-8 caTOBa oHjia Ha csa- 
kom caTy nnene noTpouie oko 1^ Kg Me/xa. 
3aTO h nocTOJn npaBHJio: y CBaKOM caTy, 
ocTaBJbeHOM y rHe3jj,y 3a 3HMy, norpe6HO je 
na 6y.ae He MaH>e or 2 Kg Mejj,a. 



KaKO H3rjieAa KJiy6e 

3hmcko KJiySe HMa TaiHO H3pa>neHy 
KOHCTpyKUHJy cno^bH>y Kopy (cnojbauiHie) 
h yHyrpaiHHbe je^po (KJiy6e). nnejie Koje 



(J)opMHpajy Kopy cy HenoKpeTHe, rycTO 
npHHHJeHe je/iHa y3 jjpyry. OB^e cy OHe pa3- 
MeuiTeHe He caMO y yjinuaMa Beh h y npa3- 
jihm hejiHJaMa. 36or Tora je KOpa, y cbom 
BefieM ziejiy cacTaBJbpHa oji Mace nnejia y 
o6;iHKy rycTO Ha6HJeHor OMOTaia, kojh je 
pa3AejbeH caMO TaHKHM 3H^OBHMa hejinja. 
Kopa ycneuiHO nyBa TonjioTy Kojy cy 
np0H3Bejie nnejie y cpejiHHH KJiy6eTa. 

4e6jbHHa Kope 3aBHCH or cnoibHe TeM- 
nepaType. npH H>eHOM CHHxetty KJiySe ce 
3ryuiH>aBa: BHiue nnejia 3ajia3H y nejinje, 
KOpa nocTaje jj,e6jba h ryiuha. 

J,e6jbHHa Kope HHJe CBy/ra HCTa: OHa je 
TaH>a y 6jih3hhh JieTa - OB^e ce nqene pa3- 
MeiiiTajy pe^e h Ba3jiyx Moxe JiaKO na jjonpe 
no yHyTpauiHiOCTH KJiy6eTa. Kopa je TaH>a h 
y ropH>eM ^ejiy KJiy6eTa. CTeneH CTaH>HBa- 
H>a Kope peryjiHiiiy caMe nnejie uito o6e3- 
6erjyje Heonxo^aH hhbo BeHTHJiaunje. Ha- 
Pomhto mhoto niejia ce pa3MeuiTa y hejiH- 
jaMa KpaJH>HX caTOBa h c jjoh>h> CTpaHe KJiy- 
6eTa y kojoj npeoBJiarjyjy nieiie CTapnjnx 
y3pacTa. 

n^ejia ce Hajia3H y KopH CBe ^OTJie /jok y 
H>eHoj MeztHoj BOJbiiH HMape3epBe Mejja. Ka- 
jxa ce pe3epBa HCTpouiH nne/ia „3apoHH" y 
jj,e6jbHHy Kope, H3Jia3H H3 H>e h neite ce no 
caTy k pe3epBaMa wejxa me nyHH CBOjy Mej,- 
Hy BOJbKy. 

y 3hmckhm ycjioBHMa nnejie He npejjajy 
Men jeztHa apyroj-cBaKa rraejia caMa 3a ce6e 
y3HMa ra H3 nejinja. Men na rpaHnnaMa ko- 
pe niejie npBO pacnenaTe kojh 36or CBOje 
xnapocKonHOCTH nocTaje per)H ycjiej, 
BJiaacHor Ba3jiyxa, kojh ce CKynjba y rop- 
H>eM jieiiy KJiy6eTa. HJto je Ba3,nyx cyBJLH 
nnejie BHiue nejiHja ztpxe pacneqaheHHM. 
HanyHHBUiH Me/jHy BOJbKy n^ena ce npn- 
MaKHe yHyTpauiH>eM cjiojy Kope y ihjh ca- 
CTaB ocTaje nyxte BpeMe. fliejie y nejiHJaMa 
ce Hajra3e y CTan>y noKoja h pa3JiHKyjy ce oa 
apyrnx n^iejia BeoMa hhckhm CTeneHOM Me- 
Ta6ojiH3Ma. 

Jeapo Kiiy6eTa (yHyTpamite KJiy6e) ca- 
ctojh ce ymaBHOM on 4>h3hojioiiikhx MJia- 
jihx nnena. OHe cy pa3MeuiTeHe pe/iaTHBHO 
cjio6ojj,ho h Mory aa ce npeMeujrajy no ca- 
TOBHMa. TonnoTa yrjiaBHOM H3BHpe on 
niejia Koje cy CMeuiTeHe y ueHTpy KJiy6eTa. 
OHa ce CTBapa Ha panyH noje/ieHor Mejja 
hjih MexaHHMKHX noKpeTa (noapxTaBaH>e 
Kpnjia h MycKyjiaType Tena). y xjia/THO Bpe- 
Me H3 KoniHHue ce o6hhho Myje noceSaH 
myM - kojh je pe3yjiTaT thx MexaHHMKHX 
noKpeTa xnibaaa nnejia y jeapy KJiySeTa. 
yHyTap KJiy6eTa nMejie oap^caBajy pena- 
thbho BHCOKy TeMnepaTypy: HaHeBejiHKOM 
/jejiy, y cpe/jHHH, OHa flocTHxe 28 - 32° C 
(TonjioTHH ueHTap). On TonjiOTHor ueHTpa 



"IlHejiap" 1997 

y civiepy na rope TeMnepaTypa cc nocreneHO 
CHH*.aBa, a y civiepy Ha jj,ojie CHHXtaBa ce 
Harjio ycjiea yTimaja floTOKa CBexer xjia#- 
Hor Ba3/J,yxa. Y KOpii (cnojbHOM KJiyGeiy) 
teMnepaTypa ce Kpefie or 6 40 10°C 



rioHaiiiaH>e KJiy6eTa npOMeHOM TeMnepaType 

3anpeMMHa KJiy6era MeH>a ce y TOKy 3H- 
\ie ca npoMeHaivia cnojbHe TeMnepaType. 
IIpii 3axjiaf)eH>y oho ce caxHMa a npn pejia- 
thbhom OTonjben>y ce uiMpM h npeMeiiiTa y 
CMepy RejiMJa ocjio6of)eHHX otj, Meaa. Bjiaro- 
AapefiH taKBOJ nyjicauiiJH TonjioTa yHyTap 
KJiy6eTa o/ipxaBa ce He caivio noBefraHUM 
CTBapaH>eM TonjioTe Beh n CHMxeMM to- 
njiOTHHx ry6HTaKa. TaKO npM CHMxeity 
TeivinepaType Ha 5°C npeiHHK KJiySexa cc 
CMaitH 3a 12%, iiiToje aobojbho 3a 04yBaH>e 
npBoSHTHe TonjioTe. Ejiaro,aapenn TaKBOJ 
peaKuwJH Ha hmckc TeivinepaType nMejie mo- 
ry na H3^pxe xjia/j,Hony 6e3 3HaTHor no- 
BehaH>a noTpointbe xpaHe. 

OniTpa KOJie6aH>a TeivinepaType y 
koihhhhh OMeKinaBajy caTOBe c noKJionjbe- 
hhm MejioM. npH xjiar}eH>y TonnnJH caTOBH 
nojiaKO erviHTyjy TonjiOTy a npH OTonjbetby, 
o6pHyTO, ynHJajy Ton/iOTy iuto OMoryhaBa 
cnopnpacT TeivinepaType. 36orTora npH Ha- 
riioj H3ivieHH cnojbHHx ycjiOBa n»iejiHH>e 
/jpyniTBOje y CTaity jia ce npiuiaro/JtH hobo- 
HacTajioj CHTyanHJH. 

TervinepaTypa y ueHTpy KJiy6eTa y TOKy 
3Mivie KOJie6a ce Beoivia iviajio - He Biiine ojx 1 
- 2°C Ha nan, MerjyTHM, KaKO ce npH- 
6jiH>KaBa npo/iefre OHa y nejiHHH pacTe. 
KpajeM (peSpyapa TeMnepaTypa y ueHTpy 
KJiy6eTa jjocTiixe 32 - 33°C, uito no6yf)yje 
MaTHuy aa no4He ca nojiaraH>eivi jaja. 
n i iejiHH>e ApyniTBO cpe/iH>e jaiHHe, y npBoj 
nojiOBMHH 3Hivie TpouiM 20 - 25 gr ivieaa Ha 



ixan. Ka,aacenojaBH HJiemonopo in n>a xpaHe 
ce noBefta oko j\b& nyTa. 



rioTpowH>a xpaHe y 3hmckom nepiio/xy 

y TOKy 3HMe nnejie ce xpaHe MejjoM h 
neproM He H36an,yjyhn H3 Tejia cboj H3ivieT. 
Oh ce CKJiaaMiiiTH KaKOje peieHO, y 3a/j,H>eM 
upesy Koje ce 40 npojiefra 3HaTHO yBefta. 
npH 3HMOBaH>y y 3aTBOpeHOM npocTopy ivia- 
ca 3ajiH)er upeBa ca H3MeTOM pacTe: y jjeueivt- 
6py 18 mg, y jaHyapy 20 nig, y (pe6pyapy 24 
mg. y iviapTy 32 mg, a y anpmiy, npe,a 
npoHHCHHM JieTOM, 34 - 36 mg. rinejie ce 
noHamajy HopivianHO HocefiM y ce6n jxo 40 
mg H3MeTa. Ako hx 3hmh 6hjio uiTa y3HeiviH- 
paBa (Ha npHiviep mhuicbh) hjih ce xpaHe 

HeKBajlHTeTHHM MeAOM (KpHCTaJIMCaHHM 

hjih ca npHMecaMa Me/ubiiKe) OH/j,a ce Hop- 
MajiHO nytbeite 3a,aH>er upeBa HapymaBa h 
rmejie Mory jta o6ojie o/j, H03eivie (npojiMBa), 
ycjie/j; 4era ApyniTBO ciia6H h cTpafla. 

nnejie y mynjbHHaMa apBeha y npojiefte 
Beoivia paHO Bpnie npoincHH JieT. y uiyMH 
Ha bhchhh 6 - 8 m TeMnepaTypa Ba3,ayxa 
naneKO Spate jxocTH&e 12°C h bhuic Hero Ha 
3eMJbH, r/j,e Jjyro BpeivieHa Ton/ioTy cynua 
ynnja CHer kojh ce Tonii. HHTepecaHTHO je 
aa cy y CTapa BpeMeHa nnejiapH - jiobum 
npoHajia3HJiH y myiviaivia .aynjte c nMejiaivia 
iipeivia Mpjtaivia h>hxobmx H3MeTa Koje cy ce 
Mor/ie Jieno BH,aeTH Ha CHery Hcno/j,/j,pBeha 
y KOJHMa cy ce Hajia3HJie nnejie. 

Ocjio6oaMBiiiH ce ojx 3MMCKor H3MeTa 
rmejie no4HH>y HHTeH3HBHO jj,a Heryjy ne- 
mo HiviajyhH 3aTO y cbojhm rHe3Jj,HMa jj,o- 
BOJbHO Me,aa h nepre. 



Ca pycKor npeBeo, 
C. Miuiopa/j,OBHn 



"ITqejiap" 1997 

IIojaHaBaH>e nnejiHH>HX flpyimaBa 

MuxauAO&wmnoeuh, Eeospad 




JeaaH oa ochobhhx h BepoBaTHO h HaJBajKHH- 
jhx, npo6jieMa y nneaapcTBy Ha noapynjy Cp6nje 
je KAKO QTJTAMTH JAKA FTHEJIMHA 

^pyiiriEA 3A niARHy nAiiiy- batpemoby? 

OBa nauia je He caMO rjiaBHa Beh CKopo h jeaHHa 
HaJBehn 6poj rrqeanikHX apyuiTaBa Koa Hac, a to cy 

KOJX CTaUHOHHpaHHX IFieJIHH,aKa, 

Ochobhh npoSjieiu nHeaapeika, y HauiHM ycjio- 
BHMa, npeacTaBJba to uito je BpeiueHCKH nepnoa oa 
M3MMJLABAHA ao HBeTaika 6arpeMa HcyBHiue 
KpaTaKaa 6h ce rrqeaniba apyuiTBa Shojioujkh Max- 
CHMajiHO pa3BHJia h cnpeMHJia norpeSHy 
6poJMaHOCT meaa TaKO aa 6h uito je Moryhe BHiue 
HCKopncTHJia SarpeMOBy namy. 36or Tora CBaKH 
nieaap ao BpeiweHa u,BeTaH>a Sarpeiua ipe6a aa ce 
noTpyan aa y KoniHHuaMa HMa niro, Binue ineaH- 
H>er Jierjia. "IIIto je BHiue Jieraa y KouiHHuaMa Ha 
36 aaHa npea raaBHy naiuy to je h BHiue Meaa y 
KoiiiHHuaMa" (ap Jle6eaeB). Kaaa Haiu je no3HaTO 
aa Sarpeiw Koa Hac noiHH>e aa uBera, yrjraBHOM, 
H3Mef)y 12.^0 15. Maja onaa HaM je aaKO H3pa<ryHa- 
th Kaaa ce iwopa nocBeTHTH na>KH>a aa HMaMO uito 
BHiue Jienia y KoiuHHnaMa. 

BPXYHAU ITMEJlAPEBOr 3HAPBA, Koja he 
npiiMeH>HBaTH y cbom n<ieaapeH>y, cacroJH ce y 
TOMe aa y TOKy aKTHBHe mieaapcKe ce30He, noce6- 
ho npe h 3a BpeMe niejiHH>HX naiua y cbojhm irqean- 
HjHM apyuiTBHMa o6e36ehyje MaKCHMyM niejiiiH>er 
jierjia aTO 3HaiH h rmeaa, Koje he 6hth cnpeMHeaa 
HCKopucTe CBe name Ha Koje aonpeMa CBOja iwejiH- 
H>a apyuiTBa. 

Flope^l, CTeneHHX npaKTirqHHX HCKycTaBa HaMa 
cy noTpe6Ha h aaaeKO Beha HayHHa ca3HaH>a h 
HCTpaaaiBaH.a npe cbhx Hauiwx HayqHHX paaHHKa, 
o Toiwe uiTa naM Baa>a npeay3HMaTH y TexHoaoraJH 
rrqeaapejba aa 6n ce o6e36eaHO npoaehHH 6ho- 
jioihkh pa3Boj cnaKor apyuiTBa. }X& ce Ta HayMHa 
ca3HaH,a noTBpfjyjy y npaKCH h 6yay oa Henocpea- 
He KopncTH niejiapnivra -npaKranapHMa. To 6n 
MHoro 3Ha i iHJio Kao aonpnHoc HayKe m ce noBeha 
npoayKTHBHOCT meaapeita, nyreiu noBehan>a npo- 
jryKTHBHOCTn CBaKor nHeaHH>er apyuiTBa. Bepo- 
BaTHO aa6n to npeacTaRJbaao HKanHTaaaHaonpn- 
noc HayKe n L ieaapeH.y y HaniHM KJiHMaTCKHM n 
nauiHHM ycjioBHMa. 

H3 Hannix npaKTHHHHX HCKycTaBa HaM je no3- 
HaToaa ce TexHoaornja nneaapeita y craHHOHnpa- 
hhm nnejiHHiauHMa paanHKyje oa TexHOJioraje Koa 
cejiehnx rrqeaHH>aKa. Koa CBaKe TexHoaornje 
nMejiapeH.a 6nTaH ycjroB je aa n L ieaap npnaaroaH 
pa3Boj nnejiniker apyuiTBa nauiHHM ycaoBHMa 
npeMa TepeHy rae mieaapn, hjih HaMepaBa aa nae 
Ha oapeheHe nqeaHH>e name, riqejiap Mopa aa 3Ha 
aa CBaKO nHejinH>e a;pyiiiTBO nocea,yje 6nojioniKy 
npHJiarojubHBOCT npnpo^HHM ycjioBHMa okojikhc 
me ce n L iejiapn. Flo tom HHCTHKTy ce o/iBHJa h 
acHBOT y niejiHH>oj 3aje,JiJHHiDT, a Ha n L iejiapy je aa 

TO MaKCHMailHO nCKOpHCTH H MHHH CBe IUTO .HOnpH- 

hoch y5p3aHHjeM pa3Bojy. 

y TexHOJioraJH nnejiapeHja CBaKH miejiap Mopa 
jxa no3Haje 6HOJiornjy nqejiHH.er apyuiTBa n Ha 
kojh HajSojbn HaiHH MO»;e ycMepaBaTH pa3Boj 



nMenHH>er apyuiTBa, y pa3HHM ycjioBHMa n y pa3- 
hhm KouiHHuaMa, 3a 6paai pa3Boj h noBehaHie npo- 
jiyKTHBHOCTH cbojhx nnejia. Obo je noce6no 3Hanaj- 
ho jxa ce MaxcHManHO hckophcth npBa o6HMHnja 
nauia - 6arpeMOBa. 

llo3HaToje ,iia ce y TexHOJiorajn miejiapeH^, 
paaw nocTH3aH>a onTHMa^HHX pe3yjiTaTa npo- 
jiehHor pa3Boja niejiHH^er .npyuiTBa, Mopa o6e36e- 

flHTH: 

- aa CBaKO n<iejiHH>e ^pyuiTBO Mopa HMa™ 
MJlAfjy n KBajiHTeTHy Mainny; 

- ,aa ce tokom jeceHH o6e36e^n aa CBaKO 
apyTBO HMa ,u,ocTa MJiaanx miena cnpeMHHX 3a 

3HMy. 

- AayKouiHHunyjecen HMaaocraxpaHe: Me,na 
n to 20 no 25 KHJiorpaMa; 

- aa cy nnejie ynuie sapaBe y 3HMy h 

-my koiuhhuh 6y,ae npaBHJiHO H3rpa^eHO cahe 
me he ce hsbojihth HOBe niejie 

CBe obo, nopea ycneumor npe3HMJLaBaH)a, Tpe- 
6a m o6e36ejiH n ,no6ap npojiehHH pa3Boj Kao h 
^ajBH yicynaH pa3Boj y yMHoacaBan>y n^iena y CBaKqj 
koiuhhuh ,a,o rjiaBHe name. 

M3 npaKTHMHHX HCKycTaBa 3HaMO jxa ce jxo 6a- 
rpeMOBe name, Koja je h maBHa 3a npeKO 90 npone- 
Hara Hauin miejiapH, nMennHia apyuiTBa HejejiHaKO 
pa3Bnjajy. To ce a,emaBa n nopea miejiapeBHX hh- 
TepBeHUHJa kor cbhx h>hx, na h nauiyjeaaH 6poj 
nMejiHH,HX apyuiTaBa a,o<ieKyje MecTO ca hchoboji.- 
hhm 6pojeM oieKHBaHHX iraejia, a noce6HO H3JieT- 
HHna. Te nojaBe Hac npaTe jiyaai HH3 ro^HHa, 
HaJMeuihe cy to nocjie^nue HeaoBOJtHe 6pnre 
miejiapa hjih h>hxobot nponycTa y TexHOJiorHJH 
miejiapeH>a. 

JXa 6n ce OBe nojaBe H36erjie, aa 6h ce ao6hjio 
BHiue nnejia H3JieTHHU,a, npBeHCTBCHO HeicrapHna, 
a THMe n Behn npHHOCH Mejja, mhoth Hauin Hanpe/i- 
hh niejiapn, a npe CBera npotbecnoHajmn h po6hh 
npoH3BohaMH, nopea ocTajinx nnejiapa, yTexHOJio- 
rnJH cnor miejiapeHia npnMeH,yjy pa3He MeToae. 

Obom npnjiHKOM noMeHyheMO caMO HeKe: 
miejiapeHje jjbojhhm /jpyuiTBHMa; 

- n<iejiapeH>e ca aBe MaTnne y jeaHoj kouihhuh 
no/jeibeHoj na jjBa aejia; 

- niejiapeHje ca noMohHHM jjpyuiTBHMa n ny- 
KiieycHMa; 

- cnajaHie aBa hjih BHme apyuiTaBa npea namy; 

- aojjaBaH^e 3pejior Jieraa npoH3BOflHHM 
ApyuiTBHMa; 

- y3HMaH>e H3JieTHHna H3 jej^Hor hjih jjria 
apymTBa h floaaBaH.e npoH3Boa;HOM apymTBy h 
ap. 

Cbc to, yrjiaBHOM, HacTojaita cyaa ce 3a noTpe- 
6e noja L iaBaHia npoH3BoaHHX apymTaBa yBejje h 
apyra Mamua, jja jjBe MaTnne o6e36ehyjy noTpe6aH 
6poj nnejia 3a npojjyKTHBHOCT thx apymTaBa. 

Koa npHMeHe hckhx ojj obhx MeTOJja nnejiapn 
nocTiocy h ojjpehene pe3yjiTaTe y noBehan>y npn- 
Hoca Meaa noKomnuH, HapaBHO, 3aBHcno or jio- 
Kaimje rjje hm ce Haiia3e n c iejiHHjan,H h KaKBH cy 
nanniHycjioBH m tom nojjpyMJy. 36orTora, CBe to 
3acjryacyje jj,a ce o CBaKoj oboj MeToan nojjpoSHHJe 



66 



o6pajj,e nocTHTHyra HCKycTBa h to npe CBera OHa 
no3HTHBHa, KaKO 6h hx mTO Behn 6poj n<iejiapa 
Morao npHMeH>HBaTH y cbom iFiejiapeH>y. 

Kao Moryhe npaKTHMne npHMeHe 3a nocTH3ajbe 
no3HTHBHHX pe3yjiTaTa y noBehaH>e npoayKTHBHO- 
cth, obot nyra yKa3yjeMO caMO Ha Tpn MeTo^e no- 
jaMaBaH>a nMejiHH)HX apyuiTaBa npea rjiaBHy, npe 
CBera 6arpeMOBy namy h to: 

- cnajaH^e miejiHH>HX apymTaBa; 

- nojaqaBaH^e nMejiHH.HX apyuiTaBa aoaaBaH>eM 
3aTBopenor Jierjia, h 

aojJ,aBaH>eM H3JieTHHu,a npoH3BoaHOM 
apymTBy oay3HMaH>eM or apyrnx apyuiTaBa. 

ri c iejiap kojh je npeay3HMao HeKy or obhx Me- 
Toaa Morao je aa yoin 3Haray pasanKy y noraeay 
npoayKTHBHocTH obhx apymTaBa y oanocy Ha 
ocTaaa apymTBa. 

FIpeMa npoyqaBaHiHMa h aoKa3HMa nocTHTHy- 
thx pe3yaTaTa obhx MeToaa ap TapaHOB h ap Be- 
aiT^iKOB cy ycTaHOBnan, nopeaehn hx ca crafteM y 
KOHTpoanoM apyniTBy, ecbeKro cy 6hjih cjieaehn: 

- cnajaH>eM mieaHH,HX apymTaBa noBehaHe 
npHHOcaje 84,4%; 

- noja<iaBaH3eM nHeaHH.HX apyuiTaBa ca 3aTBO- 
peHHM aeraoM npnHoc je Behn 146,5% h 

- nojaqaBaHjM nMeaHfter apyuiTBa H3JieTHHua- 
ManpHHOc jenoBehaH3a 177%. 

Ha ocHOBy obhx npHMepa, noBehaH>a npimoca 
Koa nojaqaBaHHX apyuiTaBa, y nopeheH>y ca koh- 
TpoaHHM apyuiTBOM, npenopyqjLHBa je, aaiaie, Me- 
Toaa noja L iaBaH>a npoH3BoaHHx nMeaHH,Hx 
apymTaBa H3J1ETHHHAMA 



Ha^HH Ha kojh he CBaKH nnejiap npHMeHHTH 
nojaMaBaHae cbojhx npoH3BoaHHX mieaHH.nx 
apyHunaBa 3aBHcnhe oa H>eroBHx MoryhHocTH, 
npaKTHMHor h TeopeTCKor 3HaHja, aan je cnrypHO 
aa ca Maao BHme Tpyaa CBaKH nneaap mojkc H3a- 
6paTH oHy MeToay Koja My HaJBHme oaroBapa, a 
cnrypHO aa Tpe6a oaa6paTH OHy Koja he aaTH Haj- 
Behy npoayKTHBHOCT n<ieaHH,er apyuiTBa y CBaKoj 
nauiH. 

Obom npnanKOM ce Mopa HanoMeHyra aa HMa 
3HaTaH 6poj meaapa kojh npeay3HMaH>eM HH3a Me- 
pa y cbojoj TexHoaorHJH nMeaapen>a, h cajeaHOM 
MaTHHOM y nMeaHH>eM apyuiTBy, nocTH^cy H3BaH- 
peaHe npoH3BoaHe peayaTaTe. M o thm HCKycTBH- 
Ma Tpe6a noapo6HHJe nncaTH. 

C' o63HpoM aa ce Haaa3HMO y nepnoay noieTKa 
npoaehHor pa3Boja nMeaHH>nx apyuiTaBa, a THMe 
naeMO y cycpeT raaBHqj namH-6arpeMOBOj, ao6po 
je aa ce noaceraMO hckhx BeoMa 3HaiaJHHX noKasa- 
Tejba. 

Ilo ap Jle6eaeBy BMOJ10111KM onrHMyM 
nneaHHier apyuiTBa 3a raaBHy namyjeaa oho HMa 
6,5 KHaorpaMa nneaa. 

FIpHHOc Meaa nporpecHBHO pacTe ca 6pojeM 
mieaa y rrqeaHH>eM apyuiTBy n no aoKa3y ap 4>apa- 
pa to H3raeaa OBaKo: 

Ako cbc obo mTO je Hanpea HaBeaeHo 3HaMo 

ocTaje Ha HaMa aa CBaKO oa Hac oaayHH mTa My je 
Haj6ojbe <ihhhth aa 6h oa cbojhx meanikHX 
apymTaBa ctbopho bhcoko npoayKTHBHa 
apymTBa. 



flpyumta 


npttrtoc Hc/ia 
jialOOO hhcju 


y*yrtflit 

UPHHOC 


15,000 


QJ nr 


7ir 


30.000 


1,35 *r 


23 xr 


15PO0 


1 P « KT 


29,5 ir 


60,000 


1,52 nr 


41 h Jtr 



nPEBEJIH CMO 3A BAC 



n^ejiap" 1997 



IIoHainaH>e nnejia - BO^OHOina 



E KJecKoe: Mocnea 



FloTpe6a n L iejiHH,e 3ajejj,HHue 3a bo/jom 3aBHCH 
on H.eHor4>H3HOJiouiKor CTaH>a h eKOJiouiKe cmya- 
UHJe. O/j 6hojiouikhx pa3Jiora HaJBehy b<ckhoct 
HMa KOJiHHHHa Jierjia. DJto je BHiue Jierjra Beha je 
noTpeSa 3aje/jHHHe 3a bo/jom. He MaH>y Ba>KHOCT 
HMa TeivinepaTypa. FBeHO noBenaH>e H3Hajj onTH- 
MajiHe rpaHHue noBehaBa noipouiH>y Bojie. TaKofie, 
noTpe6a 3a bo/jom je Bena y nepno/jy 3axjiaF)eH>a, 
Kajja n^iejie Heiviajy MoryfiHOCTH jja H3Jiehy H3 CBor 
mesaa. 

4ocTaBOM Bo/je 6aBe ce iraejie - BO/roHouie. H>h- 
xoBa npejipjjperjeHOCT Jia 6yay BO/joHome HHJe Be- 

3aHa C H>HXOBHM MOp(pOJIOIIIKHM HJIH (p H3H0 ~ 

jiouikhm npoMeHaMa 36or Tora iravieHa CHTyannje 
hm fl03BOJtaBa m ce npeopHJeHTHiuy Ha apyre pa- 

JJOBe yKOUIHHHH HJIH BaH H>e. 

BpoJHOCT niejia, Koje jjonoce Bo/ry, h H>HXOBa 
aKTHBHOCT 3aBHCH ojj, ro/jHiinter jjp6a h BpeivieH- 
ckhx ycjroBa. y nojacy ca yiviepeHOM kjthmom MaK- 
CHMyM aKTHBHOCTH imejia - BO/joHouia je y npojiehe 
-noqeiaK JieTa, a y 30Haivia ca acapKOM kjihmom no- 
KJiana ce c nepHO/joM y KOMe je Bpeivie Beojvia Tonjio 
h cyBO. 

HncToha Bo/je 3a niejie Heivia Shthct 3Ha<iaja. 
OHe Mory /ja jjoHoce y KouiHHiry pacTBope pa- 
3JTHMHTHX cojih (xjiopH/ra, HaTpHJyMa, KajiuHJyMa 
h ap.). Mhphch HenpnjaTHH 3a lOBexa HHcy yBeK 
HenpnjaTHH h 3a n^ejie. Ha npniviep, OHe Mory aa 
HanyHe CBOje Me/jHe BOJbKe 2-5 %-hhm pacTBOpoM 
MOKpahe h jj,a je CKJia/jHiiiTe y koiuhhuh. To ce 
/jeuiaBa hcto TaKO h y cjiyrajy Kaaa HMajy mo- 
ryhHOCT jja nocehyjy noJHJia c l ihctom bo/jom. 

HMajyhH MoryhHOCTH H36opa H3Mer}y a,Ba cjia- 
Ha pacTBopa, iraejie aajy npe/jHocT jcuhom hjth 
jjpyroM y 3aBHCHOCTH ojj KOHuempauHJe cojih. Ta- 
ko, H3Merjy 0,25 h 0,50%-hhm pacTBopoM HaTpnjyM 
xjiopn/ja niejie /jBa nyra aKTHBHHJe nocehyjy npBH 
Hero Jjpyrn. C /jpyre cipaHe, 0,5%-hh pacTBop ko- 
pncTe 12,5 nyra Bnuie Hero 1%-hh. JlecTHJTHcaHy 



Bojjy, naK, ojjHoce 13 nyra Man>e Hero 0,5%-hh 
pacTBop COJIH. 

Bp3HHa nyiteHja Me/jHe BOJbKe bojjom 3aBHCH o/j 
TeivinepaType. O/j H>e 3aBncn, TaKofie, h KOJiHHHHa 
Bo/je KojyjjoHocenHejre. HanpHMep npn6°C (mh- 
HHMajma TeMnepaiypa 3a H3JieT niejia - bojjo- 
Houia) niejia y3HMa y BOJLKy npoceiHO 4,7 mg Bo/je 
c 6p3HHOM 0,5 mg y ceKyn/jH. KojiHiHHa pacTe jjo 
1,4 mg (y ceKynan) npn noBehaity TeivinepaType no 
23 -24°C. npHTOMen<iejienonHJynpoce4Ho44 mg 
Bo/je (MaKCHMyM 67 mg). 

riiejia Moate jja nyHH BOJLKy bojjom 6e3 npeKH- 
jja (y nyry) hjih c npeKHjjHMa (jjncKpeTHo). Bepo- 
BaTHoha HenpeKHJjHor nyH>eH>a BOJbKe ce noBehaBa 
c pacTOM TCMnepaType. iipn 13° C HenpeKHjjHO ny- 
H,eH>e BOJbKe je y npoceKy 23%, npH 18°C - 54%, 
npn 23°C -14% a npn 29 a C - 76%. y naBe^eHOM 
jjH|'ana30Hy noBehaBaH,a TeivinepaType yrpouiaK 
BpeivieHa Ha npeKH/je y nyn>eH>y mcjjhhx boji>kh ce 
noBehaBa npoceMHO 19,5 nyra. MefiyrHM, Bpe\ie 
yrpomeHO Ha h>hxobo nyH>eH>e CMaH,yje ce 1,7 ny- 
Ta 

Ojj TeivinepaType 3aBHCH JieTita aKTHBHOCT 
niejra - BoaoHouia. yiecTaHOCT h,hxobhx aoJieTa 
noJHJiy pacTe c pamheH.eM TeivinepaType. Ha npn- 
Mep, npn 13°C niejre - BOjjoHouie 3aapacaBajy ce y 
kohihhuh npoceiHO 375 ceicyHJjH. C noBenaH.eivi 
TeivinepaType jjo 18°C Bpeivie ce CMaH>yje no 1,4 
nyra, jj,o 23°C - 1 ,6, a jjo 29°C - 2,2 nyra. 

Ha JieTH,y aKTHBHOCT BoijoHouia yraqe xeMHJ- 
ckh cacTaB bojjc Majro (oko 0,5 %) npncycTBO y 
bojih HaipHJyM xnopn^a aKTHBHpa nnejie bojjo- 
Houie. ripn hctoJ TeivincpaTypH 3aivieHa /jecTHJiHca- 
He BO/j,e 0,5 %-hhm pacTBopoM HaipHJyM xjiopn^a 
BpeMe 3ajjp>KaBaH.a nqejia y kouihhuh ce 3a 20% 
CMaH,yje. To ce oojauntaBa THMe uito pacTBop co- 
jih nnejie BHiue npnBJiaHH Hero jjecTHJincaHa Bo/ja, 

Pycica ciKadeMuja mwapcnwa 

CpycKoz npeeeo u npupeduo, 

C. Munopadoeuh 



73 



'TTqejiap" 1997 

e.KAKOOBEaBE^HTHnqEJTHHjE 

3AJE^HMUE nOJIEHOM KM OH 

HE^OCTAJE 

3/jpaBa, jaKa, ca npojjyKTHBHOM MamuoM, 
CMeuneHeHa noapy^ijy me HMa nojieHCKe name 
npeKO nejie ce-30He, rrqejiHH>a 3aje,HHHna, no npaBH- 
jiy n CKopo yBeK, caMa he ce6n o6e36e/j,HTH oiith- 
MajiHe KOJiHHHHe nojieHa. Ako HMa h jj,oboji>ho Mem 
y kouihhuh, He caivio 3a /jHeBHy noTponnty Beh h 
pe3epBy /jeceTaK KHJiorpaMa, pa3BHhe ce y Beoiua 
jaKO /jpyniTBO. noa,CTHnaH)e niejia Ha Behn yHoc 
nojieHa Moace ce bpuihth h ,no.a;aBaH.eM Me/ja (hjih 
cnpyna) y xpamuiHuy y Man>HM KOJiHHHHaMa. Ako 
je y3 CBe obo npHCyma h o6njiHnja HeicrapcKa 
nama - cbh npo6iieMH, uito ce nojieHa ra^e, 
pemeHH cy. 

ripo6jieM HacTaje OHJja h tojihko yKOJiHKO rop- 

H.H yCJIOBH HHCy HCnyH.eHH, HJIH H6KH ojj, H>HX. 

FIocToje Herapn (a mcekjsi h BHine) HaHHHa/ja 
ce oTKJioHe, hjih 6ap y&naxe, nocjie/jnue jje<pHUH- 
Ta nojieHa: 

ripBH - /ja ce niejie CMemrajy Ha nojjpyHJe rue 
HMa UBeTOHonia Koje Mory jja o6e36e/j,e onTHMajiHe 
kojihmhhc nojieHa nnejiKHjOJ 3aje/j,HnnH. 

Xlpyrn- Ra nnejrap HMa y pe3epBH caTOBa Hcny- 
n>eHHX nojieHOM o/jy3eTHX ojj Hajjainx nHejiHH,nx 
3ajejj;HHna, ouna ksr ra ohc Hehe ynoTpe6HTH 3a 
CBOje noTpe6e, o/jhocho jja he ra 6e3 npo6jieMa 
HaaoKHajjHTH. Obhm caTOBHMa Moxe ce HHTepBe- 
HHcaTH TaMO me TpeSa. Pa3yMe ce jja ce th pe3ep- 
bhh caTOBH lyBajy y HeKHM KoiummaMa me HMa 
iraejia, jep qyBaite BaH Koumnue 3axTeBa Mepe 6e3- 
6ea,HOCTH or pa3HHX uiTeTOMHHa jep hx HMa MHoro 
KOJHMa je nojieH, HapoHHTO JiarepoBaH y cahy, 
aTpaKTHBaH. 

Tpehn - r& ce ojj, jaKHX 3aje;j;HHna y Hajnorojj;- 
HHJe BpeMe, onpe3HO y nome/jy kojihthhc, o/jy3Me 
nojieH npeKO CKymbaia, jj,o6po 3aniTHTH oa urre- 
ToiHHa, na aaje nnejiaivia y BHJjy noraHHne hjih 
cnpyna, naa, hm je to noTpe6HO. 

HeTBpTH - /ja niejiap HanpaBH caM, hjih Kynn or 
npoH3Bo^aMa, noraHHne, Koje cyreuiKe oShmho oko 
500 rpaMa, cacraBJbeHe ojj, ejieMeHaia ncxpaHe y 
KOJHMa HMa, ajiH caivio npH6jin>KHO, hcthx cacToja- 
Ka Koje cajpjKH npaBH nojieH. OBe noraie KopncTe 
HeKH niejiapn, TBp/jehn /ja cy ca H>H\ia 3ajjoBOJi>HH 
h jja o6e36ehyjy HopMajiaH pa3Boj niejiHH,e 3ajejj- 
rome Ka/jje y nHTaH>y jje<pHUHT nojieHa H3 npnpo- 

Ebo Tpn peuenTa 3a Tpehn h mctbpth cjiyraj: 
1 . riora L iH or caKynjbeHor nojiena h Me/ja 

- 200 rpaMa nojieHa 

- 300 rpaMa Mejja (or 3JjpaBHX rrcejia ca CBor 
nHejiHH,aKa) 

FIojieH ce npocyniH Ha TeMnepaiypn ro 40 cre- 
neHH na ce 3aTHM caMejbe Ra ce /jo6HJe npax. Men 
ce jjoBe/je y TeiHO CTan>e Ha TeMnepaiypH ro 40 



CTeneHH. 06e MaTepnje ce jjoSpo H3Memajy Ra ce 
nojjjejjHaKO pacnope/je y Macn, CTaBH ce y HajjioH- 
CKy Kecy h /jo/ja rrqejiarvia Ha no3HaTH Ha<iHH. 

2. rioraiH or caKynjbeHor no/ieHa h cnpyna 

-200 rpaMa nojieHa 

- 300 rpaMa cnpyna (200 rpaMa mehepa h 100 
rpaMa Bo^e) 

nojieH ce npocymn Ha TeMnepaTypn jjo 40 CTe- 
neHH Jia ce 3aTHM caMejbe Ra ce aoSnje npax. Kan ce 
cnpyn oxjiajjn /jo/ja My ce caMJieBeHH nojieH, /joSpo 
H3Mema jja o6e MaTepnje 6y/jy paBHOMepHO pacno- 
peheHe y Macn. Ta Maca ce CTaBH y HajjioH Kecy h 
RORa imejiaMa Ha yo6n i iajeHH HaiHH. 

3. FIoraMa ca 6miie KOMnoHeHaTa, 6e3 ncuieHa 

- 3 aejia coJHHor o6e3MauiheHor Spauma (pHHe 
MejbaBe 

-1 ji.eo neKapcKor KBacna 
- 1 ,neo MJieKa y npaxy 

- 3 jjejia mehepHor cnpyna (2 aejia uiehepa, 1 
aeo Bo/je) 

-1/4 acyMaHna 

-1/4 coKa or 1 JiHMyHa 

Cojhho 6pamHO npocejaTH Ha MecTO chto Ra ce 
pa36njy n HaJMH.e, rpyjjBnue aKO nx 6ya,e 6hjio. 
IleKapcKH KBacau, H3apo6HTH y nocyan, H3MemaTH 
Ra onryCTH bory, jjo^aTH Bpjio Majio Bo^e n npoicy- 
Bain (5 MHHyra Ra Bpn) Ra. ce yHHurre KBacHe pb* 
BHU,e Koje H3a3HBajy BpeH>e. MjieKoy npaxy, TaKohe, 
npocejaTH jja ce pacTBope h HaJMaite rpyj],BHU,e aKO 
nx 6yjj;e (noHeKaa hx HMa). ^CyMaHue npe CTaBJta- 
n>a y Macy aoBecTH MyheiteM y Te L iHO cTaH>e. Kaa 
ce cnpyn oxjiann rorath ocTajie MaTepnje, /j,o6po 
H3MemaTH Ra ce CBe MaTepnje paBHOMepHO pacTy- 
pe no uejioj Macn. IIotom ce Maca CTaBJta y HajjioH 
Kece no 500 rpaMa n RORaje rmejiaMa Ha yo6n L iajeH 

HaMHH. 

PeuenT je rat 3a no jeaHy nora L iy Temicy oko 500 
rpaMa. OBe KOJiHHHHe nnejiap he homhoxhth ca 
6pojeM noraia kojihko My Tpe6a. 

YBeK npn pynn TpeSa HMara Majio MJieBeHor 
uiehepa 3a cjiynaj Ra norana He 6yae MBpcTa. Ajih 
npaKca yxaayje aaje nnejie mhoto etbHKacHnje ko- 
pncTe uiToje Meiana. 

riocjiejj.Hja noraMa, Koja HeMa nojieHa, TpeSajio 
6n jja, npH6jin>KHO, HajjoKHaa,H nojieH, tj. jja 
nnejiap nocTnrHe nnjb Kao Ra HMa onraMajme ko- 
jiHHHHe nojieHa. MHorn nnejiapn TBpae jja TaKBHM 
HaiHHOM ycneBajy jja pa3Bnjy CHaaaia nnejiHita 
apyuiTBa h noR HenoBOJtHHM ycjioBHMa o6e3- 
Qe^eHja nojieHa. HeKH norane CTaBJbajy h yjaHyapy 
Meceny (ksr jjHeBHa TeMnepaTypa jjosbojih), 6p30, 
H3Hajj, caTOHoma. J\bs noraie, HaBoa,HO, jjoBOJLHe 
cy 3a cHa6jjeBaH,e nojieHOM jj,o npBnx UBeTOBa. 

HajSojbe je Ra nnejiap caM ncnpo6a peuieH.e 
3aMeHe nojieHa, ojjhocho aojjaBaHja Kaaje oh ae(pH- 
nnrapaH y kouihhuh Ha onncaHH HaMHH h CTeKHe 

CaM HCKyCTBO. 



107 



"ITqejiap" 1997 

Je^HOCTaBHO apMHpaH>e caTHHX ocHOBa 



HoBeK He Moxe a aa He ocTaHe ycxnheH Kaaa 

BH,I],H HeKH jea,HOCTaBaH H3yM, CBaKOM pa3yMJbHB, 

kojh JtyaHMa MO>Ke MHoro aa QJiaiaiia o6aBa>aH ) e 

HjHXOBHX HeJiaTHOCTH. 

EaaroaapeTiH "Eypafiy MpKanay H3 Hnma, y 
npoimioM 6pojy Hauler naconnca Bnaean CMO 3a H _ 
cTa HajjeflHOCTaBHHfy, Seacaanuy Kojy KopncTe 
meaapn KaHaae, a Kojy Moace h Koa Hac cBaKH 
irqeaap caM aa HanpaBH. KopHcrehn ce h*>m 
HiviatieMo 3aaoBoa>cTBo aa ca KoiuHHua cKnaaMo 
HacraBKe nyHe Meaa 5e3 meaa, a h 3aaoBOJbCTBO 
iiito Hame rrieae HHCMoy3HeMHpaBajiH. 

JXp CjiaBOJby6 rionoBnn y hctom 6pojy „n<ieaa- 
pa" peKJiaMHpa 3aHcra e<pnKacaH yperjaj MapKa Bh- 
Taca kojh 6h Moacaa Morao aa ce Ha30Be „CKyroi>aH 
n^ejia". Caeaehn naejy KaHaaciaix rrqeaapa, „CKyn- 
jta L i nneaa" 6h Morao CBaKH meaap h caiw aa Hanpa- 
BH. Tpe6ano 6h oa sue JieTBHue ae6a>HHe bhchhc 
jieTa HanpaBHTH cjiobo „B" Koje 6h npH „aHy" HMa- 
jio otbop 0,0, 1 cm. FIpeKO ropH>e CTpaHe cjioBa „B" 
npHxe<J)TaTH Mpeacy (aoiiaHy hjih IliiacTHMHy). 
JXymmy OTBopa, Ha Bpxy cjioBa „B" noaecn™ aa 
6 y a e jquHaKa uihphhh JieTa, a BHCHHy npnaaroan- 
th TaKO aa Kaaa meae npo;ia3e Kpo3 „CKyna>a<r" 
yfiy y KouiHHuy Ha uito Betioj yaajLeHocra oa JieTa 
caMeKoiiiHHue. 

CBaKH n<ieaap HaJBHiue nocjia HMa c paMOBHMa. 
Ako je paM Beh KopnnitieH TpeSa ra othcthth, 3a- 

THM 03CHMHTH (aKO Ce He KOpHCTH Beh apMHpaHO 

cahe), a noTOM aonry apMHpaTH y cainy ocHOBy. 
TpaHC(J)opMaTop eaeopniHe crpyje cy Beh noTH- 

CHyjIH TpaaHHHOHailHH MyKOTpnHH Ha<IHH apMH- 

pan>a noMohy acBpica. TpaHC<popMaTop HHJe 5am 
jiaKO HanpaBHTH, a h KomTa. 

PycKH meaap H. E. Phuikob H3 rpaaa Kjihmo- 
bhmh („niejTOBoa,CTBo" 6p, 1,1991, CTp. 22) npo6- 
jieM apMHpaH>a camnx ocHOBa pemaBa BeoMa jea- 
HocTaBHo h ecpHKacHo. Ebo mia oh Kaace: 

"Bnme oa asaaeceT roanHa kophcthm BeoMa 
npocT h etpHKacaH wenm apMnpaita camnx ocHOBa 
o Koiwe caiu npoiHTao y laconncy („riHeaoBoa- 
ctbo") 6p. 3,1963, CTp. 34), ncTHHao MajmM H3iwe- 
HaMa. Paamvi OBaKO. CTaKJieHy Teray oa 1/ Hany- 

HHM BoaoM y Kojy paCTBOpHM KyXHH>CKy co y KO- 

an<inHH Kojy Mory 3axBaTHTn c Tpn npcTa. llpn 
o6oay naacTHMHor noKaonna HanpaBHM asa otbo- 
pa h Kpo3 H.nx npoByneM orojbeHe KpajeBe aBa 




Ka6aa aam,e CKopo ao aHa Terae. J\a ce npoBoaHn- 
nn He 6n aoanpnBaan, H3Mehy h>hx craBibaM jeaaH 
apBeHH oacTOJHHK. Ha aacKy - noaMeTai craBJbaM 
caTHy ocHOBy, a npeKO H>e oaarqeHn paM. H3Mehy 
carae ocHOBe h caTOTome ocTaaa>aM 3a3op oa 1 cm 
CaoSoaHe KpajeBe Ka6aa (c kojhx je cacBHM Maao 
CKHHyr n3oanp) npncaaitaM Ha KpajeBe acnne paivia 
H npaTHM KaKO ce OHa yrana y caTHy ocHOBy (Bnan 
canKy), 

Bp3HHa apMnpaH,a 3aBncn oa jannHe crpyje a, 
TaKofje, h oa ay>KHHe h ae6a>HHe acnue (TaHKa ce 
6p>Ke 3arpeBa oa ae6a>e). y paiviy noayHacTaBKa 
soma Koja je ncTe ae6a>HHe Kao h soma rmo- 
anmHor paMa, 3arpeBa ce 6p>Ke jep je aBa nyra 
Kpaha. Moxe ce y6p3aTn 3arpeBaH)e aonje aKO ce 
noBeha KOHuempannja pacTBopa. Ako mh je no- 
Tpe6HO aa ycnopHM nponec aeo nocoa>eHe Boae 
oaanBaM h aoaajeiw oSnHHy. M3aa3HH HanoH eaeK- 
Tpn L iHe CTpyje oaperjyjeM npoSaH^eM. 

OBaj HaMHH je npocT n aocTynaH CBaKOM rneaa- 
py. Ca\io He TpeSa 3a6opaBHTH Ha onacHOCT". 

Ako 6yaeTe KopncTnan osaj "apMHpai" 36or 
peneHor yno30peH.a 6nao 6n ueancxoaHO CTaKne- 
Hy Teray 3aivieHHTn naacnraHOM, a H>y MoateTe Ha- 
6aBnm Koa CBaKor naacTHMapa kojh npon3Boan 
aMSaaaacy h npn6op 3a nMeaape. 

[Ipupeduo u c pycKoz Jipeeeo, 
fipocp. dp Cno6odaH MwiopadoGuh 



116 



TlHejiap" 1997 



XH^nojiH3a caxapo3e y cnpyny 



liopfye CmaHojeeuh, Hoeu Cad 



JXok kojj npHMeHe cyBe xpaHe (nora L ia), Koja 
ce neCTO /jaje miejiaMa tokom 3hmckot nepno/ja, 
nocToje amieMe h onpeHHH craBOBn o Toiue jja jih 
OHa jjohoch BHine uiTeTe Hero kophcth, /joxjie 
kojj TeiHe xpaHe, Koja, hcto Taxo, MecTO kophcth 
y MajiHM KOJiHMHHaiwa 3a HajjpaacaJHO npnxpaH>n- 
Bapbe h y 3HaTHO BehHM 3a aonyHy 3hmckhx 
3aiiHxa xpaHe, Heiua Behnx pa3HJiaaceH>a y cra- 
BOBHMa. Hjjeajmo 6h 6hjio Kajja 6hcmo ce uiehepa 
Morjra oapehn y cbhm cjnyqajeBimia. HeKH 
nnejiapH, ca Mapte hjih BHiue jjocjicjjhocth, to h 
pajje. Pe3yjnaTH cy Bpjio oxpa6pyjyhH Kajja ce 
yMecTO mehepa 3a jjonyHy xpaHe jjajy nyHH pa- 
mobh noKnonjbeHor uBCTHor Mejja. 

MehyraM, Kajja HeMa 3ajinxa KBajiHTeTHor 
UBeTHor Mejja, Kajja y 3hmckhm 3ajinxaMa HMa 
jjocTa MejubHKe hjik npepaheHHX BohHHX coKOBa, 

HITO Ce MOpa H3BajJHTH, HJIH H3 HeKHX JjpyTHX, 
MeCTO eKOHOMCKHX, aJIH IUTO Ce Kpajite KOpHCTH 

TH<ie cyMH)HBHX pa3Jiora, OHJja je Hyaoro Jjony- 
H>aBaH>e xpaHe. 

Ka/ja /jo jjonyHe 3ajinxa xpaHe Mopa jjohn, 
onaaje BeoMa Baauio o/jpe/jHTH npaBO BpeMe 3a 
jjonyHy. y KOHTHHeHTajiHOM Jjejry 3eMJte to je 
Haj6ojbe yHHHHTH tokom apyre nojioBHHe 
aBrycTa h e-BeHTyajmo npBHx aaHa cenreMopa iue- 
cerja. Tajjajom yBeK HMa nojieHa, Kojnje nnejiaMa 
HeonxojjaH 3a Behe jryMeH>e (JjepMe-HTa HHBep- 
Ta3e, a axo noneHa Herae HeMa, kophcho raje y 
MaH.HM KOJiHMHHaMa H3 pe3epBH ao/jaBa™. 
Illehep he yTOM cjiy^iajy 6hth 6ojbe HHBepTHcaH. 
HeKH imejiapH H3 oojeKTHBHHX pa3Jiora (Hnp. 
KopHHifieite no3HHX naiua h o/jy3HMaH>a Mejja 

nocne H>HX), HeKH H3 Cy6jeKTHBHHX, TO <IHHe H 

tokom apyre nojioBHHe cenTeM6pa, 3aaa3ehH c 
thm nocjioM h y OKTo6ap. HeKH, naK, y to BpeMe 
(no3HO 3a npnxpaHy) He jjajy cnpyn, ajin Beh y 
noMeTKy 3HMCKor nepno/ja, naiiy HOBeMSpy Me- 
ceuy, /jajy nora<ie. JecTe jj,a cy OHe y thm 
cjry^iajeBHMa Hyaoie, aan cy h Hyaoro h to bcjimko 
Hyaoio 3Jio. 3a XHJjpoaH3y caxapo3e tokom 3hm- 
CKor nepnoaa, rmejiaMa je noTpeSHa Ha- 
JKBajiHTeTHHJa xpaHa aa 6h Mome aa npoH3Beay 
aoBOJbHy KOJiHMHHy HHBepTa3e. nouiTO TaKBe 
xpaHe HeMa hobojbho, OHe Tpouie pe3epBHe Ma- 
Tepnje aKyMyjinpaHe y cbom Teny (MacHO Teno, 
acn>e3ae) h TaKO 6e3 h,hx ocTajy y BpeMeHy Kajja 
je to HajnoTpe6HHJe. n^ejie ce Beh c jece-HH 
npnnpeMajy 3a 3hmckh nepnoa, cjihhho npaBHM 



npe3HMapHMa, jep hm 3a yjiory HeroBaTejbHua 
Mnajipr noKOJbeH.a HHcy aoBOJbHe caMO pe3epBe 
xpaHe y koihhhhh, Beh h y cbom Teny. 3aTHM, OHe 
aexHJjpnpajy cao6oaHy BOJjy H3 CBor Tena, 
cnymTajy TeMnepaTypy rHe3aa 3a jeaHy 
jiecTBHuy HHate h TaKO paimoHaaHO Tpouie pe3- 
epBe xpaHe h OHe H3 caha h OHe H3 cbot Tejia. 

npepaaoM caxapo3e tokom 3hmckot nepno/ja, 
a HapoMHTO aKO ce TaKBOM xpaHOM onTepehyjy ojj 
HOBeMSpa ao npoaeha, rraejie ce HCTpome ao Te 
Mepe /ja noMHy npe BpeMCHa H3yMHpaTH, He o/xh- 
rpaBiiiH CBOjy ynory Koja hm je HaMen,eHa: oara- 
JHBaH.e npBHx noKOJbeHja nnejia. HaK h OHe Koje 
ocTajy y »:HBOTy jj,o nojaBe npBHx noKOJfaeHaa 
NuiaaHx nqejia, cna6HJe Heryjy Jierjio h oHoje, no 
npaBHJiy, CHTHHJe h MaH>e BHTajiHO, na ce 
JipymTBO ca TaKBHM MJiajjHM n<iej]aMa cnopHJe 
pa3BHJa. 

Ka/j,a Beh aorjeMo y cHTyauHJy aa H3 noSpo- 
jaHHX hjih, Moacua, H3 join Heiarx pa3Jiora MopaMO 
npnxpaH.HBaTH n L iejie, OHJj,a ocTaje nHTan>e 
KaKBOM xpaHOM hx npHxpaH>HBaTH (BpeMe npn- 
xpaH)HBaH,a je HaBejjeHo). Haj6ojbe 6h 6hjio Kana 
6n ce nnejiaMa aaBao HHBepTHcaHH cnpyn, ajin 
KaKO ao HHBepracaHor cnpyna Jjonn, a jj,a cpejj,- 
CTBa, MaTepHJe kojhm ce HHBepTHcaH>e Bpinn He 
npon3BOJj,e ncTOBpeMeno ca obhm npouecoM h 
OTpoBHe MaTepnje. IIlToje cnpyn Sojbe HHBepTH- 
caH, nqejie he ce Man>e tpouihth. MerjyTHM, aKO 
y cnpyny HMa y BehHM KOJiniHHaMa niTeTHnx, 
otpobhhx MaTepnja, Kao uito je XHJipooK- 
cnMeTHJi(J)yp4)ypoji (HMF), OHJja niTeTa Moace 
6hth Beha or kophcth. 

no3HaTO je aa ce xn/j,pojiH3a hjih HHBepTa3a 
caxapo3e Moace bpiuhth ca Tpn BpcTe aojjaTaKa: 
KHcejiHHa, Mejja nun KOHueHTpncaHor h 
OMnmheHor (pepMenra HHBepTa3e. 

XHnpojiH3a caxapo3e ce nocTiDKe HajSpace 
KHcejiHHaMa, ajin OHe, Maite hjih BHme, tokom 
pa3JiaraH)a caxapcwe Ha rjiyK03y n (ppyKT03y, 
o6pa3yjy h noMeHyrn XHpooKCHMeTHJi(pyp4)ypoji 
(HMF), a OBaj naK, aKO ce Hahe y BejiHKHM 
KOJiHMHHaMa, Shtho CKpahyje schbot nqejia. 
npeMa pajjy C. A. CrpoJKOBa, Bnuier Hay^mor 
capaaHHKa HHCTHTyra 3a nnejiapcTBO, 06- 
jaBJbeHOM nojj, HacjioBOM "HHBepTncaHH cnpyn" 
(nnejioBoncTBO 6p. 7/90), MaKCHMajiHO 
jjonycrnBa Kojin^mna HMF y xpaHn 3a nnene 
H3Hocn 3 mg Ha 100 g mehepa. y pajjy ce HaBOJjH 



199 



jja pasjiHMHTe KHcejiroie o6pa3yjy pa3JiHMnTe 
KOJiHHHHe HMF na TaKO 1% KncejinHe jjajy 
cjiejjehe KOJin<inHe HMF (mg/100 g mehepa): 
MJieiHa -61,4; JinMyHCKa -24,4; BHHCKa -56,8; (boc- 
(})opHa-l 12,1. 

H3 HaBejjeHor pajj,a ce bhjih na je Haj6ojbe 
KopncTHTH JiyMyHCKy KHcejiHHy n to npeMa 
CTpoJKOBy 2 g Ha 1 % mehepa, nrro y KpaJH.e 
H3Bejj,eHHM pa<ryHHnaMa npon3njia3H jja he HaKOH 
XHJjpojiH3e 100 g mehepa nnaK ocTaTn HemTO 
MajioBnmeHMF. Ako 1% KncejiHHa npon3BOJj;H 
24,4mgHMFHa 100 g mehepa; onaa 02% npoH3- 
Boan ne-T nyra MaH>e, aTO h3hoch hciuto BHme ojj, 
3 mg/100 g mehepa (4,88 mg). OBace pa3JinKa, aKO 
je panyHHua Swia flo6pa, H3rjie,na,Moace 3aHe- 
MapnTH. npaKTHiHoce cnpyn npnnpMa TaKO mTO 
ce Ha 7 Kg mehepa aojjaje 6 JiHTapa Bpyhe BOJje n 
14 g JiHMyHCKe KncejiHHC, to ce H3Mema n KyBa y 
TOKy 70-80 MHHyra y 6aH.n (Man.n cya ce CTaBJba 
y Behn y KOMe Bpn Boaa). nocTojn peuenT h ca 
MJieiHOM KncejinHOM: Ha 5,5 Kg mehepa h ,aBe 
jiHTpe n ocaMjjeuH Bo/re jjoaaje ce 1/ KncejiHHe, 
na ce pacTBop KyBa Ha cjia6oj Baipn 30 MnHyra. 
MerjyTHM, OB/je HMa BHme HMF. 

Kojj, XHJj,pojm3e ca JinMyHCKOM KncejinHOM ca- 
xapo3a ce pa3Jj,Bojn na rjryK03y n (ppyioray 95%, 
mTO 3HaMn aa y cnpyny ocTaje caMO 5% caxapo3e, 
kojihko je HMa npn6jinaaio n y npnpojiHOM Mejjy. 

Xn,npojiH3a caxapo3e ce Moace BpmHTn h Me- 
aoM,TaKO, mTO ce, no peuejny CTpoJKOBa, Ha 72,5 
1 Kg mehepa, 20/ BOJie, aojjaje 7,5 Kg nBeraor Meaa, 
kojh HHJe CTapnJH ojj, rojjHHy jjana n kojh Hnje 
3arpeBaH Ha TeMnepaTypn Behoj ojj 40°C h, 
HapaBHO, jja noTHie ca niejiHJbaKa kojh He 6ojryje 
ojj 3apa3HHX SojiecTH. CMemn ce Jjojiaje 24 g 
CHpherae KncejiHHe (npepaiyHaTe Ha 100-npo- 
neHTny). Ako je xnjjpojiH3a ycnopeHa; Moate ce 



jjojjaTn Bnme Mejja. Xym h MpKH mehep Hncy 
nojjoSHH, Kao hh mehep y npaxy. CMema ce ppmi 
6-15 jjaHa Ha TeMnBpaTypn ojj 34 - 36°C, y3 
Meuiaite jjBa ao Tpn nyra Ha jjaH. Xnjjpojm3a je 
3aBpmeHa Kajja ce Ha noBpniHHH CMaHiH 
KOJinnnHa neHe (Koja HHJe mTeTHa 3a n<iejie) , a Ha 
jjHy nocyjje npaKTHiHO HeMa HepacTBopeHHX 
KpncTajia mehepa. 

Ha Kpajy noMeHHMO h to jja ce no CTpoJKOBy 
HajSojba xnjjpojiH3a Moace H3BpmHTH jjojjaBaH,eM 
HHBepTa3e jjoSnjeHe ojj MHKpoopraHH3Ma - 
KBacna hjih rjLHBa, ojj kojhx je oBa nocjieaH,a 
6ojba n BHme ce npHMeityje kojj nnejia. /JyacnHa 
HHBep3HJe ca obhm KOHueHTpncaHHM H 
omjmheHHM (jbepMeHTOM je mhoto Spata (5-20 
nacoBa) , mTO joj jjaje ypejjHOCT y ojjHocy Ha pajj 
ca MejjoM, kojj Kora je HHBepTa3Ha aKTHBHOcr 
HenocTojaHa h pejiaTHBHO Majia. TaKohe ce 
H36eraBa h e-BeHTyajiHO mnpejbe 3apa3nnx 
SojiecTH, mTO ce HenaaotoM Moace jjorojjnTn 
Kajja ce HHBepTHcaH^e pajjH ca MejjoM. npoSjieM 
je mTO ce jjo 4>epMeHTa HHBepTa3e, Kojaje nopeK- 

JIOM H3 MHKpOOpraHH3Ma, TdUKO JJO Cajja JJOJia3- 
HJIO. 

jH,a 3aKjbyqHM, Sojbe je, no mom ncicycTBy, jjaTH 
h HenHBepTHcaHH cnpyn y npaBO BpeMe, Hero 
MBpcTy xparry, HapoMHTO aKO je npnnpeMaHa ca 
KHcejiHHaMa. y ce30HH 1995/96-qj, Koja je y 
npojiehe Snoa Jioma 3a npHJiH L iaH 6poj nnejiapa, 
Ha mom miejiHH>aKy je, 6e3 3HMCKor npnxpaH.n- 
Baita (Koje BHme rojjHHa He BpniHM, ceM HyK- 
jieyca ca HopMajmnM J1P OKBHpHMa) Shjio jjocTa 
Mejia, jja Mnje to 3ajjaBajio h npo6jreM, kojh je 
pemaBaH CKHJjaH>eM noKJionana ca caha y Behoj 
noBpuiHHH Hero nrro ce y JinrepaTypn npe- 
nopy^ryje. Mcnajro je CBe KaKO TpeSa h npnHocn 
oa Kajja rraejrapHM HHKajj Hncy 6hjih 6ojbn. 



200 



nneiiap 1999 



PyHHH ho can koiiimmiic 







H3ZAed Hocana 3a kouihuup Hanpaejbenoe 
od 6emoHCKoe apMupaHoe reowctja (<[>omo: 

JJ. JIUAHuh) 








Hotuewe KOWHUUp noMohy nocana 
(<Pomo: JJ. Jlujinuh) 



HecTO ce iraine hjih nojieMHine Kaxo npe- 
HeTH hjih yTOBapHTH KoniHHuy HacTaBJLany. 
Bniieo caM naieHTHpaHe h HarpatjeHe Hocane. 



ii & 







Hocan KoniHHite 



MaTepHJaji C. 

G = 0650 kt. /kom 



Kao uito je naTeHT noKOJHor EoacHHOBHna. 

IlHTaM ce, jja jih Tpe6a tojihko komiijihko- 

BaTH? Kaa ce KoniHHua cejiH, OHa je yTerHyTa 

- noBe3aHa, a aKO ce npeHocn 

Ha KpaTKO pacTojaH>e? TpeSa 

CKHHyTH KpOB HJIH HOCaH 

noBe3HBaTH. CBe to H3HCKyje 
BpeMe, 3aTO npeHomeH>e hjih 
yTOBap Tpe6a o6aBHTH 6p30 h 
ca hito Maite noTpeca. Moj 
noKojHH Aefla Hejia roBopno 
je: llpa3Ha KoiHHHua je 
HaJTe^ca. Hh jejjHHM Hoca^eM 
He MoaceMO jja je ojiaKuiaMO. 
Kajia KouiHHuy nojjnrHeMO h 
CTaBHMO Ha non KaMHOHa, Jia 
6h ce ocjio6ohhjih HocaHH, 
noTpe6Hoje jja je noHOBO no- 
jinrHeMO pyxaivia Kaxo Shcmo 
je cnaKOBajiH h nojjrjiaBHjra. 
To je HaJBefre Hanpe3aH>e 3a 
nnejiapa. 



541 



nneiiap 1999 



CrpHij h ja, kojh 3ajenHO HMaMO jiajieico 
npeKO cto rojjHHa. TOBapHMO 6e3 nunje 
noMonn, 6p30 h ecJmicacHO. Ha cjiejienn HaHHH: 
HanpaBHJiH cmo Hocane, Koje Moxe CBaKO jja 
HanpaBH h tbpjihm Jia cy Hajje<j)THHHJH. Hocan 
je HanpaBJbeH or o6uhhot rBoxlja 3a apMH- 
paHH 6eTOH 10. Je^aH je Teacaic oko 650 
rpaivia, uito no TpacHumoj BpejjHOCTH He 
H3HOCH BHine or 1.20 DM. 



MOMeHTa y3HMaH>a KouiHHue, 6e3 3acTajan>a, 
ypanHMO jio nocTaBJbaH>a Ha MecTO. A Kajia 

TOBapHMO KOIHHHHe y KaMHOH KOpHCTHMO H 

iiBe (J)0CHe. llocTaBHMO jejjaH Kpaj Ha 3eMJty, 
a Jjpyrn Ha naToc KaMHOHa. Cjiyacn HaM Kao 
moct, jep 6e3 3acTajaH>a HCTy parity o6aBHMO. 

Ako HeKOM noMorHe, ojiaKiiiane nocao - 
CPETiHO! 



y 3a#H>e BpeMe cejiHMO KouiHHue ca 
npeparjeHHM ayTo6ycoM. riouiToje HH3aK, or 



JIhjwhIi /JparoMHp, 
JIanoBO 



3aniTHTa KoniHHua 3hmh or uiyMCKHX nTHija 



llopefl HH3a Mepa Koje ce npe;iy3HMajy y 
nepnojjy y3HMJbaBaH>a KouiHHua,ja o6aBe3HO 
npHMeityjeM Mepe 3auiTHTe or acyH>a h 
neTJinna (upBeHorjiaBaua), a Ta Mepa je 
nocTaBJi>aH>e omejiajia y peoHy KoniHHua Jia 
BHce Ha KaHany 40-80 cm, Jia ce Mory cjio- 
6ojiho OKpeTaTH, a Jia He yjxapajy o Heice npeji- 
MeTe Jia ce He 6h pa36HJia hjih Jiynajia h 
3aneTJbajia. 

Orjiejiajia He Tpe6a Jia cy BejiHKa Ben Kao 
noflJiaHHua hjih KyTHJa uurapeTa. 

OBa orjiejiajia nocTaBJbaM Ben JiBajieceT 
ronHHa n 3a to BpeMe mije 6hjio hh jejiHor 



cjiynaja Hanajia acyita hjih JieTJinna, a npe 
Hero iuto caM nocTaBno orjiejiajia HMao caM n 
no 15 yHHinTeHHX flpyniTaBa. 

CyuiTHHa ycneuiHe oji6paHe je y TOMe uito 
ce orjiejiajia cTajiHo oKpeny, 6hjio 36or BeTpa 
hjih noBeTapua. CBa JiHBJbau jaxo JipSpo 
yonaBa noKpeTe (to jiobhh jjo6po 3Hajy) h He 
npnjia3e, a KaMOJiH Jia Hanajjajy y 6jih3hhh 
orjie/iajia tj. KoniHHua. Mory ce nocTaBHTH y 
BonH>aicy hjih Ha hckom jjpyroM MecTy y 6jih3- 
hhh nnejiHitaKa. 

KejieneBHh Jobo 

011/604-916 

Eeorpajj 



542 



n^ejiap 1999 



EKCKJIY3HBHO 3A HACOIIHC IIHEJIAP 




rajen>e iraejia y pa3JiHHHTHM KOLLiHiiiaaivia 



B. H. JIe6edee, Hncmumym 3a nneAapcmeo, Pu6noje, Pycuja 



Ha nHejiHH>aiiHMa Haine 3eMJbe Koja ce 
o^JiHKyje orpoMHOM pa3Hoo6pa3Homny 
ycnoBa Mejio6paH>a h paca iraejia, ^pyniTBa 
ce apace y KoiHHHuaMa HeKOJiHKO ranoBa. 
TexHOJioraja rajeiba iraejia y KonimniaMa 

pa&JIHHHTHX CHCTeMa HMa HH3 Ghthhx oco- 

6eHOCTH. 

Oco6eHocTH rajeiba iraejia y jjbokop- 
nycHHM KoiiiHimaMa 

^BOKOpnycHa KoiHHHua Jip3BOJbaBa Jia 
ce MaKCHMajiHO hckophcth ciiocoGhoct 
jiexeiba MaTHue h nnejia^a Heryjyjierjio. Y 
ibHMa ce apyniTBa Maibe poje h, Kao nocjie- 
jjHua Tora, caicymbajy BHine Me.ua. CeM 
Tora, y thm KoiHHHuaMa y 3HMy mry 
apyniTBa Belie ja^HHe h jjobojbho je JiaKO 
cnpeMHTH rHe3Jja 3a 3HMy. 

MeTOJia ^BOKOpnycHor rajeiba nnejia 
npHMeHJBHBa je y peraoHHMa ca jjpSpHM h 
cpe/iibHM Mejip6paibeM. TaMO, rae ce 
onaxa caMO cjiaG, Maicap h npojjyateH yHoc, 
yMecTO apyrax Kopnyca KopHCTe ce 

MeJJHIHHH HaCTaBUH H HCTOBpeMeHO 

orpaHHHaBa HeroBaibe Jierna. 

036njbaH HejjocTaTaK Tor THna koih- 
HHiie cacTOJH ce y TOMe ihto nnenap, He yc- 
neBa yBeK jja GnaroBpeMeHO nocTaBH apyre 
Kopnyce, hjih pa3MecTH y H>HMa paMOBe ca 
caTHHM ocHOBaMa. y tom cnyqajy irqejie 
yna3e y pojwjjGeHO CTan>e, uito Harno 
CMaityje Mejjo6paH>e. 



npH noBoibHHM ycjioBHMa, ^pyniTBa y 
H>HMa ce 6p30 pa3BHJajy h KpajeM Maja 
no^eTKOM jyHa 3ay3HMajy 11-12 paMOBa oa 
KOJHX je 8-9 Ben 3ay3eTO JiernoM. y tom 
cjrynajy Ha rHe3Jj;a ce CTaBJtajy Jipyra Kop- 
nycH. He TpeGa 3aKaniH>aBaTH c h^hxobhm 
nocTaBJbaH^eM jep je BaxHO Jia MaTHua Ha 
ibWMa ojjpajjn 35-40 jjaHa no HacTynansa 
rjiaBHe name. HeonxojjaH ycnoB 3a 
ycneniHO ocBajaibe nqejiaMa apyror Kop- 
nyca - jecTe nojaBa y npnpojjH HeBenHKor 
no/ipaataBajyner yHoca. 

no^HH^yhH Ty onepainrjy, hhct, jx63hh- 
(J)HKOBaH jipyrn Kopnyc CTaBJba ce Ha 
npeBpHyT KpoB ca CTpaHe 3ajjjber 3HJia 
Konmnne h npHCTyna ce nseroBOM 4>opMH- 
pajby paMOBHMa y3eTHM H3 rae3aa. Ka 
jyxHOM 3HJjy nocTaBJha ce caT ca mchom h 
neproM, a nopejj H>era paM ca caTHOM ocho- 
bom, 3aTHM je^aH paM c JiernoM pa3JiHHHTe 
CTapocTH n JiBa ca 3pejinM noKJioiubeHHM 
jierjioM 3aje^HO ca nnejiaMa Koje ce Ha 
ibWMa Haiia3e. H3a Jierjia CTaBJba ce caT 3a 
jieaceite Marane nonpcKaH inehepHHM ch- 
pynoM, h onBmaBajynn caT ca MejipM h nep- 
tom. CBera, yjjpyrn Kopnyc, npBoGnTHO ce 
CTaBJta He BHiue or 6 jio 1 paMOBa, kojh ce 
oa npa3Hor npocTopa ojjBajajy JiHJa<|)par- 
mom. yMecTO ojjy3eTHX paMOBa y jjoh^h 
Kopnyc CTaBJta ce jjo6po H3rparjeHO cane h 
jjBa-TpH paMa ca caTHHM ocHOBaMa, TaKO jja 
6h KOMnjieT 6ho noTnyH. flpyra Kopnyc 
CTaBJba ce Ha jjoh>h, a rHe3Jip jjoGpo 
yTonjbaBa (cji. 1). 




r I S * 

Ca. 1. IIIeMd pa3MeiumaK>a caha npu npunpeMu dpyeoe Kopnyca: 1. - ene3do do nonerriKa 
pada; 2. - nocne nocmaeibawa dpyeoe Kopnyca; 3. - nped nonemaic ejiaeue name; 4. - nocjie 

3aepmemKa name 



430 



n^ejiap 1999 



3a BpeMe MenoGpaita h 3a irqejie 
cpe/j,H>epycKe pace , y apyre Kopnyce 
Moryheje He npeHOCHTH cahe canerjioM. 

HeKH nnejiapH, npn nocTaBJbaity npy- 
rax Kopnyca, ocTaBJbajy y noiteM caMO 7-8 
paMOBa. 3aTHM, nocne ojanaH>a npyniTBa, 
npeHoce H3 ropH>er y jioh>h Kopnyc join 
jjBa-Tpn caTa ca OTBOpeHHM JiernoM (ro ny- 
Hor KOMiuieTHpaH>a) . MerjyraM, TaKBO 
npeMeinTaH>e Be3aHO je c BejiHKHM JionyH- 
ckhm yTpoinKOM pana. HajGojbe je o/iMax 
KOMnneTHpaTH hoh>h Kopnyc noTnyHO #a ra 
BHiue He 6hcmo cperjHBajin ro no^eTKa 
rjiaBHe name. 

Kp03 7-10 nam nocjie nocTaBJbaH>a 
apyror Kopnyca, Ka/ia iraejie noTnyHO 
H3rpane cane Ha caTHHM ocHOBaMa n Kana 
ce Ha BehnHH ncror nojaBH Jierno, Mo^ce ce 
n oh npouinpHTH no nyHor KOMnjieTa 
npa3HHM H3rparjeHHM caheM h caTHHM oc- 
HOBaMa. npnGjiH^CHO Kp03 Meceu nana no- 
cjie nocTaBJbaHsa npyror Kopnyca nnejie 3a- 
nocenHy CBe rae3,no. npH noBOJBHHM 
ycjioBHMa (j axa npyniTBa h CTajiHa 
nonpxaBajyha nama), npyrn Kopnyc Moxe 
ce nocTaBHTH ynpaBO onMax c nyHHM kom- 
niieTOM caha. 

npe/j no^eiaK rnaBHe name cjienn npe- 
rpynHcaBanse caha y koiuhhhh, KOHneH- 
TpHinytiH OTBOpeHO Jierjio y JioH>eM Kop- 
nycy, a 3aTBOpeHO - y ropH>eM. Y BehnHH 
cjiynajeBa CTaHOBHnne Konnnme o^Jia^cy 
Me^ y ropH>eM nejiy THe3na H3Ha,n Jierna. Flo 
H3JiacKy MJiannx jennHKH, nnejie 3ajiHBajy 
hejinje MenoM. 

Ako ce npeji noqeiaK rnaBHe name He 
npe4)opMHpajy THe3na y o6a Kopnyca, to he 
nocjie 3aBpmeTKa name HecTO 6hth 3ajin- 
BeHO MenoM caMO cahe ropH>er Kopnyca y 
Kojn Moxe %a nperje n MaTHua. floH^n he 
6hth npeTpnaH caMO neproM. nperpynnca- 
BaH>e caha c JierjioM npe/j; namy o6aBe3Ha 
je, Mana n TeniKa onepannja. 

Ha BejiHKHM nqejiHH>anHMa npe/i, 
noneTaK rjiaBHe name MeH>ajy ce MecTa 
KopnycHMa: ropH>n, y KojeMJe CKOHueHTpH- 
caHO CKOpo CBe MJiano jierjio, CTaBiba ce Ha 
jiho, a jjoh>h c npa3HHM hejinjaivia h 3aT- 
BopeHHM JierjioM - Ha H>era. 

npn noGpoj naniH n^ejie 6p30 nyHe Me- 
rom paMOBe ropH>er Kopnyca. y to BpeMe 
H3 KouiHHua ce ony3HMajy paMOBH ca 
CBeTJio-6paoH caheM nyHHM Me/ia n nyBajy 
no (J)opMHpaH>a THe3na 3a 3HMy. 3a CBaxo 
npyniTBO Tpe6a o6e36enHTH He MaH>e or 
neT TaKBnx paMOBa. CeM Tora, npnnpeMajy 



ce no nea-Tpn no6pa paMa c neproM, 3ann- 
BeHn MejioM. y 3aMeHy 3a ony3eTe, 
CTaBJtajy ce npa3HH. 

Ako ^HeBHH yHoc HeKTapa He npena3H 3 
kg, a onnrre Meno6paH>e ce Hajia3H y rpaHH- 
uaMa 35 - 40 kg, to ce, nocne nocTaBibaH>a 
npyror Kopnyca n H>eroBor nyHor kom- 
njieTHpaH^a caheM, HHKaKBH npyra panoBH 
He cnpoBone no 3aBpmeTKa name. 

npH BeoMajaKoj naniH, npH kojoj nnene 
npHoce .HHeBHO BHiue or 4 kg HeKTapa, 
CTaBJta ce npnyHCKH Kopnyc hjih Me/iHiuHH 
HacTaBaK ca npa3HHM caheM h caTHHM oc- 
HOBaMa. H>hx nocTaBJtajy iior Kopnyc c Me- 
jjom. floK cahe hobot Kopnyca 6yne nyH>eHO 
MenpM, y ropH>eM oh he Ben ca3peTH h H>era 
Mo^ceMO ony3eTH pann HCTpecaH>a. KaKO 
Men. ca3peBa, oh ce H3 Kopnyca ony3HMa. 
flpyrn Kopnyc ce CKHna no 3aBpmeTKy 
rjiaBHe name, a noHeKan, h KacHnje. To ce 
pann 36or Tora ihto npyniTBO Koje je Ha- 
roMHJiajio orpoMHy KOJiH^HHy miena, He 
Moxe na ce pa3MecTH yjenHOM Kopnycy. 

npn KacHOM no^eTKy rnaBHe name (c 
xen>ne, cyHHOKpeTa), npnGjinxHO Kp03 75 - 
100 naHa h BHine nocne H3HomeH5a nnejia H3 
3HMOBHHKa, nepHOfl noBehaBaH>a ja^HHe 
/IpymTaBa ce npo^yxaBa n He yBeK ce yc- 
neBa na ce cnpe^H pojn/iGeHO CTan>e. Pann 
o^pxaBaH>a ^pymTaBa y pa^HOM cTaity, 
Heonxo/iHO je nepHO/inqHO H3 h>hx o^,y3H- 
MaTH ^eo Jierjia h nnejia, He ^03bojihth npe- 
nyH>aBan>e rHe3,iia MJianuM je^HHKaMa Koje 
HHcy onTepeheHe pa^oM. 36or Tora ce 
4>opMHpajy npHBpeMeHH pojeBH ca 3pejiHM 
MaTHHH>aKOM ^oGnjeHHM or npnnjio^Hor 
npyniTBa, hjih ca MJiajjoM HeonnorjeHOM Ma- 
thuom. 

OpraHH30BaH>e npHBpeMeHHX pojeBa c 
MaTHnaMa-noMohHHiiaMa jjo3BOJbaBa He 
caMO jja ce cnpe^H pojeH^e, Beh h jja ce jjo- 
6njy CBOje MJiane onnorjeHe MaTHiie, &a, ce 
cnpoBene njiaHCKa 3aMeHa CTapnx MaTHiia 
MJiajjHM h jxa ce noBeha npo^yKTHBHOCT 
jjpymTaBa. npHBpeMeHH pojeBH ce cnajajy c 
ochobhhm jjpymTBHMa Ha caMOM noneTKy 
rnaBHe name, 3a ihto ce yjjajbaBa xopH30H- 
TajiHa nperpajja ojj mnepnjione. y jjpyniTBy 
ce ocTaBJta Gojta jjoMahnua. 

Oco6eHocTH rajeiba imejia y KouiHMuaivfa- 

iiojioiuKaivia 

y HH3y npHpOJJHO-KJIHMaTCKHX 30Ha 

3eMJLe, HapoHHTO y jyxHHM pejoHHMa, 



431 



n^ejiap 1999 



nnejiapH Jiajy npe/iHOCT rajetty nnejia y 
nonoiuKaMa. FtpM KOpMmheH>y obhx 
KOiuHHua He MOpajy ce nojjM3aTH tciukm 
KOpnycM. Cbm pa/iOBM CBO/ie ce Ha 
npeMeuiTaH>e nojejjMHHx paMOBa, ihto /xaje 
MoryhHOCT n& ce o jjpyniTBy CTapa je^aH 
HOBeK, naK nocTapMJM, 3aTO je nojiouiKe 

y^06H0 KOpMCTHTM Ha CTaHMOHapHMM 

nHejiHH>auHMa OKyhHMiia. 

ITocjie H3HOiueH>a KOiuHMua-nojiouiKM 
H3 3MMOBHMKa npejjy3HMajy ce Mepe npOTMB 
o^jieTaH>a nnejia H3 je/iHor JipyniTBa 
(o6mhho cjia6MJer) y cyce^HO, Koje ce Ha- 
na3M y HCTOJ koiuhhhm. 3aTO ce Ha noneTKy 
/xaje MorynHOCT nnejiaMa jaicor JipyniTBa jia 
H3Jiehy, a Kajia OHe 3aBpuie H3JieTaH>e h 
CMMpe ce, OTBapajy ce neTa cna6or. 3aTMM 
ce cnpOBO/ie cbm oGmhhm npojienHM pa/iOBM. 

npouiHpyjynM rHe3/ia y KoniHMnaMa-no- 
jioniKaMa npM HecTa6HJiHOM npojiehHOM 
BpeMeHy, nnejiap Matte pM3MKyje #a npex- 
jia^M Jierjio. 

ITpBM nyT ce rHe3Jip nponiMpyje ksljx ce 
jierjio nojaBM Beh Ha npeTnocjiejjfBeM paMy 
mjim Ha yHyTpauiH>oj CTpaHM KpaJH>er paMa. 
ITpM tomc paM ca ^o6pMM M3rpaJeHMM 
caheM, HaMejteH Mainiin 3a nojiarattejaja, 
npenopynyje ce Jia ce CTaBM H3MeJy nocjie/i- 
H>er paMa ca jierjiOM m KpaJH>er paMa. 
YnpaBO TaKO ce nocTyna m npM 
pa3MeuiTaHjy paMOBa ca caTHMM ocHOBaMa. 
npouiMpMBaTii me3,aa nocTaBibaH>eM 
H3rpa^eHor caha m caTHiix ocHOBa y 
cpe^HHy rHe3/ia Moryhe je TeK nouiTO ce 
ApyuiTBO jjobojbho oja^ia m npoljy noBpaTHa 
3axjiar)eH>a. 

3a npo^y^KeH>e nepMO/ia pacTa JJpy- 
uiTaBa y KOuiHMuaMa-nojiouiKaMa, y Hh- 
CTHTyTy 3a nnejiapCTBo pa3paf)eHJe Ha^MH 
je^HOKpaTHor npouiMpiiBaH>a rHe3Jia, 3ac- 
HOBaH Ha MHCTMHKTy nnejia Jia pa3MeniTajy 
jierjio Ha cany pa3MeniTeHOM 6jiH3y jieTa 



(cji. 2). Je/iHOKpaTHO nponiMpMBaH>e ce 
BpuiH Ka/ia y rHe3jjy HMa He Matte ojj, /jeceT 
yjiHua nnejia m ocaM-/ieBeT paMOBa Jierjia. 
3a BpeMe name CBe cahe rHe3,oa ce noMepn 
y3 3n^ cynpOTaH or JieTa, a Ha oano6oljeHO 
MecTO ce nocTaBe Han3MeHHHHO paMOBn ca 
caTHMM ocHOBaMa m cahe HaMeH>eHO 3a no- 
naraH>e jaja (cji. 2). n^ejie yBeK 
pa3MeuiTajy Jierno Ha cany HacnpaM JieTa, a 
Mejj - no/jaibe ojj H>era, jep 3a pa3BOJ Jierjia 
noTpe6Haje Beha KOJin^MHa KMceoHHKa, a 
BeHTMJian,MJy je jiaKme ocTBapMTM y 6jim3- 
mhm OTBopeHor OTBOpa; pe3epBe xpaHe, 
naK, noy3jiaHMJe je 3aniTHTMTH ojx HenpM- 
jaTejba y jxyftmm KoniHHne. riponiMpeH>e 
rHe3/ia npwHyJaBa nnejie Jia 6p^ce 
M3rpaf)yjy m ocBajajy hobo cahe, a MaTHny - 
aa HenpeKMflHO nojia>Ke jaja. 

3a cnpenaBaiBe pojen>a m /ipnyHCKO 
HapacTaH>e nnejia 3a rjiaBHy namy y 
KoniHMnaMa-nojioniKaMa niMpOKO ce 
KopncTe MaTMne-noMohHMue. 3a opraHM- 
30Ban.e npMBpeMeHMx pojeBa nocTyna ce Ha 
cjie/jehn Ha^HH. YHyTpamHSM npocTOp 
KoniHMue-nojioniKe /jejiw ce rjiyBOM npe- 
rpajjOM Ha jjBa Jiejia. CBaKM MOpa Jia HMa 
CBOJe jieTO. PojeBM ce Mory 4>opMMpaTM 
KOpMmheH>eM onjioJeHe hjim HeomiorjeHe 
MaTHiie hjim 3pejior MaTHHH>aKa. ITocjie 
Tora Kafl MaTHiia no^He nojiaraH>e jaja, poj 
ce noja^aBa M3Jia3ehHM JierjiOM, y3eTMM M3 
ocHOBHor apyniTBa. 3a Mecen, jjaHa nocne 
4)opMMpan>a, oh he Beh 3ay3MMaTM 10-12 
paMOBa. npe/j noneTaK rjiaBHe name CTapy 
MaTMny (mjih OHy jiouiMJy ojj, h>mx JiBe) no 
jjaHy yHMuiTMTM, a yBene /jpyniTBO h poj 
cnoJMTM, yaajbaBajyhM nperpajjy Koja mx 
aejiM, a Kao H>eHy 3aMeHy nocTaBMTM caT 
Hanyn>eH mehepHMM CMpynoM c /jo/iaTKOM 
aHMCOBMx KanjbMua. Kao pe3yjiTaT Tora 
flo6Mhe ce BeoMa jaxo ^pyniTBO, Koje he 
MMaTM 12-16 paMOBa npeTe^cHO 3aTBOpeHor 





Cji. 2. IIIeMa jedHOKpamnoa npomupeiha ene3day KouiHuu.aMa-noAoiuKaMa: 1. - do 
nonemica pada; 2. - npaeujwo npowuperbe ene3da. CmpeAut^oMJe noKa3ano Mecmo 

noAootcaja Aema 



432 



nnejiap 1999 



nerjia. npn JioGpoj naniH uejiHcxo^HO je Ha 
H>era nocTaBHTH Me_HHiirre. 

HeKH iraejiapH npea cnajan>e JipyniTBa h 
poja CTapy MaTHiry H3flBajajy y HeBejiHKH 
HyKJieyc Ha JiBa TpH paMa. tberoBe rmejie 
Mory /ia noBehajy JipnyHCKH 6poj MJia^nx 
je^HHKH 3a 3HMy. y KacHy jeceH HyKJieyc 
cnajajy ca ochobhhm apyniTBOM (ciapy Ma- 
THiry ymnirraBajy). 

OcoSeHocTM i ajeiba iraejia y ^BaHaecTo- 
paviHHM koijihihuimu ca aea MejjHiima sac- 

TaBKa (fla^aH-BjiaTOBaKouiHHuaca^Ba 
nonyHacTaBKa - npHMe;x6a npeBOJjHoua) 

OBa KoniHHua HMa uiHpoKy pacnpoc- 
TpaH^eHOCT Ha mhoium nHejinftauHMa 
cpejjH>e 30He Pycnje. TexHOJioraja pa^a c 
h>om jjo3BOJbaBa m ce Mejj ojx /ipyuiTBa 
ojjy3HMa ueiiHM Me,HHiiiHHM HacTaBitHMa, a 
He noje^HHaHHHM paMOBHMa. y mc/ihihhom 
cahy He GHBanerjio, 3aTOOHOJjyroHecTapn 
h MHoro ro^HHa ociaje CBeTJio. y BHMa ce 
^oGnja CBeTJiHJH Mejj,, kojh Jjyace He 
KpHCTajiHine. Hhcko MejjHiHHO cahe Hajia3H 
ce 6jiH^ce Jierny, na 3aTO y H>eMy Heicrap 
6pxe ca3peBa, a npn HecTaGnjiHOM Bpe- 
MeHy Man>e ce xjiajjn rHe3Jio. FlocTaBHTH h 
CKHJiaTH HacTaBKe c MejioM Mo^ce caM 
nnejiap (Maca HacTaBKaje 18-22 kg). 

KopHinheH>e Me^nniTa JT03BOJbaBa #a ce 
jiaKO ^oGnje Me^ y cahy. Bhjio kojh JioGpo 
3anenaheH caT pa3pe3yje ce Ha KOMa^nne, 
kojh ce nocTaBJbajy y Terjie h 3ajiHBajy neH- 
TpH({)yrHpaHHM mcjiom (y TaKBOM oGjiHKy y 
HHOCTpaHCTBy npo^ajy BeiiHKy KOjra^HHy 
Me/ia, TaK03BaHH Mejj-HaHr). TaKBe ko- 
Ma/iHhe Moryhe je ynaKOBaTH y uejiocJmH- 
CKy (J)OJiHJy hjih y Jieno JTH3aJHHpaHe Kap- 
TOHCKe (njiacTH^He) KyraJHue. 

He/iocTaTaK obhx KoniHHiiaje - BejiHKa 
ckjiohoct nnejinikHX ^pyiHTaBa, rajeHHX y 
H>HMa, Ka pojeH>y. 3aTO Tpe6a o6aBe3HO 
4>opMHpaTH pojeBe (o,a JiBa apyniTBa je/iaH 
MeiuoBHTH, kojh ro BpeMeHa noneTKa 
maBHe name He TpeGa jia ce pa3JiHKyje ojj 
ochobhhx ^pyniTaBa) . CeM Tora, OBa 

KOIHHHIia He /I03BOJLaBa IUIOflHOJ MaTHHH 

%a MaKCHManHO pa3BHj"e Hoineite jaja. 

Ilocjie H3H0ineH)aH3 3HMOBHHKa, rHe3,iia 
ce CKpahyjy no TaKBor CTeneHa jxa nnejie 
rycTO nocejjajy ociaBibeHO cahe, JipyniTBa 
ce o6e36e^,e xpaHOM, JioGpo yTonjie. Tokom 
Meceu ^aHa, jiok HJie CMeHa CTapnx nnejia, 
/IpyniTBa ce He npernejiajy. 3a Meceu JiaHa 
rHe3.ua ce nponiHpyjy noceGHHM caheM no- 
tojihhm 3a Marany m jie^ce jaja, nonyita- 
Bajy ce pe3epBe xpaHe, jjoBOJiehH jio 10-12 



kg. Kajja n^ene 3ay3My 10-12 yjimia, a y 
rae3,iry Gyjje He Maite o,n, ocaM paMOBa c jie- 
tjiom, npHCTyna ce o^Max MacoBHOM <J>op- 
MHpaH^y MeinoBHTHX pojeBa ca omiofjeHHM 
MaTHuaMa y 3ace6HHM KoniHHuaMa. PojeBH 
no jaHHHH TpeGa Jia 6yny hcth Kao h oc- 
HOBHa /ipyniTBa, Tana je Hajjajbe Moryha 
Hda Hera 3a neo nnejiHH^aK. 

Ilocjie nojaqaH>a npyuiraBa h pojeBa, 
Ka.ua y KoinHHiiaMa 6yne He Matte oji, ce/iaM 
paMOBa ca JierjioM, a nnene noTnyHO 
noKpnjy ^eceT-je^,aHaecT caTOBa, CTaBJtajy 
ce MeflHiHHH HacTaBitH Koje on rHe3^a^ejin 
XHHaHa nperpa^Ha pemeTKa (MaTHHHa 
pemeTKa - npHMe^Ga npeBO/iHoiia). 36or 
HHCKor KBajiHTeTa H3pa,iie, He Tpe6a y tom 
UHiby KopHCTHTH iHTaHUOBaHy penieTKy, 
noniTO to ^obo^h ^o nojanaaa pojeH>a h 
CHH^ceH>a npoj,yKTHBHOCTH apynrraBa. 
n^ene KpaJH>e Hepa/io npena3e y Me^nniHe 
HacTaBKe. npn o^cycTBy MaTHHHe pe- 
iueTKe, na MaTHua He 6h npeniiia Ha h^hx h 
TaMO nojiarajia jaja, y HacTaBKy ce necTO 
ocTaBJLa yMecTO /iBaHaecT - CBera j,eBeT- 
-jiqcqt paMOBa, pacnoperjyjyhH hx c BehHM 
pacTojaitHMa Hero oGh^ho. IlHejie y 
TaKBHM cjiynajeBHMa H3^iy3cyjy hennje h 
MaTHua He Moxe y h>hx nono^cHTH jaja. 
MnaK, to He rapamyje y noTnyHOCTH or- 
cycTBO Jieraa y H>HMa (ymaBHOM 
TpyTOBCKor) h flonycraBO je caMO 3a jaxa 
/IpyniTBa h npn ^o6poj CTaGnjiHoj naniH. y 
ycjioBHMa HecTaGnjiHe name, Taj Ha^HH 
noja^aBa pojen>e h 3HaTHO CHnxaBa Me/io- 
6paH>e. HepeTKO n^ene Hej,OBOJLHO jaKHX 
/IpyniTaBa BeoMa Jiome npena3e y Me^nniHe 
HacTaBKe c pa3MaKHyTHM caheM hjih ra 
noTnyHO HTHOpHiuy. 

MejjHinHH HacTaBUH ce npnnpeiviajy Sna- 
roBpeMeHo; CBaKH ojj h>hx ce KOMnneTHpa 
jrenHM caheM h paMOBHMa ca caTHHM ocho- 
BaMa, nocTaBibajyhH HXHaH3MeHHqHojej,aH 
na ^,pyrH . flpyra Me^ninHH HacTaBaK 
CTaBJta ce Ta.ua, Ka/ia nnejie no^Hy jja ocBa- 
jajy npBH (zta rpa^e cahe), h yBeK npece- 
uaiteM rae3Jja (nojj6an;HBaH>eM no^ npe- 
txojjhh - npHM. npeB.). 

KaKO ce MejjnniHH HacTaBUH HanyHe Me- 
,Hom ihnx o^iy3HMajy h nocTaBJbajy HOBe. 

IloinTO n^ejie o^naxy Me^ kojh cy caKy- 
nnjie npeTe^cHO y cahe MejjHiHHHX HacTa- 
BaKa, y toj kouihhlih je Texe Hero y Rpy- 
rHMa npnnpeMHTH 3a 3HMy cahe c KBajr- 

HTeTHOM XpaHOM. 

IlpeBeo c pycKor ("nnejioBoncTBo" 4, 1999.) 
npoc}). jip MiuiaH TiHpoBHh, KparyjeBau 

Haiioiweua: y je^HOM oa cjieaehnx 6pojeea 
6nhe oSjaBJteHO - Tajeifce n«iejia y JIP KOiuiiMuaivia 



433 



n^ejiap 1999 



AsoMaTUHHO nne/iapehbe J1P - koluhmuom 
- y3 npiiMeHy rpejan>a - 




JTaHrcTpoT PyTOBOM HacTaBJbanoM no- 
neo caM r& nnejiapMM npe BMine or ^Ba^e- 
ceT ro^MHa. y noneTKy to cy 6mie je^HO- 
MaTHHHe 3aje^Hwue. BpeMeHOM noneo caM 
rsl npHMettyjeM ^BOMaTHHHM Ha^HH nne- 
napeita, yBOflenn ra y CBe Benn 6poj 
Konmnna. Ca/ia, Ha nHejiMH>aKy or oko 120 
KOiiiHMua, to mm je ochobhh MeToa pa^a. 

3auiTO caM ce onpe^ejiHO 3a abo- 
MaTMHHM HaniiH nnejiapeHoa? 

y HauiMM KpajeBMMa MHejiapn nojia^cy 
CBy Ha^y y 6arpeM0By (ruaBHy) namy, oco- 
6mto ohm kojm He cejie. Kslr OHa no,o6auM, 

360T HenOBOJbHMX KJIMMaTCKHX npHJIHKa 

hjih He/iOBOJBHe CHare nnenHHoHx 3aje,a- 
HHua, 4MTaB npwxoA or nHejiapeH>a Te ro- 
rhhc ^0Jia3H y nnTatte. 

y nnejiapCKOJ npaKCM o^aBHO je 
no3HaTO r& ce nnejiHHoe ^pyniTBO, 36or Bpe- 
MeHCKM KpaTKor npojiehHor pa3BOJa, He 
MO^ce ro GarpeMOBe name pa3BMTM ro- 
bojbho KaKO 6h je £o6po mckopmctmjio. 
Oho cboj BpxyHau, y pa3BOJy ^ocTMiKe TeK y 
Meceny jyHy, ica^a cy ycjiOBH 3a pa3BOJ h 
pa3MHO^caBaH3e y npHpo^n HajnoBOJbHHJH: 
aaHM CBe ^y^KM, TeMnepaTypa CBe BHiua a 
ce30Ha HBeTaita 6njbaKa y nyHOM 3aMaxy. 

Bmojioiukm MaKCMMyM pa3BOJa n*iejiHH>e 
3aje^HMu,e jiMMMTHpaH je tchctckhm 3a- 
KOHMTOCTMMa pace. TeHeTCKM noTeHHMJaji 
Haiue n^ejie Apis mellifere carnike, pace 
BeoMa ueiteHe y CBeTy npeMa CTaBy HayKe 
(npo(J). ,ap JoBaH KyjiMHHeBMh) je aa pa3- 
Bwje /ipyuiTBO or oko 45 xMJtaaa je^MHKM. 
ITo^pa3yMeBa ce, npn onTHMajiHHM 
ycjioBMMa y norjieay H3,aamHOCTH m kohth- 
HyHTeTa name, BpeMeHCKHx npnjiMKa npoc- 
TOpa y kouihhiih, 3^paBCTBeHor cTaH>a, 
KBajiHTeTa MaTHne m ocTanor. 

y nnejiapCKOJ TeopMJM n npaKcn yc- 
TaHOBJbeHO je r& HaJBerm npHHOC ocTBapn 
3ajeaHHua, Koja Ha noneTKy name aocTnrae 
CHary or 60 xnjta^a mjim Henno Bnme 
nnena. TojinKa CHara, CMaTpa ce, npe^- 



PajKO IlejaHoeuh, dunA. npaenuu - IIIa6au i 

cTaBJta 6hojiouikh onTMMyM kojm HMJe pa- 
HHOHajiHo npeKOpa^MTM. Ca noBenaHoeM 
6poja nnejia y kouihhiih ro HaBe^eHor on- 
TMMyMa cpa3MepHO ce noBenaBa yHOC no 
je^HOJ nneuM m 3aje,aHMHM y nejiHHH (,ap Ta- 

paHOB). 

Te;>KH>e ,aa nHejiHH>a 3aje,0HHHa 6yoe 
MaKCMMajiHO pa3BHJeHa y MOMeHTy Ka,a to 
iKejiM nnejiap (npea namy) m aa Taa y H>oj 
6yae BHiue nnejia o,a 6nojioniKor MaK- 

CMMyMa (KOJM MO^Ce OCTBapMTM je/nra Ma- 

TMua) ^OBejie cy ro mnpOKO npnxBaheHe 
npaKce rsl ce 3a pa3BOJ npOM3BO,0He 

KOHIHHUe KOpMCTM p&R RBC MaTHUe. 

OBaKaB Ha^MH pa^a ca nnejiaMa HacTao 
je npe cTOTMHaK ro^MHa a HapOHMTO cy ra 
pa3BMJiM aMepMHKM nnejiapM. 

JIOpeHUOBa ^BOMaTMHHa KOmHMIja M3 

tot BpeMeHa MMajia je y njioanmTy or 14 JIP 
paMOBa rbc nnejiHH>e 3aje,aHHHe Ha no 7 pa- 
MOBa pa3,aBOJeHe BepTMKajiHOM nperpa^OM 
or Mpe^cacTe aume. HsHa^ 3aje^HMHKor 
nno^MmTa npeKO MaTMHHe pemeTKe 
nocTaBibajio ce 3ajeflHMHKO Me^nrnTe Koje 
je 6mjio y>Ke. 

Monep Xapn Oapap m ^pyrn nnejiapCKM 
nperaou,M npoynaBajin cy m Raihe pa3BMJanM 
n^ejy nHejiapeH>a ca ^Be MaTMije. 

H HauiH nnejiapM o,aaBHO npMMeH>yjy 
HaBe^eHM Ha^MH ca bcjimkhm ycnexoM y 
cbmm TMnoBMMa KOiiiHHua, o^ nojiouiKe ca 
RBa. ^pymTBa na Ha Reuhe. 

BpeMeHOM je HacTajia HMTaBa Jiene3a 
Ha4MHa m BapnjaHTH y KOpMinheity pa^a 
rbq na h Bnme MaTHua 3a npnnpeMy nnejiH- 
H>er ^pymTBa: 

- or KOpMiuhefta noMonHor ^pymTBa y 
noce6HOJ koiuhhhh, hhjmm nnejiaMa m jie- 
tjiom ce nojanaBa ochobho /ipymTBO noBpe- 
MeHo; 

- npHnajaH>a noMohHor apyniTBa ochob- 
hom npe^ namy; 



384 



n^ejiap 1999 



- cnajaita rbcl ocHOBHa /ipyniTBa ca or- 
CTpaHjHBaifceMJe^He MaTHne; 

- noja^aBafta ocHOBHor nnenoM H3JieT- 
hhuom H3 noMohHor ^pyniTBa noBpeMeHo; 

- (J>opMHpaita noMohHor RpyunBa y oc- 
hobhom yBo^eiteM £pyre MaTHne y aKTHB- 
hom tfeiiy ce30He (nojry^BOMaTnqHO nne- 
jiapeH>e),H 

- ro BapHJaHTe y kojoj cy jibq nqejinite 
3aje,HHnne yBeK y je^Hoj kouihhiih ca 3a- 

je^HH^KHM Mej,HIUTeM, KOJe (J)yHKUHOHHniy 

xao je^HO yBeK CHaxHO irqejraite ^pyniTBO. 
Ja caM ce o/uiyqno 3a npHMeHy no- 
cjienibe or HaBe,aeHHX BapnjaHTH xejiehn 
rsl nocraraeM cjie,n,ehe: 

- %a mm CBaKa noje^HHanHa Konmnna Ha 
nnejiHH>aKy 6yne npoH3BO/iHO ^pyniTBo; 

- jia oho yBeK 6yn,e ^obojlho jaKO 6e3 
noTpeGe 3a nojanaBaH>eM; 

- jia je y CTaity jia yBeK ocTBapn MaKcn- 
MajiaH yHoc, KaKO ca paHe name GarpeMa 
TaKO h ca cbhx ocTajiHx; 

- jia oko H>era HeMa MHoro paj;a h 

- j\a HHJe ckjioho pojeity. 

TexHOJiornja pa/ioua 

Kophcthm CTaH^ap^Hy JlaHrcTpoT 
PyroBy Konmniry ca KJiacnHHOM nojxtba- 

HOM, KpOBOM, nOKJIOnHOM #aCKOM, BeHTH- 

jiannoHOM MpexoM h noTpeGHHM GpojeM 
ayGoKHx h njiHTKHx Tejia. 

y Konmnnn cy CMenrreHe 3hmh, rbq 
irqejiHH>e 3aje,iiHHne, o^ejbeHe jenna oji ^py- 
re BeHTHJiaUHOHOM Mpe^KOM, a y aKTHBHOM 

nepno^y cnojeHe MaTH^HOM peiueTKOM. 
CBaKa Konmnna je npoH3BO/iHO npy- 

HITBO. 

floH^a 3aje^HHua ca MJia^oM MaTnnoM 
3HMyje y jiBa iuioaHinHa HacTaBKa, ropita ca 

CTapHJOM MaTHUOM y je^HOM. IlOHeTKOM 

anpHJia BpiHH ce 3aMeHa MecTa nHejiHH>HM 
3aje^HHuaMa. KpajeM anpnna njio^ninTe 
ropH>e 3aje,iiHHue cboj,h ce Haje/iaH Hacra- 
BaK nocTaBJbaH^eM MaTHHHe peiueTKe 
H3MeJy H>eHHX Tena. Ilpe^ cejnniGy Ha 6a- 
rpeMOBy nainy ropitoj 3ajej,HHUH ce 
o^y3HMa ropH>e Teno (H3Ha/i MaTHHHe 
peineTKe) y KOMe ce Hajia3H Me^Ha Kana h 
jierno Kojeje Beh noKJiomteHO. 



CBa ^pyniTBa KopHCTe paHy GarpeMOBy 
nainy. Tlo H>eHOM npeciaHKy nojioBHHa 3a- 
jeHHixa ce cejiH Ha #pyry nainy GarpeMa. 

y Apyroj nojioBHHH jyHa cene ce CBe 
KoiHHHue Ha paHy nainy on Jinne. OjiMax no 
H>eHOM npecTaHKy nojioBHHa ^pyniTaBa ce 
cejin Ha paHH cyHnpKpeT. Tlo ca3peBaH>y h 
o^,y3HMaH^y JinnoBor Meaa n jipyra 
nojioBHHa nHejiHH>aKa npecejtaBa ce Ha 
nainy cyHHpKpeTa. JloqeTKOM aBrycTa, no 
o^y3HMaH>y Me/ia ca 3a,mBe JieTH>e name, 
Konmnne ce Bpahajy Ha nnejiHitaK. 

y npBoj nojioBHHH aBrycTa Bpmn ce 
3aMeHa CTapnx Marana h njio^nniHor caha. 
CBaKe ro^HHe H3Bpmn ce KOMnneTHa 
3aMeHa caha y njio^nnny je^He miejinite 
3aje^Hnne nje^Ha (ciapnja) MaTnna. 

y Me^nniHHM HacTaBHHMa Hajia3H ce 
ncKJbyqnBO Geiio cane. MaTnua y H>era hh- 
Kaji HeMa npncTyn, a He npaKTHKyje ce 
npeBeniaBaH^e paMOBa H3 njio^nniTa. 

CBaKa KoniHHua npe^ GarpeMOBy nainy 
^aje MaTepnjaji 3a ^Ba poja. 0/iy3HMa joj ce 
Tpehn HacTaBaK ca Me/iHOM KanoM o^ BohHe 
name n 3aTBOpeHHM nerjioM, no^enn npe- 
rpa^oM n Aoj;ajy MaTH^ntann. flo Kpaja 6a- 
rpeMOBe name Mna^e MaTHue Beh nojia^cy 
jaja. 

riocne GarpeMOBe name o^,y3HMa ce je- 
nan a HeKa^i n nBa naKeTHa poja, uito He 
yrane Ha caKynjtaHKy CHary ^pyniTBa 3a 
KopnuiheH^e JieTH>nx nania. 

OBaKBHM HaqnHOM pa/ia MoryhHOCT no- 
jaBe pojeBCKor HaroHa CBej,eHaje Ha 3aHe- 
MapJbHBy Mepy. ^BOMaTH^He KoniHnue, 
no3HaTO je, Maite cy CKJioHe pojeay o^je^- 
HOMaTHHHHX. Ilopej; Tora, o^ysHMaH^e 
Me^He Kane h 3aTBOpeHor jierjia npe,a Ga- 
rpeMOBy namy, n naKeranx pojeBa nocne 
H>e yra^iy ^ecTHMynaTHBHO Ha hhcthhkt 3a 
pa3MHO^caBaH>e. 

Pa#OBH Ha nMejiHH>aKy oGaBibajy ce, no 
npaBHJiy,HacTaBKOM. 

CBe nociioBe Moxe oGaBHTH caM nnejiap 
y3 noBpeMeHo aHra;>KOBaH>e je^Hor no- 

MOhHHKa. 

3a yTOBap n ncTOBap npn cejiH/iGn Hnje 
Heonxo^Ha HHKaKBa MexaHn3aunja. Kom- 
Hnne cy naraHejep ce cejie yBeK ca npa3HHM 
Me^nuiTeM. 



J8;> 



n^ejiap 1999 



Bpnaite ce oGaBJba y Kyfrn Ha nnejiH- 
H>aKy noMofty pa^njajiHe neHTpn<j)yre ca 24 
paMa. 

TexHOJiorHJy pa/ia Beh H3BecHO BpeMe 
KapaKTepHiue npHMeHa rpejaita Konmnua. 
npoH3BO,HHa ^pyuiTBa ce rpejy on ,zieneM- 
6pa no Kpaja anpHJia Hape^He ro^HHe. 
rpejy ce CTapTepH h o^raJHBaHKa /royniTBa, 
a no noTpeGu h pojeBH h omio,ziH>aijH. To 3a 
pe3yjnaT #aje 6pxn pa3Boj npoH3BO^HHX 
/IpyniTaBa h paHHJy npoH3BO^H>y Marana h 
pojeBa. 

nepMo,n 3MMOuaiba b pa3Boja 

Flo 3aBpnieTKy pa/ioBa y aBrycTy h cen- 
TeMGpy: 3aMeHe njioflnnmor cafia h crapHX 
MaTHua, CTHMyjiHcaH>a pa3Boja Jierna, 
.HonyHe 3hmckhx 3ajinxa xpaHe, no noTpeGn 
n cy36njaH>e Kpnejta Bapoe, Ha miejraH>aKy 
HacTaje nepno/i MnpoBaita. Mnp ce 
nocTHxe npHMeHOM onnrreBaxehnx npHH- 
nnna 3a CMenrraj n GopaBaK nnejinitaKa 
npeKO 3HMe (3aniTHTa o^ y3HeMHpaBaita oji 
BeTpa h npeBejiHKe BJiare). 

IlqejiHH^a apyniTBa y .HBOMaTHHHOj 
Konmnnn 3HMyjy je^HO H3Ha# £pyror. 
floite, Koje je jane, ca MJia^oM obo- 
ro^nniHsOM MaranoM h BenHM 3ajinxaMa 
Me^a n noiieHa CMenrreHO je y jibel HP Hac- 
TaBKa. TopH^e, ca nponiJioro^HinH>OM Ma- 
thuom, h HeniTO MaH>HM 3ajraxaMa xpaHe je 
yje^HOM Teny (cji. 1). 



■.:■;. ■:^XCT.Wi-.-.^.".'--"iife>'-^ 7 i- ; . , .^' : ? , - : : 




Ca.1 



3aje/iHHue cy pa3j,BojeHe nperpa^oM, 
nnja je nejia noBpniHHa 3aMpexeHa. To je 
paM ca BeHTHJiannoHOM Mpe^oM kojh ce 
KopncTH npn cejin^Gn. PaMJe bhcok 20 mm 
a Ha npeflitoj dpaHH HMa neTo. 

3aMpexeHa nperpa^a ce H3Met)y 3aje£- 
HHua nocTaBiba o^Max no AocejLaBaity ca 
nocjie^,H>e name yMeero MaranHe pemeTKe, 
kojom cy 3aje,n,HHHe Ha nanin Gnne 
o^ejbeHe. Pa3Jior je hcth Kao h koa 
nocTaBJbaH^a nyHe nperpa^e oji JiecoHHTa 
3a cnpenaBaite CBofjeita ^BOMaranHe 3a- 
je^Hnne Hajej,HOMaTHHHy nocjie npecTaHKa 
name. 

M^eja o pa3^BajaH>y 3aje,aHHU,a y jej,Hoj 
koiuhhuh nperpa^oM o,a Mpexe Hnje HOBa. 
JTpHMeHjyje ce o/iaBHO, join oji Hanpe^ 
noMeHyre JlopeHnoBe Konmnne. BejiHKH 
6poj nnenapa Kopncra nperpa^y Hajnenine 
oji JiecoHHTa ca Man>HM hjih BenHM 
3aMpe^ceHHM otbopom npe 3a3HMJbaBaH>a 
Mane 3ajej;HHue Ha# ochobhhm ^pyniTBOM 
36or cnrypHHJer npe3HMJbaBaH>a. CHeji- 
rpoBa nperpa^Ha j,acKa, Kojy kophcth Hani 
no3HaTH Benennejiap MBaH BeHep, HMa 
3aMpe^ceHH otbop 100 x 100 mm. 

IlpHMeHHO caM Mpe^cacTy nperpa^y H3 
npaKTHHHHX pa3Jiora jep ojiaicniaBa n 
CKpanyje HeKe pa^oBe Ha nnejinitaKy. Ha 
npHMep, KO,a cy36njafta Bapoe MpaBJbOM 

KHCeJIHHOM £OBOJbHO je TpeTHpaTH caMO 

ropay nnejiHH>y 3aje^Hnnyjep H>eHe nape 
Texe oji Ba3#yxa Kp03 Mpexy ^ejiyjy h Ha 
^OH^e ^pyniTBO. YniTe^a nnenapeBor pa^a 
je BejiHKa, jep ce ejiHMHHnnie noTpeGa no- 
jlH3aiba ropite 3aje£HHne npn CBaKoj 
anjiHKannjn cpe^cTBa. 

MpexacTa nperpa^a ce noKa3ana 
uejincxo^HOM n kojx npnMeHe rpejaH^a 
nnejiHHjHX ^pynrraBa. JTpn ynoTpeGn nyHe 
nperpa^e CBaica 3aje/iHHua Tpe6a m HMa 
cboj rpejaq. Ako ce ynoTpeGn MpexacTa 
OH^ia je 3a o6a /ipyuiTBa /lOBOJLaH je^aH. 
Tnivie ce 6poj rpejana CMaH>yje 3a noiio- 
BHHy. 3a h>hxob pa^i ce Tpomn MaH>e eneK- 
TpnnHe eHeprnje a noTpeGHa je h cpa3- 
MepHO Maaa CHara TpaHC(J>opMaTopa. 

HaBe^eHy nperpa^y kophcthm n npn 
y3HMibaBaH>y pe3epBHnx Maraua. y koui- 
hhlih ca Tpn J1P HacTaBKa 3a3HMHM neT 3a- 



386 



n^ejiap 1999 



je/iHHua ca MJia^HM pe3epBHHM MaTHuaMa. 
y ,HOH>eM Tejiyjeje^Ha HeuiToja^a y cpe^- 
H>eM h ropH>eM no #Be Ha no neT paMOBa or- 
BojeHe BepTHKajiHOM nperpa^oM. J43MeT)y 
HacTaBaKa cy nocTaBJbeHe Mpe- xacTe npe- 
rpaj,e. Je/iHHM rpejaneM ce rpeje cbhx neT 
3aje/iHHua (cji. la) 




Ca. la 

Kao niTO je npHKa3aHO Ha no#H>aHH 
CBaKe KoniHHue nocTaBJteHJe rpejan. OHJe 
HanpaBibeH on rbc CTaKJieHe njione H3Mef)y 
kojhx je nocTaBJteHa acima on KaHTana 1 . 
^HMeH3HJe cy My 250 mm x 250 mm a 
^eSjBHHa 8 mm. BejiHHHHa rpejanaje npH- 
GjiHXHa npeHHHKy 3HMCKor KJiyGeTa £o6po 
pa3BHj"eHe n*iejiHH>e saje^HHne. Tpejan 
jaHHHe 20 Bara, Hanaja ce HaH3MeHH*fflOM 
CTpyjoM HHCKor HanoHa or 12 no 30 bojith. 
Cipyjy HHCKor HanoHa o6e36erjyje TpaHC- 
4>opMaTop, kojh je CMeimeH y je^Hoj 
npa3Hoj koihhhhh y ueHTpy nHejiHJBaica. 
On H>era cy nocTaBJbeHe JiHHnje npoBO/i- 
HHKa o^roBapajyner npecexa no noje^HHHX 
rpyna KoiHHHua. Ha CBaicy jiHHHJy, Koja je 
nocTaBJteHa nopej, rpyne KoiHHHua, 
noBe3aHH cy rpejann H3 h>hx. KoHTpojiHa 
jiaMnnna Ha Kpajy CBaKe JiHHHJe npoBO^,- 
HHKa cnrHajiH3Hpa xaKO chctcm <J)yHK- 

UHOHHUie. 

TeMnepaTypa y KoiiiHHHaMa no^eiuaBa 
ce TepMOCTaTOM kojh je CMenrreH Hcno^ 
KpoBa je#He KoiHHHne ca npoceHHHM 

1 - KaHTaji - BpcTa MeTajia. 



/IpyniTBOM. H>eroBa coH/ia je nocTaBibeHa 
H3Me^y KJiyGeTa #OH>e 3aje,iiHHHe h rpejana 
(H3Merjy cpe^HiHx paMOBa #0H>er Hac- 
TaBKa). riocTaBJbeHJe h flpyra, TaK03BaHH, 
cnrypHOCHH TepMOCTaT kojh je no^eineH 3a 
HeniTO BHiny TeMnepaTypy. Oh ce aKTH- 
BHpa caivio y cjiynajy Kan OTKa^ce OHaj npBH 
TaK03BaHH pa^HH TepMOCTaT HHMe ce cnpe- 
HaBa MorynHOCT xaBapnje lienor CHCTeMa. 

CoH^a TepMOCTaTa MepH TeMnepaTypy 
Hcno^, KJiyGeTa ,aoH>e 3aje,iiHHHe. TeMnepa- 
Typa ce o^HTaBa Ha ^Hcmiejy eneKTpoH- 
ckot TepMOCTaTa. lienor noKJionHe #acKe 
no je^He KouiHHue y CBaKOM peny 
nocTaBJLeH je TepMOMeTap, kojh noKa3yje 
KOJiHKa je TeMnepaTypa y ropH>oj 30hh 
KoniHHue H3Haj, KJiyGeTa ropH^e nnejiHH>e 
3aje^HHiie. OGnnHoje OHa^BOCTpyKO BHiua 
on TeMnepaType menon KJiyGeTa #OH>e 3a- 
je^HHue. Ako y nepno^y Kan y nqeiiHH>HM 
/IpyniTBHMa HMa Jierna (<j>e6pyap - MapT) 
TepMOMeTap noKaxe, y HeKoj KoinmniH, 
TeMnepaTypy 3HaTHO HHxy on yoGnnajeHe 

to je 3HaK n& y TOJ 3aje^HHHH BepOBaTHO 

HeMa MaTHue. npeMeiuTaH>eM TepMOMeTpa 
y ocTajie KoniHHne ^oGnjaM HHC^opMauHJy 
o 6pojy 6e3MaTaKa 6e3 KOHTaKTa ca 
^pyiHTBOM h to mhoto npe yoGnqajeHor 
npojiermor nperjie/ia. 

JlpHMeHa rpejaita #aje n^ejiapy 
MoryhHOCT yrauaja Ha ycjioBe 3HMOBama h 
pa3Boja yHyTap KoniHHne. IIobojlhhjhm to- 

nJIOTHHM peXHMOM H eJIHMHHHCaiBeM 

cyBHinHe BJiare cnpe^aBa ce MoryhHOCT 
pa3Boja 6yrjH, H03eM03e h KpeHHor Jierna. 
XpaHa je n^ejiaMa ^ocTynHa, 6e3 o63Hpa 
rae ce y koiuhhuh Hajia3H. ySjiaaceH je 
HeraTHBaH yraHaj Harjinx 3axjiarjeH>a, 
KapaKTepHCTHHHHX 3a Kpaj 3HMe h npojiehe 
na n^ejiHH>e Jierno. n^ene yroj,HHJe 3H- 
Myjy, Tponie 3HaTHO Man>e xpaHe Ha rpe- 
jan>e KJiyGeTa, na cy hm HpeBa Matte on- 
TepeheHa. On nojiaraH>a npBHX jaja cpe^H- 
hom jaHyapa y nqeiiHH^oj 3aje^HHUH Jierno 
ce o/roxaBa h ihhph nepMaHeHTHO, HeMa 
3acToja hh npeKHj;a hhth npexjiarjeHor jie- 
rjia. To 3a pe3yjiTaT HMa CHiypHHJH h 6pxn 
pa3Boj y npojiehe a THMe h H3BecHHJH hcxo^, 
TpKe ca BpeMeHOM npe/i paHy npojiehHy 
naniy GarpeMa. 



387 



nnejiap 1999 



Tpejaite koji Hac #0 cajja HHJe no- 
GyrjHBajio HeKO 3Ha*iaJHHJe HHTepecoBaite, 
BepoBaTHO 36or noMaitKaika HH(J)opMaHHJa 
o H>eMy h pejiaTHBHO Gjiarnx 3HMa. y CBeTy 
HHJe TaKO. Ha npejjaBaiBHMa jip JleGejjeBa y 
Beorpajjy y MapTy 1996. rojj. yno3HaTH cmo 
jjeTajbHO ca npaiccoM y3HMibaBaH>a koiu- 
HHua y PycHJH. HHTaBH nHejiHH>aHH ce npe- 
Hoce y 3hmobhhk, KOJH ce rpeje Ha +6 
CTeneHH n ojjpxaBa CTajiaH hhbo 
BJiaxHOCTH. M y AMepnun npHMeityjy rpe- 
jaite miejiHH>HX flpyniTaBa. HejjaBHO je 
aMepHHKH nnejiap Bo6 Xop, flpxehn npe- 
flaBarae y CKonjty, h3jio;>kho jjBOMaTHHHH 
CHCTeM nnejiapeiba, kojhm ocTBapyje BHine 
oji 100 kg Me^a no kouihhhh. KapaKTepnc- 
THKa CHCTeMaje jia y jeceH H3 ropH>e 3aje,n- 
HHue Ba^H MaTHuy ca neT paMOBa nerjia 
Me^a h mejia y HyKJieyc. Kajj 3axjia,n;H CBe 
Te HyKJieyce yHocn y noflpyM me hx npexo 
3HMe rpeje. y npojiehe hx h3hoch h noHOBO 
4>opMHpa /iBOMaTH^He 3aje,n,HHne (MeiiHTa- 
ropa 6p. 1 1/1998). MHTepecaHTHO je 
HCKycTBO ca rpejaiteM rocnojiHHa /Jpara 
ByKejinha, ynpaBHHKa miejiapcKe 3ajjpyre 
H3 3arpe6a. Oh je join JiaBHHx ne^eceTHx 
ro^HHa 3a3HMJtaBao miejiHH>a jjpyniTBa 
TaK03BaHe "HCKynaHHe" H3 njieTapa, Koje 
je floGnjao oji "npocTOKoniHHHapa". Ha jxe- 
ceTHHe TaKBHX JxpynrraBa je CMeuiTao y 
HyKJieyce Ha noinyHO npa3HO cane 6e3 
Mejja. Ca o6e CTpaHe KJiyGeTa nocTaBJbao 
je paMCKe xpaHHJiHue (ca bcjihkhm otbo- 
poM Ha CTpaHHHH jjo nnejia) HanyiteHe 
noranoM. CBa Ta jjpyniTBaje rpejao npexo 
3HMe a Ha nponehe nx npoj,aBao Kao pojeBe. 

Tpejaite Ha n*iejiHH>aKy aKTHBnpaM y 
Meceuy ^eueiviGpy, Kaji ce HohHa TeMnepa- 
Typa cnycTn oko Hyjie. CBpxa rpejan>a y 
oboj npBoj (J)a3n, Koja Tpaje jio nojaBe jie- 
rna, HHJe jja ce pacnycTH 3hmcko KJiyGe, 
xaKO ce ^ecTO norpeniHO mhcjih Beh jja 
ejiHMHHHme cyBHnmy Bjiary, Koja ^ecTo n 
cnojta npo^npe y KoniHHny. M jja cnpenn 
nueTaH yranaj ^ecTHX n Harjinx ocnHJia- 
nnja TeMnepaType Ha n*iejiHH>y 3ajeAHimy. 
3a^aTa Bpe^HOCT TeMnepaType h3hoch +2 
CTeneHa. M3y3eTHO, axo ce yxaxe HeKH Jien 
JiaH kslji nnejie noHHy H3Jia3HTn Ha 
nponncHH H3JieT no,n,H:aceM TeMnepaTypy Ha 



oko +15 CTeneHH KaKO 6n to OHe Jiaxine n 
MacoBHHJe oGaBHJie. OBa MoryhHOCT, Kojy 
npyaca rpejaite, HMa HenponeikHBy Bpejj- 
hoct, jep no3HaTO je jja nnejie ca nyHHM 
UpeBHMa HHcy y CTaity ojjraJHTH Jierno 
KaKO Tpe6a. Obo je Hapo^HTO kophcho koji 
nnejiHHjHX jjpyniTaBa qnja JieTa HHcy OKpe- 
HyTa jyry Kao ihto je, Ha npHMep, cnyqaj 
koji KoniHHua Ha B03HJiHMa rue je jejjHa 
CTpaHa yBeK y HenoBOJbHOM nonoxajy. 
HaKOH npoHHCTHor JieTa TeMnepaTypa ce 
noHOBO Bpaha Ha +2 CTeneHa. 

flpyra <J)a3a npHMeHe rpejaita nonnike 
nojioBHHOM jaHyapa, Ka/j y KoniHHiiaMa Beh 
HMa Jierna. Ta/j ce nnejraika 3ajejjHHHa 6yjjn 
a y neHTpy KJiyGeTa TeMnepaTypa pacTe Ha 
+35 CTeneHH He3aBHCHO ojj cnojbHe. TeM- 
nepaTypa Ha TepMOCTaTy ce nojjnxe Ha oko 
+5 CTeneHH. hbeHa BpejjHOCT ncnojj noioio- 
nHe jjacKe je oko +12 CTeneHH. TeMnepa- 
Typa He TpeGa m 6yn,e Bniua KaKO ce He 6n 
npepaHO CTHMyjincao pa3Boj Jierna. CBpxa 
rpejaH>aje ncTa Kao n y npeTxo/iHoj (J)a3H, 
pa^H o6e36erjHBaH>a noBOJLHHJe MHKpo 
KJiHMe y KOHiHHitH. Beh, npH oboj TeMnepa- 
TypH n^ejie HMajy MoryhHOCT npeHomeH^a 
xpaHe ca CTpaHe y ueHTap KJiyGeTa. Gra- 
MyjiHcaH^e eBeHTyajiHor npo^HCTHor H3Jie- 
Ta BpniH ce Kao n y npeTxo^Hoj (J>a3H. 

KpajeM jaHyapa ropH>e 3aje^,HHiie jjo6h- 
jajy onjieMeH>eHy nora^y Ha caTOHonie, hc- 
nojj npeoKpeHyTe noKJionHe jjacKe. ropH^e 
3aje^HHue 3HMyjy yje^HOM Tejiy ca MaBHM 
3ajinxaMa xpaHe y ojjHocy Ha florae, na je 
OBa Mepa cnrypHOCTH noTpeGHa. Kophcthm 
KyBaHy nora^y, Kojyje y nnejiapcKy npaKcy 
yBeo GeorpajjcKn Bejienqenap rocnojjHH 
Bo^a neTpoBHh. 

nojioBHHOM (J>e6pyapa TeMnepaTypy Ha 
TepMOCTaTy nojjHxeM Ha oko +10 CTeneHH 
a TepMOMeTap ncnojj noKJionHe jjacKe no- 
Ka3yje +20 hjih hcuito BHine CTeneHH y 
3aBHCHOCTn ofl jaHHHe jjpymTBa. npH OBOJ 
TeMnepaTypH, y oboj Tpehoj (J>a3n rpejaraa, 
n^ejie cy 3HaTHO aKTHBHHJe, JiaKO npeHoce 
xpaHy a noBpmnHa caha nojj JiernoM ce 
ninpn. TpejaHe 3ajejjHHHe Beh cafl HMajy 
3HaTHO BHine Jierna ojx HerpejaHnx. Koj; He- 
rpejaHHX nocTOJH onacHOCT ojj 3acToja y 
pa3Bojy nerjia ycjiejj HanjiacKa xjia^Hor Ta- 



n^ejiap 1999 



naca KapaKTepHCTHHHor 3a /ipyry nojio- 
BHHy 3HMe, na h yrHHyha hckhx 3aje,HHHiia 
or TJiaRK h nope^ ^obojlhhx 3ajraxa xpaHe. 
florae 3aje/iHHue, KpajeM (J>e6pyapa, £o6h- 
jajy no nyHy paMCKy xpaHHJiHny norane 
Kojy nocTaBibaM y roh>h HacTaBaK ro 3H.ua 

KoniHHue. Yhoc H3 XpaHHJIHUe ^O^aTHO 

CTHMyjiHiue pa3Boj Jierna. 

IloHeTKOM MapTa nnene Beh oniHTe ca 

OKOJIHHOM. IloqHH>e yHOC npBHX KOJIHHHHa 

HeKTapa h nojieHOBor npaxa. AKTHBHpa ce 
noJHJio 3a Bcmy, Koje ce TaKofje rpeje. 
flouuio je BpeMe 3a npsy HHTepBemnijy Ha 
iraeJiMH>aKy - cnajaH>e 3aje f nimua y #bo- 

MaTMHHCHpyiUTBO (cji. 2) 




Ca.2 

MpexacTa nperpa^a Koja je pa3,iiBajajia 
3aje/iHHue y koihhhuh Bajw ce. YMecTO H>e 
nocTaBiba ce MaTH^Ha peineTKa or acnne 
Koja Jie^ce Ha caTOHonie jioibe 3aje,iiHHne. 
Ha HacTaBKy ropH>e 3aje,o,HHue OTBapa ce 
otbop npeHHHKa 25 mm kojh or cam Bpmn 
<j>yHKnHJy JieTa. y3rpe.11 ce H3BpniH npBH 
nperjie.ii 3ajejjHHna pajw oiieHe CTajta. Mc- 
TOBpeMeHO ce caHHpajy 6e3MaTHH. 
4HinheH>e noxibSFia, ce He BpniH jep OHe cy 
yBeK cyBe h 6e3 mptbhx nnejia. JIohobo ce 
aonaje nora^a ropraoj 3ajejjHHiiH. 

Or MOMeHTa cnajaita nnejiHitHX 3aje£- 

HHUa y KOIHHHUH MaTH^HOM peineTKOM 

HacTaje HOBa CHryauHJa. n^ejie ce 
Mef)yco6HO Meniajy h noHainajy Kao jej,HO 
jjpyiHTBO. Beha pe3epBa xpaHe y RotbO] 3a- 
jejjHHiiH nocTana je ^ocTynHa nnejiaMa H3 



ropH>e. Beh HMa jjocTa MJia^HX nnena Koje 
npey3HMajy nocnoBe HeroBajta Jierna. 
Mjia/ie nnejie HMajy cnocoGHOCT na ojjraje 
TpocTpyKO BHine JiapBH or CTapnx (up Jle- 
6ej,eB). 

n^ene npeHoce mcr H3 jjoh>hx Tejia y 
ropite ocrcoGaljajyhH npocTop 3a 3ajierarae 
jjoh>oj MaTHitH. E(J)eKaT cnajaita 3ajejjHHiia 
yje^HO nHejiHH>e JjpyiHTBO ce H3BaHpej,HO 
noBOJLHO o/ipaxaBa Ha y6p3arae pa3Boja. 

no MHiujbeH>y jjp Oapapa na 6h MaTHua 
3ajierajia jaja nyHHM KananHTeTOM, nope^, 
oSHJba xpaHe h jjpbojbho npocTopa, 
noTpeGHO je Ra n*iejiHH>e JjpyiHTBO HMa 
CHary or oko 40 XHJLajja rrqejia. YnpaBO to- 
jiHKy CHary nojioBHHOM MapTa HMa rbo- 

MaTHHHO JJpyiUTBO CnOJeHO MaTH^HOM 

peineTKOM, 3a pa3JiHKy o^ je^HOMaTHHHor, 
HHJa je CHara y hcto BpeMe oko 20 XHJba^a 
n^ena a 40 XHJLajja oho he HMaTH TeK Kpa- 
jeM anpHJia. flBOMaTH^Ha 3aje;iHHHa y3 to 
HMa h rbq MaTHue na je h H>eH pa3Boj 

3HaTHO 6p^CH. CHTyaUHJa y JJBOMaTHHHOJ 

koiiihhhh je cjiH^Ha ohoj, Kajj y n*iejiHH>eM 
ApyiHTBy npe3HMe jjBe MaTHue, MaJKa h 
KhepKa H3 THxe 3aMeHe, o *ieMy je y 
n^ejiapy 6p. 12/1997. nncao rocnojjHH 
BpaHKO Pejinh, HaBo^ehn Ra je TaKBa 3aje^- 
HHiia npe3HMHJia Ha cyBOM iuenepy a Kpa- 
jeM MapTa HMajia 10 paMOBa Jierna J\a- 
JiaHOBe Mepe. 

npouec y6p3aHor pa3Boja ^BOMaTHHHor 
ApyiHTBa CTHMyjiHine ce nojanaBaraeM rpe- 
jaraa. TeMnepaTypa Ha TepMOCTaTy nojiHxe 
ce Ha oko +15 CTeneHH ihto aobo^h ro 
noBehaHia TeMnepaType Ha TepMOMeTpy 
hctior noKJionHe j,acKe Ha +28 ^o +30 
CTeneHH. 

y toj ^eTBpToj ^a 311 rpejan>a oj,a6pa- 
hhm jpyiiiTBHMa ^o^ajy ce paMOBH ca 
TpyTOBCKHM caheM paRH paHHJer OArajaH^a 
KBajiHTeTHHX TpyTOBa, kojh he 6hth 
noTpeGHH no^eTKOM Meceua Maja 3a cnapn- 
BaH>e MJia^nx MaTHua. 

KpajeM MapTa UBeTa iiaHapHKa H3BaH- 
pe^HO Ba^cHa Me^oHoma 3a npojiehHH pa3- 
boj n^ejiHH^HX 3ajej,HHua. Ako BpeMe no- 



389 



nneiiap 1999 



cnyxH, y KoniHHuaMa ce nojaBH 3HaTHa 
KOJiHHHHa HeKTapa. JIoctojh MorynHOCT 
GjioKa^e njio^Hima ropH>e 3aje,iiHHne Koja 
je yje^HOM HacTaBKy. OHaje Ben npeHena 
#eo Me^a H3 #OH>e 3aje,iiHHHe na je HyxHa 
n^enapeBa HHTepBeHunja. Morjio 6h ce Ha 
ropH>y 3aje,iiHHuy nociaBHTH join je/iHO 
Tejio, HHMe 6h ce OTKJioHHJia onacHOCT or 
6jioKHpaH>a Marane a o6e36ej,HO npocTop 
3a o#JiaraH>e Me#a ca BohHe name. 

Ja npHMeH>yjeM Apyra HaHHH, 3a kojh 
mhcjihm jia je 6ojbh jep xofiy jxa nqejiHH>a 
3aje^HHua #0 GarpeMOBe name o/iraJH BHine 
3penor Jierjia, or Kora hy o(|)opmhth paHe 
pojeBe. 

Oko npBor anpnjia o6aan>aM apyry hh- 
TepBeHunjy Ha iraejimbaKy - 3aMeHy m ecTa 
iaje^HiiuaMa y koihhhuh (cji. 3) 




Qi.3 

Topifce ^pymTBO urc Ha no^itaqy h 
nocTaje £OH>e, a h RsubQ ocTaje y je^HOM 
Teny. floite ce nocTaBiba npeKO MaraHHe 
pemeTKe h nocTaje ropH>e. Jlerjioje none- 
naHO, a Mej,Ha Kana ce Hamjia y #OH>eM 
Tejiy. Ba^H ce paMCKa xpaHHiraua H3 ropjte 
3aje^HHue, Kojaje Ben npa3Ha, jep cy iraejie 
y MeJyBpeMeHy nojejie norany, a Ha MecTO 
H>e Ao^aje paM ca caTHOM ochobom. n^ejie 
roh>q 3ajej,HHLie KopncTe JieTO Ha uoRa>ami 
(3aTBapa ce pyna Ha H>eHOM HacTaBKy), a 
ropiteM ApymTBy Kao JieTa cnyate pyne Ha 
HacTaBUHMa Koje ce ca#a OTBapajy. 

y ropttoj 3aje^HHUH BHine paMOBa ca 
jiernoM HMa y ropH>eM HacTaBKy, a y ,noH>eM 



3HaTH0 Maite. Maraija je y MapTy caMa 
npemjia y ROibn HacTaBaK 36or 6jiH3HHe 
rpejaqa hcuor H>era Ha uoRiba^n, h pa3BHJia 
HeuiTO Jierna. Kor rpejaHHX KoniHHua Hnje 
noTpeGHO Men>aTH MecTa njio^HiiiHHM Te- 
jiHMay npojiehejepje h y^0H>eM Tonno na 
MaTHita caMa npejia3H y H>era KaR florje 
BpeMe 3a to. 

3aMeH0M MecTa 3aje,o,HHHaMa Taj HacTa- 
BaK, ca Heuno Jierjia, kojh je 6ho Ha 
noattaHH Haniao ce y cpe^HHH KoniHHHe. 
OBa CHTyannja y ropH^oj 3aje,n,HHHH je 
cjiHHHa ohoj, Koja ce ^oGnja nocTynKOM rz- 
MapHpaH^a. BnniaK nnejia H3 #OH>e 3ajeR- 
HHne yjia3H y H>era. Maraua ropH>e 3aje,a- 
HHue no npnpo^H CTBapH npeHocn 
TexHinTe aKTHBHOCTH Ha niHpeity Jierna y 
OBaj HacTaBaK, y KOMe HeMa Me,na. Y rbo- 
MaTHHHOj KouiHHiiH MaTHue ncnoibaBajy 
Te:>KH>y Ra pa3BHJajy Jierno je^Ha y3 Apyry. 

To je HacTaBaK ca MJia^HM npaBHJiHO 
H3rparjeHHM paMOBHMa, kojhm je y cenTeM- 
6py npeTxo^He ro^HHe npoinnpeHO nno- 
aHiirre Ta,aa ropH>e 3aje^HHue y unity 
3aMeHe njio^HinHor caha. 

n^ene HacToje m 6p30 cpe^e ho- 
BOHacTajiy CHTyaunjy y kouihhuh. no^Hxy 
MeA H3 njio/iHmTa Rotbe 3ajeAHHiie (Me^Hy 
Kany) ocjioGarjajyta roh>o} MaTHHH hobh 
npocTop 3a 3ajieraH>e. Or tot Me^a, h yHoca 
ca Bohne, name Kojaje y TOKy, (J)opMHpajy 
Me^Hy Kany y TpeheM Tejiy, rok ropH>a Ma- 
THua HMa Ha pacnonaraity ueo cpe,HH>H Hac- 
TaBaK 3a niHpeite Jierjia. 

M3JI0^CeH0M HHTepBeHLtHJOM OTKJIO- 

H>eHaje MoryhHOCT 6ji0Ka,ne 6e3 npoinnpH- 
BaH>a npocTopa y kouihhuh. rinejie cy npn- 
MopaHe Ha nojanaHy aKTHBHOCT, naje h>h- 
xobo pa^HO pacnoiioxeH>e H3BaHpe/iH0. 
MaTHuaMaje jizlt hobh npocTop na OHe y6p- 
3aHO pa3BHJajy Jierjio. 

KaKO je BpeMe y anpHJiy HecTaGnnHO 
jom nocTojn onacHOCT oa 3axjia5en>a h Be- 
jihkhx ocuHJiaiiHJa TeMnepaType, iuto 6h 
Morno AOBecTH jio 3acToja y pa3Bojy 
ApymTBa. 3aTO npHMeHy rpejaaa npo- 
Ay^aBaM jio Kpaja Meceua. HaHHH rpeja^a 
je hcth Kao h y MapTy (neTBpTa (J)a3a). TeM- 
nepaTypa ce Mo^ce Majio h nojinhu, aim He 
BHine or +20 CTeneHH Ha TepMOCTaTy, jep 



390 



n^ejiap 1999 



6h to Morjio CMaH>HTH noTpeGaH hhbo 
BJiaXHOCTH uito 6h ^obcjio ao CMaH>eH>a 
nerjia. Kaxo je cajja jxon>e ^pyniTBO y jejj- 
hom HacTaBKy conaa TepMOdaTa Mopa ao- 
6hth hob nojio^caj jja ce He 6h Haimia y jie- 
nry. fla 6hx to H36erao, Ha no/jita^y Hcno,n, 
KoiHHHue, y kojoj je CMeiHTeH TepMOCTaT, 
nocTaBJLaM nonyHacTaBaK ca 6ejiHM cafteM 
rsl ra MaTHua He 6h 3ajierjia na H3Merjy H>e- 
tobhx paMOBa Gjinxe 3Hjry KoniHHne 
nocTaBibaM coHJjy. 

Ako BoriHa nania nojxSauH j,pyuiTBHMa 
ce Jjojjaje norana: ropH>oj 3ajejjHHi[H Hcno,a 
noKJionHe JiacKe, a jiojboj Ha nojTH>any, y 
xaceTH BHCHHe 15 mm #y6HHe 120 mm a 
HiHpHHe 340 mm. JloraHaje noKpHBeHa (J)o- 
jihjom (Koja ce nocTaBH npexo KaceTe) jia ce 
He 6h 3anpjbajia, a nnejiaMa je jjocTynHa 
Kp03 npope3e Ha CTpammaMa. KaceTa je 
TaKO ^HMeH3HOHHcaHa Jia, Ka# ce nocTaBH 
Ha no/rita^y, He CMeTa rpejany. IlocTaBJba 
ce 6e3 no,TH3aH>a HacTaBaxa Kp03 otbop Ha 
uojuhanu ojj no3aj;H KoiHHHne. }\a 6h ce to 
motjio nocTHhn 3ajm>a JieTBHua Ha 
no^H>aqH, npHJiHKOM npaBJbeH>a ce He 
3aKHBa (noKpeTHa je Kao h perynaTop 
jieTa). 

KoiHHHHa ocTaje y TaKBOM nonoacajy ro 
Kpaja Mecena anpHJia. Ako BonHa naina 
Gyjje H3pa3HTO H3JjaiHHa, na ce yicaate 
noTpeGa 3a BehHM npocTopoM 3a CMeuiTaj 
yHoca, Jiojiaje ce nojiyHacTaBaK ojjo3to, hc- 
nojj noKJionHe jjacKe, kojh nocne name n^e 
Ha BpuaH>e. 

KpajeM anpnjia KoniHHnaje nyHa nnejia 
jierna h Mejja. MaTHna y JioH>eM jjpyiHTBy je 
pa3BHJia Jierjio, oGhhho Ha ocaM hjih #eBeT 
paMOBa, a ropH>a Ha jjeBeT no jejjaHaecT y 
o6a Tena. Pa3Boj ^pymTBa 3a 6arpeMOBy 
naiuy je ycnenmo 3aBpmeH. Y koihhhuh 
HMa yxynHO o^ ocaMHaecT ro jjBajjeceT pa- 
MOBa ca JiernoM. PaHHM cnajaiteM 3aje,n- 
HHITa MaTH^HOM peiueTKOM no^eTKOM 
MapTa o(J)opMJbeHO je jjpyiHTBO onTHMajiHe 
CHare (oko 60 XHJtajja nqena) 3a MaKCH- 
MajiHy aKTHBHOCT MaTHua Ha pa3Bojy nerjia 
Ha flBa nyHa Mecena npe name. M3MeHa 
MecTa ^pymTBHMa y koihhhuh noneTKOM 
anpHJia noBehana je pa^HO pacnojioxeite 
miejia jio MaxcnMyMa. 



3axBajbyjyhH rpejaity ycjioBH kojh 
ojjperjyjy MHKpo KJiHMy CBe BpeMe cy 6hjih 
onTHMajiHH. Ha OBaj HaHHH pa3Boj miejin- 
H>er ^pymTBa 3aBpmeH je KBajiHTeTHHJe h, 
no mojoj npoueHH, 6pxe HaJMaite 3a rbc jjo 
TpH He^eibe Hero hito je to yoGnnajeHO. 

flajte (J)opcnpaH>e pa3Boja je He- 
noTpeGHO, a motjio 6h ,n,OBecTH n jio Gyrjeita 
pojeBCKor HaroHa npejj npe^cTojehy naiuy 
GarpeMa. Ca^je noTpeGHO cy3GHTH HaroH 
3apa3MH03caBaH^e a MaKCHMajiHO noj,CTariH 
HaroH 3a caKymbaiBe xpaHe. 

JXouijio je BpeMe 3a Tpehy HHTepBeHUHJy 
Ha iraejnnfcaKy - penyKUHJy njioiumrra h o,h- 
CTpaH»nBaH>e Me^He Kane (cji. 4) 




CjiA 
CKHJja ce noKJionHa jjacxa ca KoniHHue h 

TOpHiH HaCTaBaK JJoGpO HaJJHMH, KaKO 6h 

jthm MaTHity, aKO je y H>eMy, OTepao y 
cpe^H^e Tejio. TopH>e Teno ce no^nxe a Ha 
cpejjite nocTaBH Jjpyra MaraqHa pemeTKa, 
na npeKO H>e BpaTH Tpenn HacTaBax Ha 
CBOje MecTO. MaTHua ce He TpaxH. 

HeTBpTH jjaH nocne HaBejjeHe onepa- 
HHJe H3BpmH ce 6p3 nperjiejj paMOBa ca Jie- 
tjiom y TpeheM Tejiy (jjBa-Tpn cpej;H>a 
paMa) m ce yTBp^n HMa jih y BHMa jaja. Y 
oko 90% KoniHHua y tom Tejiy HeMa jaja a 
to 3HaHH jja je MaTHua ncnojj MaTHHHe 
pemeTKe y cpe^H>eM Tejiy. Y ohhx j,eceTaK 
npoueHaTa KouiHHua y KOJHMa cy jaja, 



391 



n^ejiap 1999 



— " ■■ ■ ■rr a iMP 





rPEJAM 



Ca.5 



npoHarjeHa MaTHna ce Mopa noTpaxnra h 
npeHeTH £OJie y cpe^ibH HacTaBaK. 

THMe je njio^nniTe ropH>e 3aje^HHite 
CMaiteHO ca /iBa Ha je^HO Teno. 

Jlocjie He^ejby ^aHa on npeceuaH>a 
njio^HinTa ropite saje^Hime MaTH^HOM 
peineTKOM, ^0Jia3H Ha pe,ii (J)HHajiHa onepa- 
UHJa. CKH/ia ce Tpene Teno h nocTaBJba 
nope,n KoniHHite Ha noceGHy no^any (hjih 
nperpa^Hy #acKy). IlpeTxo/iHO je Ha 
no^fta^y nocTaBJbeH rpejaq H3 npoH3BO,a- 
Hor ^pyuiTBa, Koje ce Ben HeKOJiHKO jiana 
He rpeje. npeico no/uta^e, y kojoj je rpejan 
(a raje je Jieio 3aTBopeHo), nocTaBJta ce 
paM ca BeHTHJiauHOHOM Mpe^oM no^ejbeH 
jieTBHUOM y3,iiyxHO Ha ,n,Ba #ejia. Oh HMa Ha 
npe^H>oj h 3a^H50J CTpaHH no je/iHO Majio 
jieio o,ii 50 mm. Tpehe Teno ce nocTaBJba 
npeKO Mpexe h no^ejiH BepTHKaiiHOM npe- 
rpa^,OM on JiecoHHTa Ha #Ba aejia ca no neT 
paMOBa, TaKO m ce nnejie He Mory 
Mer)yco6HO Meniara. 06a ^ena HMajy no 
TpH paMa 3aTBOpeHor Jierjia ca Mej,HHM Ka- 
naMa, h no #Ba paMa nyHa xpane (Me# h 
nojieHOB npax). Ako y hckom aejiy HeMa 
TpH paMa ca JierjioM flo^aje My ce 3aT- 
BopeHO jrerjio 6e3 n^ena H3 rnio^HniTa 
ropH>e 3aje/iHHLie npoH3BO^,Hor /royniTBa. 

AKTHBHpa ce rpejajte Kaxo nerjio no ojx- 
jiacKy H3JieTHHue He 6h 03e6jio. OBa CHTya- 
HHJaje npHKa3aHa Ha cji. 5. 

Cjie^ehn #aH (oGhhho H3Merjy 3. h 5. 
Maja) y o(J)opMibeHe pojeBe ^o^ajy ce 3pejin 
MaTHHH^auH H3 o^raJHBaqKHX apyniTaBa, 
Koja cy jxo ca,n,a HenpeKH^HO rpejaHa. 

Hape^Ha napTHJa MaTH^ntaKa he 6hth 
3pena oko 15. Maja. Hjhx hqjium onno^H^a- 



HHMa H3 kojhx fry £o6hth MJia^e Maraije 3a 
naxeTHe pojeBe nocjie GarpeMOBe name. To 
cy mecTopaMCKH oiuioaitanH, hhjh je paM 
je^HaK nojioBHHH ^yGoicor J1P paMa (onn- 
cao hx je y n^enapy rocno,HHH Mbo 
EpH^ymnn) . Onjio/jHoanH 3HMyjy Ha nqejin- 
H>axy y #Ba Tena y3 rpejan>e. y Majy, Kaji cy 
KpuaTH n^ejioM n JiernoM, ^ejiHM nx npe- 
rpa/iaMa Ha nerapH KOMOpe ca no TpH paMa 
h ,no,najeM 3pene MaTHHitaKe. 

IlepHoa Me,ao6paH>a 

PaHa nania GarpeMa noHHH>e oGhhho 6. 
Maja Ha ToyprjeBflaH. Ha npnnpeMJbeHy 
jioKauHJy cene ce CBe jBOMaTHHHe 3aje£- 
HHue y no ^erapH ^yGoxa J1P HacTaBKa. Flo 
o^y3HMaH>y Tpeher Tejia njioflnnrre je CBe- 
neno Ha flBa HacTaBKa, no je/iaH 3a CBaicy 
MaTHuy. npeKO ropite MaTHHHe penieTKe 
nocTaBJbajy ce jBa Me^nnma HacTaBKa ca 
GejiHM, He3ajieraHHM, cafreM h BeHTHJia- 
inioHa Mpe^a yMecTO noKJionHe ^acxe. Ha 
MecTO 3ajm>e jieTBHue Ha uojxtba^u 
nocTaBJbeH je paM ca MpexoM kojh 
o6e36erjyje ,n,OH>y BeHTHJiauHJy. ,II,HMeH3HJe 
cy My 370 mm x 200 mm x 12 mm. Oh Ty 
ocTaje £0 noBpaTKa KoniHHua ca 3a,n,H>e 
name, a y npaKCH ce noKa3ao #o6pHM. 

KoniHHne HHcyTeniKe, TexHHaje^He He 
npena3H 60 kg na ce yTOBap n HCTOBap 
oGaBiba e(f)HKacHO. Kaxo y KonmnuaMa 
HMa Bpjio Mano Me^a, jep je Me^Ha Kana 
CKHHyTa ca TpehHM HacTaBKOM nHejiHH>a 
/IpyiHTBa cy Ha hbhhh rjia^H, iiito ce h 
XTejio nocTHhn Kaxo 6h HaroH 3a 
caKynjLaH^e xpaHe MaKCHMajiHO OBJia^iao 



392 



n^ejiap 1999 



3aje^HHU0M. y MCRHune CBaice Konmnne 
nocTaBJba ce, npe,a cejm,a6y, norana y paM- 
ckoj xpaHHJinnn. ^Ba Me^MiuHa HacTaBKa cy 
AOBOJtHa Ha noneTKy name. Ako GarpeM 
3aMe^M H3^auiHO TpeGane join £Ba. Ha 
Kpajy name 1996. romrHe KoniHMua Ha Barn 
ca mecT Tejia nMajia je Te^KHHy on 147 kg, 
niTO 3a ,uBOMaTHHHy saje^Hnny Hnje HMuna 
Heo6nHHO. PeKopa MaKca KpMejta oa 318 
kg Me,aa n3 1970. ro^nHe ocTBapeH je 
ynpaBO ABOMaTHHHOM 3aje,0HHHpM (,ap Pn- 
xap "IlHejiapeHje HacTaBJta4aMa"). A, eBO 
mTa o TOMe y "Ilne-napy" 6p. 12/1987. Ka^ce 
Tip Bjia^nMnp CTOj'aHOBCKn: "Etcetera n pe- 
3yjiTaTH OBaKBor norayHor ^BOMaTMHHor 
nnenapeH>a Mory ,aa ce Biiae n H3 pe3yjiTaTa 
nocrarHyTHx y oboj to,ohhh, Koja ce 3a 
MaKeflOHHj'y CMaTpa 3a je^Hy o,a Hajcjia6n- 
jnx ro^HHa (cyma je Tpajajia, 6e3 Kann 
KHiiie, CKopo neT Mecenn). Ha 6arpeMOBOJ 
nauiM ^BOMaraHHa apyniTBa cy mm aajia no 
Tpn nyHa JI. PyTOBa HacTaBKa Me,aa (no 30 
paMOBa y npoceicy), #ok cy jaica je^HO- 
MaTH4Ha apymTBa ,najia caMO no je/iaH Hac- 
TaBaK Meaa . . . CnTyannja, naK, Ha nnejin- 
H>aKy (cTaunoHapHO nnejiapeH>e) je jom 
cjiHKOBHTHJa. floK cy ^BOMaTHHHa ,npyniTBa 
Tiajia no 25-32 paMa Me^a, je^HOMaraHHa 
cy aajia no 8-10 paMOBa Me,aa 3a neny ce- 
30Hy ...". CjiMHHa HCKycTBa HMajy n 6yrap- 
ckh nnejiapn, Kojn cy yBejin y npaiccy 
nnejiapeHoe ^BOMaTH^moM "^a^aHKOM", y 
HnjeM je BepTMKajiHO nperparjeHOM 
nno^nmTy Ha no mecT paMOBa pa^e #Be Ma- 
Tnne, o neiviy je He^aBHO y Beorpa^y 
o^ip^cao npe,aaBaH>e HoHxob nnejiapCKH 
CTpyHH>aK jxp neTap HeHneB. 

OflMax no npecTaHKy Me,aeH>a CBaKa 
flpyra Konmnna ce npecejtaBa Ha namy 
flpyror 6arpeMa. npeTxo^HO ce H>eHO 
Me^nniTe ocjio6o,om oji nnejia (jiecoHHTHOM 
6e^cajinu,OM H3ayBaBaH>eM hjih Ha apyrn 
Ha^MH), na onjia npe6aun Ha Me/iMune cy- 
ce,a,He KOiuHHue. KouiHMue, Koje njsy Ha 
ceo6y, ^oGnjy no #Ba npa3Ha Me^nnma Hac- 
TaBKa. 

YiviecTO ,oy6oKHx Tena 3a Me^nniTe 
KOpncTHM nojiyHacTaBKe BncnHe 170 mm, 
3a ca#a y Man>eM 6pojy KomHnua. Ohm cy ce 
noKa3ajin no^ecHnjnMJep cy jiaKmn, n^ejie 



nx 6p^ce nyHe a mqr y H>HMa 6p^ce ca3pn na 
hy nx CBe BHiue kopmcthth. 

y AMepimu najiuupe je 3acmynjbeua 
maK03eaua "'Modepna uacmaejbana" ca 
dyGoKUM IIP mejiuMa y tuiodiuumy a 
nonyHacmaeu.uMa y Meduuimy. KouiHuu,e 
ca dydoKUM JIP nacmaeuuMa y Meduuimy u 
njiumKUM y njiodwumy u Meduuimy 
(maK03eane Oapapoee Kownuu,e) cee Man>e 
cy y npuMenu. 

TexHOJiornjy pa^OBa no^ecno caM Taxo 
/ia y nepno/iy Meflo6paH>a, kojh Tpaje o,a 
noneTKa Maja ro npBe nojiOBHHe aBrycTa, 
rjiaBHn nocao 6yae cejin^Ga Konmnna H3 
name y namy n Bpnajte noTiryHO 3pejior 
Me^a. HeMa HnicaKBHx MaHnnyjiannja ca 
nnejinH^nM 3aje,aHHuaMa. 3aMeHa MaTnna n 
njio^nnmor caha o^jio^ceHa je 3a Kpaj jieTa 
no npecTaHKy nama. TnMe caM /io6no 
MHoro Ha KBajinTeTy o6aBibaH>a nocjiOBa, 
ejiHMHHHcao TecHe pOKOBe, »:yp6y n 
noTpeGy aa ce Hexa^ Bpna He3peo mqji. 

floK Tpaje zroyra 6arpeMOBa nama Kpa- 
jeM Maja Ha nojiOBHHM KomHnna Koje, cy oc- 
Tajie Ha jiOKannjn paHe name Me^ nojiaKO 
A03peBa (cji. 6.) 




Ca.6 



393 



riHenap 1999 



Kaj ra nnejie 3aTB0pe CKH^ajy ce nyHa 
Memimra h ayTO npHKOJinnpM npeB03e Ha 
iraejraifcaK (nania je Ha 25 km) me ce 
oGaBJta BpuaH>e. Y Hapej,Hoj TypH Bpahajy 
ce H3BpuaHH HaeraBHH h nocTaBibajy Ha 
cjie^ene KoniHHue ca kojhx ce CKH^ajy 
nyHH. 

npH o,iiy3HMaHoy Me^HHiTa, mioaHiiiHHM 
TejiHMa ce 3aMaHe MecTa TaKO na 3aje,nHHHa 
ca MJia^oM MaTHUpM (Kojajoiu HeMa ro^HHy 
jislhsl CTapocTH) 6y#e Ha nontbami, a 3aje,rc- 
HHna ca CTapHJOM o,rco3ro. JXok Tpaje Me,ao- 
6pan>e ca JieTH>nx naina 3aMeHa MecTa 3a- 
je^HHuaMa ce He Bpiun. 

rio Bpuaity Me,aa ca name paHor 6a- 
rpeMa KoniHHiie ce npeceibaBajy Ha nnejiH- 
H>aK, jep y H>eroBoj okojihhh y to BpeMe 
HBeTa aMop(J>a (GarpeMau). 

Oji obhx KoniHHua o6pa3yjy ce naxeTHH 
pojeBH h Bpiun TpeTHpaH^e ^pymTaBa 
MpaBJLOM KHcejiHHOM jia 6h ce Cy36HO 
KpnejL. flajte TpeTHpaite y TOKy JieTH>HX 
naina ce He BpniH. TpeTHpaHe 3aje,rcHHHe ce 
pa3BHJajy HeicajyhH cejiH^Gy Ha namy Jinne. 
y MerjyBpeMeny OHe he caxynHTH H3BecHy 
KOJiHHHHy Me.ua o^i JiHBa^e h HH3HJCKe Jinne 
KOJH he 6hth H3BpnaH. 

Mcth nocTynaK ce noHaBJta ca nojioBH- 
hom KoniHHna, Koje cy KopHCTHJie #pyry 
namy GarpeMa. 

^Ba^ieceTH jyH je TepMHH UBeTaH^a paHe 
jinne Ha Opyimcoj ropn (IlpHBHHa rjiaBa - 
JlnnoBana - Jby6a - HemraH . . .). CBe 
KomHHue cy npecejteHe Ha OBy namy ca 
noranoM y Me^Himy. 

Ako BpeMe 6yrce Tonjio n CTa6HJiHO Ha 
namy Jinne cejie ce n pojeBH ca MJia^HM, 
cnapeHHM MaranaMa. 3a H>nxje OBa naina 
3Ha^aJHa 36or oGnjba nojieHa noTpeGHor 3a 
pa3Boj. PojeBH ce cene y no je^HOM 
^ySoKOM J1P HacTaBKy no Tpn y kouihhuh, 
arc. 7. 

CBaKOM cy jxojx&tq no ^Be caTHe ocHOBe 
h paMCKa xpaHHJiHua ca noraqoM. M3Merjy 
pojeBa nocTaBibeHH cy paMOBH ca BeHTHJia- 

HHOHOM MpeXOM. 

floK nama Tpaje npaTHM yHoc Ha Barn h, 
no noTpeGn, £0,rcajeM HacTaBKe Kao Me- 
Jimma.. 




Ca. 7 

KaA Jinna npecTaHe m Me^H nojioBHHa 
/IpymTaBa ce o^Max cejin Ha npnnpeMJbeHy 
jioicaHHJy cyHUOKpeTOBe name ca no msa 
npa3Ha Me^Hmra. tbnxoBa nyHa MeflHuna, 
ocnoGotjeHa o^i nnena, npeTxo/iHO cy 
nocTaBJbeHa Ha Konmnue Koje ocTajy #a 

3aTBOpe MQJl (cji. 8) 




Cji.8 



394 



n^ejiap 1999 



JlnnoB Me^ 6p30 3pH jep je TeMnepaTypa 
BHCOKa. 3peo Me^ ce o^ysHMa n Bpna (Kyhn 
Ha nqejiHH>aKy) na ce n OBe Konmnne cejie 
Ha nainy cyHnpKpeTa. Cejie ce h pojeBH, 
KaKO 6h ce h #ajbe pa3Bnjajin n caKynnjin 
pe3epBy xpaHe 3a 3HMy. 

CyHUOKpeT nonnite na UBeTa oko 1. 
jyna, Ka# je naina paHe Jinne npH Kpajy. 
3aTO Konmnne, Koje ce cajinne npBe cene, 
Mory KopHCTHTH h paHy nainy cyHnpKpeTa. 
flpyra rpyna Konmnna, Koja ce cejiH no 
Bpnaity noTnyHO 3pejior JinnoBor Meaa, 

KOpHCTH CyHUOKpeT KOJH UBeTa HeiHTO 

xacHHJe, oko 10. jyjia. 3aTO, npH H36opy 
jioKannje 3a npecejbaBaite TpaacnM MecTO 
rae HMa napnena ca BpeMeHCKH pa3- 

JIHHHTHM IIOHeTKOM UBeTaita KaKO 6n 

naina ^yace Tpajajia. CyHnoKpeTOBa naina 
Tpaje flyate a Mej, 36or bhcokhx TeMnepa- 
Typa 6p30 3pn. Jlocjie j,eceTaK nana oji 
noqeTKa name ojy3HMajy ce HacTaBnn ca 
3pejiHM Me^oM a nocTaBJtajy npa3HH Ha 
njio^nniTe Konmnne (npeKO MaraHHe 
penieTKe) na npeKO itnx HacTaBnn ca Me- 
#om Kojn join Hnje ca3peo. y TOKy name 
npaTH ce Jiy^e^e HeKTapa KaKO 6n ce 
o6e36e,iiHO noTpeGaH npocTop 3a H>eroB 
CMeuiTaj. 

no npecTaHKy cyHnoKpeTOBe name 
3peo Men ce o,ny3HMa n Bpna a ^pyniTBa 
KopncTe nainy Genor GocnibKa h Apyrnx 
kopobckhx GnjbaKa. 

y npBoj nojioBHHn aBiycra Konmnne ce 
Bpahajy Kyhn Ha miejinitaK. nepno^ Me.no- 
6paH>aje 3aBpineH. 



IIpHnpeMa 3a 3MMy 

riepno^ HHTeH3HBHe cejin^Ge H3 name y 
nainy je 3aBpineH a caB moh H3BpnaH. 
flpyuiTBa cy y ^oGpoj KOHjmnnjn. JXbq Ma- 
Tnne cy HenpecTaHO Ha^onyitaBajie ocn- 
naite nnejia a xpaHe je 6hjio y H3o6njby. 

Ajih BehnHa nnena y koihhhuh he y6p30 
H3yMpeTH jep hm je BeK KpaTaK. To cy 
jieTH>e nnejie. IloTpeGHO je pa3BHTH HOBy 
reHepannjy nnejia, Koje he npe3HMHTn n 
HacTaBHTH pa3Boj 3aje^HHua y nponehe. 
Ho, ycjioBH y npnpo^n 3a to cy CBe Maite 



noBOJBHH. Heonxo^Ha je HHTepBeHnnja 
iraejiapa. 

Oj,Max no ,a,oceji>aBaiBy Konmnna npnc- 
Tyna ce pa3^BajaH>y 3aje£Hnna, KaKO ce no 
npecTaHKy name ^BOMaTHHHO ^pyniTBO He 
6n CBejio Ha jej,HOMaTHHHO. Ba#n ce 
MaTH*iHa penieTKa a H3Merjy 3aje/iHHua 
nocTaBJta paM ca BeHTHJiannoHOM Mpe- 

XOM. 

flpyniTBa ce o^Max Tperapajy Bnme 
nyra MpaBibOM KncennHOM j\a ce cnpenn 
eKcnaH3HJa Kpnejta (Bapoe), jep n OHa 
Tpe6a na o^rajn 3HMCicy ayroBeHHy reHepa- 
uHJy. 

CTHMyjinmy ce Marane jxa HacTaBe hh- 
TeH3HBHO 3ajieran>e. CBaKa 3aje,HHHna rq- 
6nja nora^y onjieMeiteHy KBacneM (hjih 
nojieHOM aKO ra HMa). 

riepHO^ ojx niecT He^ejta, y aBrycTy n 
cenTeMGpy, CMaTpa ce npecy^HHM 3a npn- 
npeMy nnejinike 3aje^HHue npe,ii 3HMy. 
npnxpaHa y tom nepnojry TecTacTHM, 
GejiaHqeBHHacTHM CMecaMa, n HeBennKHM 
/I03aMa niehepHor cnpyna, CMaTpa ce j\a 
noBehaBa KOJiHHHHy o^HeroBaHor Jierna 3a 
30-50% (op JleGe^eB: "yTBprjeHO je jia 
GejiaHHeBHHacTa npnxpaHa nnejia y aB- 
rycTy no3HTHBHO yTnne Ha H>nxoBy npn- 
npeMy 3a 3HMy n Ha pe3yjiTaTe 3HMOBaita M 
n^ejiap 6p. 11/1998.). 




Ca.9 



395 



n^ejiap 1999 



MaTwua y ropn>oj 3ajejjHnuM je CTapa 
(wMa HeuiTO BHiue ojj JiBe ro/jMHe), na ce 
MOpa 3aMeHMTM. rijio^MuiHO cahe y toj 3a- 
je/THMUM je CTapo use rojjMHe na je 
no^ceibHO m H>era MeitaTH. To pajjMM Ha 
ane/jenn HanwH: 

Ha ropH>y 3aje,aHMHy npeKO BeHTMJia- 
nnoHe Mpe^ce nocTaBJtaM neTOpaMHM HyK- 
neyc ca MJia/rpM TecTMpaHOM MaTMHpM 
(eji. 9). 

Oh MMa o6mhho Tpw MJia^a paMa ca Jie- 
tjiom m /Tea ca Me/iOM h ubcthmm npaxoM. 
flo^ajeM y ttera jjBa paivia 3aTBOpeHor Me/ia 
ca nocjiejjH>e name (no je/jaH ca o6e CTpaHe 
,0,0 3H^0Ba HacTaBKa) m join Tpw npaBMJiHO 
M3rparjeHa He3ajieraHa paMa M3 M3BpnaHor 
MejjnniTa, na ra Taxo KOMnjierapaM. 

ITocjie HeKOJiMKO jjaHa CKM/jaM Me/TMiuTe 
ca KoniHMLie (rpene Tejio) a 3aTHM 3aMeHHM 
MecTa HyKJieycy n ropH>oj 3ajejjHHHM. TaKO, 
HyK/ieyc flOJia3M y cpe^MHy a ropH>a 3ajejj- 
Hnna H3Han H>era. n^ejie H3JieTHMue n3 
roptte 3aje r a,HHne yjia3e y HyK/ieyc. HaKOH 
^Ba - TpM aaHa, Kajx ce nnene HaBHKHy Ha ho- 
BOHacTajiy CMTyaunjy, Ba/THM BeHTMJia- 
UMOHy Mpe>Ky M3Mer]y HyKJieyca m ropH>e 
3aje#HHue, HMMe cy ohm cajja cnojemi - (cji. 
9a). CTapy MaTnny Hnje noTpe6HO Tpa- 
;>kmth, OHa he nocjie H3BecHor BpeivieHa He- 
CTaTH a jjo Ta,aa he 3ajieraTM n jjpnpHHeTM 
janaH^y 3aje,aHHHe. 




Cji.9q 

Ha Taj Ha^MH caM je/iHOCTaBHO m 6p30 y 
ropHjOJ 3aje,0HMUM npOMeHMO MaTnny n 
ojanao je ca/nmajeM HyKJieyca. HcTOBpe- 



MeHO, npomnpno caM joj njiojrnniTe Hac- 
TaBKOM MJia/jpr caha a 3ajiwxe nojieHa n 
Me/ia noBehao. Ako je noTpe6HO, 3MMCKe 
3ajiMxe joj noBehaM npnxpaHOM ca hcko- 
jimko jiMTapa CMpyna. 

nocjie Tora Men>aM MecTa 3aje^HMuaMa 
(cji. 10). TopH>a ca hobom MaTMHpM n JjBa 
nnoTiMiiiHa Tejia nocTaBJtajy ce Ha 
no/uta^y. HacTaBaK ca MJiajjHM caheM je 
aoH>n a ^pyrn ca CTapHM ropH>M. Hape/jHe 




Cji JO 

ro^MHe y Majy, npea cejiMjj6y Ha namy 6a- 
rpeMa, Taj CTapn HacTaBaK, y KOMe he 6mtm 
M&aHa Kana h 3aTB0peH0 Jierjio, Gnhe o;jy- 
3eT 3a $opMMpaH>e pojeBa na he 3aje/iHMua 
ocTaTH y jjpHoeM HacTaBKy ca MJiajjHM 
caheM. JXo\ba 3aje;rHMua nocTaBJteHa yjejj- 
hom HacTaBKy nocTaje ropH>a. 

TopH^a 3aje^HMua MMa nyHO Jierna a He- 
flOBOJtHO xpaHe, jep je y nepno^y Me/io- 
6pan>a 6MJia CMeniTeHa Ha nojittaHH y jea- 
hom HacTaBKy. 3aTOJe noTpe6HO noBehaTM 
joj 3MMCKy pe3epBy npnxpaHOM mehepHMM 
cnpynoM. 

y mcto BpeMe cpetjyjy ce Majie 3aje^- 
HMue y KOJMMa he 3MMOBaTM pe3epBHe Ma- 
THne. 

KpajeM cenTeM6pa hum noneTKOM okto- 
6pa o6aBM cejonije/jHO TpeTMpaH>e npOTMB 
Kpnejba, HMMe cy nocnoBH oko npnnpe- 
MaH>a n4ejiMH>Mx 3ajejjHMua 3a ycneniHO 
npe3MMJtaBaH>e npnBcaeHM Kpajy. 

y MCHeKMBapty Hapcznre ce30He Ha 
nHejiMH>aKy je noHOBO 3aBJia^ao MMp. 



396 



n^ejiap 1999 



onaBai-be on/ioneine MaTMiie 



Muha TpauAoeuh, nnejiap U3 Huwa 

018/42-157 



J\oj\a&?iihc MaTHue 3a BeriHHy HCKycHHX 
nnenapa HHJe noccGaH npoGneM, Maiia ce 
Majio ko Moxe HOXBajiirra Jia to paiiH 6e3 
ryGHTaKa, ojthocho ca 100% ycneniHOCTH. 
3a Maibc HCKycHe nnejiape OBaj 3axBaT 
Moxc 6hth 036HJbaH npoGjieM. 

Ha npcjjaBaH>HMa y 3hmckom nepHoiry 
cjiyniajiH cmo noHeuiTO o TOMe, Majja no 
MHinjbeiby hckhx npe/jaBaqa to Tpe6a H3- 
BecTH y (J)opMH Majie eonGHUHJe. HaMepa 
obot qnaHKaje jja ynyra nqejiape h jja hm m 
HCKa je/jHocraBHa, Bpjio ycnenma penieaa 
h hckojihko "naKa". 

Pa3MOTpHheMO HeKOJiHKO cjiynajeBa jj,o- 
JiaBaH>a onjiorjeHHX MaTHua, a kojh cy 
HaJHeinhH y n^enapcKoj npaKCH. 



flo/jaBaite Maume pa/iii 3aMeHe eTape 

KBajiHTeT MaTHite Hajqemne oueityjeMO 
npeMa 6pojy h HaHHHy nojiaraita jaja. j\o- 
6pe MaTHUc nojiexy jaja 6e3 npeKHJja, y 
CBaxy hejiHJy caha niHpehH noBpniHHy 
Kpyra ojj ueHTpa OKBHpa npeMa KpajeBHMa, 
nocTaBJLajyhn jaje y caM neirrap nejinje. 
IloKJionjLCHO nerjio npejjcTaBJBa je/iHH- 
cTBeHy h nejioBHTy noBpniHHy. MHora (J)aK- 
Topn yrany Ha 6poj H3JiexeHHX jaja, ajin 
CTapocT MaTHue nrpa Bpjio BaxHy ynory. 
BehHHa Moxe BHine rojjHHajxa nojiaxejaja, 

aJIH KOJJ, OHHX CTapHJHX OJJ JTBe rOJJHHe 

CMaiteH je HHTeH3HTCT ceMeHe "nyMiraue" 
ycjicjj qera OHa nojiaxe Benn 6poj Heo- 
njiorjeHHX jaja. M3 HaBejjeHor pa3Jiora Ma- 
THue TpeGa MeitaTH CBaKe hjih HaJKacHHJe 
CBaxe jjpyre rojjHHe . Ha Taj Ha^HH 
noBehaBaMO npo/iyKTHBHOCT 3a oko 20% 
iiito 3Ha^H, Ha Taj Ha^HH, Ha neT KoniHHna 
ca je/jHoro/jHimtoM MaTHnpM jjoGnjaMO 
npHHOce Kao ojj niecT ca jjBorojjHinitoM. 

y cbojoj n^ejiapcKoj npaxcn npHMeity- 
jeM hckojihko nocTynaxa, ojjhocho MOJjejia. 
3ajejjHHHKO 3a CBe je CTBapaite noBOJLHe 



KJIHMe y KOHIHHHII npHXpaHjHBaHiCM 

nqejiapcKe 3ajejjHHue, kojoj MCH>aMO Ma- 
THiry, TpH jjo ^eTHpH jjaHa npe jjo/jaBaita 
MaTHite (MJiajjc) jjo *ieTHpH jjo neT JjaHa no- 
cne nyinTaita (ocjio6arjaH>a H3 KaBe3a). 

HajcmypHHJH humhh cacToJH ce y 
cjiejjefteM: 

Ojj ApyniTBa KOMe Tpe6a npoMeHHTH 
Mannry (J)opMHpa ce poj ojj /jBa paMa ot- 
BopeHor nerjia ca nnejiaMa, je/jHor paMa ca 
MejjoM n nojieHOM h HCTpecaiteM jjBa paMa 
ca nqenaMa pajjH noja^aBaita. Poj ce 
nocTaBH y cemcy HejjajieKO ojj ochobhot 
jjpyuiTBa. y CTapoj koihhhuh ocTaje CTapa 
Marana ca ocTaTKOM nnciia h paMOBa, a 
pojy jjojjajcMO HOBy Marairy ca KaBe30M, Ha 
cpe/jHHH H3Merjy paMOBa ca OTBOpeHHM jie- 
tjiom. xopH30HTajiHO nocTaBJbeH TaKO ^a ra 
flOH^H pyGoBH caTOHoma Jiaxo (J)HKCHpajy. 
Hape^Hor ^aHa, npe^Be^e , ocjioGo^hth 
yjia3 KaBe3a h 3aTBOpHTH ra noranoM (He- 
ynope^HBO je Goibe y o^Hocy Ha xapTHJy 
hjih BocaK jep nqenc rpHUKajyhn norany 
ocjioGo/je MaTHity 6e3 HKaKBe ^cejte Jja joj 
Hayjje. 3a npoTCKJiHX 24h CBe CTape n^ene 
cy ce BpaTHJic Ha CTapo MecTO. Mnajje 
nqejie, y3 npncycTBO OTBOpeHor nerjia h 
CTajiHor npHxpaH>HBaH>a, y noTnyHOCTH 
npHMajy HOBy MaTHity. Hape/iHHX neT jjaHa 

XpaHHTH pOJ H OCHOBHO JJpyiHTBO CBaKO 

Beqe ca no 250 jjo 300 rpaMa inehepHor ch- 
pyna (ojjhoc 3:2 y kophct mehepa) . 
HeTBpTor jjaHa nocjie nyniTaH^a MJiajje Ma- 
THite y pojy ojjcTpaHHTH CTapy MaTHuy H3 
ochobhot jjpyniTBa. CyrpajjaH npejjBeHe 
ckjiohhth noKJionHy JjacKy ca ochobhot 
jjpyniTBa, npeKpHTH ra hobhhckom xapTH- 
jom npeKO paMOBa h npcKO HOBHHa nocTa- 
bhth HacTaBaK ca pojeM h MJiajjoM Mara- 
iiom. Bojjhth pa^yHa o ynoTpeGn jjHMHJiHna 
h He jjhmhth BHine o^ 2 jjo 3 nyra. Ca Hac- 
TaBUHMa nocTynaTH naxibHBO h He 
npaBHTH HenoTpeGHO OTpecaH>e HacTaBKa. 
nocnc *ieTHpH jjo neT jjaHa otbophth 



400 



nnejiap 1999 



KoiHHHuy h npeypejjnra paMOBe Taxo jia ce 
He HapyniH KOMnaKTHOCTJiema. CBe BpeMe 
npHxpaH>HBaTH ca 250 jjo 300 rpaMa niehep- 
Hor cnpyna. BeoMa je BaacHO Jia ce 
KoniHHua He y3HeMHpaBa HenoTpeGHHM 
OTBapaH>eMJep ce jjeuiasa Jia 36or npeKOM- 
epHor jjHMJbeita hjih 6yHHor OTBapaita 
Konmnne miejie yonjy h Marauy Kojy cy 
caMe H3Bejie. 

HaBe/ieHH Ha^HH 3axTeBa Mano BHine 
nocua ajiH je ncrnyHO cnrypaH. Ako je 
n^ejiap Kynno Marauy Moxe je jjo/iara ca 
KaBe30M 3a TpaHcnopT. Hajnenihe rpeniKe 
nnenapa cy mre/iraa cnpyna, npeKOMepHO 
jjHMJteibe h CTBapaH>e noTpeca. 

^pyrw iiaiMii no^aBaiba cacTojn ce y 
cjieAefieivi: 

/jBa jjo TpH jjaHa npe noHeraa pa/ja na 
3aMeHH Marane npHxpaitHBara jjpyniTBO ca 
HaBe/ieHHM KOJiMHHaMa cnpyna. CTaBHTH 
dapy Marauy y KaBe3 h ocTaBHTH H3Mef)y 
paMOBa ca OTBOpeHHM JierjioM. Jlocjie 24h 
ojjcTpaHura dapy Marauy h y hcth KaBe3 
CTaBHTH MJiajjy. KaBe3 ocTaBHTH Ha hcto 
MecTO. KaBe3j"e 3a to BpeMe npHMHO MHpnc 
CTape Marane, a irqejie xpaHHTejbHue Hac- 
TaBHhe jja xpaHe MJiajjy Marany Kao hito cy 
xpaHHJie CTapy. Jlocjie 24 ro 48h CKHHyrn 
noKJionau ca KaBe3a h Ha Beh onncaHH 

HaHHH ocjioGojihth MaTHUy (CTaBJbaH^eM 

norane yMecTO 3aTBapa*ia KaBe3a). XpaH- 
hth nHejiHH>y 3ajejjHHnyjom nerapu jjo neT 
jjaHa 6e3 OTBapan>a KouiHHue. OjjJiyKy o 
TOMe jja jih nycTHTH MJiajjy Marany nocjie 
24h hjih KacHHJe 3aBHCH ojj noHainaita 
nnejia npeMa h>oj. Ako HMa nnejia Koje 
noKyuiaBajy %a Kp03 Mpe^cy ouiTeTe Ma- 
rauy, ojjjioxhth nyiHTaH>e 3a 24h. rinejie 
Koje cy MHpojtyGHBe npeMa nqejiapy pa- 
jjnje npHMajy MJiajjy Marany. Mcto TaKO 
HepB03Ha Maraua, Koja ce 6p30 Kpehe no 
KaBe3y Texe he 6hth npHMJteHa Taxo Jia he 
Hexaa TpeGaTH h TpH jjaHa jjo ocjioGatjajta. 
IloTpeGHO je jja nnejiap CTeKHe HaBHKy h 
nocMaTpa irae-Jie y cbhm npnjiHKaMa h ycK- 
jiajjH CBOje aKTHBHOCTH npeMa noHamaity 
n^ejia. Ako je Maraua HaGaBJteHa or y3ra- 
JHBaqa Moxe ce npeGaunra y KaBe3 3a jjojja- 
BaH^e. Mhoth npenopyqyjy jj,a ce npe jjojja- 
BaH>a o^cTpaHe irqejie nparajte. Ako to 



xenHMO HaJJejjHOCTaBHH je otbophth yna3 
KaBe3a h Ty nocTaBHTH napne Mara^He 
peiueTKe. Jlocjie H3JiacKa nparajta noHOBO 
3aTBOpHTH KaBe3. Ja CMaTpaM jja je 6h- 
ojioniKH noTnyHO HenoTpeGHO nyinTaH>e 
nparajbajep je ochobhh HaHHH KOMyHHKa- 
HHJe H3Merjy Maraue h nnejia, Kao h caMHX 
nnejia, pa3MeHa (J)epoMOHCKe cyncTaHue. 
npaTHJLe HMajy "hcth mhphc" Kao Maraua, 
a Kajj jjof) e jjo H3j ejjHaHaBaHsa MHpnca 
nnejiniteM jxpynny Hehe CMeTaTH nparajte. 
MHinjbeH>e jja nnejie JiaKme npHMajy Ma- 
rany 6e3 npaTHJba HeMa onpaBjiaH>a. Bnine 
nyra caM y cbojoj jjyrorojiHiiiH>oj npaKCH 
3ana3HO jja irqejie H3 jipyinTBa, KOMe ce Ma- 
raua jjo/jaje, noje bojjom h xpaHe nparajte 
hcto Kao h Marauy Kpo3 Mpeacy KaBe3a. 
CTBapaae no3HTHBHe KJiHMe npnxpaitH- 
BaH>eM, naxibHBHM pyKOBaiteM h ojjcycT- 
bom HenoTpeGHor y3HeMHpaBaH>a jjonpn- 
hoch jja npHJeM Gyjje y 100% cnyqajeBa. 

JlocToje h cneuHJajiHH, j;ynjiH, KaBe3H 3a 
/Iojj,aBaH)e MaTHua. Ohh HMajy jjBe KOMOpe 
Koje cy Met)yco6Ho nojjeibeHe ^ynnoM 
MpexoM hjih JiecoHHTOM. Y je^Hy KOMOpy 
CTaBH ce Mjia^a MaTHua a y Jjpyry CTapa. 
Jlocjie 24h BpniH ce ojjcTpaitHBaike CTape 
MaTHue. FlojejjHHH nnejiapn npenopyqyjy 
cneiiHJajiHH paM ca jjeGjbOM caTOHomoM, 
Koja HMa jjeo y BHjjy KaBe3a. Y tom /jejiy ce 
CTaBJta MJiajja MaTHua. nyiiiTaite y HaBe- 
/leHHM cjiyqajeBHMa je hcto Kao kojj, 
oGHHHor KaBe3a. 

JlojiSLBSLibe MaTHue pojeBHMa BpniH ce Ha 
hcth Ha*iHH. Ako poj ocTaje Ha hctom 
nqejiHH^aKy caneKara jja ce CTape nnejie 
BpaTe ochobhom jjpyniTBy, a HaKOH Tora 
jjaTH MJiajjy MaTHuy. Ako npeHeceMO poj 10 
no 15 km jjajBe or nqejiHH>aKa H3JieTHHu;e 
HeMajy MoryhHOCTH BpahaH^a, a nocTynaK 
je Kao kojj, 3aMeHe. 

Kojj jjpjjaBaifca MaTHua Tpe6a bojjhth 
panyHa h o BpeMeHCKHM ycjioBHMa. Ako je 
BpeMe MHpHO, 6e3 h Harjinx npoMeHa TeM- 
nepaType nnejie he JiaKine jja npHXBaTe 
MJiajjy Marany. flojjaBaifce MaTHue no 
BeTpoBHTOM BpeMeHy, Kajj Harjio 3axjiajjH 
hjih ce cnpeMa ojiyja noBehaBa pH3HK jja 
MaTHita 6yjje JiHKBHjjHpaHa. 



401 



rinejiap 1999 



Maxima ce M05Ke jiojiarw h 6e3 KaBe3a, a 
noerynaK ce cacTojn y cjicnefieM: 

O^CTpaHH ce CTapa MaTHua. Ilocjie 24h 
(caTa) H3Baj,H ce paM ca OTBOpeHHM jie- 
tjiom. floGpoM npcKajiHUOM, ncnpcica ce ca 
pa3pe5eHHM cnpynoM paM ca nnejiaivia h 
MJia/ia Manilla y KaBe3y. IlycTH ce MaTHiia 
Ha paM h nocMaTpa noHainaite nnejia oko 
10 MHHyra. Axoje MaTHua HHCTa h nnejie 
HeMajy xejty jia je Hana^Hy, paM ca 
nnejiaMa h MaranoM Mo^ce m ce BpaTH y 

KOIUHHUy. IlaXJbHBO 3aTBOpHMO KOIUHHUy 

h nocjie neT #o ce^aM #aHa npoBepHMO jia 
jih MaTHua HopMajiHO hoch. OBaj nocTynaK 
npenopyqyjeM ucicycHHM nuenapHMa. Mo- 
ace ce npHMeHHTH paHO y nponene hjih 
KacHO yjeceH, jep Ta.ua nuejie pa^o npHMajy 
Marauy. HanoMHfteM jxa nnene pajuije npH- 
Majy je^Horo^uuiike MaTHiie Hero MJia^y 
Koja je TeK noqejia jia hoch. HaGaBKa Ma- 
THiia o^ Heno3HaTor nuenapa y3raJHBana 
Moace CTBOpHTH HJiy3Hjy jia cy je nnejie 
npHMHJie 36or KBajiHTeTa, a pa/in ce o CTa- 

pOCTH. 

Jlo cajia je Ghjio penn o ^o^aBaity Ma- 
THHa "HOpMaJIHHM" ^pyiuTBHMa. flpyuiTBa 
Koja cy y #y>KeM BpeMeHCKOM nepno^y 6ujia 
6e3 MaTHue, noceGHO y KOJHMa cy ce no- 



jaBHJie na^He MaTHue npe^ciaBJLajy noce- 
6aH npoGjieM h o BHMa he 6hth pe^H He- 
kom ^pyroM npHJiHKOM. Mcto ce o^hocu h 
Ha #o,iiaBaH>e HecnapeHHX MaTHua h 
MaTHHH>aKa. 

YMecTO 3aKJbyHKa jia noHOBHMO no- 
3HTHBHe h HeraTHBHe HHHHOue kojh yrany 
Ha npHJeM MaTHua. 

n03HTHBHH HHHHOIJH 

- npHxpaH^HBaH^e npe h nocne nojiaBaiba 
MJia^e MaTHue; 

- naacjbHBO onxorjeite ca nnejiaMa y 
TOKy nocTynKa £0,n,aBaH>a; 

- nOBOJbHH BpeMeHCKH ycjioBH; 

- ocjioGarjaite MaTHue H3 KaBe3a noMony 
norane;H 

- y3^p^:aBaH>e on KOHTpone Gap neT 
aaHa o^ nyuiTaita H3 KaBe3a 

HErATHHH HHHHOIJH 

- o^cycTBO xpaHe y kouihhuh; 

- npeBpeMeHO nyuiTaH>e HeMHpHHX Ma- 
THua; 

- Hanaj, MpaBa h Tyrjnua, h 

- npeKOMepHO ^HMJLeH^e. 



4()2 



nnejiap 1999 



^IHH HOCaH KOUIHHHa 



Moj Ha^HH npeHoinen>a KoniHHue Ha 
xejteHO MJecTO je je^HOCTaBaH, JiaKO H3- 
BojjjbUB y nnejiapcTBy, je(J)THH y H3pa^H h 
Mo^ce ra ypa^nra CBaKH nnejiap. y to freie 
ce yBJepHTH, aKO ynope^HTe nncaite o 
npeHoineH>y KouiHHna y ^aconncHMa 
"II4EJIAP" H3 1997. roOTHe. Mox^a he 
HeKOM nnejiapy cwoBapara h OBaj Ha^HH 
KOJH h ja ynoTpeGjbaBaM. 

Koji HaMJeniTaiBa KoiiiHHHe no^nrHe ce 
je^aH Kpaj no^ane y bhchhh o^ 3 ,iio 5 cm h 
nocTaBe ce reel /ip^caqa (cji. 3) ca je^He 
CTpaHe, 6e3 HKaKBor (^lOH^Kor Hanpe3aH>a 
rrqejiapa, a ca obhm pa^oM HHJecy hh 
y36yrjeHe rrqejie y koihhhhh. Obo hcto 
ypa^H ca tfpyre CTpaHe h noMonHHK-nne- 
jiap. H3BpniH ce MOHraparae niejiHe ca cjio- 




6o,iihhm ype30M (cji. 2) Ha HHJeB h KoiiiHHua 
je cnpeMHa 3a HOHieite (cji. 1). 



CacTaB Hocana KouiHHua 

Cji. 1 npHKa3yje MOHrapaH Hoca*i 3a 

KOIIIHHUy. 

Cji. 2 npHKa3yje niejiHy (2 KOMa.ua) Ha 
Kojoj cy yparjeHa #Ba OTBOpa. y obom 
cjryqajy iuejiHa ce MOHTHpa Ha unjeBH h He 
/I03BOJbaBa jx& ce OHe pa3£Boje ko,u, 
Hoineita. lilejiHa je yparjeHa ojx JiHMa 
/ie6jbHHe 3 mm a innpHHe 50 mm h jryaome 
(niHpa CTpaHa koihhhhc) or pyne no ype3a 
Ha inejiHH (cji. 2). Otboph Ha inejiHH cy 
yparjeHH 3a npojia3 Me- 
TajiHe (njiHHCKe hjih bo- 

ROBOJlHe) HHJeBH Ofl 1/2" 

*o3/4". 

Cji. 3 npHKa3yje jsp- 
xan 3a npHXBaT koihhhhc 
(4 KOMajia) . ^pxa^i ce 
npaBH oji MeTajiHor JiHMa 
jieGjbHHe 3 mm, innpHHe 
40 mm h jiyxHHe 180 mm. 
flpxaHH ynoTpeGoM He 
oiiiTenyjy no^ifca^y koih- 
HHue, 6e3 o63Hpa Ha ran 
h H3pa/iy no^H^aHe. 

Cji. 4 npHKa3yje HHJeB 
3a HonieH>e koihhhhc 

nJIHHCKe HJIH BO^OBO^He 

Koja ce JiaKO Moxe Ha- 

GaBHTH. 

Cji. 5 npHKa3yje Jiac- 

THKy TK3. (KO(J>ep Tpe- 

rep) cjiyacH 3a aoaarao 

ocnrypaifce ko^ TpaHC- 

nopTaKoiHHHue. Ka^HMO 

je H3Merjy #pxa*ia kohi- 

HHiie cji. 1 3a MeTajiHy 

inijeB. 

Hco floSapMHli^Hejiap 

84000 Biijejio IloJbe 

M. KyneBHfia6p. 63 



410 



nuejiap 1999 



KaKO npOH3BeCTH MeflHH KpeM 

(Me^Hy nacTy) 



Joui TpuueceTHx rQUHHa OBora Bexa 
aMepH4KM Hay4HMK flajc (Dyce) yr-BpJiHO je ;ia 
ce nponecoM KpMCTajiH3auMJe Meua MO^ce 
ynpaBJtaTM. y CBOj'e BpeMe, oh je Taj nocTynaK 
MnaTeHTHpao. 

3a pa3HHKy ojx npnpouHO yKpHCTa/iMcaHor 
Meua, 4HJM KpHCTajiii Mory 6hth pa3JiMHHTe 
BenMHMHe. a caivia KOH3MCTeHUMJa TBprja mjih 
MeKiua, Me^i yKpMCTa/iMcaH flajcoBHM nocTyn- 
kom MMa cbojctbo KpeMa h 36or Tora je 
yo6ii4ajeiio ua hocm Ha3HB "mcuhm KpeM", oh- 
hocho "Me^Ha nacTa". 

npMpoiina Kpiicia.uiiauMJa MCia 

Mea npe^CTaBiba 3acMheH, HecTa6njiaH, 
pacTBOp uiehepa ((J)pyKT03e m rjiyK03e) Kao m 
/rpyriix MaTepwja, h 36or Tora iuto ca^p^KM 
Biime MaTepHJe y pacTBOpy Hero iuto to Taj 
pacTBOp MO^ce ua nouHece, paHMJe mjih Ka- 
CHMJe aojia3H up CTa6HJiM3auMJe ca KpHCTa/iM- 

3aHHJOM. 

Ckjiohoct KpHCTa/iM3a]jHJM o/rperjeHe 
BpCTe Mejxa 3aBMCH o,a o/nroca rjiyK03e m 
4)pyKT03e, cajjp^Kaja BJiare h TeMnepaType. 
HeKH MejjOBM ce TeuiKO, hjth tck nocjie ijyater 
BpeMeHa, yKpHCTajinmy (6arpeMOB), jj,ok ce 
apyrn yKpHCTajiHiiry y cahy jjok cy y koiiihmhm 
(yjbaHa penuua h HCice BpCTe MCuibMKe). Mcjj. 
o,a cyHHpKpCTa MMa KpynHe KpMCTajie m MeuHa 
Maca oGmhho 6yae TBpua. Meu, kojh je npe- 
txojiho 3arpeBaH MMa KpynHe KpMCTajie m 
necTO ce pa3UBaja y yKpMCTa/iMcaHH m tchhm 
aeo. 

HajGojba npHpo/jHa KpMCTajiM3auMJa je 
OHa icana cy KpMCTajiM tojihko cmthh ua ce He 
ocenajy Haje3HKy, a MeuHa Maca ce Ma^ce Kao 
MacT. TaKaB, npHpo^HO yKpMCTajiHcaH, Me,n 
flejcje ca cbojhm naTeHTOM caMO Konnpao ot- 
KpHBajyhH ycjiOBC kojh OMorynaBajy npon3- 
Bojxihy Me^Hor KpeMa on CBaKor Termor Meua. 

IlpOM3Boaiba ivieanor KpeMa (vie^ne nacre) 

flajc je OTKpwo jx& je HajnoBOJtHnja tcm- 
nepaTypa 3a ycMCpeHy KpncTajiH3aunjy oko 



IIpo4>. dp Joeau KyjiuHneeuh 

14° C. Ako ce y Behy KOJinuMHy TeuHor Meaa 
flo^a Man>a KOJiHunHa Maje o,a (J)hho 
KpMCTajiMcaHor npnpouHor mjih 4>mho ca- 
MJieBeHor yKpMCTajiMcaHor Meua, m ;jo6po ce 
M3Meuia Ha rope HaBeueHOJ TeMnepaTypM 
floGnne ce bmcoko KBajiMTeTaH mcuhh KpeM. 
fla 6h ce nocTHrao HajGojbH pe3yjiTaT Tpe6a 
ce iipataTH cjiejjeher ynyrcTBa: 

1 . Tpe6a ynoTpe6HTH TenaH Me,a y KOMe He 
CMe 6hth npHpojjHHx KpMCTajiajep Mory 6mtm 
ohm KpynHHJH, kojh he nOKBapHTM $MHohy 
MeuHe nacTe. CBe nocyue, y KOJHMa ce ouBMJa 
nponec ycMepeHC KpHCTajiM3au,HJe, MOpajy 
6mtm ancojiyrHO HMcre m 6e3 KpHCTajia, ue- 
CTMiia BOCKa h npauiMHe. Me,a MOpa 6htm npe- 
txojjho ox/iarjeH Ha TeMnepaTypH ojj, 14°C. 

2. flouaTn 5-10% Maje Me;ia ojj Haj(J)HHHJMx 
KpHCTa/ia, TaKO (Juuuixiia ce He Mory occthtm 
Mcno#je3HKa. 

3. MeuiaTH nojiaKO, He KOpHCTehn ejieK- 
TpHHHH MHKcep jep he ce Ha Taj na4HH yHera 
Ba3#yx y mcr. Meiuaite He Tpe6a ua 6yae 
6p;>Ke o# 40-60 OKpeTaja y MMHyrn. 
O^p^caBaTM TeMnepaTypy ojx 14° C y3 Moryhe 
o/iCTynaH>e or 1-2 °C. 

4. Me^Hy Macy pa3JiMTM y Terjie hjih Jjpyry 
BpCTy aM6ajia^ce Kajj ce Maca uo6po 3aMyra, h 
TaKO pa3JiMBeHy npacaTH 4-5 /xaHa Ha TeMnepa- 
TypH ojj, 14°C. Cjie^ehnx 4-5 jjaHa TeMnepa- 
Typy noBehaTM Ha 18° C, a noTOM noHOBO TeM- 
nepaTypy CHH3HTH Ha 14° C. Cbc obo cc MO^ce 
o^BHJaTH y npocTOpHJH ca yrparjeHHM 

epKOH/IHUIHOM. 

Me,a y Bwiy KpeMa jiaKiue ce kopmctm Kao 
HaMa3, noroTOBy Ka^a cy y nHTaH>y ^eua. 
HeMa onacHOCTH o,a uypen^a h jiaKO cc Mo>Ke 
KOM6nHOBaTH ca nyrepOM h MaprapHHOM. 
BeoMa je kophcho nocjie y3HMaH>a Me^a 
KaniMHHuoM 3a^p^caTH ra y ycTMMa ^ok ce 
noTnyHO He OTonn, iuto HHJe Moryhe aKOJc y 
nnTaH>y tchhh mcr. Ha OBaj Ha^HH MeuoM ce 
no,acTH4e aHTH6aKTepHJCKO ijejiOBaHjC. 

Bmjio 6h KpaJH>e BpeMe ^a ce h HauieM no- 
Tpouiany mhoto ynopHHJe noHy/ui Me^ h y 
OBaKBOM o6jiHKy. 3aTO je noce6HO noro^Ha 
jecen>a nncjiapCKa H3Jio»:6a Ha TauiMaj^aHy. 



357 



n^ejiap 1999 



ll3Bop KpMCTajiue rviaje 

HajGojbe je y Ty CBpxy hckophcthth cboj 
Haj(J)HHHJe MeKO-KpHCTajiHcaHH Mejj, hjih ^onn 
ro H>era H3 no^pynja me HMa *iy6pa hjih Heice 
jjpyre GmtKe 3a Kojy ce 3Ha jja je norojjHa 3a 
Ty CBpxy. JejjHOM ^oGnjeHa Maja ce Mo^ce 
ojjpxaBaTH Kao iiito ce *ihhh ca MajoM 3a 
jorypT hjih KHcejio MJieKO. 

Kao hito je Ben HanoMeHyro KpynHO 
yKpHCTajiHcaH Mejj Moxe nocjry^HTH Kao 
Maja aKO ce npeTxojjHO npoiypH Kpo3 mjihh 3a 

Meco KOJH HMa (J)HHe H3Jia3He OTBOpe. 

Ako ce pajjH Ha BenHKO Mejj cjioGojjaH o,u, 
KpHdajia ce craBJba y pe3epBoap ca aymaT- 
ckom MemajiHHpM TaKO Ra je Maca H3Hajj 
nepa MeiuajiHue. npe jjpBof)eH>a Me^ Tpe6a jja 
6yae oxjiafjeH Ha 14°C. TeMnepaTypa ype3ep- 
Boapy ce o/jpxaBa noMohy xjiatjeHor BOJjeHor 
OMOTana. JejjHOM jjoj,aTa Maja cjryacn 3a /xyatH 
nepHO^ jep ce nocne jjejiHMHHHor npa^cH>eH>a 
pa^H naKOBaraa 3a TpxHuiTe pe3epBoap ,aony- 
H>aBa yBeK hobhm tchhhm mozjom. 



HanytteH MejjHH KpeM aMGajiaxy 3a npo- 
jjajy He CMe HMaTH neHe hhth Hexnx qecnnja 
BOCKa Ha noBpuiHHH. MejjHa Maca Mopa 6hth 
yHH(J>opMHa h 6e3 HKaKBHX 3HaK0Ba (J)ep- 
MeHTauHJe, hito ce HecTO 3anaaca Ha Mejxy 
naKOBaHOM y Terne ca cnoHTaHO yKpHcrajiH- 

CaHHM MeJJOM. 



IlpeAHOCTH Me^Hor KpeMa Ha,n tchhhm Me- 
aoM 

MaKO je kojj Haninx noTponiana 
yoGHHajeHO jja ce Ha yKpHCTajiHcaH Mejj rnejja 
ca HenoBepeH>eM h cyMH>OM ^a je to y mrraiBy 
HeKH 4>aJicH(|)HKaT HeoGopHBa je HHH>eHHua 
jja je KpHCTajiH3aHHJa KapaicrepHCTHKa npH- 
pojjHor n^iejiHH^er npoH3BOJja kojh mh Ha3H- 
BaMO Me^. OBOje y HaJBeheM 6pojy eBponcKHX 
3eMaiba hihpoko npHXBaheHO ojj CTpaHe no- 
Tpoinana noroTOBy y cpe^itoj h ceBepHoj Eb- 
ponn. 



358 



n^ejiap 1999 



Crapocr cafia 6mo/iolukm m npoAyicniBHii 
noKa3aTe/b nne/inhber ApywTBa 




BenMKM aeo BpeMeHa nnejie npOBO/ie Ha 
cahy ruio^MuiTa m o,a 3anpeMHHe m KBajiiiTeTa 
jfcMxoBor 3aBMCM ^kmbot ,apyiiiTBa y TOKy ro- 
/iMHe. 

HoBOH3rpafjeHO caheje CBeTJie 6oje. Bpe- 
MeHOM ce h>hxob KBajiMTeT MeH>a. Ako cy 
nnejie y H>eMy CKJia^MiuTiuie caMO Me,a, to 
carle #yro BpeivieHa ocTaje cbctjio, KaKO Ka>Ky 
HeKM nnejiapM "bchmto MJia^o"; aKO ce y 
H>eMy pa3BMJa Jierjio, to cahe 6p30 erapH. Taj 
nporrec ce cacTOJM y cue^eheM. ITocjie CBaKe 
M3Jie^cene nnejie y hejiMJH ocTaje /io6po 
npMJieruteHa Ha 3H#y m jxny, KomyibHira jiapBe 
h Ha ^Hy rpynBHua H3MeTa, m 3aTO cbctjio cahe 
BpeivieHOM nocTaje MpKe a 3aTMM h npHe 6oje. 
MeH>a ce aeGjtHHa 3H#OBa hejiMJe, H>nxoBa 
4)OpMa m 3anpeMHHa. CBe^ce M3rparjeH caTjjM- 
MeH3MJe 42 x 27 cm Te^caKJe oko 120 rpaMa. 
Maca tot caTa yBenaBa ce jjBa nyra nocjie 
H3BorjeH>a y H>eMy mecT reHepauHJa, a TpH 
nyra nocjie H3BOrjeH>a cejjaMHaecT reHepa- 
iTMJa nnena. (Ta6ejia 1). 

Me^HiuHO cahe npH Ayroj ynoTpeGu (8-10 
rojjHHa) BpeMeHOM noTaMHH arm ocTaje no- 
tojjho 3a KOpHiuheH>e m cajjp)KH oko 100% bo- 
CKa. 

npejvia CTapetty caT nocTaje 4BpmhH. Hc- 
Tpa^cHBaHH h nnejiapH npaKTH^apn npe- 
nopy^ryjy (J)OpMHpaH>e me3,aa 3mmm 



Muodpae Cmajiemuh, Kpasyjeeau, 

npBeHCTBeHO Ha TaMHOM cahy. Ajih Ty je 
y3pOK BejiMKe uiTeTe 3a n*iejiHH>e JxpyiiiTBo. 
yTBprjeHO je jx& npn 3MMOBaH>y Ha TaMHOM 
cahy KpHCTajiH3auHJa 3ajinxa xpaHe je 45% 
Beha, a Ha 58% BHiue ^pyuiTaBa M3Jia3e H3 
3HMe ca onTepeheHHM rae3,aoM h Ha Kpajy 
12% BHiue yrHHe y noperjetty ca jjpyniTBMMa 
Koja cy 3MM0Baiia Ha cbctjiom cahy. 

McTpa^cHBan M3 IIlBeacKe je aHajiM3Hpao 
pe3yjiTaTe 3MM0BaH>a 15.549 JXpyurraBa m 
floiuao je ^o 3aKJtyHKa ,aa Ha 95% curypHO 
y3pOK yrHHyha nnejia y tom nepno^y cy 6mjih 
ABa ocHOBHa 4>aKTOpa: npojiHB h KBajiMTeT 
(cTapocT) caha npH 4eMy cy y BemiHM 
cjiynajeBa npojiHB 3ana3MJiM TaMO rae je 
npeoBJiajjajio CTapo cahe. (K. J. ITeTepcoH 
1985). 

Me,a M3BarjeH M3 HOBOM3rparjeHor caha He 
KpHCTaiiHiue y TOKy aBa Meceua iiito je neT 
nyra nyxie koji ynoperjeH^a ca BpeMeHOM H>e- 
roBe KpMCTajin3auHJe koji Barjetia Me#a H3 
TaMHor caha n3 hctot flpyniTBa. Me,a H3 caha y 
KOMe cy nnejie HeroBa/ie Jierjio KpHCTajiH3npa 
3,3 nyra 6p;>Ke, Hero H3 caha rae HHJe HeroB- 
aHO Jierno. 

He cjiynaJHO y npnpo^HHM CTaHnniTHMa, 
n^ejie pa3MeniTajy Mejj npBeHCTBeHO y rop- 
h>hm jjenoBHMa rae3,aa r#e je cahe yBeK 
3a,ae6jbaHO. Ty OHe He Mory HeroBaTM Jierno. 



Ta6ejia 1. IIpoMeHe caha y saBucnociM ojj 6poja H3Jie%eHHX reHepauHJa nnejia y H>eMy 



! 

Bpoj 

hj;iujkch 

hx rcu- 

upamija 


Boja caha 


CpcjiH.a 
3anpcMHHa 

jlWLC 

heroic 


AcG^.Hiiti 
/ina*u;:iHJe 


FIpC'IIEHK 


Caflpacaj 
dock a y 

caiy y % 

npcMa 
M4CM Ho- 
nor cara 


I'. MM 

ion- 


Gnca. | 
Tea 

g/cm* 


con 3 


% 


mm 


% 


mm 


% 


0-1 


Chl'tjih 


0.283 


UK) 


0.22 


100 


5.42 


UK) 


HH) Kfi 


65-66 


0.966 


2-5 


MpKH 

TaMiiH 


(L269 


95,4 


0.40 


182 


5.26 


y? 


60 


64-64.5 


0.964 


6-10 


[lpOTIHHHH 


QJ25S 


90,4 


0,73 


332 


5.24 


%,6 


49 


635 


0,963 


13- 15 


CaCHHM ELpHH 


0249 


KH3 


1,08 


491 


5.21 


96.1 


46 


- 


' 


20 


cntpunyrK 


0,248 


87.9 


1,44 


655 


521 


%.l 


45 


63-63,2 


0,960 



290 



n^ejiap 1999 



npeMa TOMe , OHe Ty H3rpar)yjy cane ca 
HCKibyHHBO Me^HHM hejinjaMa Koje HMajy 
Beta yrao HarnGa h Behy jy6HHy. M3 Tor 
y3poKa OHe ocTajy "MJia/ie", a Me£ cnopnje 
KpHCTajiH3Hpa. To ce Mo^ce nocMaTpaTH Kao 
MexaHH3aM HacTao koji nqejia y nponecy ,nyre 
eBOJiyuHJe, kojh je npenpeica npouecy 
KpHCTajiH3aitHJe 3hmckhx 3ajiHxa xpaHe h 
CHHxaBa BepoBaTHohy yiMHyha ^pyniTBa or 
rjia,HH. 

y TaMHOM cahy Me^ ^enrhe 3HaTHO 6pxe 
ycKHCHe. 

Koji upHor caha 3anpeMHHa hejinjaje 12% 
Malta Hero ko£ CBeuior, uito 3HanaJHO yrane 
Ha Macy H3Jie^ceHHX nqejia. Il^ejie H3JieaceHe 
H3 hejinja CTapor caha HMajy Maity Macy Hero 
iraejie H3JieaceHe H3 CBeTjior caha y hctom 
apyiHTBy. (TaGejia 2). 



TaGejia 2. Maca nnejia H3JiejKeHHX y cany 
pa3JiHHHTor KBajiHTeTa 



Euja caha 


Haairuio 

rcucpa- 

Uwja 


Cpej|H»a 
JLVJHli iiic-jig 


yMaHiClfcC 

y% 


Cntrrjia 

MpK'A 

TaMHa 
UpiiH 


Q 

1-2 
10-12 
25*26 


123 
120 

106 




2.4 
3.7 
13.1 



O^roBapajylia CTapocT caha noKa3yje cht- 
ypHO yranaj h Ha BejinmiHy Tena nnejie h 
H^eHa cnojbHa oGeneacja. (TaGena 3). 



npHMefteHO je rsl iraejie ca MaitoM MacoM 
jiouiHJe JieTe, zioHoce y KoiHHHuy Manse HeK- 
Tapa, CHTHHJe cy Kopnnne 3a noneH Ha 
HoraMa. 

McTpaxHBaqH H3 GnBine HexocjioBaHKe 
(E. fle^HHCKH h up. 1988. roA.) npopaHyHann 
cy ymnaj yMaiteHHX 3anpeMHHa hennja caTa 
Ha BejiH^HHy nnena H3JiexeHHX H3 h>hx h Ha 
caKynjLaH>e Mem nHenHfter apyinrBa. 

Maca H3JiexeHHX 10.000 nnena H3 CBeTJior 
caha je 1 kg, H3 MpKor 0,838 kg, a H3 TaMHor 
caMO 0,671 kg. y o^Hocy Ha caKyrobajBe Me/ia 
HMaMO cne^ehe no^aTKe: m 6h caxynHJie 
oupefjeHy KOJinqnHy Me^a Kojy #OHOce y 
KouiHHuy iraejie H3Jie^ceHe H3 CBeuior caha, 
iraejiaMa H3JiexeHHM H3 caha nocne 10 
H3JiexeHHX reHepaunja Tpe6a m& nyra BHine 
je^HHKH, aKO cy ce pa3BHJajie y uphom cahy. 
3a HcxpaHyje/iHor KunorpaMa nqena H3 CBeT- 
nor caha noTpeGHO je 2,5 kg Meaa, H3 MpKor 
2,9 kg, a H3 TaMHor 3,7 kg Me,n,a. 

BHiuero^HHiH^e nocMaTpaite y MHCTHTyry 
nqenapcTBa noKa3yje jia nnejie H3Jie^ceHe H3 
CTapor, TaMHor caha caKyiubajy 40-47% 
Ma^e Me/ia, Hero nnejie H3 KBajiHTeTHHJer 
caha. 

Crapo cahe y rHe3^y cjipkh Kao H3B0p 

IUHpefta HH(J)eKUHJa H HHBa3HBHHX 60JieCTH. 

Ha npHMep, y 3apaxeHOM cahy cnope 
aMepHHKe Kyre ocrajy BHpyneHTHe 35 ro^HHa, 
H3a3HBaHH H03eMe ro 2 ro^HHe, a cnope 
acKoc(f)epo3e^;o4ro^HHe. (O. O. rpoGoBnA. 
K. JIhxothh 1989.). 



TaSejia 3. yniuaj CTapocTH caha Ha cnojbaiuiba ofiejiexcja nnejie 



n^KaaaTUJii 


Hoish car 


Ci'apn caT 

(in;im.:]o 
16rcHcpauuja) 


Pa^JiiiKa % 


Ayatima cypjiHuc, mm 
YKynua inn puna 3, 
H 4, OCFMCHTd mm 


5J)W).0OO9 
3^2*0,0080 


5.04±0.OO5 
3jBO±0.005 


1.0 
3.1 


.^yjKMHH HCCHor 








npcjui-cr Kpw^a mm 


7,64±ai)L30 


7,49±0JM>e 


2jQ 


UInpHiiH KpmiH mm 
Epoj KyKHi^a wa flecHOU 


255iiJ,U04t» 


2.5WUW3 


1.6 


Kpn/iy 


21,8±0,1200 


7S}*mW9 


4.1 



291 



nnejiap 1999 



CBeTJio cafte 3HaTH0 Maite Hanaaa bockob 
MOJLau koji nyBaita. 

Koji BetiMHe Gojiecra, ^eiiHMHqHO kqh 
acKoc(J>epo3e , HeMoryfre je nocTHta 
03^paBJLeH>e /ipyniTBa caMO JieKOBHMa 6e3 
yaajbaBaiba H3 rae3£a 3apa^ceHor MaTepn- 
jajia. KaKO noica3yjy nocMaTpaH>a ^aic h npH 
ycneniHOM Me^HKaMeHT03HOM Jie^eity yBeK 
ce 3anaxajy peuOTHBH Gojieera (noHOBO ce 
Bpaha Gojiecr). J\a 6h H36ernH to Tpe6a npe- 
GauHTH nnene Ha tocto ,ne3HH<j)HKOBaHO cafte 
(ne3HH4>HKyje ce cafte ^o TpH ro^HHe cra- 
Pocth) h npoBO/iH HHTeH3HBHO o6HaBJbaH>e 
me3^a. 

riqejiHH>H BocaK c ro^HHaMa aicyMyjiHpa 
pa3He TOKCHHe, TeniKe MeTajie h necnmH^e, 
KOJH HMajy uiTeiaH ymnaj Ha iraejie h KBaji- 
HTeT HjHxobhx npoH3BO^;a. (M. G. Sanferd, 
R. A. Hupingarner 1992. tor.) 

y hobom cafiy yrBptjeHa je caMO He3HaTHa 
KOJiHHHHa pa^HOH30Tona ue3HJa, a y crapoM 
MaKCHMajiHa #03a 3araf)eH>a (M. A. Alek- 
semicer. JI. M. Bo^Hapnyx, B. n. KyGajnyic 
1997. roA.) 

M3 pe^eHor cne^H #a je KpaJH>e HeonxonHO 
H36aiiHBaTH CTapo cafte, a rHe3/io KOMHJieTH- 
paTH ca hobhm cafteM hjih cafteM Koje HHJe 
CTapHJe or 2-3 ro^HHe. 



nnejiapH Tpe6a %a 3Hajy, fla GnaroBpe- 
MeHa 3aMeHa erapor cafta MJiaawM je ocHOBa 
,HpxaH>a jaKHX, 3/ipaBHX rrqejiHH>HX /ipyniTaBa. 
npenopy^yje ce CBaKe ro^HHe 3aMeHa 1/3 a 
6ojte je 3aMeHa 1/2 cafta y rae3,ny 
(nno^HHiTy). 

y hejiHJaMa MJiaaor cafta Beta je hhbo 
xpaHe 3a JiapBe, H3 kojhx ce pa3BHJajy 
KpynHHJe h 3a xhbot cnocoGHHJe nnejie, 
CHHacaBajy ce yrpoinuH eHepraje 3a CTBapaH>e 
noBOJBHHX ycjioBa 3a HoineH>e jaja MaTHue, 
npHnpeMa MecTa 3a CMenrraj ^OHeTor HeK- 
Tapa. y CBeuioM cafty nerjio Man>e oGoneBa 
ojl TpyjiexH, acKoc(J>epo3e h BapoaT03e a 
nqene on H03eM03e; jaKO pacre e<j>eKaT 
jie^eita Gojiecra h yBeftaBa ce upon3Bojrn>a 
BOCKa Ha n*iejraH>aKy; CBeTJio cahe ce KBaji- 
HTeTHHJe /ie3HH(J)HKyje h ca Maite yrpoinaKa 
cpe^cTaBa h pa#a h Maite ra Hana^a bockob 
MOJbau KO,a nyBaH^a. 

Me/i y H>HMa MaH>e ycKHiiiH>aBa h 
KpHCTajiH3yje 3a BpeMe 3HMOBaH>a, HMa 

Haj60JbH KB'aJIHTeT (MaH>e TOKCHHa h pa/iHO- 

HyKJieii^a). npo^ryicraBHOCT ^pyniTBa noBe- 
ftaBa ce 40-47 %. 

IIpeMa: IlqejioBoacTBy 2/99 - JleSe^eB 



292 



nnejiap 1999 



KPAJEM J1ETA H IIOHETKOM JECEHH 



rPABEX 



Crania onaciiocT Ha nHejiHH>ainiMa 



Mujiyn Manduh, durui. uHJtc. 
H a h a k 



TpaGeac Ha iraejiHH>aKy je BeoMa onacHa 
nojaBa Koja 3a KpaTKO BpeMe Mo^ce H3a3Bara 
noMop BejiHKor 6poja irqejraiBHX ^pynrraBa. 
npH OBOj nojaBH H3JieTHHH£ noje^HHHX, 
HaJHeinhe HajjaHHX ^pynrraBa npoj,Hpy y 
KoniHHue ^pyrax, Hajnpe cjiaGnx, a Kacmije h 
ocTajiHX nnejiHiBHX 3aje#HHHa, OTHMajy hm 
Me# h o^Hoce y CBOje koiuhhuc Jlqejie 
CTpaxapnne Hana^Hynrx jpyiiiTaBa 

noKyinaBajy #a OHeMoryne npoj,op Ha- 
na/iaHHLia y yHyrpaiHJBOCT, h Ha JieTy Hana#- 
Hyre KoniHHue pa3BHJa ce oropneHa 6op6a. y 
OBOj 6op6n rHHe BejiHKH 6poj nnejia Kaxo Ha- 
na/nryrax. TaKO h Hana^aqnua, h to (axo ce He 
HHTepBeHHine) CBe ao nonryHor yHHiHTeita 
Hana^Hyror ^pyuiTBa. 3aTHM ce rpa6e;>K npe- 
cejbaBa Ha cyce^He koihhhhg h TaKO 3a BeoMa 
KpaTKO BpeMe Mo^ce 6hth yHHiirreH KOMiuie- 
TaH n^enHH^aK. 

HaJBena onacHOCT on rpaGeacn npeTH y 6e- 
cnaniHOM nepno^iy (KpajeM JieTa h noqeTKOM 
jeceHH), a Hajneinta y3poK 3a HacTaHaK OBe 
BeoMa onacHe nojaBe je Heonpe3HOCT 
nnejiapa. HaHMe, BotjeHe hhcthhktom 3a 
o6e36erjeH>e 3hmckhx 3ajinxa xpaHe, a y om- 
cycTBy o^roBapajytax H3B0pa y npHpo^H, 
nneiie ce necTO ycrpeMjbyjy y Tyrje KoiHHHue, 
HacToje m H3 jbhx noKyne Me# h o^Hecy ra y 
cbojc y Hajja^HM /ipyiiiTBHMa cy no npaBuny 
h HaJBHTanHHJe nnene, TaKO #a Gain OHe 
Hajqeiuhe h H3a3HBajy rpaGex. Pa3yMJbHBO je 
m cy npBa Ha MeTH ciiaGa (6e3MaTH^Ha h 060- 
jiena) /ipyuiTBa. 3aTHM He^oBOJbHO pa3BHJeHH 
pojeBH h OHa /ipyniTBa Koja ce Hajia3e y Henc- 
npaBHHM KouiHHuaMa. TaKorje, rpaGeac ce 
jiaKO Moxe nojaBHTH h Koa Heonpe3HHX 
nnenapa kojh y GecnauiHOM nepno/iy jx\mQ 
/lyro OTBOpeHe koihhhhc, o/yiaacy paMOBe ca 
xpaHOM h JierjioM Ha OTBOpeHOM npocTopy 
oko KoniHHua, pacnnajy mcr h xpaHy Ha 
nHejiHH>aKy, He npHJiarofjaBajy BejiirqHHy 
JieTa naniHHM ycnoBHMa, Bpahajy Me^oM 



yMa3aHe HacTaBKe nocne HCTpecaita MQjia. 

WTR. 

Koji npBe rpyne Hana^aHHua ycnejy m 
npo^py y yHyrpaimtocT Hana^Hyre KoiHHHue, 
6p30 HanyHe Me^He BoibKe Me#OM h o^Hoce ra 
y CBOje KoiHHHue . 3 aTHM , o^roBapajynHM 
noKpeTHMa Tena oGaBeuiTaBajy ocTajie iraejie 
o npoHarjeHOM H3B0py xpaHe. JIotom ce Ha- 
tjio noBehaBa 6poj Hana^aHHua, Koje nonyr 
MopcKHX Tanaca y CBe BehHM HaneTHMa 
3anjLycKyjy 3H#OBe Hana^Hyre KoniHHue . 
Hhm caBJiaaajy o^GpaHy Ha JieTy, Hana#aHHue 
KHiiHiiiy Ha MaTHiry Kana/iHyrax iraejia, h Ty 
ce, TaKorje, o^BHJa ^cecTOKa 6op6a. HacTaje 
npaBH noKoib. y tom noKOJby 6p30 erpa^a Ma- 
THua ^HMe je nocao rpaGjLHBHua npaKTHHHO 
3aBpHieH. Flo CMpTH CBOJe MaTHne, MajiH 6poj 
npexHBenHX nnejia Hana^Hyror /ipyniTBa 
BHine He npyaca HHKaKaB OTnop, Beh ce 
npH^ipyacyje rpaGjbHBHuaMa h ca H>HMa 
h3hoch h noane,n,H>e Kann Me^a. 3aTHM ce 
rpaGex npecejbaBa Ha cyce^He KoniHHHe, a 
H3a ce6e ocTaBJba npaBy nycToiii: orpoMHy 
Macy yrHHyjiHX iraejia, pa3pynieHO cahe Hxa. 

nope^ ^HpeKTHHX iHTeTa (ryGHTaK imejra- 
h>hx apyuiTaBa), rpaGe^c Moxe H3a3BaTH h 
T3B . HH/nrpeKTHe niTeTe Koje Mory 6hth 
3HaTH0 Bene. HaHMe. Kao ihto je Beh Ha- 
rjiauieHO, npBe xpTBe rpaGexn cy oGonejia 
/IpyniTBa. O/iHoiHeHjeM Me^a H3 oGojienor 
/IpyuiTBa h KOHTaKTOM ca nnejiaMa kjih- 
UOHOiuaMa (Ha npHMep, H3 apyniTBa 060- 
jiejior o^ aMepH^Ke Tpyjie^cn) nqene Ha- 
najaHHue yHoce 3apa3y h y CBOje KoiHHHue 
TaKO jia, nocne Tora oGojteBajy h ho rajia 
Hajjaqa ^pyniTBa. Chyna HHJe Hyuo hito ce 
nnenapHMa ^ecTO ^orarja m hm o6ojih hjih yr- 
HHe /ipyiHTBB Koje je y npeTxo^HOM nepnony 
Ghjio Hajja^e. 

Haje(J)HKacHHJa Mepa 6op6e npoTHB 
rpaGexHJe o^roBapajyha npeBeHTHBa. y tom 
CMHCJiy^,o6pH nneiiapH CTajiHO, a Hapo^HTO y 



295 



n^ejiap 1999 



GecnaniHOM nepno,uy, oGpahajy nyHy namty 
Ha cjiejjehe: 

1. KoniHHue Mopajy yBeK Ghth ancojiyrHO 
HcnpaBHe. M3Jia3aK h yna3aK iraejia y 
Koimnme Mopa Ghth onpejjejteH Ha caMO 3a 
to o^perj.eHHM MecTHMa (jieTa), a OBa Mopajy 
6hth npHJiarorjeHa naniHHM ycjioBHMa h 
CHa3H CBaKor ApyniTBa noje^HHaHHO. 

2. HHKajj, a HapoHHTO KpajeM JieTa h 
KacHHJe, Ha miejiHH>aKy He jjpacaTH cjia6a 
imejinita jjpyniTBa (6e3MaTKe, oGojiejia 
jjpyniTBa, He^oBOJLHO pa3BHJeHe pojeBe h cji.). 
CaHHpaH^e 6e3MaTaKa oGaBJba ce Gjia- 
roBpeMeHHM Jip,iiaBaH>eM Menma. JjpyniTBa 
oGojiejia ojj aMepHHKe Tpyjie^cn TpeGa 6e3 
mhjiocth JiHKBituHpaTH, a OHa oGojiejia oa 
Apyrnx GojiecTH nojjBpraBaTH pHropo3HOM 
jieneity. 

3. KouiHHne He OTBapaTH 6e3 yxa3aHe 
noTpeGe, a npH CBaKOM OTBapaity, TpeGa Hac- 
TojaTH #a Gyny OTBOpeHe ihto je Moryfre 
Kpahe BpeMe, y3 CTajiHy mienapeBy 
onpe3HOCT. 

4. PaMOBe ca jierjioM h Me/j,0M HHKajj He or- 
jiaraTH Ha OTBOpeHOM npocTopy, Beh y cneun- 
jajiHe, 3a Ty HaMeHy KOHCipyncaHe h 
H3pa^eHe npeHocHe caH^yKe. 

5. npHJiHKOM npHxpaH>HBafta HacTojaTH 
m ce Teraa xpaHa HHKajj, He pacnna BaH xpa- 

HHJIHUa. 

6. IlpeAy3HMaTH cBe noTpeGHe Mepe KaKo 
6h ce rraejraH>a apynrrBa o/jpxaBajia y oirra- 

MaJIHOJ CHa3H H JIpGpOJ paHHOJ KOHAHLIHJH 

(MJia^e h npo^yKTHBHe Marane, ncnpaBHo 
cahe, onTHMajiHe 3ajinxe KBajiHTeTHe h npaB- 
hjiho pacnoperjeHe xpaHe hta). 

Ako ce rpaGe^c nnaK nojaBH, npBO hito je 
HeonxojjHO ypajjHTH je jia ce yrBp^H h 
otkjiohh y3poK KOJH ra je H3a3Bao. 3aTHM 
TpeGa ycTaHOBHTH H3 Koje Koimnme AOJia3e 
nnejie rpaGjbHBHue. To ce HajjiaKine nocTioKe 
nocHnaH>eM iraejia Ha HanajjHyroj kohihhuh 

HeKOM XeMHJCKH HeyTpaJIHOM, yO^LJLHBOM 

npaniKacTOM MaTepnjoM (Ha npHMep, (J)hho 

MJieBeHHM nineHHHHHM HJ1H COJHHHM 

GpaniHOM), Koja he ce 3a,n,pxaTH Ha MajbaBHM 
TejiHMa iraejia (rpaGjbHBHHa) h Taxo hx 
MapKHpaTH. npaheH^eM noBpaTHor JieTa 
MapKHpaHHX rraejia rpaGjbHBHHa, JiaKO ce yc- 
TaHOBH H3 Koje KoiHHHue Jipjia3e. Kajja ce yr- 
Bp^H Koje jjpyniTBO je "arpecop", npe/jy3H- 
Majy ce o/jroBapajyhe Mepe caHanHJe. 



Ako je rpaGeac y noneTHOj <J)a3H, hckh 
nqenapH npenopy^iyjy Kao e(J)HKacHy Mepy 
3aMeHy MecTa HanajjHyror h Hanajja^Kor 
apyuiTBa. flpyra, oneT CMaTpajy jja je jjoGpo 
m ce HanaAHyro ApyiiiTBO yHece y Heicy 
3aMpa^eHy h xjiajjHy npocTopnjy h /ia ce ry 
3a^p^cH HeKOJiHKo JiaHa, c thm m My ce 
o6e36e^H CBe^ca h 3#paBa mrjaha Bojia h cra- 
jiaH aotok cBe^cer Ba3jxyxa, a jj;a ce oHeMoryhn 
H3JieTaH>e n^ejia H3 KoniHHue. Ha Meery, 
npHBpeMeHO CKJioH>eHor ApyiiiTBa nocTaBJta 
ce noTiryHO npa3Ha KoniHHHa, no MoryhcTBy 
HCTe 6oje h oGjiHKa. rpaGjbHBHue he HecMe- 
TaHO yjia3HTH y npa3Hy KoniHHiry, h noiirro 
HeMa xpaHe, no H3JiacKy noKyuiahe jja yrjy y 
npBy cyce/jHy. 3aTO je TpeGajio npeTxo^HO 
CMajtHTH JieTa Ha cbhm KoniHHuaMa Koje 6h 
Mome 6hth MeTa Hanarja rpaGeacn, Taxo j\a 
ojjGpaHa Gyjje e(J>HKacHnja. 

Ham no3HaTH nqejiapcKH CTpymtaK noK. 
Bojhh TojjopoBnh, npenopyHHBao je jia ce Ha 
nojjH^aHe (Kpo3 JieTa) KoniHHua ca HejaKHM 
jjpyniTBHMa, Koja 6h y kphthmhom nepno^y 
Morna 6hth MeTa Hanaja rpaGexn. 
nocTaBJbajy cneunjanHH TyHennnhn, jjhmch- 
3Hj'a 150 x 100 x 8 mm HanpaBJbeHH or TaHKe 
ninep, hjih JiecoHHT ruio^e. Jlpojia3ehH Kp03 
Mpa^aH TyHen ^y^cHHe 15 cm HanajjaHHue 
6yoy JiaKO caBJia^aHe, n rpaGex no npaBiury 
npecTaje npe Hero mTO ce h pa3BHJe. 

Ako ce, nnaK, Aoro^H jja rpaGex 3axBaTH 
jjeo nnejinH^aKa, Haje({)HKacHHJa Mepa 6op6e 
je jja ce HanarjHyra ApyuiTBa AHCJiounpajy Ha 
HOBy JioKauHJy yjjaibeHy ojj n^ejiHHjaKa 
HaJMaite 4 km, m hm ce OTKJioHe y3poiiH kojh 
cy npoBonnpajiH rpaGex (cMaHjHBaHje JieTa, 
3aTBapaH5e cyBHiiiHHX OTBOpa Ha KomHHuaMa 
h cji.), Kao h jia hm ce o6e36e/XH ojjroBapajyha 
Hera, y tom CMHCJiy TpeGa npoBepHTH m 
cnyqaJHO y TOKy Hanajja Hncy ocTara 6e3 Ma- 
THita. Ako ce to jjecnjio, TpeGa hm o6aBe3HO 
o^Max Ao^aTH MJiajjy onjio^eHy Marauy, h paM 
jjBa ca JierjioM h ojjroBapajyhnM BeHOHMa 
Mejja h n^ejiaMa, n npHxpan^HBaTH hx aok ce 
noTnyHO He onopaBe. Ha nnejiHitaKy TpeGa 
CBa jjpymTBa npHJiaro^HTH BaHpejjHOM CTaH>y, 
h KOHTpojiHcaTH m rpaGe^c He 3aXBaTH HeKO 
hobo jjpyniTBO. 

Ako je CBe yparjeHO KaKo TpeGa, 3a 
jjBajjeceTaK ^aHa npHBpeMeHO npecejteHO 
jjpymTBO Moxe ce BpaTHTH Ha CTapo MecTO h 
yKJbyHHTH y pe^oBHe npnnpeMe 3a 3HMOBaH>e. 



296 



n^ejiap 1999 



YnoTpeSa CTapnx iviaTnua 

MujbKO Uljbueuh, Kpyiueeau, 



Cpeo caM MHore nnejiape kojm HMcy y 
craity jxsl y6njy (jiHKBM/mpajy) CTapy Marauy. 
OBa o#6ojhoct je HaponnTO H3pa»ceHa npeMa 
MaTHuaivia Koje cy #ajie ,n;o6pe pa3yjiTaTe h 
3Ha4aJHe npHHOce. 36orTora mhoth nnenapn, 
npeKO 3MMe. ocTaBJtajy CTape, a HeKaa, n 
noiue, MaTMue, Koje o6hhho 3mmm HecTaHy m 
ApyiuTBO CTpa^a. HHTepecaHTHy npnny o 
ynoTpe6n m nyBaity CTapnx MaTMna Mcnpnnao 
MHJeje^aH mejiap H3 3ajenapa. Oh, no BMiue 
Maxima nyBa y je^HOJ koiuhhhh nojioinnH, a 
npnna rjiacn: 

"Kaaa o^myHMM aa MettaM Manine, npe j\o- 
^aBajta, noBJianiiM CTape m to no HeKOJinKO 
(5-6) y je^Hy KOinHMiry-nojioniKy. y TOKy 
aaHa, Ka^a cy CTape nnejie Ha namn, H3 
Konmnne noBJia^MM CTapy Marauy ca paMOM 
nerjia, paMOM xpaHe, nnejiaivia n CTaBJbaM y 
nojioniKy. y nojiouiKy 3aTHM ^o^ajeM ^Be 
caTHe ochobc Caaa jxo caranx ocHOBa #o#a- 
jeM paM ca jiernoM, paM caxpaHOM, nnejiajvia h 
MaTnuoM M3 flpyre Konmnne, na onaa noHOBO 
TlBe caTHe ochobc 3aTHM ^oaajeM paM ca Jie- 
tjiom, paM ca xpaHOM, nnejiaMa n MaTHuoM n3 



Tpehe KoniHHne h TaKO pe/iOM, jxok ce njiomica 
He ncnyHH. Ha MecTMMa o#y3eTnx paMOBa jxo- 
aajeM caTHe ochobc h HOBe MJia/ie h KBan- 
nTeTHe MaTnue. y nojioinnH nnejie H3rpaf)yjy 
cahe Ha caTHHM ocHOBaMa h Manine 3ajie:>Ky. 
Kaaa ce KoniHnna ncnyHH jierjiOM, oay3HMaM 
3ajie^<:eHe paMOBe n #o,aajeM cjiaGnjnM 
ApyuiTBHMa. Bnme MaTnna he hochth y 
nojioniuH Kaoje^HOM ^pyniTBy CBe ao jecetui, 
o^hocho, jxo noMaH>KaH>a name, Kaa he 
Me^yco6HHM oGpanyHOM ocraTH je^Ha." 

ITocjie OBe npn^e, o^Max Mnje 6hjio jacHO 
j\2i je OBaKBO 4>opMMpaH>e apyniTBa Moryhe Ha 

hobom MecTy, n y HOBOJ K011IHHHH, 3aTO UITO 

nnejie He 6paHe CBOJy KOiiiHHiry, na Hncy pa- 
To6opHe. rtnejiehe, pa3£BOJeHe caTHHM ocho- 
BaMa, MSj'e^HaHMTH MMpnce n HacTaBHTH jxa 
pa^e Kao je^HO ^pyniTBO. MaTMue he ce y 
nojiomnM noHamaTH Kao ko,u, Tnxe CMeHe h, 
jiok ion 6yj\e yHOca, CBe he nojiaraTH jaja j\o- 
npnHOcehn 6p30M pa3Bojy flpyniTBa. Ako ce 
paMOBM He 6n o#y3HMajin, ^onuio 6n ro po- 
jen>a. 



297 



n^ejiap 1999 



ripece/baeatbe nne/ia M3 Bpwice y caHAyK 



MeKoeuh Tzopfye, Cypdyjiuita, 
TejietpoH 01 7/84-237 



ITpOHMTao caM TeKCT HauiMx nnejiapa- 
-npaKTM^apa o HauHHy npecejbaBaH>a nnejia 
H3 BpuiKe y canayK. 

He iKejiHM jj,a nojieMMiueM, ajiM mctmhc 
pa^iM m y xieihH ji& Hame KOJiere unejiape 
npeKO Hauier neiteHor jiMCTa "nHejiap".uiTO 
noTnyHiije MHt^opMMineM, nnuieM OBaj tckct. 

Ham naconnc "IlHejiap" je npOKpHMO 
(ce6n) nyr jxo nuejiapa y HaJ3a6nTMJMM Kpaje- 
BMMa, y KOJMMa jBynjijom yBeK HeMajy noTny- 
Hiije TeopMJCKO 3HaH>e o ;>KMBOTy iriejia, Taxo 
jja cy mm Hecro je/rnHe MH(J)opManMJe M3 
nacoriMca, na CTora m Mopajy 6mtm noTnyHnje 
m jacHiije. H>MMa je HaMeiteH OBaj tckct, moj 
CKpoMaH npujior, y uMiby noTnyHujer pac- 
BeTJbaBaH>a Te BpCTe nnejiapCKe npaicce. 

nocTOJM Buuie HaniiHa npeceji>aBaH>a 
nnena M3 BpuiKe y canayK. 

Ako je poj ca rpaHe yxBaheH y BpuiKy, 
onaa ce y catniyK CTaBe paMOBM, HapaBHO ca 
caTHMM ocHOBaivia, na ce Ha caTOHOuie januM 
Tp3ajeM CTpece poj y canayK. no^cejbHO je jia 
ce y Taj caHjjyK y6au,H paM ca Me^OM h 3ar- 
BOpeHMM jierjiOM M3 jjpyror canayKa, KaKO poj 
He 6h HanycTMO KOuiHMny-caHjjyK. Y obom 
cjiynajy, BofjeH mhctmhktom MaTepMHCTBa, 
Ma/ia je MoryhHOCT jj,a he no6ehM M3 canayKa. 
OB/j,e Tpe6a no/xByhM ^a aico y6auyjeMO Jie- 
rjio, oho o6aBe3HO Mopa 6mtm 3aTBOpeHO, jep 
aKOJepoj "/xpyraK" ca HecnapeHOM MaTMnpM, 
MO^ce jidha jjo y6njaH>a MaTnue. Ho, to je 
noce6Ha TeMa m obom npniiMKOM He 6hx 
iKejieo /ja o TOMe ^eTajbHMJe tobopmm. 
CMeurreH poj y canayK Tpe6a o6aBe3HO npe- 

XpaH>MBaTH. 

MeJyrMM, aKO je Bpiuica nyHa caha, a 
nnejiap, 36or ^ajtHHe nnejiMikaKa hjim Hexor 
jjpyror pa3Jiora, Huje y CMTyaunju ^a npaTM 
pojeH>e nnena, MO>Ke nocTynnTM no onncy M3 
Haconwca "nnejiap", no,0MeTaH>eM canayKa ca 
paMOBMMa n caTHMM ocHOBaMa ncno^ BpuiKe. 

Ako je BpuiKa nyHa caha m iraejia, a Tpe6a 
je npeGanwTM y canayK HMKaKBO M CTpecaH>e" 



He flOJia3n y o63np, Kaxo je nncajio yje^HOM 
HJiaHKy M3 paHMJHx 6pojeBa Hamer Haconnca. 
To ce pajTM OBaKo: nnejie ce y BpniKM ^o- 
6po HaanMe, caneKa ce hckojimko MMHyra, na 
ce noHOBO HajjMMe n tom npHJiMKOM ce Gjiaro 
yaapM HeKOJiMKO nyra no o6oay KOiuHMue ^a 
ce n^ejie Majio Ha^pa>Ke n 6oibe "Hajeay" 
Me^a. Ta^a nocrajy TpOMe n MMpHnje. 
CaneKaMO join hckojimko MMHyra, 3aTMM y3M- 
MaMO BpuiKy M3 yibaHMKa mjim ^pyror MecTa m 
npeHOCMMO je Ha mccto npeceji>aBaH>a. 3a 
je^Hy TpehMHy HM>Ke o/j Bpxa npo6yuiMMO 
BpuiKy Ha rb& MecTa cynpOTHO Ha 
pa3JiMHMTHM BMCMHaMa. Pyne Mopajy 6htm 
npoGymeHe napajiejiHO, ca caheM y Merjyn- 
pocTOpy. npnnpeMJteHM canayK ca oko mecT 
paMOBa ca caTHMM ocHOBaMa CTaBMMO Ha noc- 

TOJte £0 BMCMHe BpUIKe. Y3MMaMO BpuiKy H 

OKpeHeMOJe 3a 180° TaKO /ja H>eH Bpx 6yae ok- 
peHyr Ka 3eMJt»M. OGmuho ce 3a to kopmctm 
CTOJinna 6e3 HacjiOHa - xoKiuma. 

IIlMpM fleo BpuiKe HacjiOHMMO Ha neT6 caH- 
jjyKa TaKO /ja BpuiKa 6yae 6jiaro HarHyra o,a 
canayKa cynpOTHO, 3aTO uito n^ejie o/iMax 
norjy Ha Taj "bmuim" ^eo BpuiKe. CBe npojia3e 
okojio 3aHenMMo napuiaBOM mjim npMrojjHMM 
KpnaMa TaKO o,a ocTaje je^MHM nyr Ka jieTy 
canayKa. no^cejtHO je /aa napne Mejja, on- 
hocho caha ca mcjtom, M3 BpuiKe ojjceueMO m 
CTaBMMO y canayK 36or MMpnca. Kajja cmo 
TaKO M3BpniMJiM CBe HeonxojTHe npnnpeMe, Ha 
HanpaBJteHe OTBOpe BpuiKe CTaBJtaMO Bpx 
AMMMJiMue. Ta^a ynyMnaBaMO jaKe MJia3eBe 
AMMa y3 6jiaro yjiapaibe niTanoM no o6o/jy 
BpuiKe m to on uiMJBKa BpuiKe na HaBnuie. 
Amm m BM6pauMJe ojj, y/iapa pa3jj,pa>Ke nuejie 
Koje ce oceTe yrpo^ceHMM m noHHy MacoBHo jja 
HanyuiTajy CBOJy jj,ocaaauiH>y Kyhy. Haui je 3a- 
/jaTaK jj,a mx ycMepMMO Ka yjia3y y canayK 6jia- 
tmm MJia3eBMMa ^MMa. To CBe ynopHO pajjMMO 
,aoK He npecejiMMO m nocjie/xH>y nnejiy. 



298 



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3aTHM npHCTynaMO yxpajaity cana TaKO 
iuto oniTpHM h r uyraM Ho^ceM ceqeMO Kpajite 
caTOBe h cuaxeMO Ha cto hjih Hexy JjacKy. a 
3aTHM cahe yKpajaivio y paMOBe, Be3yjeMO 
pa(J)HJOM hjih KOHueM h CTaBibaMO y canny*;. 

Cbo cahe ca JierjioM H3 BpniKe o6aBe3HO 
npeHeTH y caHJjyK. Cahe ca mchom yKpoJHTH 
caMO 3/xpaBO h KBajiHTeTHO. On npeocTajior 
caha ca mcjjom 6ojte je hch£jjhth Mejj, Mano ra 
pa36jiaxHTH TonnoM bojjom h npeKO xpa- 
HHJiHue jjaTH rraejiaMa BOJjehn panyHa m to 
jjojjaBaH^e Me^He xpaHe oGaBHMO hito KacHHJe 
y TOKy Be^epH. Thmc no/xcTHHeMO iraejie Ha 
hito Gp^cy H3rpamty jjo/jaTHX caTHHX ocHOBa. 
CBe KpnjbeHe paMOBe ca caheM H3 BpniKe 
Tpe6a nocTeneHO 3aMeHHTH. 

IlojjBJiaqHM jja npeGaqeHy nnejiy y caimyK 
Tpe6a 3aTBOpHTH /isa jjaHa Kaxo 6h Morjia m 
noKpnH cbo cahe h H36erHe rpaGex noroTOBy 
aKO ce Hajia3H y hckom BeneM nnejiHitaKy, jep 
6h mhphc Mejja 6p30 npHByKao TyrjHue. 

Cne/jenn HaHHH npeGauHBaita rraejia H3 
BpuiKe y caH^yK je onHJaiteM iraejia. To ce 



pajjn TaKO hito ce Bpnixa oGaBHJe HapuiaBOM 
ca cbhx CTpaHa, a Ha neiy 3anajiH Maite o/j 
KacJ)eHe KaniHKe Gapyra hjih niajiHTpe, 3aTHM 
ce 3ajjHXTyje h npn^exa kojh MHHyr jja jjhm 
onnje nnejie. 4hm ce nyje najj,aH>e rraejia Ha 
nojjMeTHyra ^apniaB, Majio ce nojjHme BpuiKa 
h GjiarHM yaapaiteM no 060/xy h yMepeHHM 
CTpecan>eM nnejie najjHy Ha *iapinaB. 3aTHM 
ce y3Me KapTOH h MaxHe hckojikko nyra H3Hajj; 
onHJeHHX rraejia, m ce OHe noBpaTe. Oima ce 
nqejie cipecajy y npHnpeMJteHH caHJjyK. 

OBaj Ha^iHH pajja He 6hx npenopynno hh 
jejjHOM nqejiapy, jep je HexyMaH, a Gapja hh- 
caM mime npo^HTao KaKBe HenoBOJBHOCTH no 
n^ejie ocTaBiba obo onnjaite, c o63HpoM h Ha 

IBHXOBy KpaTKOhy XHBOTa. 

Entry 3ajj,OBOJLaH aKO caM ycneo jja obhm 
TeKCTOM ueiteHe nnejiape - no^ieTHHKe jje- 
TajLHHJe HH(J)opMHHieM o obom jjejry nqejiap- 
CKe npaKce, a h cpehaH axo CTe*ieHO 3Haite H3 
obot TeKCTa e(J)HKacHO npHMeHe y cbojoj 
nqejiapcKoj npaxcn. 



299 



nnejiap 1999 



HajrjiaBHHJH TexHOJioiiiKH nocTynun y npoH3BO,zjH»H 
ajiKOxojiHHx nulla Ha 6a3H Meaa 



YBOA 

npeMa HdopHJCKHM h apxeojioinKMM HC- 
Tpa^HBaibHMa h Hana3HMa nnejiapcTBO je 
Bpjio CTapa /lejiaTHOCT nojbonpHBpe,ne. 
3anncH o TOMe Ka3yjy m je Me,n, oji ^aBHHHa 
KopHiuheH Kao xpaHa h JieK h oh H>era ce npo- 
H3BO^HJia ajiKoxojiHa nnna Bpjio npnjaTHor 
MHpHca, yxyca h ^pyrnx CBOjcTaBa. npoH3BO- 
mna ce Me/ioBHHa nocpej,CTBOM Bpejta 
MeniaBHHe Me/ia, Bo^ie h #pyrax cadojaKa. 

Ca BejiHKHM ceoGaMa CnoBeHa ca ceBepa y 
Hanie KpajeBe ^ohcto je ca3HaH>e o Me^oBHHH, 
Kao jiparoueHOM h Gjiaropo^HOM HanHTKy. 
Kofl Pyca obo nnne Tponrajio ce h npn 
CBe^aHOCTHMa y bhcokhm KpyroBHMa, a h koji 
ocTanHX cjioBeHCKHX Hapo^,a 3Hajio ce 3a npo- 
H3BO^H>y h ynoTpeGy OBor npHpo/iHor 
HanHTKa. 

BpeMeHOM ce cnpaBJbaH>e mchobhhc 
ycaBpmaBajio h nocTajio TproBaqxa po6a, o 
neiviy roBope MHora 3anHCH. IlqejiapcTBO je 
Ghjio pa3BHJeHO HapoHHTO ko/i npaBocnaBHor 
CBenrreHCTBa h MaHacrapH cy 6hjih Jiyno- 
Honie HanpeTKa OBe ^enaTHOCTH. 

OrecfraH HeMaita h ^pyra HeMaitHnH cy 
6hhh BejiHKH noGopHHHH rajeita rraejia h 
imejiapcKHX npoH3BO/ja. 

3HaHO je m je OpimpHX I Bap6apoca, y 
BpeMe KpcTainKHX paTOBa, npojia3eftH Kpo3 
Hhiu 6ho ca cbojom bojckom noarryaceH bhhom 
h Me^oBHHOM o,ii CTe<|)aHa HeMaite. Y 
cpe£H>eBeKOBHOj CpGnJH nnejiapH cy 6hjih y 
Bpjio noBJiainheHOM nanoatajy, jep ce MHoro 
nonarajio Ha o6aBJbaH>e OBor KopHCHor no- 
cna. IlHcaHH ROKyMewTH yKa3yjy m cy Ore- 
(J>aH HeMaita, h raeroBH Hacjie^HHHH, MHoro 
yjiarariH Tpyaa #a ce OBa rpaHa nojto - 
npHBpe^He ^ejiaTHOcra hito 6ojLe pa3BHJe. 
JlocToje nHcaHH /ioKa3H o noKJiaibaHy nnejiH- 
H>aKa h oGyneHHX n^enapa H3BecHHM 
HacejLHMa ojx CTpaHe BJiaflajiaua OH£aiHH>e 
CpGnje. M Ll,ap flyuiaH je HacraBHO ca obom 
npaKCOM, CBe ro nponacTH cpncKHX 3eMaiba 
OKynauHJOM TypcKe BJiacTH. 

JloCTOJe nHCaHH H3BOpH H koji ^pyrax 

cjioBeHCKHX Hapoj,a jia je /nmajte h rajeite 
mejia h KopHinneH>e imejiHH>HX npoH3Bo^a 
Ghjio pa3BHJeHO. Y no^iyHaBJLy H3BecHH 



IlpHCK, HCTOpHHap H (J)HJ1030(J) je 448. ro^HHe 

Haine epe, Hanncao H3Benrraj o y3BpafteHoj 
noceTH Bo^e XyHa ATHJie. kojh je HMao 
ce^HiHTe y ^yHaBCKOj kotjihhh, kojom 
npHJiHKOM je 3anHcaHo: "M3 cena cy HaM JbynH 
/Iohochjih xpaHy h yiviecTO aarra npoco, a yMe- 
cto BHHa HanHTaK or Me.ua, KaKO ra Ha3HBajy 
CTaHOBHHUH thx cejia. CBaxaKO ce mhcjihjio 
Ha Me^oBHHy, jep je OBaj rpHKH (J>hjioco(J) 
ynoTpeGno pen ME/],OC, oj;hocho oh je ao- 
/iao oc Kao HacTaBaK pera Me/i, uito je 
yoGHHajeHO y rpHKOM je3HKy. 

y HacejLHMa BejiHKO-MopaBCKe ^pxaBe 
onncaHaje npoH3BO^H5a Me^oBHHe, ziaBHe 913. 
ro^HHe, r^e ce Bejin: "HanHTKe cnpaBJLajy 0^ 
Me^ia h HMa hx MHoro Bpcia. MMa ^HTejba 
kojh HMajy h no cto nocyna Me^oBHHe." y 
3HaK npH3Han>a obom nHhy nocTOJH Ha3HB je#- 
Hora cena, Koje ce 30Be ME^OBMHliE, a Taj 
Ha3HB nocTOJH o^ 1156. TORime. TaKoJe HMa 
MHoro Hapo^HHX H3peKa o ynoTpeGn OBora 
nnha, Kao ihto cy:"Eojbe Bo^a y pa^ocTH Hero 
Me^oBau y ^caiiocTH". 

Jlo3HaTO je ^a MycjiHMaHH He nHJy ajiKO- 
xoji H3 BepcKHX nooyRa na je y BpeMe TypcKe 
BJia^aBHHe yBe^eHa BHCOKa jxaM5una Ha obo 
ajiKoxojiHO nnhe. Pann Tora je nnenapcKa hq- 
jiaTHOCT 3HaTH0 CMafteHa. ^onacKOM 
TpuiHaHor niehepa y MHoroMe je noTHCHyra 
npoH3BO^H>a h noTpoimta Me/ia h n^enapcTBO 
ry6n OHaj 3Ha^aj Kojerje HMano y npeTxo^,- 
hom nepHO/iy, a caMHM thm h npoH3BO^H>a 
ajiKoxojiHor nnha Ha 6a3H Mej,a Gyzie CKOpo 
3aHeMapeHa. 

Bpjio necTO ce Ha CKynoBHMa nnejiapa 
(caBeTOBaHiHMa, npe^,aBaH>HMa h y ^pyrHM 
npHJiHKaMa) Merjy nnenapHMa nocTaBJbajy 
nHTa^a: KaKO ce HajnaKine h Haje- 

KOHOMHHHHJe MOiy KOpHCTHTH Me^, Me^HH 

noKJioniiH, h £pyra ocTaun Mej,a ko^i ueHTpn- 
<J)yrHpaH>a, ^eKpHCTajiH3auHJe, TerjiHpaH>a h 
Ap. JXa 6h ce npoH3Bejio /io6po ajiKoxojiHO 
nnlie. 

- KaKO ce h Ha kojh HaHHH npHMeH>}jy 
caBpeMeHH tcxhojiouikh nocTynuH y npoH3- 
bo,iih>h ajiKOxojiHHx nnha Ha 6a3H Me^ia; uiTa 
cy KBacHe rjBHBHue, ajiKoxojiHa (J>epMeHTa- 
UHJa; KaKO ce yrBprjyje caapxHHa niehepa y 
Me^HOM pacTBOpy h Ha kojh HaHHH; KaKO ce 



271 



nnejiap 1999 



Heryje, *ryBa n ynoTpeGjbaBa OBaj jjap npn- 
po^e. 

Obhm pajjoM y^HiteH je noKyniaj m ce 

H3Hece OHO HajOCHOBHHJe, HajGHTHHJe o 

CBaKOM nocTaBJbeHOM nnraiky h yxa^ce Ha 
TexHOJioniKH nocTynaK h nponec y 
cnpaBibaH^y ajiKoxojiHHX nnna, me ce Kao 

6a3Ha CHpOBHHa KOpHCTH Me#. 

2. Me/i, iberoB cacraa h ceojcTBa 

O n^ejiapcTBy h Mejxy nHcajiH cy miejiapn, 
HayHHHUH, HecHnnn, Jjajynn My bhcoko MecTO 
y rpaHaMa npHBperjHBaifca, ncxpaHn h Jie*ieiky 
Jbyan. TaKo je 3anncaH0 jia je ApHCTOTeji 
H3peicao: "Mej je jjecrajincaHa poca, Koja 
najja ca 3Be3Jia". M3BecHH pycKH Hay^HMK: 
"Hhct n^ejiHHiH mcr je yKpac HajoTMeHHJer 
CTOJia h ejiHKCHp #yror ^HBOTa". 

n^ejia pajjnjinna H3 npHpo^e #ohoch HeK- 

Tap 01 HBeTHHX MeJJOHOCHHX GnjtaKa, 

npeparjyje ra h jjenoHyje y nejrnje MejjHor 
cafta y KoniHnun y kojoj /i03peBa h jjpGnja cboj 
npaBH oGjihk h HMe ME^. M3 OBe KOHcraTa- 
unje npoH3HJia3H 3aKJbyqaK, jja ce nojj MejjoM 
nojjpa3yMeBa cuaTKacTO, rycTO-CHpynacia 
MaTepHJa ojj, TaMHO-MpKe jio 3ejieHKacTO 
Gjie^e 6oje. OBaj Ha3HB Moxe hochth caMO 
npHpo^HO *ihct Me^. Mejj, ce He Moxe HHKaKO 

npOH3BeCTH XeMHJCKHM HJIH HeKHM JJpyTHM 

nyreM, jepje to jjap n^ejie pajjHjrane. OHa My 
jjaje #ynry, Kaxo je to H3peKao ^p Cander 
peKaBinn. "Mejj, HHJe oGnHHa MemaBHHa Ma- 
TepHJa, Ben npon3BO,a KOMe nnejia yjjaxH>yje 
xhbot". 

OBaj MaJIH, H BpJIO Bpe^HH, H KOpHCHH 

ctbop y npHpo/iH, cbojhm opraHHMa yjia3H y 
UBeT Me^oHOCHor Siuta h H3 H>era ca jiua 
HaiHHue y3HMa cjiaTKH cok; OHa ra y3HMa n ca 

JIHCTa, JIHCHHX^pUIKH, qeTHHapCKHX HTJlHLta H 

ncnojj; na3yxa nynojtaKa, MejjHy pocy, H3 
rpoxrja, Bofia h Jjpyrax ^apoBa npnpojxe. 
CaKyrubeHH HeKTap npeparjyje h o^naace y 
cane. OHa caKynibeHH HeKTap join y TOKy 
caKynjbaH>a noHHH>e Aa npeparjyje noMony 
MaTepHJa Koje jryne H>eHH opraHH. J\a 6h npo- 
H3Bena cto rpaMa Me/ia miejia Mopa m caKynn 
TpH nyra BHiue Heicrapa, noceTH CKOpo mhji- 

HOH HBeTOBa. 

npeTBapaH^e HeKTapa y Me# npeTCTaBJba 

BpJIO CJIO^CeH <})H3HOJIOinKH, (J)H3HqKH H 

xeMHJCKH npoiiec. McTepHBaite BOJje, Kojaje 
cyBHHiHa y HeKTapy, npeTBapan>e cjioxeHHX 



rnehepa y3 jjejcTBO KHcejiHHa h (J)epMeHaTa (2) 
kojh Bpnie (HHBepTa3y) pa3Jiaraite cjioxeHnx 
nienepa y npocTe, boIihh h rpoxrjaHH, HacTajy 
MHorocTpyxe npoMeHe h nponecn, KaKO 6h 
HacTao Mejj. HeKTap je pejiaTHBHO 6oraT 
niehepoM, bojjom, MHHepajiHHM MaTepnjaMa, 
GejiaHqeBHHaMa, eTepn*iHHM yjtHMa, Bnra- 
MHHHMa, <J)epMeHTHMa, h Ghjbhhm xop- 

MOHHMa. 

Ilocjie oGaBJbeHor nponeca y CTBapaity 
Mejja, xeMHJCKH cacTaB Mejja npoceraor KBaji- 
HTeTa cajjp^H: 

18% Bo/ie 

4 1 % BoriHor inehepa (4>pyKT03e) 

34% rpoxrjaHor (rjiyK03e) 

1,5% TpnraaHor inehepa (caxap03e) 

5,5% ocTajinx MaTepnja. 

3aBHCHO OJJ H3BOpa CHpOBHHe, JIO- 

KajiHTeTa n Jjpyrax okojihocth, xeMHJCKH cac- 
TaB Mejja ce Meita, Ha nrreTyjejjHor cacTOJKa y 
KopncT ^pyrnx. MejjJMiKa n Me^Ha poca ce 
caKynjta ojj myMCKor, a HapoHHTO neTHHap- 
CKor^pBeha n nnenaje y3HMa n npeparjyje. M3 
obhx H3B0pa jjoGnja ce Mejj npnjaTHor yicyca, 
CKOpo 6e3 MHpnca, TaMHe 6oje kojh je Bpno 
norojjaH 3a ncxpaiiy Jbyzni, naKO ce CBpcTaBa y 
KaTeropnjy JioniHJnx MejjoBa. MejjJBHKa ce jjo- 
6nja h ojj cjiaTKacTHX MaTepnja Koje Jiyne 
HeTHHapn h JTHCTona^HO j,pBehe Ha KojeM cy 
jincHe Bamn, Koje cbojhm pHJiniraMa 3a- 
Go^eHHM y na3yxe Jinmha cncajy npeKOMepHO 
cjiaTKy MaTepnjy H3 jjpBeTa a BnniaK Kanjte h 
nqejie ra cnmy n npepaljyjy y MembWKy (mq- 
^yH,MaHy). 

y npnpo^n je CBe Ha Heicn HannH noBe3aHO 
n y 3aBHCHOCTn. IiHejia caKyraLajyhH HeKTap 
n nojieHOB npax n3 UBeTOBa GnjbaKa Bpmn 
jejjHy Bpno Ba^Hy yjiory y ^CHBOTy GnjtaKa, a 
noceGHO kojj onpainnBaita KyjiTypHor Bona, 
BHHOBe Jio3e, paTapcicnx n noBpTapcioix Kyji- 
Typa. HenponeitHBe cy Bpe^HOCTH OBe yjiore 
miejia y onpamnBaH^y. Onjio/iH)OM UBeTOBa 
cajjp^caj HeKTapa y UBeiy ce Harjio CMaayje. 

Jlo cajja je ncrpaaceHo oko 70 no3HaTnx 
cacTojaKa y Me#y. Ty cy nopea inenepa, op- 
raHCKnx KHcejiHHa, cojih Kajinja, HaTpnjyMa, 
KajmnjyMa, rBo^rja, (J)oc(J)opa, cyMnopa, jojja, 
*iaK h pajjnjyMa. HayqHO je yrBpljeHO jja Me^ 
HMa 6aKrepHHH£HHX ocoGnHa. Kajiopn^iHa 
BpejjHOCT Mejja je Bncoica n ynoperjyjyhn ra ca 

HeKOJIHKO TJiaBHHX XHBOTHHX HaMHpHHUa OH 

30Jia3H y ropfty JiecTBHiry niTO noKa3yjy obh 
nojjaun: 



272 



nnejiap 1999 



y 1 kg uiehepa HMa 4000 KajiopHJa, 1 kg 
Mejja 3150 kal. nuieHHHHO Gpaumo HMa 4100, 
xjieG 2170, roBe^HHa 1330, JiHTap MJiexa 665 
KajiopHJa h tjj. Obh no/jauH roBope o TOMe me 
ce CBpcTaBa Me/i, y JtyacKoj ncxpaHH rjiejraHO 
ca eraHOBHiirra KajiopHHHe Bpe/jHoera, a m 
He roBopHMO o jjpyraM CBpjcTBHMa Koje Me£ 
HMa. 

3. O^pe^MBaibe uiehepa y Mejjy 

Ca^pxaj uiehepa y Mejxy jecTe jejiaH or 
niaBHHX (J>aKTOpa kojh KapaKrepHiuy Tex- 

HOJIOIHKy Bpe/IHOCT Me/ia, KOJH Ce KOpHCTH 3a 

npoH3BOJjH>y ajiKoxojiHHX nnha. BaxHO je 
o/jpe/jirra cajxp^KHHy uiehepa h npeMa iteMy 
yrBp^HTH nocTynaK ajiKoxojme <j>epMeHTa- 
UHJe npaTHTH tok npoueca Bpeita h Jjpyrax 
36HBaH>a y npeTBapaity uiehepa y eTmiajiKO- 
xoji h yraeH jxhokchji,, Kao rnaBHe npo/jyKTe 
Bpeita. 

llope/i JiaGopaTopHJCKor HcnHTHBaita 
nocTpje h Jjpyra HaHHHH ojjperjHBaita 
caap^HHe uiehepa. CBaKaKO m je OBa MeTO/ja 
Hajnoy3^aHHJa h iwnnija. Y npaxcn ce 
KOpHCTH T3B. MexaHH*iKa MeTOJja no kojoj ce 
HcniiTHBaifce BpuiH, a OHa ce 6a3Hpa Ha 
yrBprjHBaHiy rycTHHe Te*mocTH. UIto je 
rycTHHa Beha to je cneuH^HUHa TeaoiHa 
MepeHe MaTepnje ca BehHM nponeHTOM 
uiehepa. Cneinic^HqHa Te^oiHa je 6poj kojh 
noica3yje kojihko je HeKa MaTepnja, y obom 
cjryqajy Me^. TexH on Here 3anpeMHHCKe 
KOJiHUHHe Bojxe. Ako je cneiuKJM^Ha Te^HHa 
Mejja 1.036 rpaMa, to 3Haun jja jejiaH JiHTap 
Mejja HMa 1.036 gr. Kojj Tora ce Mopa bojjhth 
panyHa jja MepeHa MaTepnja 6yzie uito hhc- 
THJa, 6e3 CTpaHHX npHMeca h ca TeMnepaTy- 
poM 03Ha*ieHOM Ha Mepa^ry. Mepeite ce Bpuin: 

- UIHpOMepHMa H 

- pyHHHM pe(f)paKTOMeTpOM. 

LUiipoMepii cy cnpaBe Koje ce KopHCTe y 
TexHOJioniJH npoH3BO#H>e BHHa, me ce Kao ch- 
poBHHa kophcth uiHpa (TeHHH jxeo rpoxrja) 
no KOMe cy OBe cnpaBe jjoGmie hmc To cy, 
cnpaBe, Koje Ha 6a3H rycTHHe TeuHOCTH, 
noMaacyjja ce ojjpe/XH cajjpxaj uiehepa, a cac- 
Toje ce ojj 3aTBOpeHe CTaKJieHe ueBH ca 
yrparjeHOM CKanoM Ha ropH>eM jjejry Ha kojoj 
ce ouHTaBa cajnmaj uiehepa hjih 6poj, kojh ce 
npeKO npopa^ryHa y3HMa, m 6h ce HcmiTH- 
BaH>eM jjoGho npoueHaT uiehepa y tc*ihocth 
Kojy MepHMO. 3apoH>eH niHpoMep y UHJiHimap 



ca ojjperjeHOM MaTepnjoM y kojoj ce ncnHTyje 
cajxpacHHa uiehepa , iuTHBajyhH noKa3yje 
Ta^Hy KOJiHHHHy uiehepa a noMohy 
npoqHTaHor 6poja ce H3Hajia3H npoueHaT 
ajiKoxojia. Koji, Hac cy y ynoTpeGn jjBe BpcTe 
obhx cnpaBa: Ekcjiob h Ba6oB niHpoMep. 
(ciiHKa 1). Ekcjiob uinpoMep je jjoera npe- 







1- 


i 1 » 


r 


1 1 


1 


'J \ 


1 3 


j 



to J 

UH3HHJH h y Behoj je ynoTpeGn ojj BaGoBor. 
Oh je nojjeuieH jja pajxn Ha npoceuHoj TeM- 
nepaTypH ojj, +15°C h aKO je TeMnepaTypa 
Beha hjih Malta oiuja ce BpuiH KopeKTypa, 
TaKO m ce 3a CBaKHX 5 CTeneHH H3Hajj, hjih hc- 
nojj OBe rpaHHiie ojj + 15 KopHiyje TaKO #a 
ojjy3HMa hjih Jjojjaje 1 Ekcjiob CTeneH. 

Koji BaGoBor uiHpoMepa, kojh je koh- 
CTpyncaH 3a Mepeite Ha +17,5°C, ce 3a CBaiarx 
2,5 J4eji3HJycoBa CTeneHa o/jGnja, aKO je TeM- 
nepaTypa Beha 0,1, a npnpojjaje aKoje Bnuia 
oji; HopMajie. OuHTaBaite ce Mopa paBHO-xo- 

pH30HTaJIHO nOCMaTpaTH Ca nOBpUIHHOM 

pacTBOpa kojh ce MepH. (cjiHKa 2). 




to. 2 - Jieeo - EaQoe luupojuep 
decHO- HumatheuiupOMepa 

Ea6oB uinpoMep (cji. 3) - KoHCTpyncaH je 
TaKO jja je Ha iteMy nocTaBJteHa CKajia TaKO 
jxa ce ojjjviax OHHTaBa npoueHaT uiehepa, ojj- 



273 



rtnejiap 1999 




Cji. 3 neeo - Odpefyueatbe mefiepa u cm- 

itiKpunne meoicuHey wupu, decuo - 

KaocmepHey6ypuiKU uiupoMep ca 

m epMOMempoM 



hocho kojihko kg mefiepa HMa y 100 kg pacT- 
BOpa KOJH ce Mepn, axo je Mepen>e Ha HOpMaji- 
Hoj CKajiH. flo6MJeHM pe3yjnaT npeTCTaBJta 
canp^aj Ha ochoby Kojer ce Moxe M3pa<iyHaTM 
kojihko fie OBaj pacTBOp MMaTH, nocjie ajiKO- 
xojiHor BpeH>a, eTHJiajiKOxojia. Oh y ce6n HMa 
yrpa^eH TepMOMeTap. Ekcjiob uiMpOMep - je 
Bpjio cjiMnaH Ba6oBOM ajiM Ha H>eroBOJ CKajiM 
ce He MCKa3yje npoueHaT mefiepa, Befi 6poj 
kojh ce npeKO npepanyHaBa m /jo6HJa 
ca/ip^cHHa mefiepa m ajiKoxojia. Oh 
npaKTMHHO noKa3yje rycTMHy Te^HOCTH, ko- 
jihko je MepeHa MaTepnja rymfia mjih pef)a ojx 
BOije. IloMofiy OBor mnpoMepa, mijaje CKajia 
TaKO nojjemeHa, MO^ce ce npeuH3HMJe 
o^pejjHTM oaroBapajyfin nponeHaT mefiepa m 
ajiKoxojia. M Ha obom mnpOMepyje yrpaljeH 
TepMOMeiap ca CKajiOM (cji. 4). 

3a ynoTpe6y mnpOMepa 3a H3Hajia>KeH>e 
cammaja mefiepa nociyna ce oBaKo: CTaK- 
jieHH HHJiHHaap ce HanyHH ca pacTBopOM kojh 



Ta6jiuu,a 3a u3Hajiad§eeme wehepa y wupu (epaMa uiehepa y 100 cm 3 uiupe) 
u odeoaapajyhee npou,enma uakoxoau y 6ydyheM euny na ocnoey 

Eucjioeux cmenenu 



m es 


Omoua 


pajyhn 


_ 5 


Oarona 


paJyfiM 




Qiiroea 


paJyhH 


■S3 '""' 

5 g 


upon 
uiebepa 


eiiar 


UJ u 


irpou 
njehepa 


euax 


EG ■■- 

2 s 


npoueaai 


a.ittoxDJta 


uiehepa 


a-TKO- 

xoiia 


60 


J 3,0 


7,8 


82 


18,8 


11,0 


104 


24,7 


14,6 


61 


13,2 


7,8 


83 


19,1 


11,2 


105 


25,0 


14,7 


62 


13,5 


7,9 


84 


19,4 


11,4 


106 


25,2 


14,9 


63 


i^a 


BJ 


85 


19,6 


i La 


107 


25,5 


15,0 


64 


14,0 


8,4 


86 


19,0 


11,7 


108 


25,8 


15,2 


65 


14,3 


8.4 


87 


20,2 


11,9 


109 


26,0 


15,3 


66 


14,6 


8-6 


88 


20,4 


12.0 


110 


26,3 


15,5 


67 


J 4,8 


8,7 


59 


20,7 


12,2 


in 


26,6 


15,7 


68 


15,1 


8,9 


90 


21,0 


12.3 


112 


26,8 


15,9 


69 


15,4 


Sfl 


91 


21,2 


12,5 


113 


27,1 


16,0 


70 


U5,G 


9.2 


92 


21,5 


12,6 


114 


27,4 


iti,2 


71 


15,9 


9,3 


93 


21,8 


12,8 


115 


27,6 


16,3 


72 


16,2 


9,5 


94 


22,0 


12,9 


116 


27,9 


16,4 


73 


1M 


9,6 


95 


22.3 


13.1 


117 


28.2 


16,6 


74 


1C.7 


9,8 


96 


22,6 


13,3 


H8 


28,4 


16,7 


75 


17,0 


10,0 


37 


22,8 


13,4 


119 


28,7 


JC9 


76 


17,2 


10.1 


98 


23,1 


13,6 


120 


29,0 


17,1 


77 


17,5 


10,3 


99 


23,4 


13,8 


121 


29,3 


17,3 


78 


17,8 


10,5 


100 


23,6 


13.9 


122 


29,5 


17.4 


79 


18,0 


10,6 


ira 


23,9 


14,1 


123 


29,8 


17,6 


80 


18,3 


10,8 


102 


24,2 


14,3 


124 


30,1 


17,8 


SI 


18,6 


10,9 


103 


24,4 


14,4 









274 



n^ejiap 1999 




Cmaejbatbe 

uiupojnepay muiun- 

dap 



IUMPOMEPH 

6e3 ca 

mepMOMempoM 



Cji.5 



ce MepH, CTaBH Ha paBHO nocTOJbe y BonopaB- 
hom nojio^cajy, 3aTHM ce innpoMep, nycTH ^a 
nonaKO 3apoHH y HHJiHHAap, BOAeftn npn TOMe 
panyHa Aa ce He AOAHpHe aho h 3haobh hhjihh- 
upa.' 3 ' KaAa ce uiHpoMep yMHpH, na^ubHBO ce 
npoHHTa creneH ao Kora je yroHyo. YparjeHe 
cy Ta6nHLte noMony kojhx ce JiaKine h 6p^ce 
flonasH ao npoueHTa inenepa h 6yzryner 
ca^p^caja ajiKoxona. (cjiHKa 5). 

PymH pe<j)paKTOMeTap - To je cnpaBa 
noMofty Koje ce Bpjio 6p30 H3Hajia3H 
ca^p^cHHa inenepa. (3h je jeAHOCTaBaH 3a 
ynoTpeGy n Mo^ce ce kophcthth 3a ynopeAHO 
Mepeite. CacTOJH ce on jeAHOicpaTHe hhjihh- 
APHHHe h Ay^HHCKe ueBH Ha HHj'eM je Kpajy 




Ca. 6. - PyuHu petppaicmoMemap 

yrparjeHO oKyjiapHO cohhbo, a Ha ApyroM 
Kpajy CTaKJieHa npH3Ma ca noicionuHneM. Ha 
bhahom noiby Hajia3H ce cicana ca noAeonnMa 
kojh noKa3yjy rycTHHy tchhocth, Ha ocHOBy 
kojhx BejiHHHHa ce AOJia3H ao npoueHTa 
uiehepa. HMa pe^paKTOMeTpa Ha KOJHMa ce 
OAMax OHHTaBa npoueHaT inenepa. Hciihth- 
BaH>e ce Bpmn TaKO, Aa ce Ha CTaKJieHy 
npH3My CTaBJba hckojihko icann pacTBopa 
MeAa, npeKpHJe noKJionneM, OKpeHe npeMa 
CBeTJiocTH h nociviaTpa Kpo3 OKyjiap. TaAa ce 
Ha bhahom nojby BHAe TaMHa h CBeTJia nojta h 
OHHTaBa BpeAHOCT. ITpoHHTaH 6poj ce mhoxh 
ca Koe(J)HHHJeHTOM 0,85 h Ao6nje npoireHaT 
uiehepa. Ca h>hm ce Jiaxo pyxyje h 6p30 ob- 
jiaAa H>eroBO KopHinneH>e. 

(HacTaBaK y HAyheM 6pojy ca peuenrHMa 
3a cnpaBJbaite MeAOBHHe) 

1) HEKTAP: BoacaHCTBeHO nHhe. mcahhk, MeA- 
HHua y HBeTy; cjiaAaK h ocBe^caBajynH Kao Heicrap; 
HeKTapHJyM rp. 6ot. mcahhk. MeAHHua y HBeny. 

2) OEPMEHTH JiaT. Ferment, KBac. KHacaij. 
CHTHa rjbHBnua Koja H3a3HBa Bpen>e. 

OepMeHTaunja JiaT. Bpeite. npeBHpaite. 
ycKHnntaBaHje (npon;ec kojhm ce mehcp npeTBapa y 

aJTKOXOA) 

3) MEH3YPA JiaT. anoTeicapcKa CTaKJieHa no- 
cyna 3a Mepeite tchhocth. 



275 



n^ejiap 1999 

HajrjiaBHHJH TexHOJioniKH nocTynijH y npoH3BOAH>H 
ajiKoxojiHHX iraha Ha 6a3H Me/ja 



(HacTaBaK H3 nponuior 6poja) 



YMepeHH caapxaj yKynHHx KHcejiHHa y ch- 
Pobhhh 3a Bpeite noBOJLHO yrHHe Ha paa bhh- 
CKor KBacua. Beftn npoueHaT ycnopaBa h 
HenoBoibHO j,ejTyje Ha npouec Bpen>a. 

Bhhckh KBacau je HapoHHTO oceTJBHB Ha 
Mano npHcycTBO cnpneTHe KHcejiHHe . 
OTexaHO Bperae HacTyna h Ka^aje npoueHaT 
ajiKoxona Beta o,n, 15%. 

MHora mhhhouh ycjioBJLaBajy ycneniHy 
<j>epMeHTaHHJy, Kao uito cy: ToiuioTa, Ba3#yx, 

BHHCKH KBacaU, npHCyCTBO CyMnOp ^HOKCH^a 

h ca^pxHHa iuehepa. TeMnepaTypa o^ 15 ^io 
18°C HajnoBoibHHJe yrane Ha pa3Boj h pa3- 
MHoacaBaite BHHCKor KBacua h Bpmeite H>e- 
roBe yjiore y ajiKoxojiHoj <J)epMeHTauHJH. Y 
thm ycjioBHMa OHeMoryhyje ce paj iHTeTHHX 
MHKpoopraHH3aMa, 6yrjH, MJienHO-KHcejiHX 
GaKrepHJa h jip. Tlon OBaKBHM ycjioBHMa npo- 
uec BpeH>a npcuyxeHO Tpaje, HHMe ce 
HCKiby^iyje nojaBa MaHa h KBapeita Me^oBHHe. 
CMan>yje ce npouec OKCH,na3e. npoH3BO£ ce 
jiaKine h Gojte CTaGnmoyje, *ryBa h Heryje. 

OepMeHTauHJa ce MCOKe oGaBJtaTH y ot- 
BopeHOM h 3aTBOpeHOM Ba3/iyHiHOM npoc- 
Topy. Bpeite y 3aTBOpeHOM npocTopy HMa 
npe/iHOCT nan BpeiteM y OTBOpeHOM. 
OcraBjteHB OTHpa^ateH npocTop y cyny y 
KOMe ce npeBHpaH>e o^BHJa. BpeiteM ce hc- 
nyHH yrjteH ^hokch^om (racoM), kojh koh- 
TpojiHcaHO noceGHHM KaHajiHMa o^Jiasn Ha- 
nojbe. Oh Bpinn h yjiory KOH3epBaTopa cjio- 
Go^hot npocTopa. 36or Tora ce Ha Gypa^HMa 



Bojucnae BacKoeuh, Beoepad 

CTaBJLajy cneuHJajiHH BpH>eBH 3a npeBHpaite 
(buhh cji. 7). hjih rac o^bo^h noceGHHM upe- 
BHMa npeKO Bo^e Hanoibe. 

Bhhckh KBacau* npeacraBJba xhbh 
opraHH3aM y npnpo/iH. Y3 #o6ap KBacau Ha- 
jia3HMO h MHore #pyre Man>e KopHCHe. Ojx 
MHoroGpoJHHX bhhckhx KBacaua 3a Hac je 

Haj60JBH H HaJHHTepecaHTHHJH eJIHnTHHHH 

oGjihk (saharomices eliptoideus). OBaj ce 
KBacau noceGHHM nocTynKOM o^Baja h onraja 
h CTaBJba y ynoTpeGy. floGap bhhckh KBacau 
je ^HCTa KyjiTypa o^aGpaHHX, Koja je cno- 

COGHa Jl2i y HOpMaJlHHM yCJIOBHMa CTBOpH 

HaJBehn npoueHaT - caap^caj ajiKoxona. Oh ce 
HajycnemHHJe HJe^HoeraBHHJe o^raja y BpeMe 
nyHe TexHOJioniKe 3pejiocTH bhhckot rpoacrja. 
Taj ^ejiHKaTaH h CTpyqan nocao oSaBJtajy 
cneuHJajiH30BaHe HaynHe ycTaHOBe (eHO- 
noniKe CTaHHue) Koje cnpeMJteH bhhckh 
KBacau CTaBJbajy y npoMeT. HaGaBKOM 
OBaKBor KBacna h npH#p;ataBaH>e ynyrcTBa 3a 
H>eroBy ynoTpeGy BejiHKa je npeTnocTaBKa h 
cnrypHOCT ycneniHe npoH3BO,n,H>e Mej,OBHHe. 

O^MepeHa KOJinqHHa BHHCKor KBacua ce 
cnna y cyii y KOMe ce Bpeite oGaBJta, #o6po 
H3Menia ca chpobhhom h irycTH #a Bpeite 
Bpmn cBojy ynory. CyaoBH ce ocTaBJtajy 3a 
je^Hy neTHHy OTnpaxH^eHH, jep ce TeMnepa- 
Typa CHpoBHHe BpeH>eM noBehaBa, CTBapajy ce 



* Bhhckh KBacau ce Moace KynmH y Ehojioiukoj 
craHHUH y Bpmuy. 











Ca. 7 - Bpaibeeu 3a epeme 



303 



nnejiap 1999 



racoBH (yrjteH^HOKCHu), cnpoBHHa neHH. Ha 
otbop cyna CTaBJta ce Bpait 3a Bpeite h THMe 
ce cnpe^aBa npncycTBO KHceoHHKa H3 
Baijxyxa. 3a Maite cyiioBe ynoTpeGjtaBajy ce 
npoGynieHH BpaiteBH ca CTaKJieHHM hjih 
ruiacTH^HHM ueBHMa 3a ojiboji raca Kp03 Bo/iy 
Hanojbe. Obhm HaqHHOM ro6hj?l ce Bpeite 6e3 
npHcycTBa Ba3^yxa y 3aTBOpeHOM npocropy 
HHMe ce ocTBapyje npej,HOCT OBaKBor BpeH>a 
nan OTBOpeHHM. CMaityje ce OKCH#a3a, ry6H- 
TaK apoMaTHHHHX h MHpHCHHX MaTepnja, 
noeraate ce Befta pacTBOpJBHBOCT ynbeHe 
KHcejiHHe, na npoH3Bo,a ocTaje ,nyxe cBe^c h 
npHJaTHHJer ycKyca h HMa Hiracy pH Bpe^HOCT, 
nHhe ce JiaKiue o6pafjyje, Goibe uyBa h Heryje. 

Cyivmop ahokch/1 (S0 2 ) 

y nponecy ajiKoxojme 4>epMeHTaHHJe cyM- 
nop rwokcwji Hipa BaxHy yjiory h 6e3 H>ero- 
BOI HpHcycTBa ce He Moxe 3aMHCJiHTH caBpe- 
MeHa BHHH(J)pHKaLiHJa. Yhoch ce y CHpoBHHy y 
BHiiie oGjiHKa (TenaH, racoBHT h y Bimy 
KpHCTajia). HajpacnpocTpaH>eHHJH h HajnpHK- 
najiHHJH je KpHCTajiHH oGjihk - KajiHJyM MeTa- 
6Hcyji(J)HT (BHHoGpaH), KpJH je 3a npaKcy 
HajGoibe cpe^cTBO. Oh ce y chpobhhh pacr- 
Bapa h ocjioGarja rac-cyMnop jxhokciw- Je/iaH 
rpaM KajiHJyM MeTa6Hcyji(J)HTa j,aje nona 
rpaMa cyMnop jmoKcum. YnoTpeGibaBa ce y 
kojihhhhh or 10 £0 30 rpaMa Ha cto JiHTapa 
CHpoBHHe. Ca ^o^aBaH>eM OBora cpe^cTBa 
noeraace ce: nnha cy CBeTjraje 6oje, npHKJiaa- 
HHJer h (J)HHHJer ycxyca, Be3HBan>eM ca KHceo- 
hhkom cnpe^aBa ce pa# ihtcthhx MHKpoop- 
raHH3aMa. cjiyacn Kao cpe/icTBO npH cejieK- 
UHJH BHHCKor KBaciia, noenrae Beta peajiHH 
auH^HTeT h eKcrpaT h Kao aKuenTop 4 KHceo- 
HHKa cnpeuaBa OKCimaHHJy. Ha/iajte cjiyacn 
Koa ^eKaHTHpaH^a' (npeTxo^Hor Tajio^ceH>a) 
CHpoBHHe Kana ce y3HMa ,1103a or 15 £0 30 
rpaMa Ha 100 JiHTapa. Cpe^cTBo ce npeTxanHo 
HCHTHH-caMejbe h pacTBOpH y bo^h h omia 
ynoTpeGn. 

Ca;ip>KMHa uiehepa 

KoHLteHTpauHJa uiehepa y chpobhhh 3a 
npoH3BO£H>y Me^ioBHHe yraue Ha (J>yHKHHJy 
BHHCKor KBacua h tok Bpe^a. Bpeite ce 
HajGojte cnpoBoj,H Kaaaje cpe^HHa on 15 jio 
20 npoueHaTa uiehepa. y cpe^HHH ca npeico 
25 npoueHaTa Bpeite je OTexaHO h ,nyxe 



Tpaje. 36or Tora ce npHJiHKOM npnnpeMaita 
CHpoBHHe 3a npoHSBO^H^y ycKJiarjyje o^hoc 
KOJinqHHe Me.ua h zipyrHX CHpoBHHa h cacro- 
jaxa, no^euiaBa Ha 15 ro 25 npoueHaTa. 



CnPEMAHiE PACTBOPA-CHPOBHHE 
3A nPOH3BOflH>y 

npiinpeivia ciipOBiiiie 

3a npoH3BO,iiH>y ajiKoxojiHHX nnha Ha 6a3H 
Me#a KopHCTe ce hhct Me# ^oGnjeH H3 HeK- 
Tapa pa3HOBpcHor Me^oHOCHor Giuta, o^i Koje 
ce tfoGnja HaJKBajiHTeTHHJa cnpoBHHa 3a npo- 
n3B0jxtby Me^oBHHa h £pyrax ajiKoxojiHHX 
nnha. Mo^ce ce kophcthth h mqh H3 TproBHH- 
cKe Mpeace, mcr Me^jtHKOBau h mgr on Mejme 
poce. Me,o;HH noKJioniui, HapoHHTO ohh ca 
ZieBHuaHCKor caha, Bpjio cy uotohhh 3a OBy 
HaMeHy. IloceGHO aKO ce xejiH npoH3BecTH 
nnhe ca ochobhhm h KapaKTepHCTHUHHM 
oco6HHaMa Me^a. 

Koji cnpaBJbaHja CHpoBHHe-KJbyKa 3a npo- 
H3BO^H5y jecTHJiaTa 6 KopHCTe ce mqjiobh 
HHxe Kjiace. ocTaun o^ ^ieKpHCTajiH3aiiHJe, 
pacTBOpH npH pa3JiHBaH5y h Me/iHH noKJionun 
CTapor h TaMHor caha. 

MaTepHJan 3a cnpeMaH^e CHpoBHHe Mopa 
6hth qncT, 3j,paB h 6e3 npHMeca h HeuncToha, 
a noceGHO m HHJe 3axBaheH H3BecHHM npoiie- 
com KBapeH>a. BennaHKO apoMaTH30BaHH 
mqjx h mqjx ca KOH3epBaHCHMa HHJe no^iecaH 3a 
npepany. TaKorje, HHJe no^oGaH Me^, axo je 
koji npHxpaH^HBaHia KopHinheHO oiuiaBJLeHO 
MJieKO. CnpaBJLaH>e pacTBOpa OTe^aBa h ch- 
poBHHa on nperpejaHor Mem npHJiHKOM 
7ieKpHCTajiH3auHJe, jep oh cbojhm cacraBOM 
peMeTH pH Bpe^HOCTH, Me^ je ^erpajHpaH h 

HHHH TOKCHHHy Cpe^HHy 3a pafl BHHCKOr 

KBacua. 

y npnnpeMH pacTBOpa yrBprjyje ce h 
ca^pxHHa uiehepa Ha Hanpe/i onncaHH HaHHH, 
no KOMe ce o/iperjyje o^ihoc Me^a, Bo/ie h ^py- 
rnx cacTojaxa. CBorjeH>e ce h3bo/ih TaKO m ce 
caap^caj Kpehe oa 17 ^o 25 npoueHaTa. 

CnpaBJbeHa MeuiaBHHa ce CTaBJba ^a 
npoKJLyqa npH ueMy ce Ha noueTKy ciama bo- 
cax, h neHa ca GejiaHueBHHacTHM h CMOJiac- 
thm MaTepHJaMa h HeuncToha. 3a OBy HaMeHy 
y3HMaTH CBexy KHnuoury, 3aTHM rpa^cKy, na 
H3B0pcicy h GyHapcicy Bojy. HacTojehn m 
bom HMa uito MaH>e KajiiiHJyM KapGoHaTa h 



304 



nnejiap 1999 



Jjpynix cojih. PacTBOp ce KyBa y eMajjinpaHHM 
cyaoBHMa hjih KajiancaHHM Ka3aHHMa, a 
HajSojbe je aico ce Mory kophcthth Ka3aHH ojj; 
npoxpoMqejiHKa, kojh ce ynoTpeGjtaBajy y 
npexpaMGeHoj HHjrycTpHJH. Kajja pacTBOp 
npoKftyna h npouejiii , MepeiteM ce npo - 
BepaBa h yrBprjyje cTBapHH cajjjmaj mehepa. 
PacxjiarjeHH pacTBOp - cnpoBHHa pa3JiHBa ce y 
cyjjoBe 3a Bpeite h jjo/jaBaiteM KBacua HacTaje 
npouec (J)epMeHTauHJe. 

Kajja ce Kao jjojjaTaK chpobhhh kophcth 
rpoadjaHH cok (imrpa) oHjja ce ojjperjyje 
npaBHJiaH ojjhoc y chpobhhh, BOJjeta pa^ryHa 
jja npoueHaT iuehepa Gyjje y onTHMajiHHM 
rpaHHuaMa. Bhhcko rpo^e Tpe6a jja Gyzje y 
nyHoj TexHOJiouiKoj 3pejiocTH. 3/xpaBO, 6e3 

He^HCTOha H OJJ KBaJIHTeTHHX BHHCKHX COpTH 

rpoxfja. 

Ako ce xejiH npoH3BecTH oGojeHa Mejjo- 
BHHa. OHJja ce y3HMajy oGojeHe copTe rpoxrja, 

Ca pyXH^aCTOM, HpBeHOM HJIH HpHOM 6ojoM. 

Tpox^aHH cok (iHHpa) ce ojjMax no 
MyjbaH>y cyMnopmne ca 10 jj;o 20 rpaMa KajiH- 
jyM MeTa6Hcyji(J)HTOM Ha cto JiHTapa innpe. 
Kojj HaTpyjior rpox^a Jj03a cyMnopHcaite ce 
HeiHTO noBeftaBa. lllnpa ce H3Jiaxe jjeKaHTH- 
paity nocjre *iera ce Meuia ca MejTHHM pacTBO- 

pOM. 

YMecTO CBexer rpoxrja kophcth ce no- 
HeKajj h cyBO rpoxrje, Koje cajjpaoi Beta npo- 
uenaT mehepa h CMaiteHH cajjpxaj KHcejiHHa. 
TaKBO rpoxrje ce npeTxojjHO rite™ - jjpoGn h 
npoxyBaBa ca jjojjaTKOM noTpeGHHX 
KHcejiHHa. 

npouec Bpe^a HajGojte ce ojjJBHJa Kajjaje 
TeMnepaTypa cnpoBHHe ojj 15 %o 22° C y 
nojjpyMHMa ca HeiHTO hhxom TeMnepaTypoM. 

Ilpoucc ariKoxojrae 4>ep]vieiiTauiije 

Kajja ce H3BpniH cnpeMaite cnpoBHHe ojj; 
^HCTor Mejja hjih ca jjojjaTKOM MeinaBHHe ca 
rpo^aHHM cokom h o6e36ejj,e cbh noTpeGHH 
npejjycjioBH h pajjite , (J)epMeHTauHJa he 
orao^eTH. Pa3BojeM h pa3MHo;>KaBaH>eM bhh- 
CKor KBacua noBehaBa ce TonjioTa, HacTaje 
CTBapaite ajiKoxojia h ynteHe KHcejiHHe (raca 
C0 2 ) iuto ce 03HanaBa Kao noneTHO Bpeite. 
HeniTO KacHHJe HacTaje 6ypHO h Ha Kpajy 
thxo, Koje Hajnyace Tpaje. L[eo npouec Bpeita, 
no/i noBOJBHHM ycjioBHMa, Tpaje Hejjejty jj,Be 
jjaHa. Jlocjie OBor BpeMeHa Bpeite ce CTHinaBa 
h HacTaje Tajioxen>e MaTepnja Koje HacTajy 



<J)epMeHTaHHJOM. TeMnepaiypa ce nocTeneHO 
CMaityje h npnGjinacaBa TonjioTH npocTopHJe 
y kojoj ce Bpeite 36hjio. HacTaje cnoHTaHO 
MexaHHHKO GncTpeite h Tajio;>KeH>e. KBacau 
npecTaje jj,a pajjH, H3yMpJie ntHBHue najjajy 
Ha jjho cyna h 4>epMeHTauHJa je oKomaHa. 

IIpoM3BOJjjba jjecTHjiaTa 

riociynaK npnnpeMe CHpoBHHe-KJbyKa 3a 
npoH3BO^H^y jjecTHJiaTa je HJjeHTiraaH hjih 

CKOpO CJIHHaH npHnpeMH CHpOBHHe 3a npOH3- 

BOJjH>y Me^oBHHe. Y npnnpeMJbeHH pacrBop 
Mejja, BOJje h rpo^rjaHor coKa h Jjpyrax cacTO- 
jaKa ce eraBJba bhhckh KBacau h nojjBpraBa 
ajiKoxojiHoj (J>epMeHTauHJH, c a thm ihto ce 
OBJje Mory ynoTpeGnra h Bene kojihhhhc 
innpe, na naK h pa3Hor Bona, npouec Bpeita 
he ce ojjBHJaTH y 3aBHCHOCTH ojj jjaTHX ycjioBa. 

^ecTHjiauMJa 

flecTHJiauHJa, 7 hjih KaKO ce oGhhho Kaace, 
neneH>e paKHJe, npeTCTaBJta npouec y KojeM 
ce nocjie 3aBpmeHor BpeH>a jjecTHJianHOHHM 
anapaTHMa-Ka3aHHMa Bpme npoMeHe arpe- 
raTHor CTaH>a 3arpeBaHe tc^hocth. 3arpe- 
Baite Ka3aHa h KTbynaH^e KJtyKa y Ka3airy hc- 
napaBa BOJjeHO-ajiKoxojiHa napa h npeKO koh- 
jje3aT0pa (xjiajjHe BOJje) Kpo3 Kojy ueBHMa 
OBa napa npojia3H, jjojia3H jjo 3rpymH>aBaH>a h 
CTBapaH>a tchhocth. npoH3BOJj OBor npoueca 
Ha3HBa ce flECTHJIAT. flecrajiaT je y 
noneTKy ca Majio BehHM npoueHTOM ajiKO- 
xojia, jja 6h Ha Kpajy 6ho ca Bpjio MajiHM 
cajjpxajeM ajiKoxojia. JlpBeHau ce H3JjBaja, a 
iuto ce hhhh h ca npoH3BOJjoM npH Kpajy jjec- 
THJiaunje. y TOKy jjecTHJiauHJe cpejJHimtH jjeo 
je HaJBehn h ca npoceraoM ja^HHOM ojj 45 jjo 
50 CTeneHH ajiKoxojia. 

3a jjecTHJiauHJy KopHCTe ce paKHJCKH Ka- 
3aHH (ajiaMGnun) H3pa5eHH ojj 6aKpa, koh- 
CTpyncaHH ca njiHTKHM jjhom, MemajiHHpM jja 
ce jjecTHJiaunja neneHie ihto 6pxe h npaBHJi- 
HHJe H3BpniH. Ka3aHH ce nyHe jjo jjee TpehHHe 
3anpeMHHe h yMepeHHM JioxeiteM BaTpe 3a- 
rpeBaH^eM jjojia3H jjo jjecTHJiaunje. TeMnepa- 
Typa BOJje y KOHJje3aTopy (TaGapun) ojjpxaBa 
ce y pacxjiarjeHOM CTaH>y h jjecTHJiaT H3Jia3H 
ca TeMnepaTypoM o^ oko 1 7 CTeneHH. 
neqeH^e Tpaje 3 jjo 5 caTH, ihto 3aBHCH ojj, ch- 
poBHHe Koje ce jjecTHJiHine, KOHCTpyKunje Ka- 
3aHa, 3arpeBaH>a h jjp. HHHHJiaua. 



305 



n^ejiap 1999 



floGiijeH ^ecTHJiaT ce Moxe npeneftn h 
nocTHnn join 6ojlh KBajiHTeT. flecTHJiaT je, 
HHa^e, 6c36ojaH, MarjiH^acTe 6oje, oniTpor 
yxyca h JXHCKpeTHor MHpHca. Ilocjie 
ojiJiexaBaita y xpacroBHM 6ypajjHMa jjecra- 
jiaT^oSHJa CBpj KBajiHTeT, CBOjy nyHohy, yKyc, 
MHpHC h neny 6ojy. Eypajj npaBJbeHa oji xpa- 
CTa (Cverkus pendikulata h Cverkus sesili- 
flora) cy HaJ3axBajiHHJa h nojjecHHja 3a 
o#pxaBaH>e h CTapeite flecrajiaTa, jep flecra- 
naT Tana nonpHMa TaHHHCKe. cMOJiacie h 
jjpyre MaTepHJe h AOCTiote jxomct y KBaji- 
HTeTy. 

y mtrby OTCTpaHjHBaiba GenaHHeBaHacTHX 
h /xpyrax MaTepHJa y jjecTHJiaTy cnpcraojiH ce 
CTaGmiioauHJa h 6HCTpeH>e. 3a GucTpeibe h 
CTa6HJiH3auHJy xopHCTe ce Hera GncTpHJia ko- 
JHMa ce o6paf)yje Me/joBHHa. Ilopjie GwcTpeita 
h o,HJiexaBaH>a jjecranaT jjoGnja CBOje MME, 
pa3JiHBa y 6oue h *iyBa y nojjpyMHMa #o 
yHOTpeGe; 

HErA nPOH3BO,HA 

Ilocjie 3aBpnieHor npoueca Bpeita koji Me- 
ZIOBHHe h jxajte ce HacraBibajy xeMHJCKO 
4>H3HqKe TpaHC(J)opMaitHJe h HaKOH Tora ce 
RaibOM oGpajxoM h HeroM jjojia3H jio ncvrnyHor 
oGjiHKOBaita npoH3BO/j,a. Me/joBHHa je Ha 
noneTKy MyrHa, 6e3 H3paxeHor yicyca h 
MHpHca h Jjpyrax CBOjcraBa. Pa3HHM noc- 
TynuHMa Here, 6ncTpeH>a h CTa6HJiH3auHJe 
nocTHace ce KBajiHTeT. Ha npHHurmiiMa 
caBpeMeHe TexHOJiornje ^ojia3H ce no 
peiueH>a jxa ce MejjoBHHa ojjHeryje, H36ncTpH, 
CTa6HJiH3yje h He jxo3bojih nojaBy MaHa h 
KBapeaa MejjoBHHe. 

flo3peBaH>e Me/joBHHe npaneHO je 
CMaH>eH)eM TeMnepaType y cyjjoBHMa, ot- 
npaaoteHH npocTop y GyparjHMa nocTaje no- 
bojbho tjto 3a pa3Boj ^HHHJiaua MaHa H 
KBapen>a MejioBHHe, ihto ce pejjoBHHM jjojih- 
BaH>eM cnpeqaBa. MejjoBHHa ojiJieacaBaiteM 
TajioatH MHore MexamraKe h jxpyre cacTOJKe, 
KOJH ce ycneiHHO ca ypejjHHM npeTaKaiteM 
OTKJiaH>ajy. npBO npeTaKaite ce oGaBJLa oji- 
Max nocjie 3aBpineHor thxot Bpeita, a 
Haj/iajLe nocne Meceu jjaHa. npeTaicaH>eM ce 
MejjoBHHa ocBexaBa ca cbcxhm KHceoHHKOM 
H3 Ba3jryxa, CKHjjajy HCKpHCTajincaHH h jxpyra 
Tano3H, Kao hito cy H3yMpjre DbHBHue bhh- 
ckot KBacua htjj. y Toxy rojjHHe ce o6aBe join 
jiBa npeTaKaH>a. 



J43JejjHaHaBaH>e KBajiHTeTa y norjie/xy 
jaHHHe, yxyca h xpyrax CBOjcTaBa npoH3BOjxa 
nocTHace ce KynaacHpaH>eM jjBa hjih BHiue 
pa3JiHHHTa KBajiHTeTa, npe 6HCTpeH>a h cra- 
GHjnoaHHJe. CTa6HJiH3auHJOM MejjoBHHe ce 
y6p3aBa ca3peBan>e h erapeH>e npoH3BOJj;a a y 
Ty CBpxy KopHCTe ce jxo3BOJbeHa eHOJiouiKa 
cpe/icTBa. OBjje he ce onncaTH caMO CTaGnjiH- 
3auHJa h 6ncTpeH>e ca KJiapojioM. 

Knapoji je jxpMane MHHepajiHO eKOJioniKO 
cpejjcTBO Koje ce kophcth 3a CTa6HJiH3aitHJy h 
6ncTpeH>e ajiKoxojiHHX nnna Bpjio ycHeiimo. 
OBa cyncTaHua cbojhm jjejcreoM o/jcipaityje 
MHore GejiaH^eBHHacTe h Jipyre MaTepHJe, 
Koje cy y3poqHHHH MyheH^a h HecTaGHJiHoera 
ko^ ajiKoxojiHHX nnha, na h ko^ MejjoBHHe. 
rinha TpeTHpaHa obhm cpejjcTBOM y3 jxojxaraK 
xejiaTHHa, a noceGHO MJiajja, nocTajy CTa- 
GnjiHa h npHjaTHor yxyca. 

Knapoji ce jejjHOCTaBHO h Jiaxo npnnpeMa 
h Jjojjaje MejjoBHHH. McHTH>eHe rpaHynauHJe y 
npax 6p30 h Jiaxo y bo^h 6y6pe h CTBapajy 
(J)HHe KcmoHJJHe ^ecTHue Koje y MejjoBHHH 
HMajy BejiHKy ancopniiHOHy 8 Moh, Ha KojeM ce 
h 3acHHBa BejiHKa yjiora obot cpejjcTBa Ha 
CTa6HJiH3aiiHJy h 6HCTpeH>y. Ha^HH ynoTpeGe 
nponncyje npoH3Borjaq kojhx ce Tpe6a CTporo 
npHJjpxaBaTH. floGpH pe3yjiTaTH ce nocTH^y 
axo ce 3aje^HO, ca ynoTpeGoM KJiapona, 
kophcth h xejiaTHH, KOJH je y ynoTpeGn y bh- 
HapcTBy, y jj,03aMa ojo, 2 jjo 3 rpaMa Ha 100 jih- 
Tapa MejjoBHHe. Jlocjie oGaBibeHor 6HCTpeH>a 
ca KJiapojioM h acejiaTHHOM cnejjH (J)HJiTpH- 
paH^e h pa3JiHBaH>e Me/ioBHHe y 6oue. 3a 
MyBaite totobot np0H3B0^a cy HajnpHKJiajj- 
hhjh nojjpyMH me je TeMnepaiypa y rpaHH- 
uaivia 12jj,o 15 ereneHH. 

CTa6HJiH3auHj'a. GncTpeH^c h (J)HJiTpHpaH>e 
jjecTHJiaTa-paKHJe BpniH ce Ha cjinnaH Ha^HH. 

CTa6njiH3auHJa, 6HCTpeH>e h ^pyre pa/irae 
oGaBJbajy ce hcto xao kqii MejjoBHHe. 



OapeftMBaite ajiKoxojia 

MeflOBHHe m jecTHJiaTa 

HaJBaxHHJH cacTojaK MejjoBHHe h jjecTH- 
jraTa npoH3BejjeHor Ha 6a3H Mejja npe^cTaBiba 
ajiKoxoji no ^eivry ce ueHH Bpe/iHOCT ajiKoxon- 
hot nnha. Oh ce o^perjyje Ha BHiue Ha^HHa, a 
Haj^euihe noMofty yperjaja h cnpaBa e6y- 
jiHOCKona 9 h ajiKoxojioMeTpa. AnapaT 3a 



306 



n^ejiap 1999 



Mepen>e ajiKOxojia y MejjpBMHM y npaKCH ce 
Ha3HBa lu MajiMraH. OBa cnpaBa pajjn Ha npMH- 

UMTiyTaHKe KTbyHaitaTeHHOCTM, KOHCTpyKUM- 

jom je no^emeH r& ce Ha Jiax, je/jHOCTaBaH m 
6p3 HanwH yrBp^ii npoueHaT ajiKOxojia. He 
noKa3yje ancojiyrHO TanaH caapacaj, ajiH jsp- 
BOJtaH m e(J)HKacaH. OjjCTynaika cy He3HaTHa 
0,2% ojj jia6opaTOpHJCKor McnHTHBaH>a. 
>Kmbhh cxy6 ce 3arpeBaH>eM uiMpM 3ayeraBM m 
ycTanH Ha ck&tim 3a OHMTaBaite. HMTan>eM ce 
aojia3M ro ca^p^caja. 

Me^OBiiHa je HajGojta Kajja ce y H>oj 
ca^p>KM 11 -13% ajiKOxojia. 

3a ojjper]MBaH>e ajiKOxojia y jiecTHJiaTy y 
uiHpoKOJ ynoTpe6n cy ajiKOxojiOMeTpM koh- 

CTpyMCaHH Ha PeOMMpOBOM M U,eJ13MJyCOBOM 

npHHUMny. ITopejj CKajie 3a ajiKOxoji ohm y 
ce6n MMajy yrpaf)eH m noce6aH TepMOMeTap, 
KOJM noKa3yje TonjiOTy AecTMJiaTa npn 
Mepen>y. PaHMj'e je 6mo y ynoTpeGn T3B. rpajj 
3a paKMJy, kojm je ja^MHy H3pa^caBao y rpa- 
AMMa. (Je/jaH rpajj 2,5 CTeneHa). Hajnenine ce 
/laHac KopMCTH L[eji3HJycoB ajiKOxonoMeTap. 
Ako ce kojj, MepeH>a nojaBJbyjy OflCTynaita 
kojj, TeivinepaType (ruiyc MMHyc) OHjia ce pe- 
/lyKHHOHMM Ta6jiMLi,aMa H3Hajia3M npoueHaT 
ajiKOxojia. Caap^cMHa ajiKOxojia y jjecTHJiaiy 
HajnorojjHMJa je ojj, 43 jjo 47%. 





Ca. 8 - Majimanoe e6yAuocuon 

a) Ka3arme, 6) mepMOMemap caAeibupoM, 

e) ma6apKii, r)AaM/tui^a 



Cji, 9- Humatbe aAicoxoAOMempa 

PeuenTH 3a npoH3Boan>y jvie/iOBiina 

Ojj KaKO ce 3Ha Me/j ce kopmcth m 3a npOM3- 
BOjjH>y no3HaTwx nnna. TTocTOJe mhotm 
HanHHH m peuenTM 3a npOM3BOjjH>y a/iKOxoji- 
hmx h 6e3a/iKOxojiHMx HanHTaxa ojj Mejja mjim 
ca jjojjaTMM /jpyraM CMpOBMHaMa. M3HeheMO 
Heice ojx h>mx. 



Crapa cjioBeHcxa MejiOBima 

3a cnpaBibaH>e Me/jOBMHa y3HMa ce hmct 
jiMBa^CKH Mejj ca cafieM h bojjom y o/jHOcyje- 
aaH npeMa neTMpn. Me/j ce caMejte, CHna y 
eMajjiHpaHM cya h CTaBJta Ha uiTe/jitaK m 3a- 
rpeBa jjo 40 CTeneHH. OcTaBiba ce /ja ce npox- 
jiajjM Ha TeM. 20 j\o 25 CTeneHH h /jo/jaje nMBap- 
ckm mjim bmhckm KBacau. KBacau ce npeTxojjHO 
npMnpeMM y pa3MyheHOM Me/jy, CBe to jjoGpo 
M3Meuia, noKJionn hmctom ra30M m ocTaBM /ja 
npeHoliM. 

Hape/jHor /jaHa ce npoue/ni m ocTaBJta y 
cyaoBMMa /ja BpM y npocTOpMJH me je TeM- 
nepaTypa oko 20°C. floGpo je jjojjaTM jiMMy- 
hobot coxa mjim jjoGpo onpaH jiMMyH Mce^eH 
Ha KpMuiKe. Kajja ce npeBMpaite 3aBpuiM no- 
cjie HeKOJiMKO /jaHa HanHTaK ce oue/jM m H3- 
Tajio>KM, pa3JiMBa y 6one m ocTaBJba jja Ma/io 
ojjctojh. KopMCTM ce 3a jjHeBHy ynoTpe6y. 
IlMJe ce y3 CBaKM o6pOK no 250 rpaivia. 

Ako ce 3a cnpaBJtaite obot HanMTKa 
y3MMa 5 kg Me/ja OHjja ce kopmcth 10 rpaivia 
nMBapCKor KBacua mjim je/jaH jjeun bmhckot. 



307 



n^ejiap 1999 



HanHTaK je 3JjpaB, nonpaBJta KpBHy 
cjiHKy, Kpenn opraHH3aM h OTBapa aneTHT h 
ycnopaBa CTapeite. /JoGpo je jja ce Tponm npn 
Kpajy Bpeite jep Tajja mia jjoera ynteH jjhok- 
cnjja KOJHJaKO ocBe^aBajyhe Jjejiyje. 



Me^oBima ca xMeJbOM 

Y3HMa ce hcth ojjhoc Mejja h Bo/je (1:4) ca 
Majio UHMeTa, XMejta, bhhckot hjih nHBap- 
CKor KBacna. O/jMepeHa KOJiHHHHa Me/ja, BOJje 
h Jjpyrax cacTpjaKa ce craBJba Ha THxy BaTpy 
jja npoKJtyqa y3 JiaraHO CKHJjaite neHe ca 
noBpuiHHe. KyBaite ce HacTaBiba jjok Maca He 
6yae np03HpHa, ocTaBJba y CTaKJieHy nocyuy 
jja ce oxjiajjH Ha TeM. 15 jjo 20°C. Ako ce 
cnpaBJba Bena KOJiHHHHa OHJja ce xjiarjerae 
o6aBH y apBeHOM xpacTOBOM GypeTy. 
OxjiafjeHoj MacH ce Jjojjaje KBacau h ocTaBH jja 
npeBpH. Cyrpa jjaH ce CKHJja CTBOpeHa neHa ca 
noBpuiHHe h pa3JiHBa h hhctc CTaKJieHe 6oue. 

JlpeTXOJJHO Ce (J)HJITpHpa Kp03 HHCTy (J)HHy 

ra3y. floGpo je jja ce y CBaicy 6ouy CTaBH 
KaniHHHua inefrepa h OBJiain 3aTBOpH. Eoue 
Mopajy CTajaTH ycnpaBHO. floGpo je jja hito 
jjyxe ojjctojh npe ynoTpeGe. 



jjhth, npone/jHTH h any}KH y HainaMa y Koje ce 
npeTxojjHO CTaBiba jjBe TpH KpnniKe JiHMyHa. 

Me/JOBHHO 

5 kg Mejja 

5 JiHTapa coxa ojj KBajiHTeTHor rpo^a 

15 JiHTapa BOJje 

10 rpaivia XMejta 

cok o/j jjBa JiHMyHa 

BHHCKH KBacau H 

250 rpaMa coxa ojj BHinaiBa. 

CnpeMa ce xao kojj npeTxo/jHor nocTymca. 

Mcjjobhho h Jjpyra HaroiuH Ha 6a3H Mejja 
Mory ce cnpaBJbaTH ojj CBaKor CBexer ejinr- 
Hor, jarojjacTor h KonrraHaBor Bona, ojj cbhx 
copTH BHHCKor rpoxrja, Koje ce y ojjpet)eHoj 
cpa3MepH cacraBJba c Me/joM h no nocrynKy 
BHHH(J)HKaLtHJe cnpoBe/je. Ha cjinnaH HaHHH 
enpeiviajy ce pa3HH JiHKepH, KOKTejiH h Jjpyra 
ajiKoxojiHa h 6e3ajiKoxojiHa nnna Ha 6a3H 
Mejja, kojh cy 3JjpaBH, xpaHJbHBH h GjiaroT- 
BopHH 3a JtyacKH opraHH3aM. 

PEUEllT: Jlp Mp nx. AjieKcaHjjpa 
JaHKOBHha, no3HaTor GpoMaTOJiora H3 
KibHre: "FtaejiHiBH npoH3BOJjn, xpaHa h JieK". 



MenoBMiiiiiia 

ojj: 1 kg jjoGpor Mejja 

3 KOM.JIHMyHa 

6 KOM.nOMOpaHIJH H 

4 jiHTpa BOJje. 

y xjiajjHy nnjany Bo/jy ojj JiHMyHa h noMO- 
paHun jjoGpo H3MeiuaTH c Me/joM. Pacxjia/jHTH 
no xejbH h nHTH y toiijihm JieTitHM jjaHHMa. 
npaBH ce CBaKO/jHeBHO n KopHera CBexn xjia- 
jjaH, jjpxn y <J)pioKHJjepy. 

MeJJHOBHHO 

300 gr Mejja 
1 JiHTap Genor BHHa 
1 JiHTap HHJjnjcKor hjih pTaitcKor naja 
Mano pyMa, cok ojj je/jHor JiHMyHa, Majio 
UHMeTa h HeKOJiHKO 3pHa KapaH(J)HJiHha n 

HeKOJIHKO KpHIUKH OJJ JJBa JiHMyHa. 

y Bpyh qaj jjojjaTH univieT h KapaH(J)HJiHh 
noTonnTH h MemaTH ca ocTajiHM cacrojuHMa. 
CBe to 3arpeBaTH ^a npoKJbyna. npoxjia- 



MeAHO bhho ca JieKOBHTHM 
Tp a b aMa 

JleKOBHTO bhho BeoMa jjoGpo noKa3yje 
CBOje oco6HHe Gjiarojjapehn Ghjbhom MaTepH- 
jany - JieKOBHTHM TpaBaMa ynoTpeGjbeHHM 3a 
fteroBy npoH3BOJj,H>y. 

MaTepnj aji : 

Mejj 570 g 

Cok ojj nnojjoBa japeGnKa 

(Sorbus aucuparia) 

CBexe KyBaHH H5g 

Bojja (npeTxojjHO npoicyBaHa 

HoxjiarjeHa) 115 g 

KopeH ojj CHpHHiTape 

(Radix Gentianae) 10 g 

KopeH ojj nepyHHKe 

(Radix Ireos florentinae) 10 g 

KopeH ojj KpaByjBKa (Radix carlinae) 30 g 

npocHHau, HiTHpeHHija, pacyjba 

(Herbae mercurialis) 15 g 



308 



nnejiap 1999 



BojioBCKHJe3HK (Herbae Anschusae) 7,5 g 
TpaBe njiynitaKa 

(Herbae Pulmonariae) 7,5 g 

Benor BHHa (Vinum album) 155 g 

BHHCKor KBacua (Faex vini) 20 g 

IlocTynaK: 

Cok o^; japeGHKe, Me^ h Bo/ry H3MepHra y 
cyzi o^roBapajyhe 3anpeMHHe. y BpeMe Ky- 
BaH>a CKH^aTH neHy. OcraBHTH jia ce oxnanji; 
oxjiarjeHoj TeHHOCTH #o,naTH bhhckh KBacau, h 
npenycTHTH HeKOJiHKO ^aHa, Ha yMepeHoj to- 
iuioth, m 6h ce oGaBHJio Bpeite (4>epMeHTa- 
HHJa). JloinTO ce 3aBpniH 4>epMeHTauHJa h 
tchhoct H36ncTpH, caB Ghjbhh MaTepHJaji 
chtho HceuKaTH, CTaBHTH y iuiaTHeHy Kecy h 
nouiTO je OBa hckojimko ^aHa /ipxaHa y BHHy, 
m 6h ce JieKOBHTe MaTepHJe, cacrojiiH Gmta 
eKCTpaxoBajiH, o^jihth, CBe cje,HHHHTH h 6hc- 
Tpy Te^HOCT nyHHTH y j,o6po onpaHe 6oue, 
3aTBOpHTH h *iyBaTH y no^pyvry. 



YiviecTo 3aKiby4Ka: 

- CaBpeMeHO irqejiaperBO ce He Moxe 
3aMHCJiHTH 6e3 no3HaBaH>a cbpchcxqiihocth 
KopHinrieH>a Mem y 6jiaroTBopHoj no- 

TpOIHH>H. 

- 3a npoH3BO£H>y ajiKoxojiHHX nHha (Me^,o- 
BHHa h paKHJa o,n, Me^a h ca Me^oM h 
cnpaBJbaite 6e3ajiKoxojiHHX HannraKa Mory 
ce ycneniHO kophcthth mcji, Me^HH noKJionnn 
h apym ocTauH qh Me#a h #o6hth Bpno npn- 
jaTHa, yxycHa h apoMaTH30BaHa nHha. 

- AiiKoxojiHa nnna CTBOpeHa Ha 6a3H Me^a 
cy nyHa, xapMOHHHHa h Bpno yxycHa. OHa ce 
Tpouie y cbhm h H3y3eTHHM npHJiHKaMa jep 
"noBeKa ^HHe KpenKHM, pa3,aparaHHM cpueM, 
OTKJiaH^a Tyry h Becene mhcjih", KaKoje tobo- 

pHO IljiaTOH. 

- 3a6ejiexeHO je icon CTapnx QioBeHa: 
"flejcTBO Me^oBHHa je m nonyMpTBa cpua 
oacHBJtaBa. HeBecejie h GpH^CHe HacMeje, 
y36yrjeHO h HaTMyiueHO ^eno Be,apH h hhhh ra 
rjiaTKHM. 

- AnKoxojiHa nHha Ha 6a3H Me#a Mory ce 

CnpaBJbaTH H npOH3BO£HTH 3a JIHHHy H 

/lOMany noTponnty. 

- Hainn no3HTHBHH 3aKOHCKH nponncH o 
BHHy h paKHJH ^e(J)HHHcajiH cy una ce no^pa- 



3yMeBa no^ bhhom h paKHjoM, KaKO ce OBa 
nnha npoH3BO/ie h CTaBibajy y npoivieT. 3aKOH 
HHJe j,e(J)HHHcao jia ce ajiKoxojiHa nnha Mory 
npoH3BO^HTH or Mena h CTaBJbaTH y npoivieT 
naKO ce npoH3BO^H Ha 6a3H Me.ua Mory cnpa- 
bom CBpcTaTH y3 bhho h jaKa nnha, Kpja ce 
npoH3Bo^e on rpo^a h pa3Hor Boha. 

JIHTEPATYPA 

- AKaneMHJa Hayxa Pycnje Bnojiornja 
BHHo^ejiaja 1957. 

- JXp M. flparam CejieKiiHOHHcaHH bhhckh 
KBacau -1948. 

- flp Mp JaHKOBHh A. n^eJlHH>H npOH3BO£H 

xpaHa h jieK -1979. h 1973. 

- npo(J). flp Pa^oBaHOBHh B. TexHOJioraja 
BHHa -1971. 

- Midk. ByqKOBHh B. IlpHMeHa ceneK- 
UHOHHcaHor BHHCKor KBacua 1959. 

- Mhx. PaHKOBHh B. BHHapcTBO 1936. h 
1948. 

- npo(J). jip MHJiHcaBJbeBHh/l,. BncTpeite 

GeHTOHHTOM - KJiapOJIOM -1949. 

- CreBHh B. 3Hanaj nnene h oce Kao npe- 
HocHoua bhh. KBacna -1952. 

- JeBTHh T. ">Khbot h rajeH>e nnejia" - 
1957. 

- HjiaHUH qaconnca EIHEJIAP. 

BoJHCJiae BacKOBiih, /iiiii.i. exoHOMMCTa - 

neH3HOHep 



4. AKUEnTOP Lat. = npaTiuiau, 

5. flEKAHTAJ_[MJA Fr. = JiaraHO OTaKaifee h 
o^BajaHjC 6hctpc TeHHOCTH on Tajiora. 

6. flECTMJTAT Lat. = npo^yKT ^ecTHJiannje. 

TCHHH npOH3BOJI JieCJWtSOJJ^G. 

I. flECTMJIAUMJA Lat. = npeTBapaae 
TeHHOCTH y napy h noHOBO npeTBapan>e y tchhoct. 

8. AnCOPflLlMJA Lat. = ymijaH>e. ycHCHBanc 
jIHMa. nape raca . . . 

9. EEyJMOCKOLL Lat. = H36nja™. KJi.yqaTH. 
HHCTpyMCHT 3a Mepcifec Ta^Ke KJi>yqaH)a pann 
o,npdjiiBaH.a ca^pxHHe ajiKoxojia h up. cnpaBa 3a 
6p30 o^pe5nBaH>e kojihhhhc ajiKoxojia y HHHy. Ma- 
jiHraH. 

10. AJ1KOXOJTOMETAP Gr. = cnpaBa 3a 
cmpcrjHBaftc ajiKoxojia y onojiiOM nnriy 

I I. AJ1KOXOJ1 Lat. = opraHCKaxcMHJCKajeaji- 
H»eH5a yrjtcHHKa. boiohmkh h KHecoHHKa. 

11. AEPOMETAP Gr. = enpam 3a MepeH>c 
rycTHHC hjth cneu. Te^cHHe TeMHOCTM. 



309 



n^ejiap 1999 



06orafieHa norana 3a nne/ie 



3a noTpeGe CBora n*iejiHH>aKa caM nnejiap 
Mo^ce m HanpaBH oGoraheHy nora*ry. npe/i- 
hocth oGoraheHe noraqe cy HeocnopHe: 

- n^ejiap He 3aBHCH ojj eKOHOMHKe Tpro- 
BHHe, ocjioGofjeH je ojj cyMH>e 3a KBajiHTeT h 
6oraTCTBO cajjpxaja, npaBH je caM, y JiaTO, 
Hajnoro^HHJe BpeMe 3a jejjHOKpaTHy yno- 
Tpe6y. 

- KBajiHTeT oGoraheHe norane je jjajieKO 
H3Ha,ii KyrubeHe y TproBHHH, a 3HaTHO je 
je(J>THHHJa. 

- CBe:>KHHa norane BeoMaje 6Hraa, jep cyn- 
craHue Kpje je oiuieMeH>yjy, BpeMeHCKH ce 
pa3Jiaxy, ry6e Ha cbom jjejioBaH>y h Tajja 
noraqa nociaje caMO xpaHHBO. 

Peueirr 3a o6oraheHy norany: 

1. MneBeHH niehep - niehep y npaxy 65 kg 

2. Me/i, 3.5 kg 

3. Mjiexo o6e3MainheHO y npaxy 0.5 kg 

4. JlojieH - nepra 0.5 kg 

5. BeJIBHT 2 kg HJIH npOKyBaHH - HHaKTHBH- 

paHH KBacaix (5' Ha 100°C) 

6. 06e3MainheHa coja y npaxy 0.3 kg hjih 
"CojaBHTa" 

7. "C" BHTaMHH y KpncTajiy 60 g 

8. OopccannH (15 ml) 3 Gonnne 

9. ypoTponnH (heksametilentetramin) 50 g 
hjih Nozemovet hjih Fumagillin hjih Nistatin 

10. BnjejiH JiyK 700 g 

1 1 . CypyrKe 1-5 1 

12. >KyMaHna 9 KOMajja (H3MyrHTH h jjo- 
jjara Macn) 

13. ^Be JiHTpe n*iejiHH>er naja 1 

14. JaGyKOBO cnphe, jjojejjHor JiHTpa 

lliejiHibu naj 1 cajjpacH OBe 6HJbKe: 

- FlejieH nnroMH (Artemisija absinthium) 
hjih nejieH jjhbjbh hjih KOMOHHKa (Artemisija 
vulgaris) 20 g - KOMOHHKa 

- n*iejiHH>a JLyGnqHua (Melisa officinalis) 

lOg-MaTHMHSaK 

- Ctojihchhk hjih xajjjy^Ka TpaBa (Achilea 
milefolijum) 10 g 

- MeTBHna JLyra (Menta piperita) 10 g 

- KaMHJiHua (Flos chamomiles) 10 g 

- Kopa ojj HapaHue 10 g 



10 



CacTojuH kojh iiiicy o6aBe3im: 

- MaJHHHa jxyinnna (Thymus serpyllum) 

g 

- Mhjiojjvu (Levisticum officinale) 10 g 

- MeTBHna GapcKa (Menta pulegium) 10 g 



- HaBanaa (Lavandula officinalis) 10 g 

- FlynoBH ojj 6opa ca HrjinnaMa 10 g 

IlHejiHH>H naj cnpaBJtaMO Taxo jja y Behy 
nocyjy CTaBHMO HaBejjeHH cajjpacaj h npe- 
jiHJeMO KJLyqanoM - KHiryhoM bojjom, noK- 
jionHMO h ocTaBHMO nojia caia, nponHJejjHMO 
h jjojjaMO y npHJior nora*iH. 

HajeBe KynHMO y anoTeuH hjih caMH 6ep- 
eMO h cyniHMO Ghjbkc jlcth hjih yjeceH. Ako 
cy npnGaBJbeHe GnjLKe cnpoBe, Jj03a ce vjjboc- 
Tpy^iaBa. Ako Heicy GHJBKy He MoaceMO npo- 
Hahn y npBOM npaBJLeH>y nora^ie MopaneMO je 
H30CTaBHTH, norana he 3a H>y 6hth ch- 
poManiHHJa. 

riorany npaBHMO Taxo jja Me/j yrpHJeMO jjo 
45°C, y H>era jjo/jajeMO niehepHH npax jjo 
3acHheH>a, y3 Mnjernaite. 3acnheH CKHjjaMO ca 
BaTpe, H3JiHJeBaMO y Behy nocyiry y Kojy Jjojja- 
jeMO naj h CBe HaBe/jeHe ejieMeHTe noraqe. 
Macn CTajiHO Jjo/jajeMO inehepHH npax h MHJe- 
chmo pyKOM CBe jjok He jjoGnjeMO rycTO 
niehepHO THJecTO - nora^ry. 

HajGojte je HanpaBHTH KOJiHHHHy Kojy 
rrqejie Mory y3eTH y TOKy ce/jaM jjaHa, aico cy 
ToruiH jjaHH , a axo cy xjiajjHHJH Behy 
KOJiHHHHy. Flora^y naicyjeMO y HajjioH Kece, 
Be^eMO Hxno 1 hjih 2 kg, KecyjinjenHMO cejio- 
TejnoM HJiHJe 3aBapHMO anapaTOM 3a naKO- 
BaH>e noBpha y 3aMp3HBan. norana ce Moxe 
jjohochth Ha nqejiHH^aK h y KaHTaMa c noK- 
jionneM. Ilojiaxe ce Ha caTOHome y3 npe- 
txojjho ojjroiteH>e nnejia , jja hx He 
rH^HJe^HMO. Ha nojioxeHoj nora*iH c ropae 

CTpaHe OTBOpHMO (])OJIHJy XHJieTOM CBe jjo 

pyGHHX CTpaHa. Kp03 otbop, H3Merjy ca- 
TOHonia, HoxeM HanpaBHMO pyne Ha yaajte- 
hocth 5-7 cm. Ako cmo jjoHHJejiH y KaHTaMa 
Ha caTOHome CTaBHMO 4)OJiHJy y oGjiHKy npa- 
BoyraoHHKa, H3Me^y caTOHoma h36vuihmo 
Kao h Kece c thm ^a HaoKOJio n^iejie HMajy 
cjioGojjaH npHciyn norann. flnejie he c jjoite 
H36ymeHe h rope OTBOpeHe (J>ojiHJe noxpJiHTH 
Ha MHpHC norane h CTpacHO je cncaTH. lllehep 
Mopa 6hth CHTaH, jep he nnejie KpHCTajie 
H36anHBaTH, jep ra Hepajjo pacTBapajy 36or 
HejjocTaTKa Bojje. 

OyiiKiuije norane: 

1. MMa npojxyxeHO CTHMynaTHBHO jjejcTBO 
Ha MaTHiry h nnejie. JlojaqaBa (J)yHKLiHJy cbhx 
opraHa imejia y npoH3BO^,H>H Mejja, BOCKa h 
MJiHJe^H, a MaTHny Ha nojiaraite jaja. floKa- 
3aHO je jja Mjiajje nnejie c nyHO BOJbe Hey- 
MopHO rpajje cahe y jjaHHMa yHoca HeKTapa. 



310 



n^ejiap 1999 



2. riorana HaM jjaje motvIthoct /ja ynpaB- 
jtaMO 3£paBCTBeHHM CTaH>eM 3aje/jHnne, tj. /ja 
npeBeHHpaMO aMepn*n<y Kyry, H03eM03y n 
rpHH>aBOCT (geomicin, tetramicin, vezamicin, 
fumagillin, nistatin, nozemovet, urotropin) y 
npojbeTiboj noraHH 15. MapT/jo 20. OKToGpa n 
cnpyny n jjjejiHMHHHO n Bapoy THMajioM n 
eTepHHHHM yjbeM n cacrojuHMa qaja. 

3. npe^HOCT BJiacTHTe noraqe je y KBajin- 
TeTy. /JajeMO je CBj'e^cy Kajja mh to npeMa 
noTpeGn xoheMO. a to h jecTe rapaHnnja cn- 
rypHor jjejcTBa JinjeKOBa h eTepHHHnx cacTO- 
jaxa noraqe. Ilo3HaTO je jja ce aHTnGnoTnnn 
CTajaiteM y norann noannje 7 ,/jaHa noHHH>y 
pacnajjara h nocTajy Hee(J)HKacHH. rapaHnnja 
Ha TpaJHOCT ynoTpeGe nora^e npexo 6 Mje- 
cenn je 3a6jryjja. TaKBa norana je caMO xpa- 
hhbo 3a iraejie. 

KBajiHTeTHy nora^ry irqene pa/jo y3HMajy 
hcto Kao n Me/j. KapaKTepHCTHKa nora^e n 
jecTe y TOMe jja je nnejie nojiaraHO Tponie, 
xpaHe ce6e h nerjio, a He jja je jjenoHyjy y 
cnpeMHiirre h 3aTO cajjpxaj norane He yjiasn y 
cacTaB Me#a h He TpeGa CTpaxoBara o/j Ha- 
roMHJiaBaH>a pe3HJjya - nrreTHnx cacTojaxa y 
Me/iy, ziaKJie, iraejie KopncTe nora^ry 3a BJiac- 
THTe eHepreTCKe noTpeGe. 

BHJeJIH JiyK - (MHKCaH MHKCepOM HJIH 

MJLCBeH ManiHHOM 3a opaxe), - Maca jjojjaTa 
Hora^H, Jjjejiyje Kao Gnara CHCTeMaTHK Ha 
Bap03y. XpaHenn ce noranoM, nnejia y npo- 

GaBHH CHCTeM, Te y KpBOTOK yHOCH cacTOJKe 

jryKa h naja, a Bapoa CHiiiyhH KpB iraejia yHocn 
ojjperjeHy Jj03y eTepHHHnx cacTojaKa y cboj 
opraHH3aM h jjjejiHMHHHO oinajja c nnejia. 

Bop6a npoTHB H03eM03e h rpnitaBOCTH 
Mopa 6hth KOHTHHynpaHa y TOKy nnjejie ro- 
jjHHe. Tyje e<j)HKacaH Gnjejin jivk, neneH, ypo- 

TpOnHH, H03eMOBeT H JJpVTH aJJHTHBH. 

On CTHMynaTHBHHX cpe/jcTaBa - KOMnoHe- 
HaTa y norann HMaMO forssapin, Ty cy mhk- 
poejieMeHTH, kobaltni B-12 rjiaBHH CTHMyna- 
Top y forssapinu, BHTaMHH C belvit hjih hh- 
BepTHa - npoKyxaHa repMa, jjojjaTHaje rpyna 
B - KOMnneKca. Ojj GjejiaHHeBHHa jjajeMO 500 
g coje y npaxy. o6e3ManineHor MJinjeKa y 
npaxy. YnbeHH xnjjpara cy ineftep h Mejj. 
riojieH h acyMaHua cajjpxe JiennTHH, a 
nqejiHHsH naj cajjp^cH eTepnrae cacTOJKe Kao 
MaJHHHa /jyninna, thmoji ht/j. Eloraqy, y Hop- 
MajiHHM npHJiHKaMa, jjajeMO or 15. MapTa, na 

CTHMVJiaTHBHO JJO 15. OKTOGpa, ay H3y3eTHHM 

OKOJiHOCTHMa y CBaKO /jo6a. 

4. Ako rraejie HMajy norany KopHCTeje 3a 
BJiacTHTy HcxpaHy n wcxpaHy nerjia, pe3epBe 
Mejja He Jjnpajy, a yHoce ra h JjenoHyjy. CeM 



npHxpaH)HBaH)a noraHOM, npnxpaH>HBaH>e 
CTHMyJiaTHBHO BpIHHMO h CHpynoM, nparcenHO 
o/j 20. MapTa /jo 05. Maja no 2,5 del kojh ce cac- 
tojh oil, 2 jjHJejia Bo/je h 1 jjnjejia uiehepa. 
OTonHHa 2:1 enpyna HajcjTHHHnjaje ubjcthom 
HeKrapy. Cnpyn ce jjaje HaBene y kojihhhhh 
ojj 2,5 del. 

nocjinje jeceH^er Bpnaita Me/jnniTe cnyc- 
thmo Ha no/jita^iy, a njiojjHiirre Ha MJecTO 
MejjHiHTa. Ojj 20. aBiycTa nojaqaBaMO ca 
CTHMyjiaTHBHHM npnxpaH>HBaH>eM CHpynoM 2 
: 1, caMO cajja/jajeMO 500 rpaMa no 3ajejjHnnn. 
CBaKa 3aje/jHnna jjo 15. cenTeMGpa jjoGnje no 
4 kg menepa nyreM enpyna. Ako nnejie. 36or 
ocKynHor yHoca y3HMJbyjeMO, Tajja 
nojanaBaMO jjo3y enpyna. CynrraHa ncxpaHe 
pa3pnje5eHHM cnpynoM jecTe Ta jja 3ajejjHH- 
ijaMa o6e36njejjnMO Bnnie BOJje y jbGTibmM 
BpyhnHaMa n Ha Taj HannH ocjio6ar)aMO n jjco 
BOJjoHonia 3a caKynibaHie HeKTapa. 

riorana HanpaBJteHa y Kyhnje 50% je(Jyra- 
HHJa ojj KynjbeHe y TproBinra, a jonije(J)TnHHJa 
aKO caMH y JieTO n yjeceH caKynnMO eTepnHHe 
GnjtKe. 

BnraMHH C KynyjeMO y KpncTajiy, naKO- 
BaH y KecnijaMa, jep je HeKOJiHKO nyra je(J)TH- 
HHJn ojj TaGjieTa. (1VA-FARM BajteBO npo- 
nsBorja^) 

lllehep MejteMO y Man>HM KyhHHM ejieK- 
Tpn^HHM MJiHHOBHMa, hjih y MJinHy HeKHnapy 
3a npeKpyny. JlponycHO rpjio y Konry MJinHa, 
Kyjja uypH KpncTaji. CMan>yjeMO Ha HaJMaH>y 
nponycHy Mjepy jja KpncTaji, 6e3 rpyjjBnua. 
HeocjeTHO, nojiaKO nypn. Ako HaM ce y^oiHH 
jja je menep KpynaH, noHOBO ra caMeibeMO. 
"Belvit" npoH3BOJjn TBOpHnna ajjHTHBa H3 
riapahnHa (035/554-303), a MoxeMO ra Hahn y 
npo/jaBHHnaMa. 

OB/yeje HaSpojaHO mhoto cacTaBHHX ene- 
MeHaTa, ajin to He Tpe6a jja Bac nnainn jja nx 
je HeMoryhe HaGaBHTH. YnoTpeGoM OBe 
noraqe ocjeTnheTe caMH Behy KpenKOCT n 
xhboct nnejia. 

Ako ce o/jJiynnTe jja nora^y npaBHTe no 
obom penemy, o6aBe3HO nponnTaJTe tckct: 
floMaha norana CTp. 272. n HJiaHaK: 
"IlpojberiHO npnxpaH>nBaH>e n^ejia", "n^e- 
jiap" 6p. 2., (J)e6pyap 1998. tojj., CTp. 87. HMejj 
+ nojieH + MJiajje nnejie = (J)opMyjia. . . CTp. 
333. "nqenap" 6p. 11. hob. 1997. r. 

npaBJteHje norane jjeMoncTpnpaHO je Ha 
36opy yjjpyxeH>a n^ejiapa "Jlnna" H3 flep- 
BeHTe n nnenapa H3 BaH^a JlyKe, Maja 1987. 
tojj. 

Hoiafi Bo>ko, 

yupyaceibe iweiapa "3jiaTHa iraejia", 

Jly>Kaim 11 Bapnue 

flepBeirra 



311 



n^ejiap 1999 



YnoTpe6a aMHTpa3a y cy36HJan>y Bapoo3e iraejia 

A. MaKcuMoeuh, ff. MciKCUMoeuh 




AMHTpa3 je aKapHUHj, h HHceKrauH^ ca 

KOHTaKTHHM H peCIIHpaTHBHHM ^ejioBaiteM. 

KopHCTH ce y 3aca£HMaja6yice, KpyniKe, bh- 
HOBe Jio3e h yxpacHor Siuta 3a cy36HJaH>e 
jaGyKHHe h KpyniKHHe JiHCHe 6yBe, HpBeHe 
Botae rpHH>e h oGhhhct nayHHHapa. flaicie, 
npenapaTH Ha 6a3H aMHTpa3a npBO cy ce 
KopHCTHJiH, a h ,aaHac ce KopHCTe y nojbo- 
npHBpe/iH, na Tex nojaBOM Bapoo3e nqena 
noqena je H>eroBa ynoTpeGa y cy36HJaH>y Var- 
roae jacobsoni. 

CeKTOp 3a pa3Boj XeMO<j>apMa H3 Bpniua 
ca cbojom CTpy^HOM cjiyacGoM h aHraxo- 
BaH>eM CTpyqH>aica ca CTpaHe, tokom 1983. h 
1984. ro^HHe, nociaBHO je GpoJHe onicne h hc- 
nHTHBaiba ca aMHTpa30M Ha BHiue n^ejiHH>aKa 
y CpGnJH, a noceGHO y Bojbo^hhh. floSnjeHH 
pe3yjiTaTH cy 6hjih 3aaoBOJLaBajyta h oitio- 
nejio ce ca (J)opMHpaH>eM noTpeGHe ^oxy- 
MeHTauHJe 3a peracTpaHHJy npenapaia. Ma- 
TepHJajiH cy npe/iaTH Komhchjh 3a peracTpa- 
UHJy BeTepHHapcKHX JieKOBa 4. #eueM6pa 

1984. ro^HHe, apemeH>e or CaBe3HorKOMHTe- 
Ta 3a nojbonpHBpe^ #o6HJeHO je 28. jaHyapa 

1985. ro/iHHe, m ce npenapaT Moxe npoH3BO- 
jwkvl h KopHCTHTH 3a cy36HJaH>e Bapoo3e 
nnejia. EIoihto ce peineH>e 3a ynoTpeGy Jieica 
H3^aje Ha 5 ro/iHHa, y3 ncnpeGHy ^OKyMeHTa- 
UHJy H3BpineHa je oGHOBa peracTpanHJe 18. 
anpHJia 1990. h 9. Maja 1995. ronHHe, TaKo^aje 
XeMOBap 6e3 HKaKBHX H3MeHa Ha Tp^cHinTy 
npHcyraH CKOpo 15 ro^HHa. 

4ecT0 ce npHHajio h nncajio, noHeiam ce h 
ca#a mime h npH^a o reHOTOKCH^HOcra aMH- 
Tpa3a, noroTOBO o H>eroBOM KaHueporeHOM 
AejioBaHDy Ha Jtyije, ajiH 6e3 apryMeHaTa h 
Hay^HO noTBpfjeHHX qHiteHHHa. 36or Tora 
h3hochmo uejio norjiaBibe o tokchhhocth 
aMHTpa3a H3 KH>nre ayropa Hobhuc MHraha 
"IlecTHLtH^H y nojbonpHBpe^H h myMapcTBy y 
JyrocnaBHJH 1998." Xll H3MeiBeHO h £ony- 
H^eHO H3j,aH>e. 

JXv cuh. AH^ejiKO MaKCHMOBHh. Hay^HH caBeT- 
hhk. HEMOVET d.o.o. Bpinau; /JejaH MaKCHMO- 
nHft. ciyneHT. BcrcpHHapcKM 4>aKyjrreT, Eeorpa^ 



ToKCHKOJiomja 

1) AKyma tokchhhoct 

- opajiHa LD-50: 3a nauoBa 800 mg/kg, 3a 
MHina 1600 mg/kg, 

- ,nepMajiHa LD-50: 3a nanoBa 1600 mg/kg, 

- HHxajiauHOHa LC-50 3a 6 caTH: 3a nancraa 
65 mg/1 Ba3^yxa. 

AMHTpa3 He ^enyje HpHTHpajyfte Ha Ko^cy 

H CJiy3HHUe. 

2) XpOHlfMHU TOKCHHHOCT 

- NOEL: 3a nca 0,25 mg/kg .hhcbho, 3a 
HOBeKa 0,125 mg/kg ^HeBHO, 

- AD1: 3a HOBeica 0,003 mg/kg ^HeBHO 
(FAOAVHO, 1990.). 

3) reHOTOKCIWHOCT - HCnHTHBaH^a KaH- 

ueporeHHX, MyrareHHX, TepaToreHHX h 
e(J)eKaTa Ha penpcyiyKHHOHH HHKJiyc He yxa- 
3yjy Ha iHTeTHa ,o;ejioBaH>a, ochm nojaBe 

eM6pHOTOKCHHHOCTH. 

4) 3ana^KaH>a Ha jtyoHMa - y HcrniTH- 
BajtHMa Ha AoGpoBoibHHMa KOJHMa je #03H- 

paH aMHTpa3 HJIH (|)OpMaMH£HH MeTa60JIHT 
KOJH Ce CMaTpa aKTHBHHM npHHHHnOM aMH- 

Tpa3a, ycTaHOBJbeHa je ,1103a 6e3 e(J>eKTa ojx 
0,03 rn^kg, HHMe cy noTBp^eHH eKcnepHMeH- 
TanHH no^auH Ha XHBOTHH>aMa (FAO/WHO, 
1990.) 

LD-50 = cpe,ni£a CMpTHa ,no3a 

LC-50 = cpe^H>a CMpTHa KOHueHTpaunja 

NOEL = ^03a 6c3 ec^eicm 

ADI = npHXBaTJtHB JIHeBHH yHoc 

FAO = OpraHH3auHj'a 3a xpany h nojbo- 
npHBpe^y 

WHO = CBCTCKa 3^paBCTBeHa opraHH3aiiHJa 
ppm = KOHuempauHJa H3pa^ccHa y ^cjioBHMa Ha 

MIUIHOH 

R-22 = uiTCTaH aKO ce nporyra 

R-51 = OTpoBaH 3a BoneHe opraHH3Me 

R-57 = OTpoBaH 3a iraejie 

S-2/13 = ^lyBaTH saH ^OMauiaja ^eue, i iyBaTH o^- 
bojcho or xpaHe, iraha h CTOHHe xpaHe 

S45 = y cjiyqajy He3ro^e, y cjiyqajy MyqHHHe qii- 
Max TpaxHTH caBeT Jicxapa 



315 



n^ejiap 1999 



EKOTOKCHKOJlOmja 

1) AKyma tokchmmoct - 3a opraHH3Me y 

bojjh LC-50 3a 48 cara: 3a nacTpMKy 2,7 - 4 
mg/1, 3a janaHCKor niapaHa 1,17 mg/1 h 3a 
njiaBoinKpry cyHHaHHiry 1,13 mg/1. 

2) AKyma tokchmhoct - 3a mime, opajiHa 
LC-50 3a 8 jjaHa: 3a janaHCKy npenejiniry 1800 
ppm, 3a naTKy 8000 ppm. 

3) AKyraa tokchhhoct - 3a rraejiy, opajiHa 
LD-50: 12 ng/iraejia; KOHTaKTHa LD-50 : 50 
jig/irqejia. 

4) ^erpaiaiuija y 3eMjbHiiny DT-50: jejiaH 

AMHTpa3 je OTpoBaH 3a pn6e h mreTaH 3a 
nnejie. 

KjiacH(J)HKauHJa h oGene^je: 

- rpyna OTpoBa: III 

- 3HaK onacHOCTH: Xn (uiTeTHo) 

- 03HaKe yno30peH>a: R-22, 51,57 

- 03HaKe oGaBeniTeiba: S-2/13, 45 
TpoBaite npBa noMofr h Jieneite 

npeMa deneHy tokchhhocth h cpejiiho) 

CMpTHOJ JJ03H 3a JiaGopaTOpHJCKe ^CHBOTHfte, 

3aBHCHO ofl opajiHor, jjepMajiHor h HHxajra- 
HHOHor jjejerBa, otpobh ce pa3BpciaBajy y 
rpynel, II h III. 

y rpyny I cnajjajy otpobh *iHJa LD-50 
yHoineiteM y xejiynau. nauoBa h3hoch jio 25 
rn^kg, HaHonieibeM Ha Koxy naupBa hjih 
KyHHha ro 50 mg/kg, yznicatbeM koji nauoBa 
LC-50 jo 0,5 mg/1 Ba3Jjyxa y Toxy 4 caia. 

y rpyny II cna^ajy otpobh nnja jip3a LD- 
50 yHonieH^eM y acenynau nanpBa h3hoch ojj 
25 jio 200 mg/kg, HaHonieH>eM Ha Koxy nanpBa 
hjih KyHHha or 50 £0 400 mg/kg, yuncaifceM kojj; 
nanpBa LC-50 or 0,5 jio 2 mg/1 Ba3,nyxa y TOKy 
4 caia. 

y rpyny III cnaaajy otpobh *iHJa je cpejjjtta 
CMpTHa jjo3a, LD-50 yHomeH>eM y acenynaij 
nanpBa h3hoch or 200 jjo 2000 mg/kg, 
HaHomeH^eM Ha Ko^cy nanpBa hjih KyHHha pa; 
400 no 2000 mg/kg, ynHcaiteM kojj nanpBa LC- 
50 ojj 2 jjo 20 mg/1 Ba3jxyxa y TOKy 4 caia. 

Otpobh ce pa3BpcTaBajy y rpyne h npeMa 
xpohhhhom JiejcTBy, KaHueporeHOCTH, Tepa- 
ToreHocra, MyrareHOCTH, eMGpHOTOKCHH- 



hocth, ajiepreHOCTH, HaapaacrbHBOCTH Ha 
Koxy h cjiy30Koxy, onacHOCTH 3a XHBOTHy 
cpe^HHy, HarpH3ajyheM jjejciBy, eKcnjio3HB- 
hocth, 3anajLHBOCTH, JiaKoj 3anajtHBOCTH, ca- 
M03anajtHBOCTH h jjpyrHM KpHTepHJyMHMa 3a 
pa3BpcTaBaH>e OTpoBa. 

HayKa je obo peKJia h Hanncajia o aMH- 
Tpa3y h cbh KpJH o obo]" cyncTaHHH nniny mo- 
pajy obo HMaTH Ha yMy. JUrmaBaje cbojhm 3a- 
kohckhm h nojj3aKOHCKHM aKTHMa oGyxBa- 
THJia CBe o otpobhhm MaTepHJaMa h npe nn- 
caita hjih jaBHor HacTyna (npeJiaBaH>a) Tpe6a 
npo^HTaTH h 3aKOHCKy peryjiaTHBy H3 OBe 
oGjiacTH. 

flpyro je nHTaH>e HaHHH npHMeHe aMH- 
Tpa3a pa; CTpaHe iraejiapa. y xejtn %a noc- 
THrHy hito 6ojte pe3yjiTaTe y cy36njaH>y 
Bapoo3e, npaBe h BejiHKe h Majie rpeuiKe no- 
totobo y jj,03h, HaHHHy aruiHKaHHJe (jiaBajta), 
BpeMeHy jjaBaH>a Jiexa h yneciajiocTH TpeT- 
MaHa. Bnnie nyra cmo roBopHJin h nncajin jja 
je jj,03a Jiexa y JinpeKiHoj 3aBHCHOCTH pa; 6poja 
irqejia y 3ajejjHHHH h CTeneHa HHBajjHpaHOCTH 
ca BapooM, a ^a je y 3aBHCHOCTH h ojj Jjpyrax 
(J>aKTOpa Kao hito je CTaite h THn KoniHHue h 
jjp. npeMajie Jj03e Jiexa cy Hee4)HKacHe h H3a- 
3HBajy 6pxe HacTajaite OTnopHOCTH hjih 
pe3HCTeHHHJe Bapoe Ha aMHTpa3, a npeBejiHKe 
jj03e mTeTHO Jjejiyjy Ha nnejie. BeoMa je 
TeniKO nocTHhH HJjeajiHy Jj03y Koja y6nja 
Bapoe, a He CMeTa rraejiaMa, ij. jia Ha h>hx He 
jjejiyje HiTeTHO. Hajqeinhn HaqHH anjiKKaunje 
aMHTpa3a je npeKO cnoporopyhnx JiHCTHha. 
TojecTe HajjiaKinn h Haj6pxn Ha^iHH, ajin He 
h HajGojtH. JXa JiH je HeKO oji n^iejiapa 
H3panyHao KOJiHKa je KOHHeHipauHJa aMH- 
Tpa3a y jjBe hjih TpH Kann Koje ce eraBJLajy Ha 
jejjaH hjih jjBa JiHCTHfta y ojjHocy Ha 6poj 
nnejia h Moryta 6poj Bapoa Ha H>HMa. He 
yGnja Bapoy jimm Beh aMHTpa3. CMaTpaMO jja 
je HajGojtH HaHHH anjiHKaiiHJe aMHTpa3a y 06- 
jiHKy aepocojia. y HameM ynyrcTBy o 
ynoTpeGn jiexa OBaj MeTOJj HCJtyHHBO npe- 
nopyHyjeMO. AepocojiH3auHJa 3axTeBa MHoro 
pajja, ajin je h e(J)HKacHa. IIIto ce TH^ie Bpe- 
MeHa amiHKauHJe npenopynyjeMO jja to 6yae 
paHO npojiehe h KacHa jeceH Kajja je y 
jjpyniTBy Majio nnejiHH^er Jierjia h HeMa 
nqejiHH^e name. TpeTHpaH>e oGaBHTH hjih 
paHO yjyrpy hjih npejj Beqe, Kajja cy CBe nnejie 



316 



n^ejiap 1999 



y koihhhhh, ajiH jja cnojbHa TeMnepaTypa He 
6y;je HHxa ojj, 10°C. y npojiehe JieneH>e 
oGaBHTH jjBOKpaTHO y pa3MaKy ojx 5-7 jjaHa, a 
rjiaBHO TpeTHpaite cnpoBecra yjeceH jTBa jxo 
TpH nyra, TaKorje ca pa3MaKOM or 5-7 jjaHa. 
Ako ce HpH^p^caBaMO OBor ynyrcTBa, oam 
HeMa noTpeGe 3a ^enihHM TpeTHpan>eM. He 
3a6opaBHMO jja je 36or Hanajja Bapoe 
imejiHH>a 3ajejiHHHa y CTpecHpj CHTyaHHJH, a 
HecTOM npHMeHOM jiexa OHa ce noBehaBa. 
OB/je ce He pajjn caMo o (J)H3hhkom y3HeMHpa- 
BaH>y Beh h o erajiHO npHcymoM xcmhjckom 
aTaxy h onTepeheity. Ako ce npHjxpxaBaMO 
HaBejjeHor ynyrcTBa HeMa 6oja3HH #a lie ce 
ocTauH aMHTpa3a (pe3H#ye) Hata y Mejjy, a 
xohe jih hx 6hth He 3aBHCH ojj aMHTpa3a Beh 
HCKJbyHHBO or caBecTH rraejiapa. 

Ako OBaKO GyjjeMO TpeTHpajiH imejiHH>a 
apyuiTBa y3 KopHHiheite ocrajinx MeTOjja h 
BeTepHHapcKO-caHHTapHHX Mepa, 6poj Bapoa 

CMaH>HheMO Ha nOJJHOIHJBHB 6poj KOJH 

OMoryhaBa peHTaGmiHy npoH3Bo;jH>y y 
nnejiapcTBy. 

CBaKaKO jja 6h ycnex y cy36HJaH>y Bapoo3e 
6ho 3HaTHO Beta Kajj 6h ce Tperapaite o6a- 
bhjio y hcto BpeMe h ca hcthm jickom yjejjHOM 
peraoHy, na y jjpyroM wtr. ihto je, peajiHO 
rjie^ajyta y HaiiiHM ycnoBHMa tchiko 
nocTHta. 

HeKH Haiun ayropH Hac oGaBeniTaBajy jja 
je y CBeTy peracTpoBaHO npeKO 140 npena- 
paia 3a cy36HJaite Bapoo3e. To yKa3yje #a 
npaBH JieK join HHJe npoHarjeH, Beh jia cy to 
caMo noKyiuaJH ca CTapHM hjih hobhm aKapH- 
HHUHMa h HHceKTHHH^HMa kojh jjajy JjoGpe pe- 
3yjnaTe. ajiH ca KOJHMa ce He Moxe nocTHta 
TOTajiHa epajJHKauHJa, ojthocho noTnyHO 
yHHiHTeH>e V. Jacobsoni. Ha obom npoGjieMy, 
Kao h Ha oerajiHM GojiecraMa nnejia, y CBeTy 
pajjn BejiHKH 6poj HayHHHKa kojh ce Hajia3e y 

n^eJiapCKHM HHCTHTyTHMa (HMa HX BHine y 

CBeTy) hjih npH HeKHM KaTe^paMa Ha <J)aKyji- 
TeTHMa Kao ihto cy BeTepHHapcKH hjih 
nojbonpHBpejjHH. Pa3yMe ce, hh BejiHKe <Jmp- 
MaueyTCKe Kyhe Kao ihto cy Bayer H3 
Heivia^iKe h Novartis H3 LLlBajnapcKe HHcy 
He3aHHTepecoBaHe. BepyjeMO jja he cejejiHor 
jjaHa npoHata cyncraHna *mja he e<j)HKacHOCT 



6hth 100% h ocjio6ojjhth nnejiape h nqejiap- 

CTBO BeJIHKHX MyKa. 

y obom pajry oGpajjHJTH cmo caMo cyn- 
CTaHuy aMHTpa3, nouiToje XeMOBeT jj.o.o. H3 
Bpmna npoH3Borjaq XeMOBapa 3a Kora HeKH 
ayropH CMaTpajy jja je BeoMa urreTaH 3a Jtyne. 
HHH^eHHue cy H3HeTe Kao h JiHTepaTypa Kojy 
cmo KopHCTHJiH, na ko ^cejiH Moxe CBe to h m 
npoBepH. 

Ha Kpajy, Kao 3aKJLynaK peKJiH 6hcmo jxa 
ce npenapaTH Ha 6a3H aMHTpa3a joni yBeK 
ynoTpeGjbaBajy h y CBeTy h kojj; Hac h ^a je 
aMHTpa3 cnacao GpoJHe nnejinitaKe o/j noTiry- 
hot yHHiHTeita. Oh jecTe OTpoB Kao h GpoJHe 
jipyre neKOBHTe cyncraHHe, ajiH aKO ce npa- 
bhjiho ynoTpeGn h He 3JioynoTpe6H, JteroBO 
HiTeTHO jjejioBaite Ha nnene je 3aHeMapJLHBO 
y ojjHocy Ha e(J)HKacHOCT y cy36HJaH>y 
Bapoo3e. flpyre xeMHJCKe MaTepnje Kao ihto 
je (J>JiyBajiHHaT h jip. hhcmo o6pajjHJiH, HaKO 
HMaMO MaTepHJane, noniTO CMaTpaMO jia je to 
npaBO h o6aBe3a ohhx npoH3BC<j>aHa kojh Te 
jieKOBe h npoH3Bo;je. 



JIMTEPATYPA: 

- MHTHh HoBHua "necTHUH^H y noibo- 
npHBpejjn y uiyMapcTBy y JyrocnaBHJH", 1998. 
XI 1, H3MeH>eHO h jjonytbeHO H3jj,aH>e. 

- 3aKOH o npoH3Bo;jH>H h npoMeiy OTpoB- 
hhx MaTepHJa, Cji. jihct CPJ 15/95. 

- OjjjryKa o o6ejiexaBaH>y OTpoBa y npo- 
Meiy, Cji. jihct CPJ 38/97. 

- npaBHJIHHK O KpHTepHJyMHMa 3a pa3Bp- 

CTaBan>e OTpoBa y rpyne h o MeTojiaMa 3a 
ojxpefjHBaite CTeneHa otpobhocth noje/iHHHX 
OTpoBa, Cji. jihct CPJ 79/91. 

- MaKCHMOBHh A., ^HBaHOB J\., MaKCH- 

MOBHh J\., "B. floGpHh "HeKe GojiecTH nnejia, 
MoryhHOCTH JieHefta h perncTpoBaHH JieKOBH 
y Hanioj 3eMJLH 3a nnejie" pajjoBH ca 11 caBe- 
TOBaH^a o JieKOBHMa 3a ynoTpeGy y BeTepHHH, 
ctp. 127-130, Mrajio 1996. 

- MaKCHMOBHh A., MaKCHMOBHh J\. "Ba- 

poo3a n^iejia - uiHpeH>e h cy36m"aH>e" (y npn- 
npeMH). 



317 



nnejiap 1999 



HCTOPHJA FREJIAPCTBA 



niapjiflaAaH( 18 19- 1902) 



(noBOAOM 180 roAMHa ojx pof)eH>a) 

IJpupeduo: Munom AHtnoHufi, ceemmeHUK, Koi^e/beea 






>Khbot h paa oBor rraejiap- 
CKor BejiHKaHa je BeoMa hh- 
TepecaHTaH h BeoMa noynaH. 
lllapji flaaaH je no Hapon- 
hocth 6ho OpaHuy3, a no 
MecTy XHBibeiba AMepHKa- 
Han,. Po^ho ce 1819. ro^HHe, 
xao chh CHpoMainHor ceocKor 
neKapa, yje^HOM ceuy 6jiH3y 
Baponin Langres. n^ejiap- 
ctbom ce noneo GaBHTH join 
xao jieHaK, a npBa nqejiapcKa 
KH>nra H3 Koje ce ynno Gnjiaje 
MGepoBa (Huber) KttHra "Les 
novelis opservations" (HoBa 
onaxaita). Tpn nyra My je 
yHHUiTaBaH nqejiHitaK arcn oh 
HHJe KJioHyo, Behje 3anoneo h ^eTBpTH nyr. Y 
MJiaj,ocTHJe 6ho TproBa^KH noMohmiK, aaou- 
Hnje nocTao n KOMnaitoH y hctoj pa^H>H. y 
TproBHHn je CTexao bcjihko GoraTCTBO, ajin 
My ce Taj nocao Hnje ,n;ona£ao. 3aTO je Hanyc- 
tho TproBHHy, Kynno BennKO n Jieno HMaite, 
na ce o^ao eKOHOMnjn. Ann Kan y OpaHirycicoj 
HacTa^e peBOJiynHJa Jlajian H3ry6n CBy CBOjy 
HMOBHHy, na oji GoraTania nocTaae nyKH cn- 
poMax. 

OcTaBnin 6e3 nme nnera /Ja^aH ce npe- 
cejin H3 OpaHnycKe y AMepHKy, #a TaMO no- 
Tpaxn cpene. npeuiaBnin y AMepHKy J\ajxan 
ce HacTaHH y HeKoj HanyniTeHoj Kynn y nryMn 
y 6jih3hhh rpa^a XaMHJiTOHa y ap^caBHUH 
Mjihhohc, me ycKopo npeBe^e h nopo,HHiry. 

Je^Hora nana npoHHra fla^aH y HeKHM ho- 
BHHaMa GejieniKy o TOMe , kojihko je 
aMepnqKH nnejiap KbhmGh (Quimby) /io6no 
Mejia op, cbojhx nHejia.fla^aHJe ram y ueny 
HMao caMO jiBa aonapa, n 3a je^iaH on h>hx 
Kynn KBHMGnjeBy KH>Hiy o n^enapcTBy. Ka#a 
je naynno eHrnecKH h npoynno KBHMGnjeBO 
ynyrcTBO y nnejiapeity y JXajiany ce oneT 
noBpara BOJta 3a n^ejiapeite . OBora 



flj* 



^**r 




Ulapji Jladan 



(neTBpTor) nyra ^a^aH je HMao 
BHine cpehe. IloHeoje caje^HOM 
KoniHHUOM. ElocTeneHO je 
yBehaBao cboj rrqejuntaK. Oko 
1870. ro^HHe fla^aH je HMao 
nqejiHH>aK or npexo 400 
KoniHHira h ^oGnjao 20 TOHa 
Me^a ro^nnifte. y to BpeMe J\a- 
^aH je Beh nocTao *ryBeHH 
aMepHHKH nnejiap. y 3aje/iHnuH 
ca chhom KaMHJioM npepajnoje 
JlaHTCTpOTOBO ^yBeHO ^eno "L' 
abeille et la ruche" (Ffaejia h 
koiiihiilui), Kojeje niTaMnaHO y 
orpoMHOM 6pojy npHMepaxa, h 
ca hcthm ycnexoM npeBe^eHO Ha 
BHmeje3HKa. 

Hajxan je npBHX ro^HHa rraejiapHO Kbhm- 
GnjeBOM koiuhhitom, a ^oitHHJe je npeycTpo- 
jho KBHMGnjeBy KoniHnny, Kojaje #o6HJia H>e- 
tobo HMe na Ha3BaHa ^a^aHoea koiiihh im hjih 
XUuuiHKa, Koja je 6p3o pacnpocTpaiteHa h y 
AMepHUH h y EHrnecKoj , OpaHirycicoj , 
lllBajirapcKoj h ^ipyrnM eBponcKHM 3eMJtaMa. 
JXamn je ocHOBao h paanoHHiry 3a H3pajy 
KoniHHHa, BeuiTa^Kor caha h /ipyrax nnejiap- 
ckhx cnpaBa. Ta nnenapcKa (J)a6pHKa je 
Hocnjia Ha3HB "flaaaH h Chhobh". KacHnje je 
^aaaiiKa MojiH(J)HKOBaHa y fla/iaH-BjiaTOBy 
KoniHnny, Koja je nocTajia onniTe no3HaTa 
KoniHHua y irejioM nnejiapcKOM CBeTy Kao 
Bpno ^o6pa KoniHHua. 

lllapji Hajian ce 6aBno n^enapcTBOM o,n, jie- 
THH>cTBa ,ao ^iy6oKe cTapocTM, na je 3aT0 
CTeKao, He caMO BejiHKO GoraTCTBO, Beh h Be- 
jihko nnejiapcKO HCKycTBO, h HMe 3HaMeHH- 
Tora nqejiapa. 

yMpoje 18. jyjia 1902. ro^HHe y rpazry Xa- 
MHJiTOHy y AMepHitH Kao cnaBaH h HMyhaH 
n^enap h noniTOBaH MOBeK y 83. to^hhh xhb- 
OTa, a H>eroB pa^ npo/ryacHO je aeroB chh Ka- 
mhjio JXajxan. 



332 



nnejiap 1999 



eceT nnejiaDCKHx 3anoBecTH 



IJpupeduo: Mujiow AnmoHuh, ceemmenuK, Koi^e/beea 



1) Ynosiiaj nnejiy, ibeiio pa3BHJan>e, ibeii 
%hbot m paa Kao caivior ce6e. 

Be3 ocHOBHor no3HaBaita nnejie, iteHor 
pa3BHha. H>eHor ^HBOTa h pajja, He mhcjih oc- 
HHBaTH nnejiHH>aK h nnejiapHTH, a join Maite 
jjoGhth Ma KaKBe kophcth ojx Tor pajja. 
Ilnejiap KOJH HeMa OBa no3HaH>a Gnhe niTeTaH 
He caMO ce6n Beh h OHHMa oko ce6e a h 3a 
caMO nnejiapcTBO. 

Ko He no3Haje rraejry, H>eH ^chbot, 
ocoGnHe h pajj, Taj He Moxe H3aGpara hh Me- 
tojj, nnejiapeita, a 6e3 MeTO/ja nnejiapeita He 
Moxe ce H3a6paTH hh KoniHnua ca kojom ce y 
npHJiHKaMa ca KOJHMa ce pacnojiaace mqtkq 
pauHOHajiHO nnejiapHTH. Jep cy ynHTejtn 
nqejiapcTBa JipKa3ajiH jja je CBaKa KoniHHna 
jjoGpa y pyicaMa JipGpor nnejiapa, kojh je yc- 
neo ^a H3a6epe JipGap MeTOJj nnejiapeita 
npeMa cbojhm npHJiHKaMa. 

flaicie, 6e3 jjoGpor no3HaBan>a nnejie h 
fteHor ^HBOTa h pa#a, He mhcjth nnejiapHTH, 
ocHHBaTH nnejiHH>aK h 6hth KopHCTaH ceGn, 
irqejiH h nnejiapcTBy yonuiTe. 



na na3H Ha to, jja ce rraejiH ctboph ihto Beha 
MoryhHOCT jja ce no cbom npHpojjHOM HaroHy 
pa3BHJa, pajjH n ;>khbh. Jep, naKo je hobck 
Hajnocjie ycneo m rraejiy H3 nryMCKe Jryiute 
yBe/j,e y KouiHHny h y cboj BpT, me jyje nocTa- 
bho no^ CBOjy KOHTpojiy, oh He Tpe6a jja 
mhcjih m ce nnejiHiteM JjpyniTBy Moxe 
HaperjHBaTH na pajjH OHaKO KaKO oh xofte h 
xejin. Ilnejiap Tpe6a caMO na noMaxe nnejiH- 
H>eM JjpyniTBy, na My ojiaKmaBa y pany, m My 
npyaca MoryhHOCT 3a ihto Gojlh pajj, 
CTBapajytiH Gon>e ycnoBe noGpoM koiuhhhom 
h noGpoM nainoM. CaMO TaKaB iteroB pan, 
nahe npGpe pe3yjiTaTe. 

ITnenap He TpeGa na Gyne ynopaH ca cbo- 
jhm HanHHOM pana, Beh ce Tpe6a 
npHJjp^caBaTH h caBeTa CTapnjnx h HCKycHH- 
jhx nnenapa, na npoynaBa nnenapcicy JiHTepa- 
Typy h na CTajiHO nonyttyje CBOje 3HaH>e, a 
THMe he nocTHhH h 6on>e pe3yjiTaTe . y 
nqenapcTBy ce Mopa nhn ynopeno ca HayxoM. 

4) IlMejiapM ca jaKHM imejimbHM 
npyiirrBHMa. 



2) Byzm Bpejjaii m MCTpajaii. 

CBe ihto Moxeiu ypanHTH naHac He 
ocTaBJbaj 3a cyrpa. Taxo hcto, npH eBeHiyan- 
hhm HejjahaMa, He kjiohh, Beh HCTpaj Ha no- 
cjiy, jep HCTpaJHOCT noGerjyje. He GyjH noxjie- 
nan h npeTepaH y cbojhm 3axTeBHMa. ITpn 
ojjy3HMaH^y Mena, ony3MH caMO cyBHiuaK, a 
ocTaBH noTpeGHy pe3epBy. Ca nnenapHMa y 
cycejjcTBy ^chbh y JtyGaBH h cjio3h h He raenaj 
y H>HMa KOHKypeHTa. Jep, axo xhbhih ca CBa- 
khm Jieno, HMaheui caMO kophcth a HHKajj 
HiTeTe. 

3) He Gyjm KoiuepBaniBaH y iraejiapcTBy. 

floGap nnenap He CMe HHiiiTa hhhhth Ha 
npenau. Y uenoM CBOMe pany nnenap TpeGa 



JaKO npyniTBO Gojte npe3HMH, 3a BpeMe 
3HMOBaH>a yrpoiHH Maity KOJiH^HHy Mena 3a 
CBOjy HcxpaHy, H3Hrje y nponehe jane, h 
cnpeMHO je 3a nponeTHm pajj h rnaBHy namy. 
M y HajropHM npHJiHKaMa cnocoGHO je 3a 
KpaTKO BpeMe ceGn cnpeMHTH 3HMHHiry, a h 
nqenapy npyxHTH kophcth. Hajnocjie, jaica 
jjpyniTBa ^ajy h Behe kophcth miejiapy, ot- 
nopHHJa cy Ha 3HMy, GojiecTH h HiTeTOHHHe. 
CaMO ca jaKHM jjpyniTBHMa Moxe ce pauHO- 
HajiHO n^enapHTH. 

5) He Tpim y CBOMe iwejnnbai^ Maume 
cTapMJe oji upe ro^HHe. 

MaTHua je jejjHHa onjio^eHa ^eHKa y 
nnejiHiBeM JjpyniTBy, cnocoGHa m hoch jaja 
pajjH pa3MHOxaBaH5a nnejia. OHa xhbh jjo 5 



333 



rinejiap 1999 



ronHHa (HMa H3y3eTaKa h BHiue), aiiH iteHa 
nyHa Bpej,HOCT y miejiapeity je npBe #Be ro- 
£HHe ^CHBOTa. Flocjie ^Be TORime OHa ce y 
BehHHH cjiyqajeBa HCTpomn h HHJe cnocoGHa 
m pa3BHJe jaKO n*iejiHH>e apyniTBO. Mjvajxa h 
KBajiHTeTHa MaTHua je rapaHunja ycnexa. 



6) He ocTaBJtaj nnenHiua apyniTBa 6e3^o- 
bojbho Me^a 3a 3HMCKy HcxpaHy. 

npHHUHn pa3yMHor miejiapeH>a Tpe6a jia 
je: "nona nnejiH, a nojia nqejiapy". HHKa/i He 
ocTaBJbaj nnejiHH>e RpyuiTBO 6e3 /iobojlho 
Me#a 3a 3HMCKy ncxpany. LLlTa BHine TpeGa 
HMaTH h £pyre pe3epBe y Meziy ca kojom 
^oneKaTH eBeHTyajiHO Jiomy ro^HHy. /JoGpo 
xpaiteHa ^pyinTBa H3HhHhe H3 3HMe jaxa h 
cnocoGHa 3a ^ajLH paa y Hnyhoj to^hhh. 



7) He oTBapaj kouihhuc necTo h 6e3 
noTpe6e. 

McxycaH mejiap Tpe6a m BpniH nperjiej,e 
Konnraiia cbojhm okom. JTeTO je orjie^ajio y 
KOMe ce orjiej,a yHyipauiH>ocT KouiHHue . 
Jlqejiap TpeGa na H36eraBa ^ecTO OTBapaite 
KouiHHua, jep ce no KpeTaity iraejia Ha JieTy 
Mo^ce 3aKJbyHHTH inTa je y kohihhhh. Ha JieTy 
ce Moxe no3HaTH jia ™ y kohihhhh HMa Ma- 
THua, jia jih BJiaja pe# h xa., na 3aTo oTBapaite 
KoiHHHue TpeGa m Gyne y H3BecHHM pa3Ma- 
HHMa. Be3 Hapo^HTe noTpeGe KoiHHHue He 
TpeGa OTBapaTH, jep CBaKO OTBapaite KoiHTa 
h TpoiHH Me/i, peMeTH pen h pa# rraejia. 



8) HpnnpeMaj npexo 3HMe cee iuto Mo- 
dern 3a n^yhy ce30Hy. 

Bpe^aH n^enap TpeGa jia hckophcth 3HMy 
3a npnnpeMy CBera ihto je noTpeGHO 3a imyhy 
ce30Hy, TaKO m Kaa HacTynn npojiehe Gyne 
cnpeMaH 3a JiaKine oGaBJbaite nocjioBa Ha 
nHejiHH>aKy, jep he TaKO GnaroBpeMeHO y 
CBOMe nocjry Ghth KopHCTaH nnejiH h ceGn, h 



Motarie jxo MaKCHMyMa j\a pa3BHJe CBOjy ae- 
jiaTHOCT. TaKO he Ha BpeMe moIth j\a o^roBopH 
cbhm noTpeGaMa miejiHitaKa, a aoGnhe h 
HaJBehe kophcth. 

npeKO 3HMe TpeGa cnpeMHTH HHBeHTap, 
ajiaT h caB Apyra MaTepnjaji. npeKO 3HMe 
rraejiap TpeGa m aHajiH3Hpa CBe CBOje 
npoiHJioro^HiHite pa^oBe, na oueHH ycnexe 
hjth Heycnexe, m H3 /meBHHKa nperneaa h 
oueHH cboj paji, CTaH^e noje/niHHX /ipyniTaBa h 
KouiHHua, h m ce npeMa TOMe npnnpeMH 3a 
miyhy ce30Hy, Koja Mopa Ghth Goiba Gap y 
OHOMe ihto ce Tme H>eroBor cyziejioBaita y 
pajy rraejia Ha iteroBOM iraejiHH>aKy. 



9) na3H Ha XHrajeHy nnejiapeiba. 

HeHHCToha je H3Bop CBHJy GonecTH, xaKO 

KOfl ^OBeKa, H CBHX 3CHBOTHH>a, TaKO H KO^ 

rraejia. O^p^aBaH^e HHCTohe y kohihhuh h 
inejiHifcaKy onaKuiaBa h pa,n; rraejia na ce THMe 
Bpe/iaH iraejiap jaBJta y yno3H aoGpor no- 
Marana nqejia. na3H Ha XHrnjeHy onpeMe h 
npnGopa, Kao h Ha XHrajeHy *ryBaifca miejiH- 
h>hx npoH3Bo^ia. 



10) Hyaaj npiipoay h ciuapaj ao^aTHy 
namy 3a mejie. 

3Ha ce jia je nama maBHH ycnoB 3a 
o^pxaBaite nnejiHH>er,npyinTBa h npaBHJiaH h 
H>eroB KopHCTaH pafl. npeMa TOMe, npaBH 
nnejiap, nopea Tora ihto TpeGa ^a nyBa Beh 
nocTojehy npnpo^Hy naury, ^ryxaH je 
CTBapaTH h jiojiaTHy. CejaaeM Me^ioHOCHHX 
GnjLaKa, carjeaeM HinGjba h ^pyror Mej,OHOc- 
hot apBeha, nnejiap he ctbophth joui BHine 
name, He caMO 3a CBOje Beh h 3a ocTajie n^ene. 
y TOMe ce H3paxaBa OHa cojiH^apHOCT 
n^enapa, Kao ihto je OHa yporjeHa h kqh 
n^ena. npHHiinn: "je^aH 3a CBe h cbh 3a je^i;- 
Hora" OB^e TpeGa m cjryacn Kao pyKOBOj,HO 
Haqeno y pajry nnejiapa. 



334 



rinejiap 1999 



AKO HHCTe 3HaJIH 



PadoMup CuMuh, Yotcui^e 



1. JXyiiwTJi h Munep cy npenopy^HBajiH m 
ce npojienta npHxpaftHBafta pa#H CTHMyjiH- 
caH>a MaTHiie HajycneiiiHHJe Bpine yjeceH. 

2. Join 1885. roomie JaH Jo,nep je yrep^HO 
m rraejiHH>e ,npyniTBO Moxe m Heiyje caMO 
ohojihko JiapBH kojihko HMa HeroBaTejbHua. 
OBa TBp^ita h aaHac je npHXBaheHa. 

3. CBe #ok nqejiHibe ^pyniTBO HMa #o 5 kg 
xpaHe oho Hene noBehaTH HaroH 3a eKcnaH- 
3HJy Jierna HaKO cbh Apyra <J>aKTOpH to 
OMoryhaBajy. 

4. npHxpaHsHBaiteM nnejiHite ^pyniTBO 
6pxe ^ocTHxe BpxyHau; pa3Boja ajiH h HaroH 
3a pojeite. 

5. Majia ^pyniTBa yjeceH ziyxe Heryjy ne- 
tjio Herojaxa. 

6. J\?l 6h je^HO ^pyuiTBO ^oerarjio pa3Boj 
ojx 50.000 rraejia noTpouin 23 kg Me^a. f\a. He 
6h ^ohijio no 3acToja y pa3Bojy Jierna 
apyuiTBo TpeGa #a HMa y cBaxo flo6a 14-18 kg 
Me^a. 

7. Ako miejiHHoe ^pyniTBO y nponehe 
ocTaHe 6e3 pe3epBe Me^a oho he HeicaKO 
npe^cHBeTH. ajiH rraejiapy HHKaKaB npHxon 
Hehe #OHeTH. 

8. y3HMaHje paMa ca Me^oM H3 jaxor 
/IpyniTBa Koje HMa ^ocia xpaHe pajni 
noBehaH^a xpaHe #pyroM, Moryhe je. Ajih y3H- 
MaH>e paMa nerjia paan noja*iaH>a flpyror npo- 
H3BO/iHor apyniTBa, H3 TaKorjejaKor, He npe- 
nopynyje ce. 

9. JlpHxpaHa nnejia TeK H3BpuaHHM Me- 
jiom , hjih ^o^aBaite H3BpuaHor caha Ha 
"HHinheH^e h nonpaBKy" HajjiaKnie H3a3HBa 
rpaGex 36orjaKor MHpnca Me^a. 3aTO ce OBaj 
nocao oGaBJba yBene Ksm rreejie He H3Jieny. 

10. rtnejie H3JieTHHue yBeK npe o/tna3e #a 
caKyrubajy HeKTap naxo hm je cnpyn or 



iuehepa M Ha #oxBaT pyice" y xpaHHJiHim. 3a 
OHe kojh xpaHe nnejie uiehepoM obo 6h Tpe- 
Gajio #a HeiHTO 3Ha*ffl. 

1 1 . 0,a 750 MapKHpaHHX nnejia Koje cy ce 
H3Bejie nociie jecen>er npnxpaitHBajBa ocTajio 
je xhbo h ynecTBOBajio y npBoj rjiaBHOj naiun 

CaMOJBHX 13. 

12. flpyniTBa Koja HHcy yjeceH npHxpaiBH- 
BaHa uiehepHHM cnpynoM, Beh Mej,OM, 
npe3HMHJia cy ycneiHHHJe, noTpouiHJia cy 
MaH^e xpaHe, H3anuia cy GpoJHHJa ca nnejiaMa 
h HMana cy BHiue jierjia y npojiehe, Hero 
/IpyniTBa npHxpa^HBaHa menepoM. 

13. n^ejie inehepHH cnpyn Jiarepyjy nope,a 
jierna ajiH caMO ^ouie #ok H3 H>era He cm- 
CTpaHe BHinaK Bo^e. Ilocjie ra npeHoce y 
Me^HiuTe. Obo CBaKH n^enap Moxe yrBp^HTH 
aKO cnpyn o6ojh ^03BOJLeHOM 6ojom. Bepo- 
Ban>e m he nqene ruio^Hiirre HanyHHTH cnpy- 
noM, a caB HeicrapHH Me,n, yHOCHTH y MCHHime 
HeMa ocHOBa. 

14. Ako ce Ha 10 #aHa npe^ rjiaBHy naiuy 
o6e3MaTH*iH n*iejiHH>e apynrrBO, a yo™ name 
My ce BpaTH JteroBa MaTMua, ^pyuiTBO he 
caxynHTH 2,5 nyra BHiue Me/ia ojx jpyiHTBa 
HCTejaHHHe Koje HHJe o6e3MaTHHaBaHO. npo- 
<j>ecop LI,H6yjicKHJ to oojaimtaBa "eHeprajoM 
npHpo/iHorpoja". 

15. n^ejie he caMe HajGoibe pacnope/iHTH 
3HMCKy xpaHy y njio^Hiiny ann caMO noA 
ycjioBOM^aje HMa y ^obojbhoj kojihhhhh (20- 
-25 kg), m ^ipyuiTBO HMa Gap 8 yjiHua nnejia h 
m je cahe ncnpaBHO. Ako je CBe to TaKO, 
n^enapeBa HHTepBeHunja Mo^ce 6hth caMO 
iirreTHa. 

19.3. 1999. roaime 

PaiOMMp CiimmTi 

y ma u e 



286 



n^ejiap 1999 



MwcjiMHCTaKHyTHx n x iejiapa 



Mh He jjpxhmo h He raJHMO rmejie pajiH * 
h>hx caMHX, T.j. m OHe XHBe caMO 3a h>h- 

xoBe HaroHe, Ben hx raJHMO pajiH Haine Pajj oko KomHHua ca JiBe Maraue je jjo- 

KOPHCTH, Aa OJJ H>HX JI,o6HJeMO IIITO BHIHe CTa Te5KaK 36 ° r MHOr0 mejia H Me * a Y 

Mena h Bocxa BHMa, ajiH "6e3 MyKe ce hh necMa He ot- 

Josaii T3ep30H neBa". He Bajta caMO Kajjje iviyxa y3ajryjiHa. 

HjiHJa TjiHropoBHli 



Kajj, HeMa name h Kajj, HeMa y koiiihhhh 

Me/ja, a th bojbho h Bpe/iHO npHxpaityj 

cBoje nnejie; cme ne th to JieceTocTpyKo 

BpaTHTH. Bapain ce axo mhcjihih Jia he th 

OHaj Mejj hjih menep nponacTH kojh 6h jjao 

CBpJHM n^enaMa y rjia^HO Jjp6a. 

M b:ih MauinpeBMh 



CaB Tpyjj h KanHTan ynoxeH oko nnena 

HajGpxe ce h 6oraTO HcnjiaTH. Ako th 

jjajem nqejiH (hjih nnejiaMa), jjah_e h OHe 

Te6n. 

Tbhao CKJieHap 



CBa ce BeiHTHHa y sajjoGnjaity Me/ia 

cbojjh Ha BeiHTHHy jja ce CBe nnejiHHse 3ajj- 

pyre pa3BHJy ro BpxyHua, npe Hero hito 

HacTynn raaBHa naiua. 

Bhtombp JoBaiiOBiih 



n^ene Moxe Jipxara h cnpoMax h 60- 

raTaui. 3a nqene ce Kaate "cnpoTHH^CKa 

CTOKa", jep nnejie He TpeGajy noGaHa, hh 

CTaje, hh JiHBajje . . . 

^yniaH K. Mnjinh 



"npocTOKOinHH^apH" CBoje miejie yje- 

ceH TH>aBe, JiaBe, nane hjih ra3e jja 6h 

jjoudih jjo Mejja, jjok (obh) caBpeMeHH 

nqejiapH ocyrjyjy CBoje nnejie Ha CMpT 

rjiarjy ojjy3HMajyftH hm caB Mejj,. 

M. IleTpoBHfi 



He Moxe ce ca ycnexoM nqejiapHTH no 

je/iHOM ycTajbeHOM peuenTy y CBaxoM 

MecTy, na hh yjejjHOM hctom MecTy CBaice 

rojjHHe, Hero ce KopHCTehn CTpy*mo 3HaH>e 

Mopa CBaKe rojjHHe npHJiarorjaBara H3- 

MeH>eHHM npHJTHKaMa. 

Bhtomhp JoBanoBiih 



JbyTO ce Bapajy cbh kojh MHCJie jja caMa 

naiua jjaje Mejj hjih KoniHHHa; 3a CBe Toje 

noTpeGaH cnpeMaH nnejiap, Te Kajj ce CBe to 

yopyacH, yenexje BehH. 

CfieT03ap K. TioprjeBHh 



AxaT, Ka^a ce nnejie ^ejie jja carpajje 

HOBy KOJioHHJy, 30Be ce pojen>e. 

Josan >KnBaiiOBiih 



npnpeAHo: Mhjioui AHTOHHh, 
CBeuiTeHHK, KoueJbesa 



287 



nnejiap 1999 



IlMejiapeibeJIPKoniHHuoM 




reo3den Cmeeanoeuh, Yjicuu.e, Eeo2padcica53 



Y3 ckpomho no3HaBaH>e Gnojioraje rraejie 
h H>eHor noHainaita y npHponn ca je/jHe 
CTpaHe, h KapaKTepHCTHKa noje/XHHe mejiap- 
CKe onpeivie ca npyre CTpaHe, GnheMO y 
MoryhHocra na ycneniHO nnejiapHMO obom 

KOIIIHHHpM. 

CaM nonaraKna npexo 90% KoniHHiia ot- 
najja Ha J1P y CBeTy, roBopn HaM na ce pajxn o 
MerjyHapo/XHOM onpe/jejbeity 3a OBaj THn 
KoniHHue. 

Pann CTyaH03HHj'er nocMaTpaita nqejiape- 
H>a J1P koiiihhitom HajGojte je to npencTaBHra 
Kp03 cjieneha norjiaBJba: 

1. y3HMJbaBaH>e 

2. y6p3aHH npojiehHH pa3Boj 

3. CnpeqaBaite pojeita 

4. MenoGpaite 

5. npoH3BOflH>a MJie^a h y3roj Marana 

6. HenocTann h npe/jHocra J1P KoniHHire y 
o/jHocy Ha ocTane ranoBe HacTaBJbana. 

1. y^iiMJbaiiaibe 

JlopeHuo JlaHrcTpoT hh caitara mrje 
Morao KaxaB je KopaK Hanpe/i HanpaBHO y 
nnejiapcTBy 1851. ro/jHHe 3aGopaBJbajyhH na 
CKHHe Mejj Haje/iHOM nHejiHH^aKy. 

3anpaBO, no cbojoj 3aMHCJiH Ha irqejinita- 
HHMaje y3HMHO miejie yje/XHOM Tejry. CBe je 
Ghjio y pe/ry. MerjyraM, Ha nnejiniBaKy ca 3a- 
GopaBJbeHHM Me/joM y npyroM Tejry (Koje je 
HMajio yjiory Me/jHiiiTa) pa3Boj iraejiHitHX 3a- 
jenHHira y npojiene Gho je H3pa3HT0 Gojbh. 
TaKO na nocTaje npaKca ca y3HMJbaBaH>eM y 
jjBa Tejia. J1P KoniHHiia y cbom CTaHnapjjy h 
^aiboj npaKCH /joGnja Tpehe Tejio. He TpeGa 
H3iy6HTH H3 biw m je JlopeHHp JlaHrcTpoT 
n^enapHO y OHJianeji(|)HJH, r^e je KJiHMa jxo- 
CTa TonjiHJa on Haine KOHTHHeHrajiHe. 

y HaiHHM ycjioBHMa, reorpa(J)CKH h bhchh- 
ckh rjienaHO , on, npHMOpja na no KonaoHHKa h 
flypMHTOpa, 3a ycneiHHO 3HMOBaH>e, npH- 
XBaheHa je KOJiHHHHa Mena ojj 15 - 20 kg no 
nnejiHifcoj 3ajejjHHn,H. Ty KOJiHHHHy xpaHe y 
nomyHOCTH o6e36erjyje npocTop ojj, jenHor 
J1P Tena. 

MerjyraM, aKO npnxBaraMO noro/jHoer 
Gp^cer npojiehHor pa3Boja ca nBa Tena, 



nocTaje jiotmhho na hx y3HMHMO y nBa Tena. 
Ho, 36or Te noronHocrajaBJba ce h jenaH ne- 
jiHKaTaH npoGjieM y KpajeBHMa ca onrrpnjoM 

KJ1HMOM H ny^COM 3HMOM. 

3nMCKy npnxpaHy yrjiaBHOM oGaBJtaMO y 
aBiycTy, nonyiry y cenreMGpy, a KOHaHHy 
nonyiry (Henaj Bo^e) MO^Kna ^aic n y OKToGpy. 
XpaHa he 6nra CMeniTeHa orapHnnice OBaxo: 
axo je y npyroM Tejry 20 ^ceibeHHX KHJiorpaMa 
xpaHe, y npBOM he 6hto ojj; 3 - 8 kg. y npyroM 
Tejiy npexo 90% 6nhe 3aTB0peH Me,n, a y 
npBOM 3aTB0peH a necTO n OTBOpeH. 

3hmcko KJiyGe, ca nanpM TeMnepaType hc- 
no£ 12°C, 6nhe yrjiaBHOM y npBOM Tejiy, npK 

he CBOJHM MaiBHM nCJIOM MO^aa 3aXBaTHTH 

^ejiHMHHHO npyro Teno. Ca BehnM nanoM TeM- 
nepaType kcuoji 0°C KJiyGe he ce pannje koh- 
ueHTpncara Ha OTBOpeHOM Meny y npBOM 
Tejry me ce h Hanuio BHine iraejia ca noneT- 
kom xnanHHX naHa. CBe he 6hth y peny aKO 
xpaHe y npBOM Teny HecTaHe npn cnojbHoj 
TeMnepaTypn Koja he OMoryhnra npe- 
MeiHTaite KnyGeTa y npyro Tejio. Ako cnojtHa 
TeMnepaTypa He ho3bojih Ty onepannjy 
nnejiaMa, OHna he OHe m yraHy ojj mann naxo 
ce ^ecTO Hajia3H n no 20 kg KBajinreTHe xpaHe 
H3Haa KJiyGeTa. 

n^ejiapcKa npaxca Ha pa3He Ha^HHe 
peniaBa OBaj npoGneM, a Haj^enihe Ha je^aH 
ojl cjie^ehnx HannHa: 

a) M3 npBOTTejia, npe^i 3HMy, H3Ba^HTH pa- 
MOBe Kojn cy ^ejiHMHHHO HanyH^eHH ca Me^,OM, 
a yMecTO h^hx CTaBHra paMOBe 6e3 Me#a (ca 
caheM). 

6) npBO Teno ocTaBHTH noTnyHO npa3HO 
(6e3paMOBa). 

b) yMecTO npa3Hor npBor Tena eraBHra 
miHTKO J1P Teno, Ghjio npa3HO, Ghjio ca 
npa3HHM paMOBHMa. MerjyraM, HajGojta 
BapnjaHTaje jja nojiyHacTaBaK Gyne nyH Me/ja. 
y obom cjryqajy ce KJiyGe HHKajj He Mo^ce 
CMecTHTH uejio y npBO iijihtko Tejio, Taxo na 
he yBeK jjo/inpHBaTH npyro cTamiapjjHo Tejio. 
THMe ce H3GeraBa onacHOCT CTpajjaH>a oa 
rjiajjH n^iejia y cypoBHM 3HMaMa ncnojj Tejia 
nyHor xpaHe. 



194 



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r) yiviecTo npBor Tejia H3Merjy nojjH>a*ie h 
Tejia CTaBHTH nojjMeTan (paM) BHCHHe 50 -100 
mm, a 6a3He ocHOBe Kao J1P. 

y cbhm obhm cjryqajeBHMa KJiyGe he Ha 
noqeTKy 3HMe jjejiHMHmio 6hth CMenneHO 
Hcno/j Jjpyror Tena. Ca noTponntoM xpaHe h 
najjoM TeMnepaType KJiyGe lie ce noMepara 
HaBHiue. Ca HeKHM ojj obhx THnoBa no/j- 
MeTa^a Hcnojj Jjpyror Tejia (nyHor Me/ja) 
HaiHH nqejiHitauH Gnhe 6e36e/jHH h y 

HajCypOBHJHM 3HMCKHM yCJIOBHMa. 

y CKJiony y3HMJbaBaH>a h npoGneM BeHTH- 
jiauHJe peniHTH y CKJiajjy ca nojjHeGjteM me cy 
CMeniTeHe irqejie h Beh CTe^eHHM HCKycTBOM, 

KaKO CBOJHM a MHOrO je(J)THHHJe TyrJHM. 

yTonjbaBaifce oGaBHTH ca nojaBOM Jienia. 
Ca paHHJHM yroiLTbaBaHjeM necTO nyra 
nocTaBJbaMO CKymtaq BJiare kojh BHine 
HaHOCH niTeTe Hero kophcth. 

JlpeTepaHO paHO yroiLrbaBaH>e necTO HpH- 
THpa MaTHuy /ja paHHje KpeHe ca JierjioM. y 
xjiajjHHJHM 3HMaMa hhjl HaM je jja MaTHue HITO 
KacHHJe KpeHy ca JierjioM. 



2. y6p3aim iipojieftiui pa3Boj 

Ha H3MaKy 3HMe, Kajja hohh nocTajy Kpahe 
a /jaHH Jjyxn, Mpa3eBa CBe Maite, nnejie CBe 
BHine KopHde TeMnepaTypHe norojjHOCTH h 
yHoce noiieH, noHeKajj h HeniTO HeKTapa. 
flpyro Teno nyHO je irqejia, h T3B. "cMeHa re- 
HepaiiHJa" je Beh yBejiHKO HacTynmia hito 
3axTeBa /jo/jaBaite nap kg norane, HHMe ce 
no/jpxaBa iraejiHH>a 3ajejjHHua y xpaHH. 

y paHO npojiehe ca nojaBOM npBor HBeTa: 
KyxypeKa (Helleborus odorus), /jpeHa (Cor- 
nus mas), y miaHHHCKHM KpajeBHMa Beh HaBe- 

JIHKO HMaMO OMHJbeHH ITJiaHHHCKH BpHJeC - 

npH>yirry (Erica carnea). Tajjaje HajnorojjHHJe 
mhcjihth o Gp^ceM pa3Bojy nnejiHitHX 3aje/j- 
roma y J1P KoiHHHuaMa, a ynopejjo mhcjihth o 

KpynHHJHM, CHaXHHJHM, a CaMHM THM H 

3JjpaBHJHM nnenaMa. 

npBO Tejio hjih no^MeTane kojh cy ce 
3aTeKJiH H3Merjy nojjitaHe h /jpyror Tena yK- 
jiaH>aMO, a Jjpyro Teno ca nnejiaMa CTaBJtaMO 
Ha o^HinheHy nojjfka^ry, Taxo jja y3HMJteH0 
jjpyro Teno noeraje npBO h jejjHHO iijiojjhhiho 
Teno. Obo Teno je ca npoiHJiorojjHimkHM hjih 
CTapHJHM caheM, Koje je npeTpnejio CBa a 
HaJMaite jejjHorojjHHiH>a Tperapaita nnejia. 
BocaKJe KOHTaMHHHpaH ca pa3HHM xeMHKa- 



jiHJaMa. 3aTO y HHTepecy Kaxo nnejia, Taxo h 
eBeHTyajiHHX KopHCHHKa Mejja, Tpe6a CTapo 
cahe hito npe 3aMeHHTH. He TpeGa 3aHeMa- 

pHTH HH eKOHOMCKH e(J)eKaT npOH3BOJJH>e BO- 

CKa. 

npaBHJiHO y3HMJbeHa miejiHH>a 3ajejjHHua 
ca /jo6pHM ycjroBHMa 3HMOBaH>a cacBHM je 
peajiHa npexo jjBa kg (20.000) rraejia y paHO 
npojiehe, hito CTBapa MoryhHOCT /jojjaBaita 
jjpyror J1P Tejia Kao miojjHHiHor. 

HajGoiba BapnjaHTaje /jojjaTH Tejio ca Me- 
jjom h nocTHhn e<J)eKaT JIopeHna JlaHrcTpoTa 
H3 1851. rojjHHe. MerjyniM, 3a Hauie ycjioBe, a 
noroTOBy y obo (He) eKonouiKO BpeMe 3a Hac 
je to HeMoryhe. MopaMO ce CHajia3HTH Ha 
Jjpyre Ha*iHHe, TaKO hito Tpe6a hIth ojjMax Ha 
jjo/jaBaH>e /jpyror Tena ca caTHHM ocHOBaMa. 
Kaxo? 

H3 npomjiorojjHiHH>er y3HMJteHor Jjpyror 
Tejia, Koje je ca/ja npBO, H3Ba/jHMO JjBa paMa ca 
JierjioM h CTaBHMO 3aje/jHO y cpe/jHHy Jjpyror 
Tejia. npBO jjonyityjeMO ca jjBe caTHe ocHOBe 
h to ca pa3MaKOM ojj jjBa /jo TpH paMa. 

npeKO Jjpyror Tejia me ce Hajia3H ocaM 
caTHHX ocHOBa h jjBa paMa Jierna jjojjajeMO 
nora^ry h no noTpeGn kojh Jinrap cnpyna. 
HeKTap H3 npHpojje hjih xpaHa npeKO xpa- 
HHJiHue y6p3ahe HSBJia^eHje caTHHX ocHOBa, a 
MaTHua he y3 ocehafte cnrypHOCTH nojj npn- 
thckom noneHa h xpaHe, CTBapaTH BHHie Jie- 
rjia. KaKO nora^a TaKO h cnpyn Mory HMaTH 
Kao jjojjaTaK pa3He CTHMyjiaHce 6hjio MHHe- 
pajiHor hjih opraHCKor nopeKJia ((J)opcanHH, 
nojieH . . . ) . CajjaniH>e jjojjaTe carae ocHOBe jjo 
jeceHH he 6hth "cTapo cahe" h nnene he Jieno 
3HMOBaTH Ha H>eMy. 

nocne JjBe jjo TpH cejjMHue 6nhe H3ByneHe 
h jjejiHMHHHO 3ajiexeHe JjBe caTHe ocHOBe jjo- 
jjaTe y npBOM Teny Kao h HeKOJiHKO caiunx oc- 
HOBa H3 Jjpyror Tejia. nojj npHTHCKOM HeK- 
Tapa H3 npHpojje hjih xpaHe npeKO xpaHHJiHue 
o6a Tejia he 6hth y6p30 nonyHieHa nnejiaMa. 

^Be GHBUie caTHe ocHOBe H3 npBor Tejia, 
npHJiHKOM npBe KOHTpojie , MoxeMO 3a- 
MeHHTH ca CTapHM paMOBHMa H3 Jjpyror Tejia. 

Tpehe Tejio JjojjajeMO Ha Jjpyro hcto Kao 
hito cmo Jjpyro /jo/jaBajin Ha npBO. ycTBapH, y 
obo BpeMe BeoMa je BaacHO jja ce ocjioGojjhmo, 
jjo 6arpeMOBe hjih jjo HeKe Jjpyre paHe name, 
npBor Tejia ca CTapHM caheM. 

OjjJiHKa y6p3aHor pa3Boja nqejiHH^HX 3a- 
jejjHHija y paHO nponehe y J1P KoniHHuaMa 6a- 
3Hpa ce Ha KopHHiheity TonjioTe H3 jjoaer 



195 



nnejiap 1999 



Tejia, TaKO iuto je y ropH>eM Tejiy jiocra. 
jiaKine o/ipxaTH TeMnepaTypy Jierna. 

Ha 6pxH pa3Boj Jierjia y paHO npojiehe no- 
BOJbHO ^enyje h OKpeTan>e h£jihx Tejia 3a 
1 80°. y obom cjiyqajy 3JioynoTpe6ji>aBaMO 
npaBHJio nqena 3a pa3MeiHTaj xpaHe. XpaHy 
nnejie CMenrrajy (noroTOBy 3a 3HMy) U3nsm 
npocTopa 3a KJiy6e h ca OHe CTpaHe o^aicie 
oneKyjy xnajHe BeTpoBe, o^hocho noniTO no 
npaBuny opHJeHTHiueMO KouiHHiry jia JieTO 
6yae OKpeHyro yBeK npeMa toiijthjoj (jyacHoj) 
CTpaHH, TaKO m je xpaHa ochm o#03ro h ca 
cynpoiHe CTpaHe JieTy. 

no OKpeTaH>y lienor Tena, miejie He Tpne 
cynpoTaH nojioxaj xpane h aHra^yjy ce Ha 
KopeKUHJH npHHyuHe H3MeHe o,ii CTpaHe 
n^enapa. Taj npnyHCKH pa# H3a3HBa h Ma- 
THiry. y panHoj aTM0C(J)epH iraejia Maraua he 
nojaqaTH Jiexeite ihto HaM je h riiaBHH hhjb. 
3a noja^aH>e panHe aTMOc(J)epe kophcth ce h 
npHpo^HH HaroH nnejia na xpaHy H3 hoibhx 
Tena piracy y ropH>a. Hncy peTKH cjrynajeBH na 
HencKycaH nnejiap y pany ca HP kohihhhom 
npnaje h neTO Teno, Kaji none, a OHa npBa nBa 
hjih TpH npa3Ha. 

3. CnpeiaBaibe pojeiba 

Pojeite je npHponaH HaroH 3a pa3- 
MHO^caBaH^e nnejia. 3axBajbyjyhH obom cbom 
HacjierjeHOM HaroHy nnejie cy ce h o^p^ajie y 
npHponn. CaM hhh cjioGo^He pojnnGe 
onpxaBa ce paHO y npojiehe Kaxo 6h hobh po- 
jeBH h "cTapKa" HMajrn npBOJBHO BpeMeHa na 
ce HopMajiHO pa3BHJy h na npHKyne noBOJBHO 
xpaHe 3a 3HMy. M nope^ yxonaHnx npnponHHX 
3aKOHHTOCTH y noraeny pojnnGe koji rraejia, 
npnponHO pojeite je HenoxejtHO y caBpeMe- 
hom nnejiapcTBy. HenoxeibHO je H3 npocTor 
pa3Jiora ihto Taj npnponHH *ihh naHac 
oGaBJtaMO npcTa 6on>e BeniTaHKHM nyreM. 

3a ycneuiHO cnpe^aBaite npHponHor po- 
jeita 6htho je ncnyHHTH TpH ycnoBa, h to: 

1) KopHCTHTH MaTHue Koje HHcy H3 pojeB- 
hot HaroHa h koji kojhx je nyacn HH3 ronnHa 
oGaBJLeHa ceneKHHJa Ha HepoJHBOCT; 

2) nara npBOJBHO npocTopa Maraini na 
jie^ce jaja; 

3 ) naTH npBOJBHO CaTHHX OCHOBa 3a 

npaxH>eH>e acjie3.ua 3a nyneike Bocxa kqh 
Mnannx nnena. 

Kao hito je pojeBH HaroH H3paaceH y 
npojiene TaKO je ynopeno ca pojeBHM Haro- 



hom H3paaceHa h nojanaHa noTpeGa 3a 
jiyqeH>e Bocxa y hcto BpeMe. Ha CTapoM cahy 
Mnane nnejie HeMajy me na nyqe BocaK h pa- 
nnje npnGeraBajy pojiinGn, noroTOBy axo je 
panHH npocTop TecaH. npoGjieM naBaH>a pan- 
hot npocTopa Maraim, a caMHM thm h 
nnejiaMa, TpeGa ycicnanHTH ca npocTopoM 3a 
Menp6paH>e. 

4. Me^o6paH>e 

floGpo jryneike Heicrapa, noj, ycnoBOM na 
HMaMO 3npaBe nqennite 3ajenHHHe h 6hjio 
kojh ran KoniHHue, je rapaHHHJa na he ce 
HeuiTO Mena Henirra. MerjyraM, npn 
onperjeHOM Tnny koihhhhc, npcTa 3aBHCH or 
CTpyqHOCTH caMor nnejiapa h H>eroBor no3Ha- 
Ban>a TexHOJiornje paj;a ca noce^yjyhHM th- 
noM KoiHHHue . Taj creneH CTpyHHOCTH 
nqejiapa y Me^apeH>y HaJBHine je H3paxeH ko^ 

JTPKOIHHHLte. 

npn Me,napeH>y ca JTP kohihhuom 
o r mry i iyjyhH cy cjie^ehH (J)aKTopn: 

a) npocTop 3a Jierno 
6) Me^Ha Kana 

b) MaTH^Ha peineTKa 
r) npa3aH npocTop 

Kaxo to H3rjie^a y koihhhhh? 

a) IIpocTop 3a jierjio je yBeK jiHCKyra6H- 
jiaH koji OBor THna KoiHHHue. y paHOM 
npojieriHOM pa3Bojy Kam HMaMO cojih/iho 
pa3BHJeHy nqeiiHH^y saje^HHHy Ha m& Tena, 
Ta#a Mo^ceMO HMaTH Jierno h Ha 10 ^o 14 pa- 
MOBa. MerjyrHM, pa^H ce o Jiemy Ha paMy me 
oGhhho HMaMO h ^ejiHMnqHy Me^ry Kany, no- 
roTOBy y ropH>eM Tejiy. 

y jexy name Ka^a 3a6opaBJbaMO Ha Ma- 
HHnynauHJe ca TejiHMa y HHTepecy pa3Boja 
nnejiHH^e 3aje/mHHe, HaMa nocTaje npeoKyna- 
nnja xaKO m ce noHaniaMO ca JiernoM m Jio- 
GnjeMO iuto BHine Me^a. IIobphihhckh h 3a- 
npeMHHCKH me^aHO je^HO JIP Teno je cacBHM 
/lOBOibHO 3a o/ipxaBaH)e 6-8 paMOBa Jierjia h 
y HajjaHHM nainaMa. TaKO jia n^iejiHH^a 3aje^- 
Hima yBeK pacnojiaxe ca 5 - 6 kg n^iejia, a m 
nocjie Me^oGpaH^a He H3arje ocjiaGjbeHa. Pa- 
3yMe ce, paMOBH ca JiernoM 6nhe noTnyHO 
nonyHoeHH. 

6) Me f ziHa Kana je KOJiHHHHa Meji;a Kojy 
nqejie CMeuiTajy o^jviax H3Haa Jiema. Flo npH- 
po^HOM HHCTHKiy miejie he yBeK Me# o^a- 
raTH (aKoje to Moryhe) H3Haj Jierna, a TaKBa 
onpe,nejbeHOCT 3a o/uiaraH^e Me^ia ko/i miejia 



196 



n^ejiap 1999 



je Hajpa3yMHHJa. Ykojihko cy iraejie 
npHHyrjeHe jja Me/j ojjnaacy ncno/j Jierna hjih 
ca CTpaHe Jierjia, to he OHe *ihhhth jjocTa cno- 
pHj'e, a naK he "pa3MHHDbaTH M h o pojeity. 
TeniKO he o/jJiaraTH Me/j ncno/j hjih ca CTpaHe 
jierna H3 npocTor pa3Jiora ihto nqejia no cbom 
npHpojjHOM HaroHy ruiaHHpa h 3a 6yjjyhe 
BpeMe, na h 3a 3HMy. MerjyraM, y 3hmckhm 
ycnoBHMa KJiy6e he ce JjocTa TeniKO noMe- 
paTH Ha jjojie hjih y CTpaHy, 3aTO mnfceHHiry jja 
je MejjHa Kana pacnoperjeHa ojjo3ro, Hsnaji Jie- 
rjia, mh nnejiapH MopaMO npHXBaTHTH Kao 
je/jHHO peajiHy. 

Ty noro/jHOCT, hjih HenorojjHOCT, yKOJiHKO 
npHXBaTHMO Kao jejjHHO CTBapHy, MoxeMO 
BeoMa JiaKO 3a ce6e H3Byhn kophct. 

b) ManMHy penieTKy npoHaniao je XaHe- 
MaH y Jjpyroj hojiobhhh npouuior BeKa. Yc- 
TBapH, XaHeMaH je npoHauiao BejiHHHHy ot- 
Bopa ojj 4,2 mm kojh je jjoBOJtaH jja nqejia 
cjio6ojjho npojia3H H3Merjy JjBe napajiejiHe 
jieTBe Ha tom pa3Maxy, a jja He Moxe npohn 
MaTHita h Tpyr. 

JlpBeHCTBeHO MaTHHHa peineTKa je 
KopHinheHa 3a o/jBajaite Mejja ojj Jierjia. Ajih 
aKO no3HajeMO 3aKOHHTOCTH y noHainaity 
nnejia y o/jHocy Ha Me/jHy Kany h Ha iteHO pa- 
cnojio^ceH^e npeMa npa3HOM npocTopy, 
GnheMO y CHTyauHJH jja BeoMa CTHMyjiaTHBHO 
jjejiyjeMO ca MaTHmioM peuieTKOM npH yHocy 
HeKTapa. 

r) Xlpa3au npocrop je npocTop H3Hajj Jie- 
rjia jjo Mejja kojh y cjioGojjhoj npHpojjn He 
nocTOJH, 3aTO ihto TaKaB npocTop h aKO ce 
CTBapa, Maxima hjih nnejie ojjMax ra nonyifca- 
Bajy, JierjioM hjih HeKTapoM. 

Ilo3HaTH cy eKcnepHMeHTH H3Be/jeHH y 
jjyxoj KOHTHHynpaHoj naniH. Kojj KoniHHue 
me je noTiryHO o/jcrpaiteH Me/j, HaJBehn yHoc 
je npBor jjaHa, Jjpyxor cjiaGnJH, a Tpeher join 
cjiaGHJH. 

3HaHH, ca nonyHOM npa3Hor npocTopa 
H3Hajj jierjia CTBapa ce H3BecHa 3acnheHOCT 
kojj nnejia h jjojia3H jjo ycnopaBaita y pajxy. 

Ako je KoniHHua 6e3 Mejja, Mopa ce 
OMoryhHTH iraejiaMa jja cboj pajj ycMepe Ha 
yHocy HeKTapa, jep ce TaKO imejiHH>a 
jjpyniTBa ocnrypaBajy aKO HacTyne BpeMeH- 
CKe hjih 6hjio KaKBe Jjpyre HenpHJiHKe, a 
xpaHe y3 Jierjio HeMa. Ftaejia 3chbh ojjperjeH 
6poj pajjHnx caTH, na 3aiHTO OHJja Tpehn h 
neTBpTH pajjHH jjaH, a noroTOBy h KacHHJe, 
Kajja Beh nocTOJH Ghjio KaKBa 3ajinxa, He pa- 



JJHTH HOpMaJIHHM - 6e36pHXHHJHM TeMnOM, 

kojh o6e36er)yje KOHTHHyHTeT y CHa3H 
nnejiHH^e 3ajejjHHue. 

JXok mhcjihmo o MejjoGpaity He CMeMO hh 
jejjHor MOMeHTa 3aHeMapHTH npncycTBO Be- 
jihkot 6poja MJiajjnx nnejia Koje Tpe6a jja hc- 
npa3He CBOje xjie3Jje 3a jryqeite BOCKa. Taj 
Ham 3a6opaB Moace jja npHCHJiH irqejie jja 
npnGexiry pojeity. To Gap HHJe noTpeGHO kojj 
obot THna KoniHHira. MaKCHMyM Mejja ca 
jejjHe CTpaHe, a MHHHMyM pojeBor HaroHa ca 
jjpyre CTpaHe. KaKO to nocTHhn? 

Ha noneTKy npojiehHe name ojj Koje 
o^eicyjeMO rjerjeH>e, nnejiHita 3ajejjHHuaje y 
jjsa hjih TpH Tejia. 

y npBO Tejio CMemTaMO 4-6 paMOBa Jierjia 
ca MaTHixoM, jjBa jjo TpH paMa ca nojieHOM h 
MejjoM, a ocTaTaK caxHe ocHOBe. 

JTpeKO npBor Tejia jjojia3H Maxnraa 
pemeTKa. 

y Jjpyro Tejio CTaBHMO JjBa jjo Hexnpn 
paMa ca JierjioM, a ocTaTaK caxHe ocHOBe, hjih 
npoiruioxojjHiHHoe cahe ojj MejjHinxa. 

y Tpehe Tejio cxaBJtaMO ocTaTaK Jierjia, 
Mejja, caha. 

OBaKO apaioKHpaHa imejraita 3ajejjHHua 
Hehe npHGehH pojeity. 

KaKO MaTHija TaKO h mane, no/j yHocoM 
HeKTapa, 6p30 he nonyHHTH npBO Tejio ca Jie- 

TJIOM, nojieHOM H MeJJOM. 

36or pajjHe h npocTopHe TeroGe y npBOM 
Tejiy, rraejie he 6hth npHHyrjeHe jja HeKTap 
ojjjiaxy npeKO MaTHmxe pemeTKe y Jjpyro 
Tejio. Fteejie he CBe BHine h Ha 3axTeB MaTHue 
ojjJiaraTH HeKTap h Me/j npeKO MaraHHe 
pemeTKe y Jjpyro Tejio. y TpeheM Tejiy je 

Malta aKTHBHOCT. 

Jlocjie nyH>eH>a BHine ojj JjBe TpehHHe y 
jjpyroM Tejiy oho ce Moxe 3aMeHHTH ca 
TpehHM TejioM Koje cy nnejie TeK nonejie jja 
nyHe. 

Kajja 6y/je hobo Tejio npeKO MaTHHHe 
pemeTKe nonyiteHO ca JjBe TpehHHe npo- 
CTOpa, Tejio Ha Bpxy he 6hth Beh nyHO, Tajja ce 

MO)Ke JJOJjaTH hobo - *ieTBpTO Tejio. 

HeTBpTO Tejio Jjojjaje ce npeKO MaTHmre 
pemeTKe TaKO ihto ce H3 npBor Tejia (Hcnojj 
pemeTKe) nojjnacy JjBa jjo nerapH paMa ca jie- 
tjiom, a Ha HjHxobo MecTO nocTaBJLaMO pa- 
MOBe ca caTHHM ocHOBaivia. y hobom Tejiy, 
npeKO MaTHHHe pemeTKe, nopejj JjBa jjo 
neTHpn paMa ca JierjioM jjojjajeMO hjih caTHe 
ocHOBe hjih npouuiorojjHmHje cahe H3 



197 



JlHejiap 1999 




Cn.l 

MenHinra. 3ajj,ita JiBa Tena ocTajy y CTaity 
npnyHe h no3peBaH>a. 

Hncy peTKe rojjHHe na ce nonaje h ncro 
Teno npeKO MaTHnHe penieTKe, a TpH nyHa 
Me/ja Rimy ce yBHC Ha Jio3peBaH>e (cji. 1.). 

Ehtho je yBeK HMaTH Ha yMy na y Teny 
npeKO MaTHHHe peineTKe nocTOJH npa3aH 
npocrop KOJH H3a3HBa nnejie, jep Taj npa3aH 
npocTop ojjMax H3Hajj Jieraa n*iejie He Tpne 
36or noTpeGe CTBapaita Menne Kane, Koja 
Mopa y npHpo/iHHM ycjioBHMa na ce Hajia3H or- 
Max H3Haa Jierna. 

Flo 3aBpmeTKy npBe name, Kana Hcue/jHMO 
mqr, KOMnjierapaMO nnejiHite 3ajejjHHue y 
JiBa hjih TpH Tena, ajiH 6e3 MaTHHHe peineTKe. 
Ako cmo 6hjih jjobojlho* a^ypHH oko CTapor 
caha y paHO npojiehe, cana y KoniHHuaMa 
HMaMO CBe hobo cahe. 

Tpyn oko H3MeHe CTapor caha JipGpo ce hc- 
ruiaTH. Ha 10 JTP Tena yjioacHMO oko 7,5 kg 
caTHHX ocHOBa, a nocjie Toiui>eH>a CTapor caha 
nqGHJaMO oko 1 1 £0 12 kg KBajiHTeTHor BOCKa. 
y hobom cahy HMaMO KpynHHJe h CHaacHHJe 
nnene. 

3a hobo MenoGpaite KpeheMO ca npH- 
npeMJLeHHM OBoronHinikHM caheM. 



npe/j, HOBy nanry noHOBO MopaMO aKTHBH- 
paTH MaTH^Hy peineTKy. Bnine He MopaMO 
TpaacHTH MarHiry h ryoHTH BpeMe. Je/i- 
HOCTaBHO OTKpHJeMO 10 no 20 nqejiHH>HX 3a- 
je^HHLta H JJHMHMO Onp3rO Ca neT nHMOBa, TpH 

no neTHpH nyra y pa3MaKy or nap MHHyra. 
CioinaMO y CTpaHy Tpeha Tena. 3aTHM noHOBO 
rhmhmo ca neT nHMOBa, TpH #o neTHpH nyra 
cana npyra Tena. Marana he y BehnHH 
cjryqajeBa na ce cnycTH y npBO Tejio, npeKO 
Kora onMax nonajeMO MaTHHHy peineTKy, 6e3 
CKHnaita npyror Tejia, TaKO iuto npyro Tejio 
no^naceMO Majio OTno3anH h peineTKy jen- 
HOCTaBHO y6auHMO npeKO npBor Tejia. 

HajSojLe je kophcthth penieTKe Koje 
jie^ce Ha 3iinpBHMa Tejia, a He Ha paMOBHMa. 
PenieTKa Koja neacn Ha paMOBHMa CMaityje 
cnoGonaH npoiia3 3a nnene. 

Ilocjie Henejty naHa no npnaBaity 
MaTHnHe penieTKe, aKO je nania KOHTHHyn- 
paHO no6pa npyro Tejio he 6hth nonyikeHO, a 
Mnanor Jierna y H>eMy Hehe 6hth, TaKO n,a 
HeMa 6oja3HH 3a H3BJianeH>e MaTHHitaKa Kana 
npyro Teno nonnraeMO rope , a Tpehe - 
npa3HHJe cnycTHMO none npeKO MaranHe 
penieTKe. 

Yz np6py cpehy h no noTpeGn cnenehe 
neTBpTO onHOCHO neTO Tejio nonajeMO npeKO 
MaTHnHe penieTKe 6e3 MaHHirynncaifca ca pa- 
MOBHMa. MopaMO caMO bo^hth panym n,a He 
HmneKaMO nonyH>aBaite Tena npeKO MaTHHHe 
penieTKe ca MenpM h na nnenHita 3ajenHHua 
He ocTaHe 6e3 npa3Hor npocTopa. 

HapenHa nerjeita h HapenHe name 
pannheMO ca MaHHirynHcaiBeM nenHM TejiHMa 
6e3 Barjeita nojenHHHX paMOBa, yKOJiHKO HaM 
to naniHe npHJiHKe nonape. 

5. npoiUBOAita ivuiena ii y3roj MaramtaKa 

M3paxeHa npenHoer obot Tnna KoniHHna 
Ha y3rojy MaTHHH>aKa je 36or BHCHHe paMa h 
3anpeMHHe no jenHOM Teny. Kao 3a crapTepe 
TaKO h 3a y3raJHBaHKe 3ajenHnne HajnpHKnan- 
HHJeje kophcthth nBa Tejia (cji. 1. necHo). 

Hajnemhn h HajnpaKTHHHHJH cy CTapTepn 
kojh ce opraHH3yjy y npncycTBy MaTHue. 
MoryhHOCT TaKBor HaHHHa 3anonHH>aita 
MaTHHH>aKa naje HaM nynna aaraaHa Mpeata ca 
OKHHMa 3x3 mm. Mpexe cy npHHBpinheHe 
noMohy JieTBHua. Pa3MaK H3Merjy Te nBe 
Mpexe je 10 mm, a jenHa CTpaHa HMa JieTO 
mnpHHe 20 mm. CBe jieTBHue (npH>e, cpenite 
h ropH>e) cy jjeGjbHHe 10 mm. 



198 



n^ejiap 1999 




Ca.2 



Craprep (cji. 2.) je hcth h 3a np0H3B0^iby 
MJieqa Kao h 3a y3roj MaTHHitaKa, caMO hito 
3a y3roj MaTHHJtaKa KOJiHHHHa 3acarjeHHX 
jiapBH He npejia3H BHiue o^ 60, a ko/i MJieqa 
Moxe ce nta h jxp 120. 

OpraHH3auHJa CTapTepa H3rjie^a OBaKo: 

- Ha no,iiH>a*ry CTaBibaMO npa3HO Tejio y 
Koje yGauyjeMO #Ba paMa ca OTBOpeHHM Me- 
£om h noneHOM, ca pa3MaKOM H3Mel)y oko 50 
mm. PaMOBH Mopajy 6hth 6e3 Jierjia. Ca 
CTpaHe paMOBa CTaBJbajy ce rbq "uenHe" xpa- 
HHJiHite cw nera jej,Ha ca TeHHHM Me^oM, a 
/royra ca nojieHOM pa3MyneHHM rycTO y ch- 
pyny. y obo Tejio ce CTpece no MoryncTBy 
iuto BHiue MJia^HX nnejia. 

- npeKO npBor Tejia ROJia3H #yroia ^KH^aHa 
Mpexa ca jictom OKpeHyraM yHa3a/i h to 3a 
ropH>e Teno. 

- npeKO ,nynjie xnqaHe Mpeace AOJia3H y 
apyro Teno y KOMe je CBe Jierno, MaTHua n no 
MoryhcTBy Henno Me^a. OciaTaK paMOBa n^e 
y #pyry KoniHHiry. 

- HeKOJiHKO cara no cpef)HBaH>y CTapTepa 
MoxeMO 3acaj;HTH JiapBe y MaranHe ocHOBe, 
Ha JieTBHuaMa n y paMOBHMa jiomru nx y 
ocTaBJbeHH npocTop npBor Tejia. 

OGhhho ce 3acarjyje 15 MaTHHH>aKa no 
jieTBHun. 3a rajeite Maxima y CTapTep ce 
craBibajy ^exnpn JiexBHne y xopH30HxajiHOM 
nonoxajy, paBHOMepHO pa3MaKHyre no bh- 



chhh. 3a MJie*i ce cxaBJta yxynHO 8 JiexBHna, 
no ^Be y xjte6, xaKO jia cy pacnopeljeHe hcto 
y neTHpn Jie^omiTa no bhchhh J1P paMa. 

y CTapTepy y3roJHH Maxepnjaji ociaje 24 
naca. Hnje noro^HO CTapTepe cyxpa^aH 
KopHCTHTH 3a y3raJHBa*n<:e 3aje^HHne, H3 
npocTor pa3Jiora uito cy MJia^e nnejie (xoje 
nyqe MJien) H3y3eTHO onxepeneHe. Ilocjie 24 
naca (xaja je y3roj"HH MaTepHJaji 3ano*iex) 
paM ca 3anoneTHM ManrataijHMa ce Ba^H H3 
npBor Tena, a KoniHHna ce Bpaha y npBoGnxHO 
craH>e, HopMajiHO 6e3 ^ymie xiraaHe Mpexe. 

npHMJteHe JiapBe, axo rajnivio Maxnne, 
CTaBJbaMO no je^Hy JieTBHiry y cpe/iHHy paMa h 
/KWajeMO y3raJHBa^Koj 3aje^HHUH. 

yKOJiHKO npoH3Bo r iiHMO MJieq MoxeMO no 
HBe TaKBe JiexBHne ^o^aTH y paM Ha je,n,Hy 
y3raj"HBaHKy 3aje^Hnny. 

y3raJHBaMKy 3aje,zu»my npnnpeMaMO 
TaKO uito npeKO npBor Tena me je CMenrreHa 
Maxima ca JieraoM h Henno xpaHe, cxaBibaMO 
MaTHHHy penieTKy. y j,pyro Tejio cxaBJteHO 
npeKO penieTKe ^o^ajeMO #Ba paMa ca MJia- 
I#im JiapBaMa, #Ba paMa ca noneHOM n nexHpn 
paMa ca OTBOpeHHM Me^oM. IlpH Kpajy 
MoxeMO RojiaTW caTHy ocHOBy ^a Milage 
irqejie HMajy xae m jryne BocaK, KaKO 6h 
MaxHHH>auH HMajin Jien oGjihk 6e3 3anepaKa - 
rpal)eBH>aKa. 



199 



nnejiap 1999 




Gi3 



IIopeA npa3Hor npocTopa, y cpe^HHH 
apyror Tena (3a paM ca 3anoneTHM MaTHHH>a- 
UHMa) ca CTpaHe ce CTaBiba paM ca MJiamiM 
jiapBaivia, a ca apyre paM ca nojieHOM. 

npeKO ^pyror Tena Moxe ce ^o^ara join h 
Me^wniTe yKOJiHKO je ,n,o6ap yHoc HeKTapa. 

CperjHBaite y3raJHBa*iKe 3aje^HHue o6aB- 
jta ce ma npe ^o^aBaaa y3roJHor MaTepH- 
jajia, Ka^a #o,najeMO npeKO paMa noneH 
nora^y, a y xpaHMJinuy cnnaMO TenaH Mew. 

npH npon3Bojiii>ii MJiena paM ca JiapBH- 
naMa OTCTpaH>yjeMO H3 y3raJHBa^Ke 3aje#- 
HHite nocne 72 caTa CTapocra, a ko# y3roja 



MaTH^itaKa 3a MaTHue, 3a^,p^caheMO hx y 
y3raJHBaqKoj 3aje^HHitH 10 jiana. 

Flo BarjeH>y 3pejinx MaTHHH>aKa H3 y3ra- 
JHBaHKHX 3aje^HHita, Mo^ceMO ^o^aTH o/iMax 
#pyre, 3anoneTe MaTnqH>aice y CTapTepHMa 
(cji. 3.). h TaKO #Ba no TpH Meceua. 

CTapTepe MoxeMO kophcthth £Ba nyra 
ce^MHHHO, #Ba ro TpH Meceua. 

y cjryqajy na/ia KBajiHTeTa h ko^, CTapTepa 
h y3raJHBaHKHX 3aje#HHira, Mo^ceMO bphihth 
ocBexeite ca .no^aBaiteM MJia^HX iraejia hc- 
TpecaifceM hjih £0,iiaBaH>eM 3pejior Jierjia. 



200 



n^ejiap 1999 



EjieTpH^HO rpejaite KoniHHija 



26000 ITaHHeeo 



Modouiauoe J>ypuu,a 

ITpoAemepcKux 6pusada 63/10 

Ten. 013/518-572 



O oeoj meMU naconucje eefi nucao, ajiu ocmajia cy mhosq numawa Koja numaoi^uMa nucy 
jacna. Oeoea nyma e-dun Modouiauoe r Bypuu i a, u3hocu ceoja ucKycmea Kao Keanuqbu- 
Koeanu cmpynwaK. Ako na ueica u dajbe ueMajacHohe u odeoeopa onje 6uo Jby6a3an da no- 
uydu ceojy nyny adpecy u 6poj meAe(poua Kaico 6u My ce numaouu mozau odpahamu. 

YpeduuK 



n^ejiap caM o/j 1959. tojj,. m Kao noneTHHK 
cyoHMO caM ce ca npo6jieMOM jja mm je jejjaH 
HyKJieyc 6mo ca He/jOBOJbHHM 3ajmxaMa 
xpaHe. Cbm noKyiuaJM npnxpaH>HBaH>a ocTajiM 
cy 6e3ycneuiHM. Kajj, caM y kouihmum ca je/j- 
hmm ejieKTpMHHHM rpejaneM no^Mrao tcm- 
nepaTypy, n^ejie cy no^ejie jja y3MMajy xpaHy. 
ITocjie nap jiaHa, npMJiMKOM KOHTpojie, BM/ieo 
caM jja cy n^ejie ncno/j; BajiOB-xpaHMJinne 
H3rpa^MJie hobo cane n ,aa je MaTnua nejinje 
3acejajia. 

OneKHBaHO nonyH>aBan>e xpaHOM je H30- 
CTano, a HyKJieyc caM npnnojno je/nroM cpe/i- 
H>eM jjpymTBy. 

Ca3Han>e, ,aa ce ca nojjn3aH>eM TeMnepa- 
Type m npHJiMBOM xpaHe y koiuhmhh, /jpyniTBO 
n MaTMua CTMMyjiMmy Ha nojiaraH>e jaja, Ha- 
Bejio Me je Ha pa3MHinjbaH>e KaKO to m 
npaKTMHHO /ja mckopmcthm. 




Anapaui 3a epejawe eehee 6poja KouiHuu,a 

EjieKTpOTexHMHap caM no erpynii, a m 
MCKycTBO y M3pajjM MHKyGaTOpa noMorno mm 



je %a 3a cjie/jeny 3MMy (1961-62) yrpa/xMM y 
KOinHMuaMa rpejane m TepMOCTaT. ITpBe ro- 
flMHe 6mjio je AOCTa Jiyratia ca TeMnepaTypOM, 

aJIM HH je/JHO JJpyiHTBO HMCaM M3ry6MO. 

flojia3M 3MMa 1962-63. Kojaje 6MJia bcjihkm 
H3a30B 3a nnejie. TeMnepaTypa ce y name- 
By y jaHyapy AaHMMa KpeTajia M3Mef)y -20 m 
-30°C. y Bpmny ce TeMnepaTypa cnyuiTa/ia n 
jj,o -33°C. 

y TOKy Te 3HMe, Kojaje 6MJia HajxjiajjHnja y 
3aaH>nx 40 rojjHHa, Moja cy jjpyniTBa ojjjimhho 
npe3MMMJia, 3a pa3JiMKy ojj; ocTajiMx nnejiapa 
ko/j kojhx cy 6mjih tciukh ry6MTUM. Obo Mnje 
fla/io no/jcTpeK jxa n jjajte pajniM Ha 
ycaBpmaBaHoy eneKTpMHHor rpejatta koiu- 
HMua, naKO Mnje mejiapcTBO y to BpeMe 6mjio 
caMO xo6n. 

AnapaT 3a ejieKTpMHHO rpejatte KoniHHna n 
rpeja^M 

ITpBHx ro/iMHa KOiuHnue caM rpejao ca Ha- 
noHOM ojj, 220 V a KacHHJe ca 24 V. HanoH ojj, 
220 V HMJe Morao jja ocTaHe M3 6e36ejjHOCHnx 
pa3Jiora. HanoH ojj; 24 V noTnyHO je 6e30- 
nacaH, KaKO 3a jbya;e TaKO n 3a jjOMahe n 
aHBJbe ^KMBOTMH>e. npBo6MTHa CHara rpejana 
on 60 W CKMHyra je Ha 20 W. KoHCTpyncao 
caM HMCKOTeMnepaTypHM MH^paupBeHH 
rpejan, kojm je CMeniTeH y neB o/j TepMOOT- 
nopHor CTaKJia. Obm rpejann npy>Kajy noT- 
nyHy 6e36ejjHOCT ojj; no^capa mjim 6mjio kojhx 
He^cejLeHMx nocjiejiMua. Obm rpejann Mory /j;a 
ce yrpa/je y CBaKM Tnn KOiuHHira m 3a/j;oBOJLa- 
Bajy 3a TpaJHe TeMnepaType no -25°C. 

KoHCTpyncaH je anapaT y KOJeMJe, nope/j 
npaTehe ejieKTpOHMKe, CMeniTeH n TpaHC- 
(J)opMaTOp 220/24 V. HaJHOBHJM TMn anapaTa 
(Ha cjimhh), KOJHJe KOHCTpyncaH 3a Benn 6poj 
KomHMua onpeMJbeH je ca MepaneM BpeMeHa 



201 



n^ejiap 1999 




KoMandnu deo anapama 
3a epejatbe KouiHuu,a 



pa^a, pa^HMM M 3aiIITHTHHM TepMOCTaTOM H 
eJieKTpOHCKMM TepMOMCTpOM M TepMOCTaTOM 

oncera 0-50°C. 



noci aujbaibe iinejiiiibaKa 

BeriMHa nnejiapa 3Ha aa ce n^ejie 6p;>Ke 

pa3BMJajy y nponene Ha cyH^aHOJ CTpaHii Hero 

y XJia^OBMHH. 



ITpo6jieM je KaKO nocTaBMTH noKpeTHe 
naBiutOHe (ayro6yce, KaMMOHe, npHKOJinue), 
K0jn MMajy OTBOpe KoniHMua Ha o6e CTpaHe. 
MMaM npHKOJiMuy ca 48 KOiiiHHHa w Moje je 
MCKycTBO #a he o6e CTpaHe no^je^HaKO jxo- 
6mtm cyH^eBe TonjiOTe, axo ce y3^yacHa oca 
naBMJtOHa nocTaBM y npaBuy ceBep-jyr. Mano 
o/iCTynaH>e MO^ce #a ce TOJiepMiue. 

y no^,py4JHMa ca jaKMM BeTpOBMMa Tpe6a 
bo/imtm panyHa aa KOiiiHMire 6yny 3auiTMheHe. 



MECEHHH yrPOUIAK MEflA 3A 3ArPEBAH>E rHE3flA nPH PA3JIHHHTHM 
yTOnJLABAH>MMA 



yTonjbaBaH>e me3£a 

THe3£0 CTeuiH>eHO, yronjteHO o,a 
rope m ca cbmx CTpaHa h ca 
yronjBeHOM noflHjanoM 

rHe3,ao CTeunteao m yroruteHO 
ojx rope m ca je^He CTpaHe M3a 
nperpajHe jacxe 

THe3^o CTeuiH>eHO m yroruteHO 
caMO or rope 

THe3^o HecTeuiH^eHO annje yro- 
njteHOJacTyKOM o# 9,5 cm. 
npexo paMOBa 

THe3aO yje^HOCJlOJHHM KOHIHMHa- 

Ma, HecTeniH>eHO m HeyTOiiJbeHO 



Meaa (kg) 


% 


2,04 


100,00 


2,40 


117,65 


3,94 


193,14 


4,30 


210,78 


6,17 


302,45 



202 



nnejiap 1999 



rpejanu, mepMOMempu 
umepMOcmamu 



nprnipeivf a iwejia 3a 3HMy 

O npnnpeMH rraejia 3a 3HMy nqejiapn cy 
3o6po yno3HaTH. JaKO ^pyniTBO, ^obojlho 
Mtm h noneHa, KBajinreTHa MaTnua h y 
npojiehe ycnex Hehe H30CTaTH, nojx ycjioBOM 
m HacjaKa 3HMa He H3HeHa,ziH. 

Koji eneKTpHqHor rpejaita noceGHa 
naaata TpeSa m ce nocBeTH nsje^Ha^aBaity 
/ipyniTaBa. y cbhm KoniHHnaMa yrparjyjy ce 
rpeja^H Hde CHare h CBaKO npyunBO jio- 
Gnjahe ncry KOJiH^HHy TonjioTHe eHeprnje. 
MerjyraM, obo Hetie 6hth ycjioB jia y cbhm 
KoiiiHHHaMa TeMnepaTypa 6yae HCTa. TeM- 
nepaiypa HHJe HCTa h y HerpejaHHM koihhh- 
naMa. yKOJiHKO cy ^pyniTBa no^e^HaKe CHare 
TeMnepaTypHe pa3JiHKe he 6hth Maite. 
rpejann ce nocTaBibajy y rohm #eo koihhhhc 





rpejan yepafyen y xeamany eapoe 



h to ca CTpaHe hjih no3a^H. M3Ha/i rpeja^a ce 
nocTaBJtajy TepMOCTaTH h TepMOMdap. 

YToiubaBaibe 

Oko yTonjLaBaH>a HMa pa3JiHHHTHX 
MHiHJbeH^a a Taxo he h ocTaTH. yTombaBaite 
3aBHCH o,n no^HeGjba me iraejie 3HMyjy h Koje 
ce TeMnepaType y kom nepno/iy o^eicyjy. 

Flo HcxycTBy pycKHX iraejiapa, nqejie He 
Mopajy jx& ce yrorobaBajy xa^a 3HMCKe TeM- 
nepaType noBpeMeHO ^ocTHxy jio -7°C. 
MerjyraM, r^e 3HMCKe TeMnepaType ,nocTH)Ky 
no -20°C yTonjLaBaH>e j e Heonxo^HO , 
HapoHHTO aKO je BejiHKH 6poj Jie^eHHX #aHa. 
3a eKCTpeMHO hhckc TeMnepaType on -30°C h 

HHJKe, HeonXO^HH Cy 3HM0BHHHH HJIH^OJ,aTHO 

yronjBaBaHje ("Koacycn"). 

n^ejie Mory KpaTKOTpaJHO y #o6pHM 
KoniHHitaMa ca ,n,ocTa xpaHe m H3^pxe h eic- 
CTpeMHO HHCKe TeMnepaType, 6e3 niTeTHHX 
nocjie^nna. n^ene 3a npon3BO#H>y TonnoTe 
Tpome xpaHy. LIIto je TeMnepaTypHa pa3JiHKa 
Beha, Beha je h noTponnta xpaHe h oGparao. 

Koji enexTpH^Hor rpejaH>a jaxa ^pyuiTBa 
yronjbaBaM caMO o,no3ro, a onaGnja ojx jaHy- 
apa CTemH>aBaM h yronjbaBaM h Go^ho. EneK- 
Tpn^HOM eHeprajoM Ha^oKHarjyjy ce to- 
mioTHH ryonuH yMecTO Me/ioM. 3a nnejiape 
kojh xejie #a HCKOpHCTe GarpeMOBy nainy, 
BeoMaje BaxHO #a nnejiaMa Beh or MapTa Me- 
cena npyate H^eajme ycjioBe 3a y6p3aHH pa3- 
boj apyniTBa. Flqejie y noKpeTHHM naBHJbo- 
HHMa cy y noBOJBHHJeM nojioacajy y Toxy 3HMe, 
y norjie/ry oj,BorjeH>a ToiuioTe, oji cjio6o,hho 
nocTaBJteHHX KoniHHua Ha OTBOpeHOM npoc- 
Topy. Kao pe3yjrraT OBora y KoniHHnaMa y 
naBHJbOHHMa je BHma TeMnepaTypa Hero y 
cjioSo^ho nocTaBJbeHHM KoniHnuaMa. IloceG- 



203 



n^ejiap 1999 



Hy norojjHOCT HMajy KoniHHHe y jjpyroM h 
TpeheM pejjy, noniTO HMajy nojj,H>aHe rpejaHe 
or jxoYbwx KoniHHua. y npojiene cy naBHibOHH 
Maite H3JioxeHH cymry, nonrro je je^Ha 
CTpaHa naBHibOHa yBeK y xjiajjpBHHH. 

floGpo 3HMyjy h 6ojlh npojieriHH pa3Boj 
HMajy aKO 3HMyjy no rbsl apyniTBa 3ajejjHO (y 
nojioiHKaMa) hjih ropite RpyunBO y Hac- 
TaBJba^aMa. 



3aniniTHo rpejaite 

KoniHHue rpejeM or oicroGpa na ro 
noqeTKa Maja, ojjhocho £0 cejiH^Ge Ha 6a- 
rpeM. OicroGpa Meceua npHKJbytryjeM rpe- 
jafte 36or 3aiHTHTe 3ajjH>er or H3HeHajjHHX 
xjia^HHX Tajiaca, kojh ce y obo JipGa HeKajj, 
jaBJLajy. TeMnepaTypy or 15-20°C nocTeneHO 
cKH/iaM ,iio 5°C h 0Ba TeMnepaTypa ocTaje jjo 
cpejjHHe jaHyapa hjih no^eTKa <J)e6pyapa, 

IUTO 3aBHCH OJJ BpeMeHCKHX ycnoBa. 

npH 3aniTHTHOj TeMnepaTypH on 5°C, Koja 
ce MepH H3Hajj rpejana, y HajxjiajjHHJeM aejiy 
KouiHHue h3hoch oko 1°C. npH oboj TeMnepa- 
TypH nHejiHH^e KJiyGe ce HopMajiHO (J)opMHpa 
h o/jpacaBa y3 MHHHMajraH yrpouiaK xpaHe, 
6e3 o63Hpa Ha cnojbannty TeMnepaTypy, aKO 
je OBa ncnojj TeMnepaType <j>opMHpaH>a KJiy- 
6eTa. 



y nepHOjry OKTo6ap-HOBeM6ap, Kajja ce 
H3Jiexe h 3ajjH>e nerjio, Bpinn ce h 3ajxtbQ Tpe- 
THpaite npoTHB Bapoe. Flo noTpeGn TeMnepa- 
Typa Moxe KpaTKOTpaJHO, Ha nap caTH, rsl ce 
nojjHTHe H3Hajj 15°C, a no H3BpuieH0M TpeTH- 
pan>y jja ce CMaH>H. Hnaca BJiaacHOCT Ba3^ryxa y 
koihhhhh noBehaBa e(J)HKacHOCT neKOBa h 
CMaayje BeK Bapoe. npH 3aiHTHTHOj TeMnepa- 
TypH HeMa ycnoBa 3a CTBapaH>e HH>a y kohihh- 
naMa hh CTBapaH>a roiecHH Ha He3anoce,HHy- 

THM paMOBHMa. 

TeMnepaTypHH pe^HM y koihhhhh y TOKy 
rpeJHe ce30He npHKa3aH je y TaGejin 1. 

TeMnepaTypHH pe>KH\i nqejiHH>er KJiyGeTa 

HannacKOM xjwihhjhx jeceitHX ^aHa, 
npecTaje CBaKa aKTHBHOCT n^ejra BaH 
KoniHHue. M3BorjeH>eM 3ajjH)er jierjia n^ene 
ce KOHueHTpHiiry Ha paMOBe me je H3BejjeH0 
3ajjH>e Jierno. McaoHOCHa nnejra He Moxe no- 
jejjHHa^HO jja npe3HMH. OopMHpaite 3hmckot 
KJiyGeTa, jejjHa je ojj HaJBa^KHHJHX ocoGHHa 
MejjoHOCHe nnejie, Kaxo 6h yapyaceHe npe- 
GpojjHJie BHiueMeceHHH 3hmckh nepnojx 3hm- 
cko KJiy6e je ncnHTHBaHO or bcuhkot 6poja 
HayHHHKa h n^enapa npaKnraapa H3 BHine 
3eMajba. floGnjeHH pe3yjiTaTH cy Bpjio cjih^hh 
ceM He3HaTHHX o^cTynaH>a. 



EJIEKTPHHHO ITEJAIfcE K0DIHIII1A TaSejia i 
TEMnEPATYPHH FEStffM ITEJAIbA W KOIUHHIXH y TOKy rFEJHE CE30HE 






DBA* 1 
P 45 J* J5 


KMQMBAf JtfUI-MKAF 


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PEflH»HX 
AKHX KP 
■KTHATE 


PtfQBY rr-IEJlMlfcE KJ1> 

PyillTARAHA-l3 a C: 
JlPyUlTABA HA -10"C 
njJTAFTAHA-T'C 
MHEPA'J'yPAJE-ffC 


TJECE riUMyJIATMHHAT 

7"CKAltAflJ]EBHA 
WCKAJlAAHl-Hl-tA 
!3*C KAHA HHEBHA 
iPCKAJiAJlHEBHA 
3irCKAJ(Ajp-!EDHA 


EMH.JUBKECE 

rHMnJUKT, u 
TBMTt.flOCT. I 
TEMn. IIOCT. 1 

TEMa flocr. ; 

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204 



n^ejiap 1999 



KomHuu,a Jiucwcma ca 
mepMocmamoM u 

mepMOMempoM 




Flo HaBO^MMa O. A. JIaBpexMHa h C. B. 
ITaHKOBe (BMOJTOrHJA MEflOHOCHE 
ITHEJIE), Kojw ce no3HBajy Ha hckojimko 
ayTOpa, y nnejiMH>eM KJiyGeTy, TeMnepaTypa 
Tejia pajjHJiHua KpeTajia ce y rpaHHuaMa oil, 
+20 jxo +36° C. TeMnepaTypa Tejia pajjHJinue 
HHKa/j Hiije na^ajia lienor 18°C, naK h Ka/xa je 
TeMnepaTypa y koiuhhuh na/xajia n Ha -5°C. 
n^ejie npOH3BC\ae TeMnepaTypy noKpeTaiteM 
rpy/uuix Mnmnha, uito ce y koiuhhuh uyje Kao 
thxo Gpyjatte. Pa3MeHa MaTepnje (MeTa6ojiH- 
3aM) y MnuinhnMa Kpnjia nuejie ojjBHJa ce Ha 

BpJIO BHCOKOM HHBOy. TaKO, aKO MaKCHMaJlHH 

CTeneH MeTa6ojiHCTHUKe aKTHBHOCTn y 
MnmnhnMa Hory HOBexa h3hocm 50-60 kal. Ha 
1 rpaM Ha uac, OHjja cpe/jH>H hhbo y 
MHiunnnMa Kpnjia nnejie pajjiuiHue jjpCTKace 
2400 kal. Ha 1 rpaM Mace Ha nac. 

y TOKy rpeJHe ce30He yje/iHOJ koiuhhuh je 
nocTaBJbeH ejieKTpOHCKH jjnrHTajiHH Tep- 




Hacmaejbcma ca njiactnuHHOM (poAujoM Ha 
-5C 



MOMeTap, 36or npanen>a TeMnepaType y 
koiuhhuh. fly^KHHa coHJxe TepMOMeTpaje oko 
15 cm n yjeceH no (J)opMHpaH>y KJiy6eTa OHaje 
BaH ^OMamaja KJiy6eTa h Mepn TeMnepaTypy y 
koiuhhuh. Ca noMepan>eM K/iy6eTa Ha3a#, 
couaa ce Ha/ia3H y KJiy6eTy h TeMnepaTypa j\o- 
CTn^ce h 35,H,°C. Me^yrnM, npHMeTHO caM #a 
Ha CBaKO y3HeMHpaBan>e (jjp,aaBaH>e nora^e, 
npemefl h cji.) imejie pearyjy ja^HM 6py- 
jaH>eM n HarjiHM jjH3aH>eM TeMnepaType j\o 
42° C, ajin nocjie Kpaher BpeMeHa CBe ce HOp- 
ManH3yje. 

ITpe HeKOJiHKO ro^HHa HMao caM hcmho 
cjiyuaj ^a ce je/THO jjpyuiTBO 36or 3aTBOpeHe 
BeHTHJiaunje yryuiHJio. y TOKy cejuijj6e cnojb- 
Ha TeMnepaTypa Hnje npejia3HJia 18°C. flpy- 
uitbo je 6hjio H3y3eTHO jaKO n Ka/ia caM hc- 
Tpecao MpTBe nuejie npHMeTHO caM Jia je Ha 
HeKOJiHKO cpejjHiuiBHx paMOBa y njio/jHimy 
/joiujio jxo TonjteH>a hejinja BOCKa wciyojx ca- 
TOHoma. Obo noKa3yje Jia je TeMnepaTypa 
flOCTH3ajia y noje/iHHHM jjejiOBHMa y koiuhhuh 
ao63°C. 

BepOBaTHO ce obo jjprafjajio h jjpyrnM 
nuejiapHMa, ajin jja Ha obo HHcy oGpanajin 
na^KH>y. 

(y TaGejiaMa 2 h 3 npHKa3aH je nojio>Kaj 
rpejana h no^cejbaH nojio^caj nnejiHH>er KJiy- 
6eTa Ha noneTKy 3HMe). 

ITo HaBO^HMa B. H. nojiTeB-a nocjie^nua 
3anapeH>a nuejia je h>hxobo 6p30 yrnHyne o/j 
BHCOKe TeMnepaType h BJia^cHOCTH, Koja ce 
jaBJba ko^i jaKO y36yr)eHHx nnejia y koiuhh- 
uaMa ca jioihom BeHTHJiaunjoM. nope/j, yr- 



205 



n^ejiap 1999 



T HUM. itt AJ I TtJ A L l A H I H JKlUliAil IKUICEKAJ KltV KET A If A TlO'f ETTy SHMB 



', 




HanoMena: flojiaiiH TCMncpaType 3U imejimiic KJiytfe victh i r x « s 
KiiiiMhiiioiiejiHJe ABC . * . xyz oji A. I, Root-a 



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UMIOTTAT 



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ITlilAM 





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a^ 



MKUrTAXA ITPJA'IA Y AX-KOUH »■" tM 



206 



n^ejiap 1999 



HHyfta rraejia jiojia3H h ro OTanaita Mejxa h km- 
/jaita cafta y paMOBHMa. 

3aiiiTHTHa TeMnepaTypa or 5°C ojxroBapa 
HajnoBOJbHHJoj TeMnepaTypH y 3HMOBHHUHMa. 
EjieKTpHHHHM rpejaiteM Koiimnna OTna^a 
noTpeGa 3a 6hjio KaKBHM 3aniTHTHHM o6jeK- 
THMa hjih 3a noceGHHM yTorLTbaBaifceM. 

CTHMyjiaTHBHO rpejaite 

y TOKyjaHyapa hjih noneTKOM 4>e6pyapa, 
Ben HMaMO noBpeMeHO cyiwaHe jjaHe kojh 
nojjnxy TeMnepaTypy y KonmnuaMa. flojia3H 

H RO npOHHCTHHX JieTOBa. OBO CTHMyJIHHie 

nnejie Ha noBehaHy aKTHBHOCT y koiiihhhh h 
MaTHua noHHfte ca nojiaraiteM jaja. IlpBHX 
jjaHa 6poj nojioxeHHXjajaje Bpno CKpoMaH, a 
KacHHJe ce noBefiaBa y 3aBHCHOCTH ojj, 
cnojtHHX h yHyrpaiuH^HX ycjioBa. 3ajinxe 
Mejja y koiuhhhh HMajy 3HanaJHy ynory y obom 
nepHoziy. 

Ca eneKTpHHHHM rpejaiteM He CMe 
jjpyniTBO jja ce CTHMynmne Ha npeBpeMeHO 
H3BorjeH>e nerjia, Behjja caMO OMoryta Mara- 
naMa HacTaBaK nojiaraita jaja. rpejaiteM ce 
CMaityje pa3JiHKa H3Merjy j,HeBHe h HoftHe 
TeMnepaType h ejiHMHHHHie HeraTHBaH yra- 
uaj xjrajjHHX Tajraca. TpejaH>e ce no MeceuHMa 
BpinnnpeMa jxaroM jjHJarpaMy, ajiH obo TpeGa 
Jia ce KopHiyje 3a CBaKO nojjpyqje, y 3aBH- 
chocth ojj JioKajiHHX TeMnepaTypHHX npHJlH- 
Ka. Tpe6a 3HaTH #a je 3a H3BorjeH>e nerjia 
noTpeGHa TeMnepaTypa ojj 35°C h yKOJinxo je 
TeMnepaTypa y koihhhhh BHina, yrojiHKO he 
n^ejie mohh jja Ha Benoj noBpmHHH 
o^p^caBajy 35°C h o6pHyro. 



CTHMyjiaTHBHO npii\paH>mum>e 

IlopejT no/iH3aHoa TeMnepaType y 
koihhhhh, nnejiaMa cy 3a H3BorjeH>e Jierjia 
HeonxojTHH Me^ h nojieH. npBa nora^a je 
nqejiaMa h npBH CTHMyjiaTop. llora^y jrajeM 
no Kpaja (J)e6pyapa, a aico je BpeMe xnajjHHJe 
Moxe ca RaBaibQM nora^e Ra ce npojxyxn h y 
MapTy. no noTpe6n, npe HBeTaita Bona, 3a 
npoiHHpeH>e Jierjia iraejiaMa /jajeM paMOBe ca 
nojieHOM h MeiTOM kojh cy ocTaBJbeHH y pe- 

3epBH. 

Moje nnejie ce Hajia3e y npHKOJinnn y ko- 
joj cy iipjie CMeuiTeHe 24 Konmnne J1P Ha 4 
HacTaBKa, a y ropiteM Jjejry, y 6 noKpeTHnx 



GjioKOBa, MOHTHpaHe cy24 KoniHHne JincitaHe 
ca paMOBHMa J1P. CBa /jpyniTBa 3HMyjy caMO y 
jeJXHOM HacTaBKy Kaxo 6h TeMnepaTypHH 
pe^cHM npHJiHKOM rpejaita y cbhm koihhh- 
naMa 6ho hcth. npaTHM pa3Boj /jpyniTaBa h 
HacTaBKe nonniteM jja jrajeM Ben y MapTy, h to 
HeKajr h npe uBeTaita Bona. 

FlyHH pa3Boj apyiuTaBa noHHite ca npHJin- 
bom CBe^cer HeKTapa h nojieHa h npnxpaiBH- 
BaH>e je raRa noTpeGHO caMO KaRa H30CTaje 
yHoc Ha Barn. 

Bofma h Bp6oBa nania hckhx ro/jHHa Mory 
m 6yoy h H3Hajr npoceKa h Ta/ia yHoc Ha Barn 
Moxe m jjpcTHrae 10 kg, a h BHine. 

YTponiaK xpaiie y rpeJHOM nepno^y 

JeiTHa KouiHHua MHJe nocTaBJbeHa Ha Barn, 
TaKO m Mory m npaTHM 3hmh noTpoinity 
xpaHe no MecenHMa, a JieTH npHHOce 3a BpeMe 
name. HajcTaGnjiHnja noTpomtta xpaHe je y 
nepno/xy Ka/j,a HeMa Jierjia (oKTo6ap-/je- 
neMGap) h noTponnta xpaHe Ta/j,a He npejia3H 
1 kg Mece^HO. YjaHyapy, axo HaerynH Ton- 
jthjh nepnoii,, noTponiH>a Moxe jj;a nopacTe, 
36or noqeTKa HeroBan>a Jierjia. Y nepno/jy 
jaHyap-(J>e6pyap irajeM oko 2-3 kg noraqa no 
/IpyiHTBy. Ca noranaMa Te^cHHy KoniHHue 
npaKTH^Ho o^pxaBaM Ha jreueMGapcKOM 

HHBOy, HITO 3Ha^H j^a y KOIHHHHaMa HMa ^o- 

bojbho Me^a. 

EjieKTpH^HHM rpejan>eM ce TeMnepaTypa 
3HaTHO flHxe h OMoryhaBa n^ejiaMa jia Ha 
3HaTHO Behoj noBpmHHH o6e36e,n;e ycjioBe 3a 
nojiaraH^e jaja MaTHuaMa. Be3 o63Hpa Ha 
KBajiHTeT, MaTHue nojiaacy ohojihko jaja, ko- 
jihko n^ejie Mory jia npnxBaTe. 

Flo i pomiba ejieKTpHHHe eHeprnje y TpeJHOM 
nepnojjy 

noTpoiinta ejieKTpHHHe eHeprnje Moxe 
Bpjio npenH3HO m ce H3MepH yrpajiH^OM 
noceGHor CTpyjoMepa, Ha KOJHMa ce no- 
TponiH>a j^HpeKTHO o^HTaBa hjih yrpa^H^OM 
Mepana BpeMeHa pa^ia, rjje ce noTponnta 
H3panyHaBa. Mepann BpeMeHa pajxa Majinx cy 
^HMeH3HJa h Bpjio cy norojjHH 3a yrpa^H>y y 
caMe anapaTe. 

IloTpoiuH>a ejieKTpHHHe eHeprnje mhoto 
Binne BapHpa or Meceua ^io Meceua h or ro- 
^HHe ^o ro^HHe, Hero noTponnta Me/ia, niTO 

JJHpeKTHO 3aBHCH OR BpeMeHCKHX ycjioBa. 3a- 



207 



n^ejiap 1999 



y TaGejiH 5 Rclt je nperjiea BpeMeHa pa^a rpejana 3a 3a#H>HX 10 ro^HHa. 
PM TPEJA4A y 4AC0BMMA 



MECEII 

ronHHA 


IX 


X 


XI 


XII 


I 


r ~ 
ii 


III 


IV 


V 


yKYIIHO 


1989/90 


93 


36 


93 


81 


77 


106 


115 


105 




706 


1990/91 




80 


65 


130 


160 


195 


164 


168 


56 


1118 


1991/92 




91 


112 


166 


145 


115 


156 


126 




911 


1992/93 






35 


121 


155 


256 


186 


83 


15 


861 


1993/94 






109 


79 


76 


168 


66 


86 


67 


651 


1994/95 




27 


6S 


141 


207 


195 


207 


125 


53 


1010 


1995/96 






116 


240 


140 


222 


287 


133 


16 


1154 


1996/97 


95 


100 


146 


170 


206 


207 


210 


269 


45 


144S 


1997/98 






18 


66 


46 


45 


124 


48 




347 


1998/99 




59 


109 


194 


146 


170 











.naTaK rpejaH>a je jia nnejiaivia y koiuhhuh 
npyacn HajnoBOJbHHJe ycnoBe m m yGjiaaoi 
HeraTHBHH yranaj 3HMe. 

TpejaHH 3a BpeMe hhckhx TeMnepaTypa 
pa^e y HMiryjicnMa h Aan>y h Hony, a y 
npojieliHHM MeceuHMa pa/ie npeiexHO Hony, 
xaja TeMnepaTypa na#a Hcnom 3a^aTe. 

Iloje^HHaqHa noTponnta y kWh 3a je^Hy 
KoinHHiry ca rpejaqeM ojx 20 W^oSnja ce ica^a 
ce 6poj paaHHX caTH rpejana no^ejm ca 50 
(je^Ha Konmnna 3a 50 cara pa#a yrpoinn 1 
kWh). yxynHa noTponnta 3a CBe Konmnne 
floGnhe ce Kaja ce #o6njeHa Bpe/iHOCT 3a jej;Hy 
KoniHHiry iiomhcekh ca GpojeM Konmnna. 

3a rpejan>e je^He Konmnne y Toxy rpeJHe 
ce30He yrpoinn ce 15-20 kWh, ihto o^roBapa 
eHepreTCKoj Bpe^HocTH 4-5 kg Mezia. OBaj 
ynrrerjeHH mqj\ je iraejiaMa Ha pacnojiaraity 3a 
HcxpaHy Jierna n ca obom kojihtohom Me^a 
Moxe m ce npoH3Be/ie 10-15.000 iraejia (1-1,5 
kg nnejia). 



M3 npHJio^eHe TaGene ce bh#h #a je to- 
njioTa ^oGnjeHa o,n ejieKTpHHHe eHeprnje 4,5 
nyra jeBTHHHJa Hero oji niehepa hjih 35 nyra 
jeBTHHHJa Hero oji Mejia. 

3^paBCTBeHO CTan>e nnejia y rpejaiiiiivi 
KouiHMuaMa 

MHKpoKJiHMa je y rpejaHHM KonmnnaMa 
MHoro noBOJbHHJa 3a nnejie Hero y Herpe- 
jaHHM. y rpejaHHM KonmnnaMa, 36or BHine 
TeMnepaType, Hnacaje penaTHBHa BJia>KHOCT, 
HeMa TeMnepaTypHHX KOJie6aH>a h TeMnepa- 
Typa HHKa£ He naaa ncno^ Hyjie. Ba3^yx Ha 
bhiuhm TeMnepaTypaMa Mo^ce m HpHMH 
MHoro BHine Bo^eHe nape Hero Ha hiokhm. 
TaKO, HanpHMep, Ba3jyxHa -8°C ca 1000%- 
-hom RjiaacHomhy y koihhhhh ca 20°C, HMafre 
BJiaxHOCT or caMO 15 %. Or BO/ieHe nape, xojy 



O/iHoc neHe Me/ia, niehepa h eji. eHeprnje jiar je y TaGejin 6p. 6: 



H3BOP 

EHEPFHJE 


JEHmiHUA 


JEJJ. 
UEHA 


Kcai/jejj 


kJ/jen 


Rimapa la 

1000 Kcal 


MEfl 
UIETiEP 

| EJI. EHEPrHJA 


kg 

kg 
kWh 


50.000 

8.00 

0,40 


3100 
3800 
860 


13.000 
16.000 
3.600 


16,20 

2J0 

0,46 



(L[eHe cy y3eTe jaHyapa 1999. tor.) 



208 



rinejiap 1999 



OBJiaaCHTH H Ca H3JiaCKOM H3 KOIHHHHe H3HOCH 

h #o6ap #eo BJiare. 

y ejieKTpH^HO rpejaHHM KoniHHuaMa 
Maitaje noTpounta xpaHe y 3hmckom nepH- 
oay, Man>a je KOJiHHHHa HecBapJbHBHX Ma- 
TepHJa y /ie6ejioM upeBy mena, na caMHM thm 
Mory MHoro tfyxe m H3^p^ce no npo^HCTHor 
neTa. CyBa aTM0C(J>epa y kouihhhh ^onpH- 
hoch GojteM ^tyBaiby Mej;a, nojieHa h cana y 

KOUIHHHH. 

I IpiiBpe/iHit iiianaj ejieKTpHHHO rpejaHHX 

KOUIHHU,a 

IIorQzmHJa MHKpoiciHMa y ejieKTpHrao 
rpejaHHM KoniHHHaMa CTBapa noroaHHJe 
ycnoBe, KOJH ce MaHHC^ecryjy noinyHO 3^pa- 
bhm JierjioM. y KoiHHHuaMa HeMa 3apa3HHX 
o6ojieH>a h HeMa noTpeGe 3a KopHinneH>eM 
jieKOBa (aHTHGnoTHKa), hhjh 6h ce ocrauH Ha- 
jia3HJiH y Me,ny. 

EjieKTpHHHO rpejaH>e KoiiiHHHa npyaca 
join h cjie^ene npe/iHOCTH: 

- BesGe^HO 3HMOBaH>e y3 MHHHMaJIHH 

yrpouiaK xpaHe h onyBaH>e Beher 6poja 
CTapHX nqena, Koje cy ^paroueHe 3a 
npojietiHH pa3Boj .npynrraBa. 



- HeMa 3axjiat)eika Jiarjia Kao nocne^Hue 
xna^HHX nponeliHHX Tajiaca. 

- Bp^H npojiehHH pa3Boj, TaKo ^a cy 
/IpyniTBa cnpeMHa m MaKCHMajiHO HCKOpHCTe 
paHe name (penHua, GarpeM). 

- OMoryheHO je paHO 4>opMHpaH>e jaicnx 
^pyniTaBa, Kpja cy cnocoGHa 3a paHy npoH3- 
Bqmty Maraua h hobhx ^pyimaBa 3a 
Tp^cHiHTe hjih concTBeHe noTpeGe. 

rpejaH>e o^raJHBa^KHX /ipyuiTaBa 
OMoryhaBa CHrypHHJy Hery MaTHHH^aKa, 
npHxpaH>HBaH>e npH cbhm BpeMeHCKHM 
ycjioBHMa h Behn npoueHaT npHXBaneHHX 
jiapBH. 

- rpeja^e onjic\iiH>aKa ejiHMHHHine ynmaj 
xjia^HHX Tanaca y TOKy jieTa, kojh yrnny Ha 
3j,paBCTBeHO CTaH>e h pa3Boj Jierjia y onjio^- 
H>auHMa. 

EJ1EKTPMHHMM TPEJAH>EM KOUI- 
HMUA M TEPMM4K0M OEPA^OM 
XI4EJIA nPOTMB BAPOE, 114EJ1E Cy 
OCJ10BOT5EHE CBMX JIEKOBA H 
EIHEJIAP BM MOEAO flA TAPAHTyJE 
nOTPOUIAHMMA flA nPOM3BOflM 
MEfl BE3 U1TETHMX CynCTAHJ4M, 
KOJE 3A COBOM OCTABJbAJy OflO- 
BPEHMMHEOflOBPEHMJTEKOBM. 



rinejiap 1999 



IIponycHa Moh u KBajiHTeT onjio#H>aKa 

'BopfyeCmaHOJHuh, Hoeu Cad 



3a 6p30 h e(J)HKacHO cnapHBaite MaTHna 
ca TpyroBHMa, Kao h 3a h>hxob jjajbH KBa- 
jiHTeiaH pa3Boj no H3JiacKy H3 MaTHHH>aKa, 
cnrypHO je HajGojte m OHe y to BpeMe, y 
BpeMe nojiHor ;j03peBaH>a, 6yoy y jxpyniTBHMa 
ca BHine HopMajiHHX OKBHpa, Ha KojnMa HMa 
jjocTa nnejia cbhx y3pacia. To je caMO Haera- 
BaK np0H3B0jjH>e MaTHua. MaTHue, xoje cy ojj, 
caMor noHeTKa h>hxobot HacTaHKa, ojj jajeTa 
nojioxeHor y MaTHUitaK y HopMajiHOM 
apyniTBy, na #0 h^hxobot H3JiacKa H3 
MaTHHJtaKa h onjiojjH>e cy 6e3 npeMua. 
npHMep 3a to cy Marane H3 pojeBHX 
MaTHHitaKa hjih THxe CMeHe MaTHua, me 
nuejie Ben ojj nojioxeHor jajeTa y MaraqitaK 
ojjpxaBajy c bum Be3y. npeMa K.M. DULL-u 
(AycTpajiHJa) join yBeK HHJe noTnyHO jacHO 
Kajja HeroBaTejbHue npnxBaTajy MJiajje 
jiapBHue Ha MaTHHHH ojjroj, m Jni o/jMax no 
h>hxobom ncnHJBeH>y H3 jajeTa hjih HeniTO 
KacHHJe. Oh npeTnocTaBJba jja je Moryhe jj;a 
nuejie Beh npHJiHKOM H3rpajjH>e MaTHHH>aKa 
ocTaBe y iteMy CBOjeBpcHH cHraan, kojh Ha- 
bojjh MaTHiry jja y hmx nojioxn jaja. OBa ce 
xnnoTe3a noTKpeiubyje nniteHHUOM jja nuejie 
npeHeceHO jaje y MaTHHH>aK CKOpo pejjoBHO 
H36anyjy, CMaTpajyhn ra CTpaHHM TejioM, jiok 
jaje Koje MaTHua nojioxH HMa cacBHM 
jxpyraHHJH TpeTMaH. 

KBajiHTeT MaTHua ce ojjperjyje npeMa pa- 

3BHJeH0CTH H>e3HH0T nOJIHOT H eHJJpKpHHOT 
CHCTeMa. TOKOM HHJjyCTpHJCKe npOH3BOJXH>e 

MaTHna, rjje je KOJiHMHHa MaTHua H3y3eTHO 
BaataH (a cxopo h rjiaBHH) uhjb, necTO 
MemaH^e npoH3Bof)aqa y npnpojjHH nponec 
pa3Boja MaTH^HHX JiapBH HMa HeraTHBaH 
ojjpa3 Ha noMeHyre CHCTeMe. 

Kao niTO je 3HauaJH0 niTO BepHHJe hmhth- 
paite npnpojjHHX ycnoBa pa3Boja MaTHHHHX 
JiapBH, hcto TaKO je 3Ha*iaJH0 h h>hxobo jjajbe 
;ip3peBaH>e no paf)aH>y, o# Hera 3aBHcn 
6p3HHa h KBajiHTeT onjio;jH>e. FloniTO je Bapn- 
jaHTa jj03peBaH>a h onjiojjH>e MaTHua y Hop- 
MariHHM jxpyniTBHMa, na uaK h y jxpyniTBHMa 

Ca HeKOJIHKO HOpMaJIHHX OKBHpa C eKOHOMCKe 

Ta*iKe rjie/XHurra HenejiHcxo/XHa, Tpa^ce ce h 
H3Hajia3e HaqnHH jja ce ca uito Maite niTeTe, 
no npojjyKTHBHOCT n*iejiHH>aKa, npoH3Be/xy 
KBajiHTeTHe MaTHue. Ycnecn y obom nocjry 
aoGpHM jjejioM 3aBHce h ojj THna h BejnraHHe 
onjiojjH>aKa. 

Tuuobh oiuiOiiibaKa 

Oiuio/jitaHH ce Mory 4>opMHpaTH nperpa- 

JJOM HOpMaJIHHX KOniHHLta Ha HeKOJIHKO noT- 



nyHOH30JiOBaHHX^ejioBaca 1-3 OKBHpa. Obo 
je, CBaKaKO, HajGojbe, ajiH HnaK cicyno 
penieite. Kojj OBe BapnjaHTe ce HnaKJaBJtaje- 
jjaH npoGjieM, kojh ce cacTojn y TOMe niTO Ha 
hctoj CTpaHH 6y/xe Bnme JieTa. Obo ce jjpGpHM 
jjejioM peniaBa CTBapaiteM nperpajja Ha 
cnojbHoj CTpaHH H3Merjy JieTa h pa3JiH*iHTHM 
6ojeH>eM ojjejbaKa. MnaK je HajcHiypHHJe 
Kajja ce JieTa Hajia3e Ha pa3JiHHHTHM 
CTpaHaMa, jepje TaKO cnpeneHO 3ajieTaH>e Ma- 
THua npHJiHKOM Bpahaita ca oiuiojjite. 

J\a 6h ce uito Maite iraejia h iuto jeBTHHH- 
jhm HHBenrapoM BpniHJia oiuio/xfta MaTHna, 
yBejjeHH cy y uinpoKy ynoTpeGy MaH>H owioji- 
ibanu. y npaKCH nnejiapa GHBnier CCCP-a hc- 
nnTHBaHH cy HyKJieycn pa3JiHHHTHX THnoBa h 
BejiHHHHa paMOBa y H>HMa: 

1. HeTHpH OReibKa yje^HOM Hyicneycy ca 1 
okbhpom BejiHUHHe 435 x 300 mm. 

2. HeTHpn o^ejbKa ca 1/4 HopMajiHor 

OKBHpa. 

3 . LlIecT o^ejbaKa ca 1/6 HopMajiHor 

OKBHpa, H 

4. HeTHpH ojxejBKa ca 1/16 HopMajiHor 

OKBHpa. 

npHJiHKOM HacejtaBaH^a Hyicneyca Jierjio 
je CTaBJbaHO caMO y THn HyKJieyca ca HopMaji- 

HHM OKBHpOM. 

Oj npBor ^o ueTBpTor THna HyKJieyca 
npHJiHKOM HacejbaBaH>a CTaBJbaHO je no 250, 
130, 100 h 40 rpaMa nnejia. Tokom TpH ce30He 
HaJMaite je ^onyHCKH ^ojjaBaHO n^iejia y Hy- 

KJieyCHMa Ca HOpMaJIHHM OKBHpOM H 1/4 HOp- 
MaJIHHX OKBHpa h to ce KpeTajio oa 4 - 7%, 
AOKJe to kojj HyKJieyca ca 1/6 h 1/16 HopMaji- 

HOT OKBHpa H3HOCHJIO 49 H 140%. y3pOUH 

noBenaita npoueHTa HaKHajjHHX ao^aBaH^a 
nuejia, HapoHHTO kojj, THna HyKJieyca ca 1/16 
HopMajmor OKBHpa Jie^ce y HroteHHUH uito je 
3HaTaH ^ieo obhx HyKJieyca HacejtaBaH no ^Ba- 
-TpH nyra. 

HaJHHacH H3Jia3aK MaTHua 3a TpH rojjHHe 
(2,5 jjo 3,9 kom. npoceHHo) 3a6ejie^:eH je y 
HyKJieycHMa ca 1/16 HopM. OKBHpa. y Hyicie- 
ycHMa ca 1/6 HopMajiHHX OKBHpa H3Jia3aK Ma- 
THua ce KpeTao ojj 2,7 jio 3,0 KOMa/ra. HyKJie- 
ycH ca 1/4 HopMajiHHX OKBHpa jjajin cy ojj 3,4 
no 4,3 njio^He MaTHne h HyKJieycn caje^HHM 
CTaHjiapjjHHM okbhpom 3,25 ^o 3,85 njiojjHe 
MaTHue (pa^oBH rinjinneHKa). 

y onHTHMa npocj). T.O. TapaHOBa 
KopHHiheHH cy HyKJieycn ojj 1/4 HopMajiHor 
OKBHpa (435 x 300 mm). HerapH OBaKBa 
OKBHpa yjia3e y jejjaH HopMajiaH okbhp h jjajy 



210 



n^ejiap 1999 



ce jpyuiTBHMa 3a HcnyitaBaike mchom h Jie- 
tjiom. HyicieycH cy HacTaitHBaHH ca no jjBa 
OBaKBa OKBHpa. Y HcnHTHBan>y cy 6hjih try- 
KneycH ca 1,2,4 h 8 o/jejieita. 

Jlocjie Tporo/jHimfcHX omrra 3aKJhyHeHoje 
m Ha je/jHoj CTpaHH Hyicneyca Tpe6a jja noc- 
TOJH caMO je/jHO JieTO, jja ce <})0pMHpaH>e Hy- 
KJieyca h npecarjHBaite MaTHua y h>hx yc- 
neniHO Moxe ocTBapHTH caMO axo cy Mana 
jjpyniTBa /ip6po H30JioBaHa je/iHO or jxpyror, 
jja ce y MepH noBehaita ojjejbeita y HyKJie- 
ycHMa CMaityje 6poj jjoGHJeHHX MaTHna. 

HajGojLH pe3yjiTaTH ce nocTHxy y Hyicrce- 
ycHMa ca jjBa o/jejbeita, a HajeKOHOMHqHHJH cy 
HyicieycH ca 4 c\nejbeH>a, kojh cy jjoGpo 
loojioBaHH h kojh HMajy no je/jHO JieTO Ha 

CBaKOJ CTpaHH. 

Ha cbom nnejiHitaKy Beh BHine ro/jHHa 
KopHCTHM 3 THna onjio/jraaKa: 1. Ca neT 
o/jeibeifca h no 4 HopMajiHa JTP OKBHpa, 2. 
LlIecT o/jejbeita ca 3 Majia OKBHpHha 
BejiH^HHe 10 x 12 cm h 3. 3ace6aH ca 3 
OKBHpnha 10 x 12 cm. HajeKOHOMHHHHJH cy 
obh nocjie/jitH axo ce ueHH caMO 6poj npoH3- 
Be/jeHHX h o/jy3eTHX MaTHna , j ep ohh 
HajjiaKine npHMajy nocjie o/jy3HMaH>a cjie/jehe 
Henjio^He MaTHne. FloinTO y HyKJieycHMa ca 6 
o/jejbeika Ha no jjBe CTpaHe HMa no jjBa JieTa, 
neiuhe ce jjeniaBajy 3ajieTaH>a MaTHua 
npHJiHKOM noBpaTKa ca onjio/jite 6e3 o63Hpa 
iuto H3Merjy JieTa nocToje nperpa/je. 

Oiuio/jftanH ca no 4 HopMajiHa OKBHpa 
Texe npHMajy, nocne o/xy3HMaH>a iijio/jhhx 
MaTHua, Hape/iHe napTHJe HeoiuiorjeHHX Ma- 
THua h to mm je MaHa. MerjyraM, obh onjio/i- 
H>auH HMajy h CBOje npe/XHOCTH: kojj, h>hx HeMa 
HaKHa/iHHX /jp/jaBaita n^ejia, xpaHOM ce yr- 
naBHOM caMH CHaG/jeBajy, npaBHJiHHJa je npe- 
jiHMHHapHa oueHa MaTHna Koje ce y H>HMa 
onjio^e. 



HacraibMuaibe Hyiuieyca 

HyicieycH ce Mory HacTaitHBaTH Ha JjBa 
HaHHHa: 

1. Ca H3rparjeHHM caheM Ha KOMe HMa 3aT- 
BopeHor Jierjia h Me/ja h ojjroBapajyhn 6poj 
n^ena, kojh 3aBHCH ojj Gpoja OKBHpHha y Hy- 
Kneycy h Kpehe ce o/j 100 /ip 200 g Ha MajiHM 

OKBHpHhHMa H 3HaTHO BHHie aKO Ce KOpHCTe 
HOpMaJIHH OKBHpH H 

2. Ha H3rparjeHOM npa3HOM cahy ca, hcto 
Kao y npBOM cjryqajy, ojjroBapajyhnM GpojeM 
n^ejia. 

Kojj npBor HaHHHa npoGneM je y H3rpajjH>H 
h 3ajieraH>y caha, jep to, HapoHHTO Ha 
noneTKy ce30He npoH3BO/jH>e MaTHna, 36or 
^ecTHX KOJie6aH>a KJiHMaTCKHX h naniHHX 
npHJiHKa noHeKa/j, njje JipcTa ycnopeHO h Hey- 



je/jHaneHO. Pa3JiHHHTa jjpyniTBa, y Koja cy 
CTaBJbeHH OKBHpH 3a H3rpajxfty, 3ajieraH>e h 
nonyiBaBaite Me/ipM, Heyje/jHaneHO to pajje, a 
pa/jn HacTaH5HBaH>a npBe napTHJe Heo- 
njiorjeHHX MaTHua noxejbHO je jja CBe 6yne ro- 
tobo y hcto BpeMe. 

Kojj jxpyror cjiynaja (Ha^HHa), naKO ce 
npa3HO cahe y OKBHpnhHMa h miejie Mory qh- 
Max HCTOBpeMeHo cTaBJtaTH y CBe oimo/i- 
H^aKe, jaBJta ce npoGjieM /jpyrannjer KapaK- 
Tepa: miejie HecTO He npHXBarajy Majie 
onjio^HjaKe ca npa3HHM caheM h HanyniTajy 
hx. OB/je ce HcnojbaBa T3B. e<J>eKaT rpyne: 
nqejie cy HayHHJie m ^CHBe y BehHM 3aje^HH- 
uaMa, na qecTO npejia3e H3 je/iHHX o^ejbeH>a y 
.apyra pa^H cnajaH^a hjih ce pacnpine h o,iiy H3 
onjio^H^aKa. OBaj npoGjieM ce pemaBa TaKO 
hito ce y onjio^H>aK, o^Max no HacTaH>HBaH>y, 
CTaBH mehepHH cnpyn Kaxo 6h ce nnejie npn- 
HyzjHJie Ha HHinheH>e caha h npepa^iy cnpyna. 
J\& nqene npe noqeTKa npepa/ie cnpyna He 6h 
o^JieTene, JieTa Tpe6a Ha ^aH-ziBa 3aTBOpHTH 
y3 npeTxo/iHO o6e36erjeH^e Majie BeHTHJia- 
UHJe, CyrpajaH yBe^e, npe^ 3ajia3aK cyHua, 
JieTa ce OTBapajy. 

3a HacTaH^HBaH^e bcjihkhx onjiojjH>aKa ca 
HopMajiHHM OKBHpHMa KOpHCTe ce nnejie h 

OKBHpH Ca 3aTBOpeHHM JieTJlOM H MeJJOM 

H3BarjeHH H3 jaKHX jjpyuiTaBa (uejiHcxojjHOCT 
OBaKBor nocTynKa HHJe ncnjiaTHBa ^ok 
jjpyiiiTBa He nocTHray KyjiMHHauHJy y pa3Bojy, 
a Tajjaje Gain npenopyqjbHBO, jep ce cnpe^aBa 
pojeBO pacnojioxeHie). 3a Majie onjiojj,H>aKe, 
3aBHCHO ojj HjHxobot 6poja, TpeGa y3era jejjHO 

HJIH BHHie HOpMaJIHHX JJpyiHTaBa, OJJHeTH HX 

Ha Kpaj nnejinitaKa, noiHTO ce H3 h>hx npe- 
txojjho H3Bajj;H okbhp Ha KOMe ce Hajia3H Ma- 
THita h CTaBH y npa3Hy KoniHHuy. OBa ce 
KoiHHHita nocTaBJta Ha MecTO rjje je jjoTJie 
Ghjio jjpyniTBO Koje ce yKJiaH>a. HaKOH 4-5 
caTH CBe he ce H3JieTHHue BpaTHTH y KoiHHHiry 
ca MaTHHpM, a y yKJioH>eHoj koihhhlih he 
ocTaTH caMO MJiaj,e n^ejie nojjoGHe 3a 
HacTaHjHBaH^a HyKJieyca. PaMOBH ca JierjioM 
ce noTOM Bpahajy y JjpyniTBO ca MaTHHpM a oc- 
TajiH TeK noiHTO ce MJiajje nnejie HCKOpHCTe 
Ha HacTaHjHBaH^e HyKJieyca. 

4hm ce nnejie norojjHOM nocyaoM 
(upnajbKOM Koja cajjp^cn 100 hjih HeiHTO 
BHine g nnejia) Hacny y HyKJieyc, TpeGa o/jMax 
jjojjaTH h HeonjiorjeHy MaTHiry, 6e3 6oja3HH jja 
he 6hth yHHHiTeHa, jep cy MJiajje nnejie tokom 
4-5 caTH Beh ocerajie 6e3MaTH^HOCT. 

IIohobho uacraiMiuaibe onjio^ibaxa 

H,hjb CBaKor npoH3Borjaqa MaTHua je Jja 
noBeha nponycHy Moh onjiojjH^aKa (HyKJie- 



211 



rinejiap 1999 



yea), na ce 3aT0 oruio^eHe MaxHue Bajje h 
KopHde y cbom nqejiHH>aKy hjih ncnopyqyjy 
xynuHMa HaKOH 5-7 jjaHa no oiijiojjhjH. 3a obo 
BpeMe ce Bpinn npejiHMHHapHa oneHa KBa- 
jiHTeTa MaTHua, ajin He h KOMineTHO tccth- 
pan>e, jep je 3a obo noTpeGHO 3HaTHO Jjyace 
BpeMe. 3aTO Tpe6a pa3JiHKOBaTH KOMiuieTHO 
TecrapaH>e hjih Gap TecTHpaite Ha 3HaqaJHHJa 
CBOjcTBa ojj peKJiaMHHX nopyxa, axo ce y 
H>HMa He Kaace Ha nua je Maxima TecrapaHa. 
AKOje xecxHpaH>e H3BpiueHO caMO Ha iijiojj- 
hoct (onjiojjH>y Maxnue), OHJja je ^obojbho 
peta "oiuiorjeHa MaxHua". 

riouiTO ce oiuiorjeHa Maxnna H3BajjH H3 
HyKJieyca, Ha pe^y je jjo,naBaH>e 3penor 
MaTH^H^aKa (oGhhho no jjBa) hjih Tex 
H3Jie^ceHe Maxnue (uito je y CBaKOM cnyqajy 
Gojte, jep ce Moxe oneHnra H>eH H3rjiejj). 
Objxc ce cnxyaunja Majio KOMnjiHKyje. Or 
npBor jjojjaBaita HeorniorjeHe Maxnue ro 
ojy3HMaH>a HaKOH oiuio,HH>e y Hyicieycy 
HMaMO cajja Beh iraejia pa3JiHHHrax y3pacia n 
OTBOpeHor Jierna, hito oxeacaBa npnjeM 
cjie/jehe Heomio^eHe Maxnue. y obhm 
cjiynajeBHMa ce npenopy^iyje cxaBJbaite Heo- 
nno^eHe Maxnue y Behn KaBe3 or KapTOHa ca 
50-aK MJia/nix nqena hjih iraejia H3 6e3- 
MaTHHHor jjpyuiTBa, Koje he ce MnpojtyoHBO 
ojjhochth npeMa HeonjiofjeHoj Maxnun y 
OBaKBOM KaBe3y. Ha OBaj ce HaqnH 



ycnocTaBJba Gojta 3ByqHa h MHpHCHa Be3a 
H3MeJy nnena y omiojjJkaKy h obhx y KaBe3y 
ca HeorniorjeHOM MaxnuoM, naje h cnrypHOCT 
H>e3HHor npnxBaxaita hsuicko Beha Hero y 
oGhhhom KaBe3y. Ha BoiHTaHoj iijiohhuh Koja 
3aTBapa otbop KaBe3a H36ymn ce HeKOJiHKO 
pymma jjnjaMexpoM 1-2 MHJiHMeTpa, na he 
nnejie caMe nporpH3aTH OBe OTBOpe. 
McnoneTKa he th otboph 6hth npomnpeHH 
caMO tojihko #a iraejie Mory Kp03 h>hx yjia- 
3hth n H3Jia3HTH (4-5 mm), a Kpo3 jjaH-^Ba he 
nnejie npoinnpHTH OTBOpe h 3ajejjHO ca Maxn- 
UOM H3HhH y onjiojjitaK. 

yenex npHJeivia Heonjio^eHHX Maxnna He 
3aBHcn Gain yBeK caMO or THna KaBe3a, Beh n 

OR HiHXOBOr KBaJlHTeTa, kojh je KOJJ H>HX 

HapoHHTO npeno3HaTJBHB no KpynHohn. TaKO 
je y onHTHMa TapaHOBa npnjeM HeoiuiorjeHnx 
MaTHua Koje cy Te^cnjie Maite ojj, 180 mg H3HO- 
cho ,47%, ojj 180 - 200 mg 79% h ohhx Koje 
Gnjie Te^ce ojj 200 mg - 96%. 

Ha KBajiHTeT h yenex npHJeMa Heo- 
njioJeHHX, a noKaxica^ n oruioljeHHX Maxnua 
yrnny h KJiHMaTCKH h naiHHH (j)aKxopn, Kao n 
rojjHiHH^e jjo6a y KojeM ce OBaj nocao oGaBJta. 

JlHTepaTypa: 

TeHeTHKa, cejieKunja h penponyKnnja 
nqejia, H3Jjaite AnnMOHJiHJe, ByKypeniT 1977. 

TOR. 



212 



nnejiap 1999 



IIoJHJiHue 



JlyKaH JlacAO, Bene] 



O noJHJiHuaMa je Ben nHcaHO JipcTa, ajiH 
HHje Ha ojtmct jxa bhjihmo h Hexe hobocth, a h 
m ce noTceTHMO Ha 3Hanaj nojiuinua. 

FIOHeB OJX MapTa MaTHHa HHTeH3HBHO 

3ajiexe h nopejj Mejxa, HBeTHor npaxa h oc- 
TajiHX ycjioBa, 3a 3jrpaB0 h oShjtho jienio 
noTpeSHa je h BejiHKa KOJiHHHHa BOJxe. y 
noneTKy to je 1-2 dl, MerjyrciM, Ha BpxyHixy 
pa3Boja Jierna Moxe h3hochth 5-7 7 HejxejLHO 
no JxpyniTBy. Ako OBy noTponnty Bojxe 
npepa^yHaMO Ha JTHeBHy noTponnty 3a 100 
ApyuiTaBa, OHJja no^eTHa KOJiHHHHa je 1-2 1 
£HeBHO, jiok y Majy to Moxe h3hochth 707 na 

BHHie JTHeBHO. 

EBH^eHTHO je Jia HaniH rraejiapH y 
HaJBeheM 6pojy He nocraBJbajy nojnjTHue Ha 
6arpeMy hjih nocTaBe HeKH cynqnh ca 5-10 7 
3anpeMHHe. MeJjyraM, Ha no^eTKy hjih Ha 
Kpajy HBeTaiBa GarpeMa, aico HeMa XHBe BOJje 
y 6jih3hhh, iraejie He Mory Ty Konn^HHy BOJje 
o6e36ejjHTH H3 HcnapaBaH>a hjih H3 Mejxa. Join 
je ropa CHiyanHJa, Kajxa cy nnejie Ha cyHuo- 
KpeTy Ha cymry axo HeMa XHBe BOJje y 6jih- 
3hhh, a HeMa hh nojumme. 

JloJHJiHua HMaMO pa3HHX h CBe HMajyjejjaH 
BejiHKH HejjocTaTaK; H3BopH cy 3apa3HHX 
GojiecTH, jep iraejie, Hapo*iHTO yniHyjie y 
bojjh, nyHe cy cnopa pa3HHX GojiecTH. C Tora 
Hynji ce jejjHa HOBa BpcTa noJHJiHne TaK03BaHa 
"TpeceTHa nojnjiHHa". 

y3HMa ce cyu; on Sap 307 3anpeMHHe (npe- 
nopynyje ce njiacnraHa Kajxa 3a jxeuy, 
njiacTHHHO 6ype oji 507 ojxce*ieH ropH>H jxeo, h 
tji,.). Eojte Kaa je cya JjyGoK ca yacHM otbopom 



Hero jjyGHHa, (jep Ha Taj HaHHH Bojxa ce Maite 
HcnapaBa) h y Taj cya ce cnna TpeceT ro 2/3, 
3aTHM cnnaMO tojihko Bojje kojihko TpeceT 
ynnje. TpeceT kojh HMa KHcejiy (ph) BpejTHoer 
y6nja MHKpoopraHH3Me, Taxo m ce nojnjiHua 
Ha Taj Ha^iHH npHpojTHHM nyreM Jxe3HH({)HKyje. 
HaxajiocT, 3a OBaj nocao je nojjoSaH caMO 
CBe^cH TpeceT H3 pyjjHHKa, a He OHaj kojh ce 
npojjaje 3a caKCHJe 3a HBefte. JIoiuto TpeceT, 
cacTaBJteH ojj HH3a cnnyniHHX KanHJiapa, 
cTajiHo jrnace Bojjy Ha noBpniHHy, Taxo %a 
nnejie ca cbojhm pHJinnaMa Mory cacBHM jxo- 
6po jxa HCHcajy Bojry. TaMHa Maca TpeceTa 
yiiHJa Tonjioiy, Taxo ce nojiuiHua rpeje npH- 
Pojjhhm nyreM. TaKof)e. noJHJiHiry MoxeMO 

nOKpHTH TaMHOM (J)OJIHJOM a OTBOp OCTaBHMO 

Ha HajnoBOJBHHJoj CTpaHH 3a iraejie. Otbop Ha 
(J)ojihjh MoxeMO HaMa3aTH ca Majio Mejja 
KaKO 6h nnejie npe OTKpHJie Bojry. Ako 
npHJiHKOM cnnaiBa Bojxe He npecnnaMO Tpe- 
ceT, TaKO na 6yne Kajtyre Ha noBpniHHH, onaa 
ce nnejie Hene JxaBHTH y bojjh, hhth he MHKpo 
opraHH3MH jjocneTH y Bojxy noJHJiHue. 

ITOKpHBaH IHTHTH nOJHJTHHy Jja npHJIHKOM 

KHine He Hanajxa Bojxa y noJHJiHiry. MettaiBe 
TpeceTa BpniH ce jejiHOM rojTHiniBe, HajGojte 
noneTKOM MapTa. MHane, y3HMa ce jja 25 7 
TpeceTa ynnje 107 Bojxe, npH ^eMy 3ajejTHH*iKa 
3anpeMHHa 6yne oko 30 7. 

npHJiHKOM npBor cnnaH^a Bojxy Tpe6a no- 
CTeneHO cnnaTH jep cyBH TpeceT TeniKO ynnja 
Bo^y. KacHHJe ce Bojxa jjocnnaBa, TaKO ^a ce 
TpeceT He 6h ocyiuno. ("Meheszujsag" br. 
3/97). 



213 



n^ejiap 1999 




Y3poi4M cmpthoctm iine/ia y 3hmcko- 
-npo/iefiHOM nepMOAy 

MuneHKO Padocaeoeuh, Kpaeyjeeau, 



Je^Ha eKMna GyrapCKMx CTpy4H>aica je 
jjpmjia jj,o BeoMa MHTepecaHTHMx nojjaTaKa, 
KOpMCTetiM Hay4Ha MCTpa>KMBaH>a, npaKTMHHO 
Hajia3e CTaTMCTMHKe nojiaTKe o cmpthoctm 
rraejia y 3MMCKO-npojienHOM nepMO/ry. Y3po- 
hm ^ejiMMHHHor H3yMiipaH>a nnejia mjim hcjimx 
nnejiMHiMx ^pyniTaBa yrjiaBHOM cy cjieflenn: 

- HenoBOJbHM ycjiOBM 3HMOBaH>a, jjyxe 
3a^p^caBaH>e nnejia y komihmhh m He- 
MoryhHOCT o6aBJbaH>a npOHMCTHor neTa, 
BeTpOBM, BJiara y komihhhm, HejjOBOJBHe, a no- 
HeKaa h HeKBauMTeTHe 3ajinxe xpaHe, 

HapOHMTO Me^JLMKOBaU M KpMCTa/IMCaHM uqr, 

y3HeMMpaBan>e or CTpaHe MMiueBa m JTpyrnx 
;>KMBOTMH>a Kao h o6e3MaTHHeH>e m cji. 

Or HaBe/jeHMx y3p04HMKa 6poj M3yMpjinx 
nnejia Ha nojiitaHM ce noBenaBa a necTO yrMHy 
m uejia ^pyuiTBa. 

Cmpthoct nnejia m n4ejiMH>MXjrpyMiTaBaje 
join MHoro Bena, Kajja je nope,a thx Heno- 
BOibHMx ycjiOBa 3HMOBaH>a y nHejiMH>MM 
apyuiTBHMa nocTOJajia m HeKaKBa 3apa3a (ho- 
3eM03a, napaTMcjrycHe, cenTMKeMMJCKe m 
jjpyre 6aKTepMJe m napa3MTM). Ytmm cjiynaje- 
BHMa M3yMMpaH>e npojjy>KaBa m y nponerlHOM 
nepMO/xy - HaKOH no6ojbiuaH>a BpeMeHa h 
noBerlaHja TeMnepaType. 

CMpTaocT y 3MMCKO-npojiehHOM nepMOjjy 
HaHOCH BenMKe uiTeTe nnejiapCTBy He caMO 
36ot ry6wTaKa BMiue nnejiMiBMx jrpyuiTaBa, 
Hero m 36or cjia6jbeH>a joui Bener 6poja jjpy- 
tmx apyuiTaBa ycjieji, M3yMMpan>a je/jHor 6poja 
nnejia IUTO y3pOKyje 6yjjytiy HenpojjyKTMB- 
hoct nHejiHH>e 3ajejjHMHe. 3a BpeMe ayaoix m 
xjiaaHMx 3MMa th ryGjiuH Mory r& jjocTMrny m 
ro 12%, ay noje^HHHM nHejiHH>aHMMa naK h 
80-100%. HaJBena cmpthoct je kor nnejia 
3apa^ceHHx H03eM030M m kojt kojmx cy 
^pyuiTBa 3a3HMJbeHa Ha MejjjbHKOBau,. Ako 
H3y3MeMO 3apa3y, cmpthoct 36or MeRjhn- 
KOBira je HeiiiTO Man>a m jjocttdkc 30-40%, a 
npH o^cycTBy MejjjbMKOBira, tj. ca KBa/iMTeT- 
HMM Me^OM - caMO 5-6%. 

ITpeMa CTaTHCTMUH npoce^Ha rojjMMiH>a 
cmpthoct y 3MMCKO-npojierlHOM nepMO/jy 
H3HOCM 2-2,5% jrpyuiTaBa, a to je npnGjiM^KHO 
ryGMTUHMa or cbmx BpCTa Kyre. ITocjie 1970. 
tor. Ka^a ce Bapoa pacnpocTpaHMJia no 
nHejiMH>aLi,MMa noBehao ce npoueHaT cmpt- 
hoctm nnejia, Hapo^MTO KpajeM jeceHM m 
noneTKOM 3HMe. IiHejiMH>a /xpymTBa jaxo Ha- 




Tlpeejied yspoHuwca CMpmuocmu nnena y 
3UMCKO-npojiehnoM nepuody 

na^Hyra BapooM ocjia6e h necTO Hanyurrajy 
KoniHMue jom y TOKy jeceHM. To ce cnpenaBa 
6naroBpeMeHHM TpeTMpatteM npOTMB-napa- 
3MTHMM npenapaTHMa. 

BenM jxeo nnejiMitHx jrpyuiTaBa ocjiaGe 
mjim noTnyHO M3yMpy 36or 3a3MMJtaBaH>a ca 

HejTOBOJLHMM, HeKBa/IHTeTHMM MJIM Henpa- 

bmjiho pacnoperjeHMM 3ajinxaMa xpaHe 3a 
3HMy, Kao m 36or npeonTepeneH>a nnejia Ha 
Kpajy jieTa mjim noneTKOM jeceHM noTxpattM- 
Ban>eM uienepHMM CMpynoM m 3aMeHaMa 3a 
Mejj. To MCupnjt.eH.e nnejia yjeceH bojim ro He- 
jjocTaTKa 6ejiaHHeBMHa m MacHofia y Tejiy 
npejj noneTaK 3MMe m npojiefia. Y3pouM 3a 
3MMCKO-npojiehHy cmpthoct ce pacno3Hajy Ha 
ocHOBy JTHJarHOCTMKe y caMOM n4ejiMH>aKy m 
Ha ocHOBy pe3yjiTaTa jia6opaTOpMJCKor McnM- 
TMBan>a. PajjM npeBeHTHBe or 3MMCKO-npo- 
jienHMx ry6HTaKa Tpe6a M36enn y3pOKe kojm 
yTMTy Ha cjiaGjbeH^e o^GpaMGeHe mohm mejia 
npe m 3a BpeMe 3MMOBaH>a, Ka^a cy ycjiOBM 
>KMBOTa m MCxpaHe m OHaxo jjocTa Heno- 
bojbhmjm Hero y TOKy aKTMBHor nepno/ia. 

Ha npMJio^ceHOM rpa(J)MKOHy r&t je 
opMJeHTauMOHO-npoueHTyajiHM nperjiea cer- 
MeHaTa ca y3pOHHMUMMa 3MMCKO-npojiehHe 
cmpthoctm nnejia. 



214 



Hnejiap 1999 



y CBeiy HHceKaTa oce cy HajGpoJHHJH on 
cbhx onHOKpHJiaua hjih humenoptera. To cy 
rpaGjbHBHue, Mecoje/jH, xpaHe ce jjpyraM hh- 

CeKTHMa KOJe MajCTOpCKH KOpHCTe 3a 

npeHoineite h xpaH>eH>e cbojhx JiapBH, ajin ce 

XpaHe H BOfreM, CJiaTKHM COKOBHMa, CHpy- 

nHMa, MejjoM. /JoGpH cyjieTaHH, aninapaHe cy 
TaMHHM h xyrHM npyraMa. >KHBe y ocHH>a- 
UHMa "nannpHaie Mace", ojj caxBaicaHor 
jjpBeTa h njbyBaHKe. 

IIlTeTHocT oca 

YIor noBOJLHHM ycnoBHMa oce ce Bpno 
6p30 MHO^ce, na nocrajy npaBa HanacT. Or 
y6o/j;a obhx HHceKaTa, kojj oceTJBHBHX oco6a 
h nocne je/JHor yoojja Moxe jjonn jjo CMpTHor 
ncxojja. HjHXOBa nueTHOCT je Hapo^HTO 
BHzma y BoltoauHMa h BHHorpajjHMa, rjje 
^ecTO npenonoBe npHHOc rpoxfta. Ychh ana- 
paT no^ecaH je 3a rpHnKaiBe h y3HMaH>e 
HBpcTe xpaHe. 3a iirreTy Ha Bony h rpoac^y 
omyoKyje ce nnejia, ajin 36or cnenH(J)HHHe 
rparje ycHor anapaia nnejia He Moxe 
npoGyniHTH 6o6Hiry, Ben to HHHe oce h /jpyra 
HHceKTH. nnejie yrjiaBHOM nay Ha oTBopeHe 
6o6nne h iuio/joBe Bona. Or npBHx 
npojiehHHX jjaHa jj,o KacHe jeceHH oce ynopHO 
Hana^ajy h y3HeMHpaBajy n*iejiHH>a jjpyniTBa. 
CaTHMajieTe oko KoniHHna, noKyniaBajynn na 
yrjy yHyrpa. Kajja je jjpyuiTBO jaxo, iraejie 
CTpa^apHue hx ojjGnjajy ca JieTa h 6ope ce ca 
H>HMa m mx OTepajy. CfiaGnja JjpyniTBa Te^ce 
ce cynpoTCTaBJLajy, TaKO #a oce ycneBajy m 
onjtaqKajy Mejj, y6njy MaTHiry h yHHiiiTe nejio 
jjpyinTBO. 3aTO Tpe6a 036hjlho npnto 
3aniTHTH n^ejiHH>HX jjpyniTaBa or ynopHHX 
oca h Jjpyrnx inreTHHX HHceKaTa. 

3a ycneiHHy 3auiTHTy or oca Tpe6a 3HaTH 
h npaTHTH tok h>hxobot pa3BHfia. Oce nann- 
pyce npaBe JipcTa npaBHJiHe iuecToyraoHe 
ftejiHJe y KOJHMa ce Hajia3e jaja, JiapBe h JiyrKe. 



OBe ocHH>aKe H3rparjyjy y nryiuBHHaMa 
jjpBena, ncnojj irpenoBa Ha TaBaHy, ncno/j, 
njiexa myna, rapaaca, nyinHHua, WC h csyzja 
no npocTopHJaMa me cy Tonna h CKpHBeHa 
MecTa. 

yiiMiiiTaiiaibe ocmbaKa 

YHHiHTaBaike oca 6a3Hpa ce npBeHCTBeHO 
Ha MexaHHHKOM yHHiHTaBaH>y, a He 
xeMHJCKOM. yHHHiTaBajy ce ocHH>auH 3ajejjHO 
ca ocaMa. yHHniTaBaite ocHitaKa HajGojte je 
oGaBHTH yBe^e, jep je nejio JjpyinTBO Tajja Ha 
OKyny. CBaKH nojenHHan Moxe caM m 
oGaBJba najLeH>eM, rH>eneH>eM h raxeiteM. 
npH najLeH>y no KynaMa n crajaMa Tpe6a 
6hth Bpjio onpe3aH, xaxo He 6n JipniJio ro 
noxapa. Ha BHCOKa MecTa KpoBOBa najbeite 
ce Moxe oGaBHTH noMohy jjyraHKnx npyroBa 
hjih JieTaBa, KojnMa ce Ha Bpxy acnuoM Bexe 
HOBHHa, 3anajiH h npHHece ocnitaKy, Taxo rsl 
ocHH^aK h ocHite 6p30 H3rope. OHe Koje najjHy 
jjpjie HoraMa ce nora3e. Taxo ce pajjH n no 
cbhm jjpyraM npocTopHJaMa, xapTHJa 6p30 ca- 
ropn, a aKO ocTaHe kojh jjeo BaTpe h najjHe 
jjojie, HoroM ce 6p30 yracn. 

Obo je jejiaH ojj, Haje(J)HKacHHJHX Ha^HHa 
yHHinraBaita ocnitaKa. OBaxo ce Mory 
yHHniTaBaTH h THe3Jja CTpnubeHa. 

3a XBaTaae oca no ziaHy ynoTpeGjtaBajy ce 
4>jiaiue ojj nojra JiHTpa, Terjie, ^Jianinue or 
coxa n cjihmho. OHe ce nyHe cokom, cnpynoM, 

MeJiaCOM HJIH nHBOM H CTaBe 6jIH3y KOIHHHHa. 

Mejj h He npeBpejin cok ce He KOpHCTe, jep 6h 
jjohuio jjo yranaH^a nnejia. ilocyne ca MaM- 
UHMa Mory ce eraBHTH h no BHHorpajjHMa h 
BonitaHHMa Ha bhchhh ojj 1,5 m jja 6h Gnjie 
hito jjociynHHJe ocaMa. IlocTaBJLeHe nocyne 

TpeGa CBaKOJJHeBHO KOHTpOJIHCaTH H H3 H>HX 

H36auHBaTH noTonjteHe HHceKTe. OBa Mepa 
Moxe 6hth KopHCHa He caMO 3a 3aiHTHTy 
nnejiHHjHX j,pyuiTaBa, Beh h 3a 3amTHTy Boha 
h rpoxrja. 

MnjiaH ByjiHh, nnejiap, 
Kopafimia 



215 



n^ejiap 1999 



nPEBE/lM CMO 3A BAC 



JlyKcm Jlacno, Eenej 



1. npe^HOCTH h Mane EuponcKe 3aje^HHue 
3a nnejiapcTBO 

Kaaa je y niiTajty yje/iHH>eH>e 3ana/iHe Eb- 
pone OHJia ce yrjiaBHOM MCTMy no3MTMBHe 
oco6nHe Tor yje/jMH>eH>a, a HeraTHBHe ce je/i- 
HOCTaBHO npecKone mjih npehyTe. JejjHa or 
niaBHHx 6pnra Marjapa, aico 6yay ynuin y E3 , 
,na lie n^ejiapM 6oraTnx n moRhhx 3eMajta 
npenjiaBHTM MafjapCKa Me/jpHOCHa nojt>a. C 
o63iipOM /j,a cy M3y3eTHO onpeMJbeHM, uito lie 
mm noMohn rsl MaKCHManHO MCKOpninhaBajy 
Maljapcica Me/jpHOCHa nojba, npe CBera 6a- 
rpeM, ohm lie jjpnpnHeTM h Meniaity nnejia, 
uito he npoy3pOKOBaTH nojaBy MemaHaua 
(yMecTO Bpjio uroiheHe KpaiBCKe nnejie). 
Iloce6HO mx 6pMHe npHa 6yK(J)acT (Bukckfast) 
nnejia Koja je pauiMpeHa y EHraecKOJ m RQjiy 
HeMa^Ke, OpaHnycKe, IIlBajiiapCKe, Ayc- 
TpMJe, 3a Kojy ce Be3yje enMjjeMMJa aKap03e 
1904-Te ro/jMHe. C Tora y mejiapCKOM jiMCTy 
oBa BpcTa nnejia je onMcaHa ro JieTajba, paaM 
6jiaroBpeMeHor yno3HaBaH>a nnejiapa Ma- 
rjapCKe. Or npoiujie ro/iMHe BJiajja MarjapCKe 
y3ena je nnejiapCTBO yvor CBOJe, jep cy 
yrBp^MJiM jj,a or cbmx nojBonpHBpe/jHnx rpaHa, 
nope/j CBMXTeiuKoha, nnejiapCTBO MarjapCKe 
je HajpeHTaGMJiHMJa nojbonpHBpe/jHa rpaHa, 
Koja ocTBapyje 3Ha*iaJHa ;jeBM3Ha cpe/iCTBa 3a 
ap^caBy. 



2. CBeha ojj nnejiHiter BOCKa 

Ilpe npOHanacKa napacJ)MHa CBeha je 
npaBibeHa or nnejiMiter BOCKa, Koja je Kao 
MHoro CKymba HCTHCHyTa ca Tp^KMiiiTa. y 
nocjie^H>e BpeMe Ha 3ana/iy je noHOBO no- 
Tpa^KH>a 3a CBehaMa or npMpo/iHor BOCKa. 
Grora ce o^p^caBajy ceMMHapM 3a OHe kojm 
iKejie rsl caBJiaaajy TexHMKy npOM3BO,aH>e 
CBeha or npMpo/jHor BOCKa. HeKM 
OTKynjtMBaHH Meiia, Ben cy ce npeopMJeH- 
TMcajiM h Ha M3pa#y CBeha hjim hslk noTnyHO 
HanycTMJiM TproBHHy ca Me^OM y kophct 
TproBMHe ca bockom. 

CBehe or npnpo/iHor BOCKa Jieno MMpMiuy. 
3a ^oMahy ynoTpe6y HajjiaKiue ce npOM3Be/jy 
TaKO iuto ce caraa ocHOBa caBMJe oko cbht- 
H.aKa nonyr nMrape. HHane noeroje Kajrynn 
3a o6jiMKOBaH>e Hajpa3JiMHMTMJMx (|)Mrypa. y 
npocTHJM Ha^MH M3pa^e CBeha cnaaa m OHaj 
MeTO/i Kaaa ce KaHan ca MaiiMM TeroM yM04M y 



OTonjbeHH BOcaK hckojimko nyra, CBe jjpTJie 
jjok ce He nocTHrHe ^cejteHa /xe6ibMHa. 

ITpM M3pa^M CBeha or BOCKa y3HMa ce 
naMy4HH KaHan o^perjeHe ;je6jbMHe y 3aBnc- 
hoctm or fleGjbMHe CBeha. TaHaK KaHan y /xe- 
6ejioj CBehn/jyro ropH, cjia6o Kana, ann^aje n 
cjiaGnjy cbctjioct. 

IIoctojm HeKOJiHKO npnpo/iHMx 6oja 3a 6o- 
ja^ncaH>e CBeha or nnejiHH>er BOCKa. Tpe6a 
bojjhth panyHa o TOMe r& je BOcaK jiaKO 3a- 
najtMB h Mo;sce M3a3BaTM 036MJtHe oneKO- 
THHe, Kao h no^cap npnjiMKOM H3pa,ae CBeha. 
3a M3pa#y caTHe ochobc 3a MOTaHy CBehy, 
KOpMCTH ce ApseHa njiona, Koja ce yMOHM y 
Bo#y, a 3aTHM y ToruteHM BOcaK. Ka/ia ce ox- 
jiajjM, CKHaa ce ca njione n Ha Hanpe^i onMcaHn 
Ha^MH ce MOTa y CBehe. 

3. Hobh, 3a ca/ia Hepemeim npoSjieiviM 

KpajeM jieTa 1997. r. H3 jy^KHe MarjapCKe 
crarjia je npnjaBa o MacoBHOM yrMHyhy nnejia 
Ha je^HOM nHejiHH>aKy. FIpM Behoj kojihhmhm 
Bapoe y nHejiMH>aKy noneo je rpa6e^c. 
rpaGe^cje noneo ca je^Hor Kpaja h npejia3H0 
ca flpyuiTBa Ha ^pyniTBO. I_leo cjiynaj je npn- 
jaBJbeH HHCTHTyry y Te^ejiey (Godollo). Mc- 
nMTMBaH>e HHJe ^ajio KOHanaH pe3yjiTaT. 1998. 
r. hcto ce noHOBMJio Ha apyroM nnenMH>aKy, y 
mctom pernoHy. y o6a cjiynaja pa^MJio ce o 
jaKMM apymTBMMa, Koja cy uejie ro^HHe ^ana 
MHoro Me^a. ITpeMa MCKa3HMa nnejiapa 1995. 
ro/iMHe Ha6aBMJin cy MTajinjaHCKe MaTnne. 
HaKOH Tora cy ce jaBMJiM npo6jieMM. HaMMe, 
KpajeM JieTa RO§e ro rpa6e^cM. MHCTHTyT y 
Te^ejiey je yrBp^HO r& cy n ko^ h>mx y Hhcth- 
Tyry HMann npoGjieMa ca MTajiMJaHCKMM 
flpyniTBMMa, Koja ce iy Hajia3e Ha onMTy. 
ITpeMa join He3aKJbyHeHOM ncnHTMBaifcy 
aomjio je ^o nojaBe MyTaHaTa M3Merjy 
KpaH>CKHx nnejia m ^OHerax MTajiMJaHCKMx, 
Koje cy CKJiOHe rpa6e^cn. Hnje MCKTbyneHO ^a 
ce pa#M o npo6jieMy ^a MTajinjaHCKa MaTnua 
He npecTaje ca 3ajieraH.eM KpajeM JieTa, Ka^a 
y HauiMM o6jiacTHMa, 3a pa3JiHKy o^i Mqrh- 
TepaHa, HeMa BMine name, Te ,npjia3M ro no- 
TponiH^e 3MMCKe 3ajiMxe. y hcto BpeMe 
KpaHoCKa MaTMna npecTaje ca 3ajieraH>eM n 
KpajeM JieTa Harno CBe^e 6poj nnejia Ha 3mm- 
CKe nnejie, a npn TOMe MMa 3HanaJHe 
KOJiHHMHe xpaHe npnnpeMJbeHe 3a 3MMy. 
BpojnaHO jaKa, a rjiajjHa MTa/injaHCKa Myra- 
UMj'a, Hana^a GpojnaHO yMan.eHe, a xpaHOM 
6oraTe Kpan.CKe 3ajeaHnue. 



222 



JlHejiap 1999 



JXo cam, 3a omicaHH noMop nyreM 
rpaGexa nnejia, hh y HHCTHiyry HHcy motjih 
jjarH ojxroBop, ochm 3a Hanpe/i HaBejjeHy 
npeinocTaBKy o Hanajjy MyraHaTa 36or rjrajjH. 

4. I Ipupo ihh h BeurraHKH Men 

HeKH iraejiapH TBp^e m jjejiHMHqHO 4>aji- 
CH(J)HKOBaHH mgr (Kajxa ce 3a BpeMe name 
nqene xpaHe h niehepHHM CHpynoM) He Mo^ce 
ce JiaGopaTopHJCKH HCKa3ara. CipyqitauH 
MerjyraM TBpjje cynpoTHo. HaHMe, cBaKHnpH- 
Pojjhh Me/i cajjpKH h UBeTHH npax OHor useTa 
ca Kojer cy nqejie CKyiLrbajie HeKTap y 
ojjperjeHHM npoueHTHMa. HejiocraTaK hjih 
MaH>a KOJiHHHHa Tor npaxa y Mejxy noKa3yje h 
KapaKTep Mejja. 

flpyro: y CBaKOM Mejxy nocTOJH F/G ojxhoc 
hjih ojjhoc (J)pyKT03e h rnyK03e (Hnp. axo ce 
GarpeMOB Mejj KpHCTajiuine 6p30, OHJjaje ch- 



rypHO m to HHJe hhct GarpeMOB mcr h He 
Moxe ce H3HeTH Ha nHJauy ca eTHKeTOM "Ba- 
rpeMl KJiaca"). 

Tpene: cajjpicaj HMF (hidroximetil-funu- 
rol) y Mejxy Taxorje yKa3yje Ha TexHOJioniKe 
rpeuiKe hjih "MyhKy". 

HeTBpTo: jHJacTa3a-eH3HMCKa aKTHBHOd. 
HaHMe, nnejie npHJiHKOM npepajje HeKTapa 
jjojjajy H3 cbojhx 3KJie3Ra pa3He eH3HMe kojh 
ce Hajia3e y Mejxy. HejjocTaTaK hjih 
HeajxeKBaTHa KOJiHHHHa thx eH3HMa noKa3yje 
KBajiHTeT Mejxa, ojxhocho Moxe yKa3aTH Ha 
BeimaqKH Mejj hjih naK Ha nperpejaHH Mejj, 
kojh TaKorje He ojjroBapa Ha3HauH Ha era- 

KeTH. 

y cjiyqajy m ce H3BpniH npaBa crpynHa 
KOHpojia h Te KaKO ce Moxe yrBpjjHTH caBecT 
nnejiapa. 

(Ha ocHOBy HJiaHaxa H3 
"Meheszujsag"-a 6p. 2/99.) 



BecTH H3 AycTpHJe 



y AycTpHJH HMa peracTpoBaHHX 28 500 
nnejiapa, kojh nocejxyjy 400 000 nqejiHH>HX 
ApyuiTaBa. 

no jejjHOM iraejiapy je y BJiacHHiuTBy 
npoceK 12-13 nqejiHH>HX jjpyinraBa 

KOIIIHHHa. 

Or yKynHor Gpoja iraejiapa 250 cy nojry- 
npoc^ecHOHajiHH a 25 cy npo4)ecHOHajiHH 
nqejiapH. 

y AycTpHJH HMa 150 nnejiapa kojh HMajy 
no 150 KouiHHua. 

y AycTpHJH je npHa rraejia - iuiaHHHCKa 
KpaacKa. 

y OBOJ 3eMJBH Ce npOH3BOJJH 8 000 TOHa 

Mejja a 5 000 TOHa Mejxa ce yB03H, noTponiH>a 
Mejja no eraHOBHHKy h3hoch 1,600 kg. 

y neT cpejjH>HX iHKOJia ce h3bojjh HacTaBa 
H3 nnejiapcTBa. 

Ha yHHBep3HTeiy y Tpairy opraHH30BaHa 
je HacTaBa h o6yKa H3 nqejiapcTBa TaKO m no- 



jia3HHUH, kojh caBJiajjajy Ty oGjiacT, jjoGnjajy 
jjnnjioMy nnejiapa. 

BecTH H3 ApreHTrme 

y ApreHTHHH HMa 2,000.000 mejiHH>HX 
jjpyniTaBa, h npoH3Bo;je 66 000 TOHa Mejja. 
npoceK npHHOca no koihhhhh je 33 kg Mejxa. 
noTponiH>a Mejja no CTaHOBHHKy rojjHinifce 
H3HOCH 1,800 kg. 

y ApreHTHHH je KJiHMa oji, TponcKe y ce- 
BepHHM jjejioBHMa, ro apTH^Ke yjyxHHM jje- 
jioBHMa 3eMJte. 

HaJBHHie iraejiapa HMa y npoBHHUHJH Bye- 
hoc Anpec, rjxe BJiajja MejjHTepaHCKa KJiHMa. 

(nOJjaUH KOpHHlheHH H3 HH(J)OpMaHHJa 

AnHMOHJjnje 1998. tojj.) 

M.O. 



223 



n^ejiap 1999 

IIHEJIAPCTBO y EBPOnCKMM 3EMJLAMA 

nnejiapcTBO IIoji>CKe 




ITojbCKaje 3eMA>a ca dyeoM mpaduujijoM nneAapeiba Kojeje o6ejieMceno pa3HUM o6unajuMa 9 
MumoAoeujoM u eepoeaihUMa, claim uctno tnauo 3acHoeano net paujiottaAHOM nneAapethy u 
cnpoeofyeibycaepeMeHUXMemodanHeAapeiba. 



rinejiapeibe h ime.iiiiba apyuiTBa 

IToibCKO nnenapCTBO, 3a^H>nx ro^MHa, 
npona3M Kp03 KpM3HM nepwo,a. Haj6oibM no- 
Ka3aTejtH Tora cy no^auM M3 80-tmx ro^MHa. 
Ta#a je 6mjio y riojbCKOJ 220.000 nnenapa, 
KOJM cy MMa/iH 2,500.000 nnejiMHoMx ApyiiiTaBa, 
ajiM^o 1992. roaMHe CBeje M3ry6ibeHO, ocTa/io 
je caMO 60.000 nnejiapa n 700.000 nHejiHH>nx 
ApyniTaBa. 

ITpaBM pa3Jior OBor ^pacTMHHor CMaH>eH>a 
je HacTao ycjie^ npejia3a o,a njiaHCKe Ha 
Tp^KMuiHy eKOHOMiijy a Apyrn je M3HeHa#Ha 
eKcnaH3MJa 6ojiecTH ko^i nnejia, KOJHMa ce 
nnejiapn HHcy Ha BpeMe cynpoTCTaBMJiM. 

Caaa ce nono^caj nnejiapCTBa nocTeneHO 
nonpaBJba h Ben MMa oko 1 ,000.000 nHejinfBMx 
ApymraBa h CKOpo 70.000 nnejiapa. 



nnejiapw IIojbCKe cy opraHM30BaHH no 
ApyuiTBMMa n^ejiapa Koja cy o6je,aMH>eHa no 
BOJBo^CTBHMa h cbh caHMH>aBajy CaBe3 
n^ejiapa IToibCKe. CBaKH nnejiap rniana 
HJiaHapnHy y npOTHBBpe^HOcrn je^Hor kmjio- 
rpaivia Me^a m 200 rpaivia Me#a no mejiMH>eM 
ApyniTBy. 3a CBe ycjiyre Koje nnenapHMa 
hhhh CaBe3 m apyniTBO nnejiapa, nnejiapn 
ruiahajy o,apef)eHH nponeHaT m ojx Tora ce 
n3^p»:aBa nnejiapCKa opraHH3annja. CaBe3 
MMa miaheHor npe^ce/niMKa m ceKpeTapa 
CaBe3a m Tpn cjiy>K6eHHKa Kao n ype^HMKa 
nnejiapCKor naconnca. ITnejiapCKa yapy>KeH>a 
no BOJBo^CTBMMa HMajy n CBOJe nnejiapCKe jxo- 
MOBe ca npo^aBHHuaMa, Koje nope^ 
HJiaHapMHe o6e36ef)xJy cpe^CTBa 3a pa,n 
ApyniTaBa nnejiapa. 




TlneAapcKU doM "KaMujana " na 600 m uadMopcue eucune (0omo: 77. Heuiuh) 



224 



n^ejiap 1999 



IlaJbCKH^OM iraejiapa KAMHAHA 

CaBe3 iraejiapa IlHJbCKe je 6ho jcaaH or 
HHHUHJaTopa m ce 1910. ro^HHe ocHyje 
AI1MCJTABMJA - Ocuepauiija n^ejiapcKHX 
opraHH3aiiHJa cjioBeHCKHX 3eMajba. 

Maja 1991. ro^HHe onpacaH je V1I1 koh- 
rpec AnHCJiaBHJe y rioibCKOj y MajioM MecTy 
KaMHaHa - CMenneHOM y ^CHBonncHOM npe- 
/lejiy Ha jyry FlojLCKe, ajin BejiHKOM h 
3HaqaJHOM nqenapcKOM ijeinpy. 

MecTO HMa caMO ^eceTaic Kyna, ajin Be- 
jihkom JbyGaBJby h HanopoM #p XeHpnxa Oj- 
CTpaxa h CaBe3a nnenapa JlojLCKe, CTBOpeHJe 
BejiHKH n^enapcKH ueHTap kojh caHHH>aBajy: 
oiuichhh nnejiHifcaK, My3ej n^ejiapcTBa, 
CTaHHua 3a BennaHKO oceMeH>aBaH>e MaTHHa, 
HCTpa^cHBaH^e Gojiecra iraejia, bcjihkh ,Hom 
nqejiapa kojh HMa BHine cajia h npeico 60 
nexaja ca pecTopaHOM, H3Jio^c6eHH naBHJLOH 
n^enapcTBa, HJiaHHpaHaje H3rpa£H>a caHaTO- 
pHj'yMa ca 450 Jie^caja 3a Jie*ieH>e ^eue MeTO- 
/Iom anHTepannje. y obom #OMy ce o^pxaBajy 
npe/iaBaH>a h caBeTOBaraa a pa#H h nnejiapcKa 
niKOJia. OKOJiHHa je GoraTa n*iejiHH>aHHMa h 
Bpjio ,ao6poM nqejiHHiOM nanioM. To je npaBO 
MecTO, Ka^a ce 3aBpuiH paT h npHJinxe cpe/ie 
m ra noceie h n^enapH H3 CpGnje. 




nnejiap "eajap " ucKJiecaoje auk ceoz eenuKoz 
3€MibaKa r Bep3aua, koju fie nocmamu eKcnonam 
y npupodu KaMujane (0omo: M. OuAunoeuh) 




Kada cy naweeu nocenenu a y wuMa 3adpotcane 3ameneue rmejie, npedauyjy ce na nozodno Mecmo da 
uxnnejiap "eajap" omKJieme no ceoM eufyewy 3a eKcnonam (&omo: M. Oujiunoeuh) 



225 



n^ejiap 1999 



OnpaiiiMBaibe 

Bpoj nnejiHitHX/ipyinTaBay riojbCKOj cajja 
Moxe jja onpanin caMO 1/3 noibonpHBpejjHHX 
KyjiTypa, na je 3aTO CaBe3 nnejiapa JlojLCKe 
nocTaBHO BJia^H HH3 nHTaita Koja 3axTeBajy 
xhtho peinaBaite. npe CBera npe/jJioxeHO je 
jja ce yBe/je CHCTeM iuianaH>a iraenapHMa Ha- 
JipKHajje 3a onpaniHBaite, Koja Ben nocTojn y 
HeKHM 3eMJbaMa. Bjia/ie thx 3eMajba cxBaTHJie 
cy jja nnene y npnpo/jH Hrpajy Ba^Hy ynory h 
Jia jjonpHHOce o/rpxaBaifcy eKOJioniKe paB- 
HOTexe. nnejiapH thx 3eMajta H3Jjp}KaBajy 
KOHKypeHitHJy Ha eBponcKOM TpaonnTy, a 
noibCKH rraejiapH He. Ohh Hcnopy^yjy y 
IlojbCKy je(J)THH Mejj y ojjHocy Ha eBponcxe 
ueHe . M3Me^y ocTajior noibCKH nqejiapn 
HMajy MoryhHOCT Jia ce 6aBe yB030M Meaa. 
Ajih ko he jjpacaBH JiaTH o6aBe3y h rapaHunjy 
Jia he 6hth o6e36erjeHe noTpeGe 3a 
onpaiHHBafte noibonpHBpejjHHX KyjiTypa? 

36or CBera Tora CaBe3 nnejiapa JlojbCKe 
xejiH jia nnejiapHMa 6yoy CTBOpeHH ycnoBH, 
Heonxo/iHH Kaxo 3a noBenaite H3B03a Me/ja 
TaKO h 3a o6e36erjeH>e Heonxo/iHor 
onpaniHBaH^a nojtoHpHBpejjHHX KyjiTypa. 



IloMofi 4P>KaBe 

y nocjiejjftHX inecT rojjHHa Bjia/ja 3eMJte 
je npyatHJia n^enapHMa 3HaTHy noMon: h3jibo- 
JHJia je inenep 3a npnxpaHy nqejia h ojjpe/jHJia 
je BHCOKe napHHe h nope3e 3a yB03 Me#a y 
IlojLCKy. npHJiHHHa cpe^cTBa H3/D3ajajy ce 3a 
KynoBHHy 1/4 Me.ua npoH3Be/ieHor y JlojbCKOj. 

Cbh obh nocTynuH cy He/ipBOJbHH noniTO 
He peinaBajy KapjjHHajiHH npoGneM onpa- 
niHBaifca SHJbaKa. IIojlckhm n^ejiapHMa ce 
ca^a He iuiana onpaHraBaite, 3Ha™ He no- 
CTOJH eKOHOMCKH HHTepec nnejiapa m nnejie 
JipHoce Ha onpaiHHBaH>e. Ohh, Kao h cbh eB- 
poncKH iraejiapH, He Mory jja Gyjjy KOHKypeH- 
UHJa nncjiapHMa KnHe, MeKCHKa, Ayc- 
TpajiHJe, ApreHTHHe hjih KaHa/ie, kojhjjo6h- 
jajy y nojejjHBHM 3eMJbaMa h jjo 150 - 200 
KHJiorpaMa Mejja no je/iHOM nqejraiteM 
jjpyniTBy. CBpje 3axTeBe 3a njianaite 
onpaiHHBaH^a ohh 6a3Hpajy Ha TOMe Jia ce y 
IlojBCKOj npo(J)ecHOHajiHO nnejiapcTBOM 6aBH 
caMO 300 - 350 nnejiapa. 

Be3 3a£OBOJbaBaH>a h>hxobhx noTpeGa 
n^enapH FlojLCKe He Mory m nrpajy 3Ha*raJHy 



ynory y eBponcKOM nnejiapcTBy. EBponcxe 
3eMJte HMajy 6ojte ycnoBe 3a rajen>e n^ejia, 
kojj H>nxje Bena npoH3BOJJH>a Me/j,a no n^ejiH- 
H>eM JjpyniTBy h 36or Tora nojbCKH nnenapH 3a 
h>hx HHcy 036njbHa KOHKypeHHHJa. nnejiapH 
IlojbCKe He 6oje ce, HanpHMep, KOHKypeHunje 
n^enapa HeMaHKe, r/je ce nnejiapcTBOM npo- 
4>ecHOHajiHO 6aBH oko 500 nqejiapa, ajiH je y 
jjpyraM 3eMJtaMa 6poj nqenapa jjajieKO Beta 
h kojh ocTBapyjy h 3HaTHe kojih^hhc Me/ia no 
nnejiHiteM JjpyniTBy. 



O6pa30BaH>e 

06pa30Ban>y nnenapa ce noKJiaita 3HaTHa 
na^H^a h CBe je Beta HHTepec nnejiapa 3a 
o6pa30BaH>eM. Y IIojlckoj je OTBOpeHO ocaM 
npo(J)enioHajiHHX niKOJia, ijxt ce nojia3HHHH 
oGynaBajy nqenapcTBy. M3ynaBajy ce HaJHO- 
BHJe TexHOJiornje h MeTO^H rajeita n^ejia. 
HacraBa ce h3bo/ih 3a BpeMe 3HMe h y TOKy 
n^ejiapcKe ce3one. 

y 3hmckom nepHo^y o^pxaBajy ce cneun- 
jajiHH KypceBH 3a nnejiape a no 3aBpnieTKy, 
nojia3HHUH, kojh hx ca ycnexoM 3aBpme, ^o- 
Gnjajy ^nnnoMe npo(J)ecHOHajiHHX nnejiapa. 
Ha Taj HaHHH ce nojtcKH n^enapH npnnpeMajy 
na nocTaHy HJiaHOBH n^enapcKHX opraHH3a- 
UHJa y CaBe3y n^ejiapa JlojBCKe. 

y JlojbCKOj H3Jia3e ^Ba nnenapcKa 
Haconnca CBaxor Meceua, h to je^iaH, kojh 
H3,aaje CaBe3 nnejiapa JlojLCKe, h ^pyrn kojh 
HMa nay^He caapxaje. 



AnHTepannja 

JlHejiapcrBO JlojLCKe je no3HaTO no TOMe 
niTO je noce6HO pa3BHJeHa anHTepannja h ro- 
CTa je 3^paBCTBeHHX ycraHOBa r/ie ce OHa npn- 
Meityje y Jiene^y Heiaix GonecTH. FlocToje h 
caHaTopHJyMH 3a JieqeH>e anHTepannjoM. 
CaMHM thm pa3BHJeHa je h npoH3BO^H>a 
pa3HHX npenapaTa h Mej,HKaMeHaTa Ha 6a3H 

HJIH HCKJbyHHBO CaMO OJJ n^eJIHH)HX npOH3- 

BOJja. 

y OKOJiHHH KpaKOBa ^yBeHa je (JmpMa 
AFlMnOJl Koja ce 6aBH OTKynoM h npepajjoM 
nHejiHH>HX npoH3BOJja h noceGHO npoH3BOJj- 
ibOM GpoJHHX npenapaTa Ha 6a3H nnejiHH>HX 
npoH3BOJja. To je noce6Ha HHJjycTpHJa Kojy 
BpejjH noceTHTH h HMa ce niTa HayqHTH. 



226 



Itaejiap 1999 

MMajy h Bpno pa3BHJeHy npoH3BO,HH>y 
pa3HHX HanHTaxa Ha 6a3H Me^a Koje y H30- 
Gniby KopHCTe, jjo6ap /jeo h H3B03C Th npoH3- 
bojjh cy hm 3aHda KBajiHTeTHH h y caBpeMe- 
Hoj aMSajiaxH. 



1 IpoM3BO/uba iwenapcKe onpeMe 

y BHine BehHX ueHTapa HiHpoM llojbCKe 
pa3BHJeHaje npoH3BO,HH>a n^enapcKe onpeMC. 
3Ha*iaJHH ueHTpH cy y BOJBOflCTBy BjacKO- 
-Bjejia h KpaKOBy, ajra hx HMa h y jjpyniM 
ueHTpHMa. IlocToje ^HTaBe Majie (J)a6pHKe 
Koje npoH3BO/i;e noTpe6aH anaT h onpeMy 3a 
n^ejiapdo. 

Cajja cy y JlojbCKOj y mojjh KoiiiHiiue on 
CTHponopa (noceSHa TBpjja Maca craponopa). 
ITopej KoniHHua or OBe Mace ce npaBe Hyicrce- 
ycH h oruio^ifcauH. KouiHHue cy ca ninpoKO 
hhckhm OKBHpHMa, hjih iuiojjHiiiTeM ca pa- 
MOBHMa cjihhhhm HauiHM J\B h nojiyHac- 
TaBUHMa. 

ITpoH3BOAe hjih oGjiHKyjy h npHpojjHa 
CTaHHiHTa nnejia Kao pa3He BpcTe kohihhh3 
Koje 3aTHM npHJiaroJaBajy Kao Bpjio ycnene 




BnacHUKcjjapMe "Anunon "capyKoeoduoi^eM 

HndycmpujejieKoeaodnHejiu}huxnpou3eoda 

duwi, (fiapMayeymoM 




IToejied mi deo nneAutbaKa (papjwe "AnmoA " kuiuhoz daua. Cee Komnuup cy od mepdoe 

cmuponopa(<l>omo:II. Hetuuh) 



227 



n^ejiap 1999 




IIoeAed na deo nneAapcKe u3AOMc6ey Kpauoey na kojoj u3AaMcy uc/obyuueo npou36ofyaHU 
onpeMe, ajiama u npudopa u mpzoeaHKO-npou3eodue uyhe ca npenapamujua od nnejiuibux 

npou36oda (&omo:U. Heuiuh) 



eKcnoHaTe, yKpauiaBajy hx Ha pa3He HanwHe h 
to M3Jia;>Ky Ha cbojmm MHoro6poJHMM 
3ana^ceHHM M3JiOiK6aMa, npHpe^GaMa mjim y 
My3eJMMa. ITo tmm TBOpeBMHaivia cy no3HaTH h 
BaH rpaHwua ITojbCKe a ^o6mjih cy npH3HaH>a 

H OJX AnHMOH/IMJe. 

]loce6Hy naaoky noKJiattajy h £H3aJHy h 
onpeMH aM6a/ia>Ke 3a naKOBaite h npoaajy 
MC^a h npenapaTa o,a n4ejiMH>Mx npOH3BO£a. 
Meji ce yrjiaBHOM Hyun y MeabUM naKOBaH>MMa 
ojl 250 rpaivia no 500 rpaMa a peje y naKO- 
BaHoHMa o,a 1 kg h BHiue. 

HanoMeHa - 3a Hauie n^ejiape Bpno je mh- 
TepecaHTHO aa ce yno3Hajy ca n4ejiapeH>eM, h 
nnejiapCKOM npHBpcaoM llojBCKe. CEIOCje 
npHnpeMHO npe,zuiore noceTa nnejiapHMa He- 
khx 3eMajta h ITojbCKe, Koje he ocTBapHBaTM 
y MHpy KOMe ce ycKOpo Ha^aMO. 

MHXaHJIO OHJIHnOBHh, 

npe^ce^HHK CllOC-a 




ITojbCKe Kouinuufi od cuiuponopa cyyModu 
(0omo:M. &ujwnoeuh) 



3a oeaj meKcm Kopuuiheuje Mamepujan ca 
XII Kompeca Anucjiaeuje, odpjtcany Kujeey 
od 15. do 1 7. Maja 1998. eod. 



228 



n^ejiap 1999 



HCTOPHJAPREJIAPCTBA 

IleTap H. IIpoKonoBMH 



ITeTap H. npOKonoBMH, ocHMBan panno- 
Ha/iHor nnenapCTBa, npBM je npOHauiao 
Konnnmy ca noKpeTHHM caneM. 

ITpBM je ocHOBao nnenapcKy niKOJiy, a npM 
uiKOJiH npBM je noneo jia Hay4H0 MCTpa>Kyje m 
onncyje ^kmbot nnejia. flpBM je y CBeTy ocho- 
Bao n^ejiapCKO npe#y3ene m CBe to y aajieKOJ 
1808. to/jmhh. 

OBaj HJiaHaK nnmeM ca HajjpM #a ce 
'Viyma" npOKonoBMna KOHa^HO CKpacnjia h 
Haiiuia CBOJ Miip y MHCTMTyry y KnjeBy 
(YKpaJMHa), OTBOpeHOM 1989. r. m orae/iHOJ 
h3jio^k6m ca TpHCTane/ieceT eKcnoHaTa Ha 
noBpiuiiHH on HeKOJiMKO ^eceTMHe xeKTapa, 
ca Jieno yKpauieHMM napKOBMMa a hmjm CBaKM 
MHJiMMeTap no 3Hanajy HMa "BejiMHMHy" xeK- 
Tapa. 

KoHa^HO, nocjie jjeBe/ieceT m hcthdm ro- 
jjMHe CMMpMJia ce m jjyma npo(J)ecopa Hajcn- 
jiOBa kojm je 1895. ro/j. noKpeHyo nHTaite y 
pycKOM nnejiapCKOM jjpyniTBy, jib. ce onyBa 
ycnoMeHa Ha ITpOKonoBMHa, uito My Tajja 
HHJe ycnejio. 

To^MHe 1914., 1924. m 1925. Gnjioje noKpe- 
Hyro nHTaH>e o no#M3aH>y cnoivieHMKa IT. H. 
ITpOKonoBMHy, ajiw oneT HMiuTa. npBO 
M3jjaH>e cbot naconnca 'TiHejiapCTBo" ro/jMHe 
1928. A. H. BpyxaHeHKO nocBenyje ycnoMeHM 
Ha ITpOKonoBMHa. TaKOrje, 1928. r., PycKO 
nnejiapCKO /jpyniTBO M3#aje KpaTKy n^ejiap- 
CKy eHHMKJione,TMJy o npOKonoBnny. 

Mmcjimm jib. je Bpe/iHO na^cH>e jxb 
npOHMTaMO 6HorpatJ)MJy o je/jHOJ BeoMa ynop- 
hoj a TaKO TparMHHOJ jimhhocth KaxaB je 6ho 

BeJIMKaH np0K0n0BM4, JIB 6M CXBaTMJIM 3aiUT0 

je npaBOCJiaBHa jjyma "jiyTajia" 139 ro^MHa. 

PorjeH je 1775. r. y cejiy MnneHKa y Hep- 
HMroBCKOJ ry6epHMJH. ITo 3aBpmeTKy BoJHe 
aKa^eMMJe y MorMJieBy, a no ^ceitn CBora ona, 
CTyno je y BOJHy cjiyacGy. Mef)yTMM, 36or 
6ojiecTH, (Kao n mhotm nnejiapCKM BejiMKaHn) 
1798. r. Mopao ceje BpaTMTM Ha cejio kojx po- 
AMTejta, a Beh n^yne, 1799. r., noneo ce 
6aBMTH nnejiapCTBOM. 

y oGjim^HjCm cejiy IlajpuiKH Kynno je 
napne 3eMJt>e n Ha H>eMy no/rnrao Kynnny. 
BaBMO ce 3eMJbopa#H>OM n OTnoneo (J)opMH- 
paTM nHejiMH>aK. MerjyTMM, 1801. r. no^cap My 
je yHMniTHO CBe mTOJe ctbopmo. Ycneoje Jia 
cnace caMO je/jHy GaHKHOTy or 10 py6ajt>a, 
Kany ca 32 kg mcjib n #eo cnameHor nnejin- 
H^aKa. 

Y3 noMoh je/iHor pa/iHMKa npOKonoBMH 
Kona 3eMyHMuy n He ry6n najry, Beh ca Be- 



Epndyiuuh Mean, Bop 

E-mail: brnda@ptt.yu 
Home page: httpdlsolair. eunet.yul-brnda 

jimkmm ;>KapOM, no3HaTMM caMO HaMa nnejia- 
pHMa, npomnpyje cboj nnejintBaK TaKO jxb 
1808. r. H>eroB nHemntaK 6pojn npeKO 300 
KoniHMua ca nOKpeTHMM OKBMpOM. 

To^MHe 1828. OTBapa nnejiapCKy mKOJiy 
jimhhmm cpe^CTBMMa, Koja je nocTOJa/ia CBe j\o 
1879. toji,. 3a ne^eceT n Je^Hy ro/jMHy, kojihko 
je Tpajana uiKOJia, ocnocoGjteHO je 640 
nnenapa. IIlKOJiOBaH>e je Tpajaro jjBe ro/jMHe, 
a oh raje Ha3Bao "xypc 3a nnejiape". '"Bann" 
cy 6mjim M3 pe^OBa KpncrjaHa (Bejieno- 
ce^HMHKM po6obm), Koje cy cuajie noje/jMHe 
cnaxnje Ha M3y*iaBaH>e nnejiapCTBa. V npBOJ 
ro,TMHH, Ka^aje uiKOJia ocHOBaHa, Gnuoje 15 
rjaKa, cbm HenwcMeHM, Te nxje npOKonoBMH 
npBO onncMeHHO tj. Haynwo aa HMTajy n ^a 
nnmy. 

ITpeKO jieTa yneHHUH cy pa^njin 
npaKTHHHO oko nnejia Ha nHejiMH>aHMMa, a 
CBaKM yneHMK y npBOJ to^hm Mopao je bo^mtm 
panyHa o 20 KoniHMiia. 

y apyroj to^mhm 6ojbm yneHMUM 6mjim cy 
Ha£30pHMHM m BOflMJiM panyHa Ofl OKO 100 

KOUIHMUa. 

nHejiMH^auM npOKonoBMHa ^ocTMrjiH cy 
orpOMHy uM(J)py o,a 10.000 KoniHMH,a (tojimko 
KoniHMua MMa caaa HaJBehM nnejiap Ha Ho- 
bom SenaH^y, Han. ayTOpa). To CBOJe npe- 
Ay3ehe Ha3Bao je "Oa6pMKa nnena . OBaj 
6poj o,a 10.000 KoniHMua 6noje pa3MeuiTeH Ha 
ce^aM MecTa y okojimhm BaTypMHa. npOKO- 
noBMH je npBM yBeo Bary Ha CBOJMM nHejiHH>a- 
HHMa paan 6ojt.e KOHTpojie. Mepnoje BMine 
KoniHMua Ha CBaKOM nHejinH.aKy. 

CBOJa onaHcaH>a npOKonoBMH je niTaMnao 
y HeKMM naconncMMa a 1823. r. y naconncy 
'SeMJi^ennecKH ^cypHaji" o KOMe je H3amjio 
HeKOJiMKO H>eroBMx pajjpBa o nnenapCTBy. 
CMaTpa ce ,oa hm ^aHac tm H>eroBM pa^OBM 
HMcy M3ry6MJiM CBOJy Bpe^HOCT. 

JBeroBO ^ejio y pyKonncy: " O nnejiaMa m 
nHejiapeH>y" Hnje yrjie/jajio CBeTJiocT jjaHa hm 
nocjie H.eroBe CMpTM. 

ITpOKonoBM4 je yMpo Tpeher anpMJia 1850. 
toji. Bmjio 6m Ha MecTy /ia, 6ap, Haconnc 
"IlHejiap", 3HanaJHMJe Ha cbojmm CTpaHM- 
uaMa. y anpMJiy 2000, ro^MHe, o6ejie>KM 150, 
rojjMuiHoMuy H>eroBe CMpTM. 

Ilocjie H>eroBe CMpTM, niKOJiy m H>eroBe 
nnejiMHjaKe Hacjie^MO je H>eroB cmh CTe4>aH 
kojm je npoMeHMO npe3MMe Ha BejiMK^aH. 
CTe<J)aH je join 3a »:MBOTa CBora oua pa/ono m 
BpniMO Ha;j,30p Ha^yneHMUMMa kojm cy bo^mjim 
no 100 KoniHMua. Tion CTe(|)aHOBOM ynpaBOM 



229 



nocejaHO je oko 200 xeKTapa Me^oHOCHor 
6njLa a nnejiHikaHH cy flocmrjiH 6poj on 

12 000 KOIHHHlja. 

To^HHe 1879. Cre(})aH BejiHK^aH je yMpo 
HanpacHOM CMphy, a iioiiito HHJe 6ho BemaH 
ca cbojom xeHOM, ^ceHa h fleua HHcy Hacjie- 
#hjth HHima. LllKOJia je 3aTBOpeHa a rjaun 
pacnyniTeHH Kao h cjiyxGeHHHH. 

CBa HMOBHHa je nonncaHa h npo^aTa Ha 
jiHUHTauHJH 3a jxyr or 11000 pyGajba, iuto je h 
H3BpineHO 1880. ro^HHe. ITphjihkom JiHHHTa- 
HHJe CBa HMOBHHa je npeuuia y pyKe Jbyjw kojh 
HHcy HManH nojivia o TOMe nocjiy h Taxo je CBe 
ynponauineHO h HecTajio. 

BnGjiHOTeKa JlpoKonoBHHa h aparoueHa 
apxHBa npo/iaTe cy Ha JiHHHTauHJH Kao 
HenoTpeGHa CTapa xapTHJa. Jlocjie JiHHHTa- 
HHJe HHJe 6HJia nouiTerjeHa hh H>eroBa rpo6- 
mma. a 6op kojh je 6ho TaMO 3acaT)eH, 
noceneH je m 6h ce nponrapHJia CTa3a napKa 
HOBor BJiacHHKa. Ha rpo6y je CTajao bcjihkh 



^pBeHH KpcT a no,n h>hm KoniHHHa Kojyje caM 
npoKonoBHH HanpaBHOjoui 1813. ro^. 

Or 1914. ro,n. H3iy6jbeHJe CBaKH Tpar ite- 
roBe rpoGHHLte, a iirrojejom rope 6noje noK- 
peHyr noerynaK jia ce rpoGHHua cpyuiH h Ty 
carpa^H HeKH noflpyM. 

HajiaM ce jia hy ^oxHBeTH jia o^eivi h noK- 
jiohhm ce Hcnpe^ cnoMeHHKa npoKonoBH^y, a 
aoK ja to He ypanHM M 3aMOJiHny HHTaoue oBor 
HJiaHKa kojh oyny Sojbe cpehe h £or)y y YKpa- 
JHHy m He nponycTe npHJiHKy jm ce noicnoHe 
BejiHKaHy y HMe cbhx nnenapa npaBoarcaBaiia. 

OBaj ^LnaHaK nnmeM noBO^OM 200 rojiHHa 
ojx no^eTKa n^ejiapeita BejiHKaHa IlpoKO- 
noBH^a. 

JlHTepaTypa: 

Borj npaKTH^Hor nnejiapa 

on KpcTe rinejiapeBHria - Mpuryibe 

H3flaTa 1930. ro,a;. 



230 



n^ejiap 1999 



Epamco PeAuti, CpeM. Mumpoeuu^a 



Ha 6h orpaHHHHO MaTHuy KaKO He 6n 
nojiarana jaja no nejioj Konmnnn 6pa3HJi- 
ckh HeMau XaHeMaH je, y npBoj nojioBHHH 
nponiJior BeKa, HanpaBHO penieTKy c npo- 
jia3HMa or 4,2 mm, Kp03 Koje He Mo^ce rsl 
npof)e MaTHita (na hh TpyTOBH) Hero caMO 
nnejie. Tlo H>eMy ce MaTHHHa peuieTKa Ha- 
3HBa h "XaHeMaHOBa peuieTKa". MaraqHa 
penieTKa je XaHeMaHy nocjiyxHJia jia 
orpaHH^H MaTHuy y o^perjeHOM (xejte- 
hom) npocTopy, y KOMe lie OHa moM #a 
nona^ce jaja, a y unity ^oGnjaifca BHiue 
Me^a. M He caMO to. YnoTpeGa MaTHHBe 
peiueTKe je OMoryhHJia, o63HpoM #a cy Beh 
Gnjie y ynoTpeGn Konmnne ca noKpeTHHM 
caheM tj. OKBHpHMa, #a ce Bpnajy OKBHpn y 
KOJHMaje caMO mqji, 6e3 Jierjia. 

MerjyTHM, aa jih MaTnraa penieTKa yBeK 
/lonpHHOCH noBenaity npHHOca Me#a y 
catamite BpeMe, Moxe ce CTaBHTH no^ 3HaK 
nnTaita. Ann, m je H>y y o^perjeHHM 
npHJiHKaMa, no^BJia^HM y o^perjeHHM 
npHJiHKaMa^oGpo, nanaKHHy^cBO, Kopnc- 
thth HecnopHoje. 

O ynoTpeGn MaTHHHe peineTKe, tj. o 
orpaHHHaBaity Maume y JiexeH>y, y muty 
£o6njaH>a BHine Me.ua no KoniHnnn, kojx Hac 
ce join npe cto ro^HHa pacnpaBibajio. 
HapoqnTO cy BorjeHe ^cynHe pacnpaBe 
H3Merjy Hamnx no3HaTnx nnejiapcKnx Be- 
jiHKaHa, npo(J>ecopa JoBaHa XnBaHOBnha 
H3 CpeMCKHX KapJioBana n JoBaHa JoBa- 
HOBnha, y^nTejta-nHejiapa H3 KparyjeBiia. 
Ka^a ce ^HTajy H>nxoBe pacnpaBe Morjio 6n 
ce 3aKJbyHHTH #a cy oGojnna Ghjih y npaBy, 
ajin He n yBeK. IlojieMHKe cy Gnne CKOpo n 
yBpe^JBHBe a TBp,HH>e yrnaBHOM cynpoTHe. 

y ca/ianiH>nM ycjioBHMa nnejiapeita, 
n^ejiapeH^eM caBpeMeHnjnM KomminaMa 
ajin no,ii HenoBOJLHHJHM ycjioBHMa, jia 6n ce 
£o6hjio Bnnie Me,n,a orpaHH^aBaifce MaTnne 
je y o^perjcHHM npHJiHKaMa h>okho, ann Ha 
pannoHajiaH Ha^HH. 







j^ ■ 






gpp* 




^ ' V 


, 




fc>y^^r^ ' 


k 

1 .-v.- ;ll 




i> 5BB ^^. 


\ 









OrpaHH^aBaH^e MaTnne Bpme He caMO 
n^enapn, Hero y #aTHM ycjioBHMa n caMe 



M3nad nnadumma je Mamunua peuiemjca 
o6aee3ua 

nnejie, na ce, npeMa TOMe, oho Moace 
OKapaKTepncaTH Kao: 

1. npHpo^HO (ojx CTpaHe nnena) h 

2. Henpnpo^HO - BeniTa^KO (ojx CTpaHe 
nnenapa). 

npMpoziiio orpaiiiiHaBaibe iviaTime y 
jiexeity Bpme rraejie: 
a) "cBecHo" 

- Ka^ia xofre jia ce poje, n 

- Ka,na y KoniHnnn HeMa ^obojlho xpaHe 
hhth HMa yHoca HeKTapa n UBeTHor npaxa 
cnojta - ko,ii nnejia ce jaBJta "nHCTHKT 
eKOHOMHcaita xpaHOM" a racn ce "hh- 
cthhkt o^rajaH^a jierjia". 

6) "HecBecHo" orpaHHHaBaH>e MaTnne 
nnejie Bpme Ka^aje BejinK yHoc HeKTapa n 
UBeTHor npaxa, a HeMa ^obojbho npocTopa 
3a h>hxobo ^enoHOBaH^e. 



146 



Ilnejiap 1999 



OrpaHHnaBaite MaTHue y Jie;>KeH>y ojj 
CTpaHe nnejia HHJe noxeibHO, na 3aTO 
TpeGa HacTojaTH jja jjo H>era He Jjorje, H3y- 
3eB aKO ce acejie jjoGhth npnpojjHH pojeBH 
tj. pojeite. 

HeiipMponiio - BeuiTaHKo orpamraaBa- 
H>e Mannje y jieaceiby Bpuie HCKJtynHBo 
nnejiapH Ha Kpafte hjih Jjy>Ke BpeMe. 

- OrpamnaBaibe Manure Ha Kpahe 
BpeMe BpuiHce: 

a) kojj 3aMeHe Maniue, TaKo hito ce 
CTapa MaTHua CTaBJta y KaBe3 hjih nojj noK-~ 
jionan,, KaKO 6h ce o6e36ejjno cnrypHHJH 
npHJeM MJiajje MaTHije, 

6) kojj y3roja MaTHua pajjn jjoGnjaika 

JiapBH HCTe CTapOCTH H KBaJIHTeTHHJHX Ma- 
THua. 

- OrparoraaBaite MaTHue Ha Jjyxce BpeMe 

kophcho je kojj nnejiHH>HX 3ajejjHHija Me- 
jjoHoina, ajiH caMo y npocTopy a He h y 
o6nMy jie^Keiba. M3y3eTHO, y oGHMy 
jiexeita MaTHua ce Moxe orpaHHnHTH aKO 
je y nHTaH>y KopHinneite caMo jejjHe hjih 
nocjiejjite rjiaBHe name, h to caMo y npBoj 
noJiOBHHH rojjHHe, tj . no Kpaja jyHa. 
KacHHJe orpaHHHaBaite oGHMa Jiexeita 
Moxe jjoHeTH y TOKy 3HMOBaH>a Behy uneTy 
Hero KopHCT. HaBeinny nua o TOMe nnine 
no3HaTH aiviepHHKH nnejiapcKH HaynHHK 
Oapap: 

"IlopojjHLia MejjoHOCHHX nnejia, Koja ce 
pa3BHj"a 6e3 orpaHHnaBaita h oGhjiho 06- 
CKpGjbeHa MejjoM h nojieHOM, nocenyje H3- 
BaHpejjHy cnocoGHOCT jja ce npHJiaronn 

BpJIO OIHTpHM H3MeHaMa KJIHMaTCKHX 

ycjioBa. Ajih, nnejiap necTO npHMeityje 
TaKBe MeTOJje ojjp^caBaH>a, Koje BemraiKM 
orpaHHMaBajy CHary nnejiHibe 3ajejJHHue, 

hito je JiHinaBa MoryhHocra jja npe3HMH y 
jjo6poM CTaity". 

OrpaHHHaBaH>e MaTHire y npocTopy 
Moxe ce BpniHTH noMohy MaranHe 
peineTKe h pa3peF)HBaH>eM OKBHpa y 
MejjuniTy. MaTHMHe peuieTKe Mory 6hth 
MeTaiHe (ojj nrraHHOBaHor nouHHKOBaHor 

JIHMa HJIH OJJ TaHKHX MeTaJIHHX 3KHH,a), 

njiacTHMHe, ojj niTaHUOBaHHX njionacrax 
miona hjih ojj npecoBaHe njiacTHKe , h 
jjpBeHe. MeTajiHe peineTKe ojj nrraHHOBa- 
Hor noijHHKOBaHor JiHMa Maite cy npe- 



IIP AKC A KOfl HAC 
(KOmtOmAJLP.) 



MEflHIIITE 



MEflHIIITE 



MATHUA 
JIErJIO 



1 



MAT. PEWETKA 



CaJ 

nopyHHBe ojj XHnaHHX, 36or oniTpHX HBHua 
npojia3a, KOJHMa nnejie Kp3ajy KpHJia. 
PeineTKe ojj imaHHOBaHe njiacTHKe cy hc- 
tot oGjiHKa Kao h ojj HiTaHuoBaHor JiHMa, 
ajiH cy norojjHHJe njeBTHHHJe ojj MeTaJIHHX. 
M3 thx pa3Jiora BHine cy y ynoTpeGn 
peineTKe ojj njiacTHKe, naKO cy MeTajme 
XHHaHe norojjHHJe 3a nnejie,jep OMorynyjy 
6ojty BeHTHJiaunjy KoniHHHe. flpBeHe 
penieTKe cy Majio y ynoTpeGn, naKO cy OHe 
HajyrojjHHJe 3a nnejie, ajin je H>nxoBa 
H3pajja KOMnjiHKOBaHHJa, na cy 3aTO h 
HajcKynjbe. 

JlocTaBJba ce nHTaike jja jih je, h y ko- 
jihkoj Mepn, pauHOHajiHO tj. Kajja h KaKO 
KopHCTHTH MaranHy peuieTKy? 

Kojj Hac ce MaranHa penieTKa kophcth 

TaKO UITO Ce nOCTaBH H3Ha/J nJIOJJHIHHHX 

OKBHpa, kojj BepTHKajiHor nocTaBJbaH>a 
OKBHpa, tj. kojj cbhx THnoBa HacTaBJtana, 
Kao h kojj jiHcitana (A>K) h '"Bep30HKH M . 
Ilnejie ca HeKTapoM yjia3e Ha jjon>e JieTO, 
Hajneinne, npoBJiane ce Kp03 MaranHy 
peuieTKy jja 6h jjenoHOBajie Mejj y npa3HO 
cahe MejjHHiTa. (cji.1) 

OBaKaB HanHH KopHinneH>a MaTHMHe 
peineTKe je Man ca jjBe oniTpnne. C jejjHe 
CTpaHe OMoryhyje na nnejiap HMa y 
MejjnniTy caMo OKBHpe ca MenpM 3a 
Bpuaite, tj. 6e3 Jierjia, a c jjpyre CTpaHe HMa 
h HeraTHBHHX ejieMeHaTa, kojh yMaityjy 
npHHOc Mejja, a to cy: 



147 



JTuejiap 1999 



1. nuejie ry6e BpeMe jjok ce npoBJiaue 
Kp03 penieTKy, OTeacaH mm je npojia3 ao 

MeJIHIHHHXOKBHpa, H 

2. koa iraejia ce npe jaBJba pojeBH HaroH, 
HHMe ce, TaKorje, yMaityje npHHOc Mejja H3 
JiBa pa3Jiora: 

- 36or CMaiteHe BeHTHJiannje Koumnne, 

H 

- nuejie uecTO MejjpM GjioKHpajy Marany 
y Jie^ceity, JienoHyjyhH Me# y njiojjHumo 
cahe. To jjobojjh jio CMaH>eita OTBOpeHor 
nerjia, He3anocjieHOCTH MJiajjnx nuejia-xpa- 
HHTejLHua, Koje jjoGnjajy pojeBH HaroH. To 
ce HapoHHTO jjoratja axo ce BpeMeHCKe 
npHJiHKe noropniajy, BpeMe OKHiua h 3ax- 
jiajjn, na npecTaHe H3JieT nuejia h yHoc HeK- 
Tapa. 

Ka/ia caM 6opaBMO y AycTpajiHJH, Ha 
Moje nHTaite una mhcjih o ynoTpeGn 
MaTH^He peiueTKe, AjieH Kjicmcoh, uyBeHH 
nuejiapcKH HayuHHK AycTpajinje, ojjtobo- 
pHO mm je jxa flBe y CBeMy Hde 3ajejjHHne 

(THn KOIHHHUe, KOJIHUHHa Caha, KOJIHUHHa 

OTBOpeHor h noKJionjbeHor Jierna, 
KOJiH^HHa MJia^HX nnejia h H3JieTHHua hc- 
thx 6hojiouikhx ocoGHHa), ojj kojhx jejjHa 
HMa MaTHHHy penieTKy a jjpyraje 6e3 H>e, 
Hehe JiaTH h HCTy KOjiHHHHy Mejja 3a 
Bpnaite. KoniHHua 6e3 peiueTKe Ha Barn he 
noKa3aTH Behy TexHHy (yHoc HeKTapa), 
ajiH he KoiHHHua ca MarauHOM pemeTKOM 
JiaTH BHiue BpuaHor Me/ia. To 3aTO, KaKO je 
o6jacHHO, hito nuejie 6e3 peuieTKe Hehe 
6hth OMeTaHe npH CKJiajjHiuTeH>y Mejja 
pemeTKOM, na he jjohcth h BHiue HeKTapa, 

KOJH he yCKJiaJJHIHTHTH H y nJIO^HHIHHM 

OKBHpHMa ca JiernoM, a Maraua he oneT 
HeoMeTaHO nojiarara jaja h y MejjHumoM 
cahy. TaKo he 6hth jjocTa oKBHpa ca jie- 
tjiom h MejjoM, kojh ce He Mo^ce BpiiaTH. 
MerjyTHM, KouiHHua ca pemeTKOM, naKO 
Bara Ha Kpajy noKaxe Maity Te^HHy, Jiahe 
BHiue Mejja 3a Bpuaite, jep je Hcno/j; 
peiueTKe ymaBHOM caMO Jierjio h nepra a 
H3Ha^ cy okbhph 6e3 Jierjia, caMO ca mchom. 

OBJie je noTpeGHo JiaTH Mano 
o6jauiH>eH>e h>hxobhx ycnoBa nnejiapeita: 

1 . riuejiHike 3aje/iHHHe ce kojj h^hx 
BeoMa peTKO poje, tj. He jjoGnjajy pojeBH 
HaroH. KjiHMaTCKH ycjioBH y AycTpajiHJH cy 
TaKBH jja nuejie Mory CBaKOJiHeBHO /ia 
H3Jiehy pami KopHiuheH>a name, TaKo na cy 



CTajiHO aHraxoBaHe. JXok ce kojj Hac, kojj 
BpeMeHCKor 3axjiarjeika CBe nuene noBJiaue 
y KouiHHuy rjje HacTaje npeHaTpnaHOCT, 
Koja jjobojjh jjo pojeBor HaroHa, kojj h>hx 
Tora HeMa. 3a BpeMe jaKHX xera kojj h>hx 
HaJBehn 6poj nuejiaje Hanojty, aKO He Me/jH 
XBaTajy ce y 6pa/jy, TaKo jja ce yHyTap 
Kommnje He oceha npeHaTpnaHOCT. J\a y 
KouiHHuaMa He6n 6hjio npeTepaHO Tonno 
Kouimnje HMajy /joGpy BeHTHJiauHJy Kpo3 
ropite jjejioBe (kpob) hjih naK no^Hxy 
KpoB nojjMeTaH>eM HeKor npe/jMeTa (unrjie, 
KaMeH). 

2. CTajiHHM ojjaGHpaiteM h cejieKinrjoM, 
h 3aMeHOM MaTHiia CBaKe ro/jHHe (kojj 
BehHHe nuejiapa) , H>HXOBe nuejie HHcy 
CKJioHe pojeH>y hhth rpaGexn. 

3. 36or jjyroTpaJHHX, naKO He TaKo hh- 
TeH3HBHHX naiua Kao uito cy Hauie, a h 36or 
orpaHHHaBaH>a MaTHue y Jie^ceH>y, peTKO ce 
Ka/j jaBJta HecKJia/j H3Merjy KOJiHHHHe ot- 
BopeHor Jierna h MJia/jux nuena He- 
roBaTejLHua, jep MJiajje nuene paHHJe 
nocTajy H3JieTHHue, KaKO 6h HajjoKHa/iHJie 
ryGHTKe CTapHJnx nuejia-H3JieTHHiia. 

flaKJie, ycjioBH nuenapeita y Ayc- 
TpajiHJH h kojx Hac cy cacBHM pa3JiHUHTH, na 
h KopHiuheite MaTHHHe pemeTKe kojx h>hx 
je jejjHHO h paunoHajiHO, jep 6h ce 6e3 H>e 
3aje^HHue BeoMa mhoto pa3BHJie, nouiTO cy 
jjHeBHH yHOCH oko je,o;aH KHJiorpaM. Koji 
Hac ynoTpeGa MaTHHHe peuieTKe HeKajja he 
jjonpHHeTH BeheM npHHOcy Me^a a HeKajja 
Hehe, CBe y 3aBHCHOCTH jja jih ce npaBHJiHO 

KOpHCTH. 

KaKO heMO npaBHJiHO kophcthth 
MaTH^Hy peuieTKy HeKa HaM nocjiyxe hc- 
TpaxHBaH>a y CA/J,, jjpxaBa Mkhhtch, Ha 
uejiy ca HCTpaxHBaqeM XejcoM. O thm hc- 
Tpa3CHBaH>HMa Xejc nnuie jja cy (J)opMH- 
pajiH TpH rpyne nuejiHH>HX 3ajejjHHua koh- 
ueM MapTa 1983.T.: 

1. 6e3 MaTHHHe peuieTKe, ca OTBOpeHHM 

^OHjHM JieTOM, 

2. Ca MaTHHHOM peUieTKOM H OTBOpeHHM 
JJOHjHM JieTOM, H 

3 . ca MaTHUHOM pemeTKOM h 3aT- 

BOpeHHM JJOH^HM JieTOM a OTBOpeHHM H3HaJJ, 

MaTHHHe peuieTKe. 3a H3jia3 TpyTOBa 



148 



n^ejiap 1999 



nocTaBHJiH cy KynacTe OTBOpe Ha jjoh>hm 
(nJIO^HIUHHM) TejiHMa (cji. 2). 

CBe 3ajejjHHne cy 6njie noTnyHO 
H3Je/iHaHeHe no kojihmhhh Jierna h y CBeMy 
ocTanoM. Flocjie 4>opMHpaH>a THe3Jia 3aje,n- 
HHne HHcy ^HpajiH TpH He^eibe, a 3aTHM cy 
noMohy npoBH^Hor miacTHMHor JiHCTa ca 

yilpTaHOM Mpe^OM MepHJIH KHJIHHHHy OT- 

BopeHor h noKJionjbeHor Jierna, KaKO 6h 
yrBp^HJiH yranaj nojio^caja JieTa h MaTHHHe 
peineTKe Ha o^rajaite Jierna h npHHOc 
Me^a. y TOKy ce30He BpniHJiH cy TpH nyra 
Mepeite: 13. Maja, 7. jyjia h 3. cenTeiviGpa. 
KouiHHuaMa cy no noTpeGn ^o^aBajin 
Me/iHiHHe HacTaBKe. Pe3yjnaTH hc- 
TpaxHBajBa cy Ghjih cjie^ehn: 

1. 3ajejjHHne 6e3 MaranHe peineTKe h ot- 
BopeHHM jjoh>hm JieTHMa Jiajie cy 25,6 kg 
Me^a; 

MCTPAXMBAhbA y CA£-XEJC 
(J1ETO M3HAfl MAT. PEU1ETKE) 



nononiKA 

MAT, PEIUETKA ^ 



MEAHIUTE 


MAT. PEIUETKA 


MEJJHIIITE 




MATHUA 

jiErno 



Cji.2 



2. 3ajejjHHne ca penieTKOM h OTBOpeHHM 
^ohjHM JieTOM, KaKO ce to h kojj Hac pajjn, 
/lajie cy 16,1 kg Mejja; h 

3. 3ajejjHHne ca penieTKOM, 3aTBOpeHHM 
jXOYbYSM JieTOM a OTBOpeHHM H3Ha£ penieTKe 
/lane cy 26,8 kg Me^a. 



n 



MEflHUITE 



MATHUA 
JIETJIO 



Cji.3 



063HpoM Ha cjinqHe KJiHMaTCKe ycjioBe, 
HaMa 3a npHMep Mory nocjiy^HTH HaBe- 
^eHH orjie/iH, ihto 3HaHH Jia heMO HajGojte 
pe3yjiTaTe nocTHhn ynoTpeGoM MaTHHHe 
penieTKe, ajin ca OTBOpeHHM JieTOM U3uaji 
H>e a 3aTBOpeHHM jiph>hm JieTOM. 

YnoTpe6y MairraHe peineTKe ko,h no- 
jioniKH Tpe6a kophcthth TaKO jia nnejie 
HMajy OTBOpeHO JieTO Ha mcjihiuhom fleny 
#o MaTH^iHe penieTKe, a Ha iljioahiiihom 
aejiy caMO KynacTH otbop 3a H3Jia3aK 
TpyTOBa. 

J\& jih he HeKO kophcthth MaTH^Hy 
penieTKy hjih He pa^n jjoGHJaifca BHnie Mejja 
caM lie o^JiynHTH, ajin he BHnie Me#a #o- 
6hth caMO aKoje npaBHJiHO Kopncra. 



3a BpeMe hhtch3hbhhx nania (GarpeM, 
jinna, cyHuoKpeT) MaTHna ce Moate orpa- 
HHnHTH Jia Jieace caMO y njio^nniTy, aKO ce y 
MejjnniTy pa3pe;ie okbhph. MejiHinHH 

OKBHpH Ce CTaBJLajy H3HaJJ, nJIO^HIHHHX TeK 

Ka#a nonHe 3HaTaH yHoc HeKTapa. Ako je 
3ajejjHHua jaKa, Me^nuiHa Tena Tpe6a jx& ce 
Hajia3e no noneTKa name Hcnojj njio- 
£hihhhx, KaKO 6h 6hjih cjioGojjhh or Jierna. 



149 



nnejiap 1999 




Ep3uh Joean, Oyaiju, TpcmenuK 



Je/iaH or rjiaBHHX 4>aKT0pa pa3Boja 
nnejiHifcHxapyinTaBaje, cnrypHO, nqejraita 
naina. FlqejiapH 3aTO TpeGa opHJeHTa- 
ithoho /ia npaie pa3Boj h UBeTaite Gmbaica. 
BpeMe UBeTaibaje reHeTCKH ycjioBJteHO h 
noji. jiejcTBOM je cnojtHHX ^HHHJiana. 
rjiaBHH cnoibHH ^HHHJiauje KJiHMa, a OBa 
3aBHCH or reorpa(J)CKe innpHBe h Ha/iMop- 
cxe BHCHHe. JlpoMeHa reorpa(J)CKe innpHHe 
3a je/iaH CTeneH, npeMa ceBepy, ycnopaBa 
nBeTaite 3a ^eTHpH no neT jiaHa. JejiaH ere- 
neH reorpa(J)CKe mnpHHe y npHpojin 
ojiroBapa 111 km. Hcto Taxo ce Ha CBaKHX 
100 m Ha^Mopcice BHCHHe ycnopaBa HBe- 
TaH>e 3a TpH JiaHa. 

OGhjihoct Jiyqeraa HeKTapa h /iaBaH>a 
UBeTHor npaxa cy pejiaTHBHH h no/iJioacHH 
pa3JiHHHTHM ynmaJHMa. Je/iaH o/j <J)aKTOpa 
jiyHeH>a HeKTapaje 3eMJbHinTe. Cbojhm cac- 
TaBOM h kojihhhhom xpaHHBa Koja ce Ha- 
Jia3e y H>eMy, oho yrane Ha HHTeH3HBaH 

XHBOT GHJLKe, a THMe H Ha HHTeH3HBHOCT 

H3JiyHHBaH>a h KBajiHTeT HeKTapa. 

TonnoTaje 6HTaH ycjioB 3a pacT h pa3- 
boj GHJbaKa. YTHHe Ha HBeTaH>e GnjtaKa, 
Kao h Ha HHTeH3HTeT CTBapaH>a h 
H3JiyHHBafta HeKTapa. MerjyraM, noTpeGe 
noje/iHHHX GnjbaKa 3a TonnoTOM cy 
pa3JiHHHTe. HeKe Ghjbkc jiyne HeKTap Ha 
TeMnepaTypH on 10-12°C Kao: Bp6a, 
iieHepHKa (TpHaK), injbHBe h ,zro., #ok HeKe 
no*fflH>y jia Jiy^e HeKTap TeK Ha TeMnepa- 
TypH H3Ha,ii 20°C - co(J)opa, KecTeH, jrana h 
np. BehHHa GnibaKa H3Jiyqyje HeKTap Ha 
TeMnepaTypH Ba3jryxa on 20° jio 30°C. Hn- 
CKe h BHCOKe TeMnepaType yMaityjy 
H3JiyqH- Baite HeKTapa, a Bpjio BHCOKe naK 
h oGycTaBJbajy iteroBO H3Jiy*fflBaH>e. 

BjiaxHOCT 3eMJLiunTa OMoryhyje Hop- 
ManaH pa3Boj GnjbaKa n HopMajiHO 



o6aBJbaH>e H>eroBHX (J)yHKnHJa, na h 
H3JiyHHBaH>e HeKTapa. HejiocTaTaK BJia^c- 
hocth CMaityje hjih 3aycTaBJta pa3Boj 
GnibaKa ycjiejj ^era ce CMaH>yje hjih 
npecTaje JteHa ^HBOTHa <J)yHKUHJa, na h 
H3JiyHHBaH>e HeKTapa. Kao h kojj BJiax- 
hocth 3eMJLHinTa, H3Jiy i iHBaH)e HeKTapa 3a- 
bhch h ojj BJia^cHOCTH Ba3/jyxa. Bene hc- 
napaBaae, Koje Hacraje Ha bhcokoj TeM- 
nepaTypH hjih Ha TonjioM h cyBOM BeTpy, 
H3a3HBa cymeite HeKTapa, Te ra nnejie 
TeniKO hjih yonniTe He Mory caKynjbaTH. 3a 
H3JiyHHBaH>e HeKTapa h H>eroBO KopH- 
mneH>e, onTHMajiHa BJia^HOCT Ba3,nyxa je 
oa60flo80%. 

BeTap HenoBOJBHO yra^e Ha H3Jiy- 
HHBaH>e HeKTapa. CyBH h TonjiH BeTpoBH 
#ejryjy HenoBOJLHO Ha pa3Boj GnjtaKa. Ohh 
y6p3aBajy UBeTaH>e, ojihocho CKpahyjy ne- 
pHojj UBeTaH^a, na ra nnejie HejjoBOJbHO 
HCKOpHnihaBajy. Bpjio TonjiH h cyBH BeTpo- 
BH ocyme iiBeTOBe, Te CKpaTe nepHO/j Me- 
jj;eH>a. 

HaBejjeHH (J)aKTOpH, kojh yrHHy Ha 
H3JiyHHBaH5e HeKTapa, Ha hcth Ha^HH yrany 
Ha MoryhHOCT npHKymbaita UBeTHor npa- 
xa. /],y»CHHa UBeTaH>a noje/iHHHX GnjtaKa 
pa3JiHHHTa je h Kpehe ce on jjBe cejiMHne 
(HBa, jinna, GarpeM, Tyja) jjo 40 cejiMnna 
(py3MapHH, MpTBa HpBeHa KonpHBa) . 
CBaKO o^cTynaH^e on HopMajiHHX ycjioBa 
OMeTa n^ejie y nyHOM HCKOpHnihaBaH>y pe- 
jiaTHBHO KpaTKe ^yacHHe UBeTaH>a noje^H- 
hhx GnjtaKa. To ce Hapo^HTO Jioine 
ojjpaacaBa Ha n^ejiHH>a /ipyniTBa y nepno^y 
o/irajaH>a jierjia h npnnpeMe jjpyniTaBa 3a 
rjiaBHy namy. 

3a ycneniaH pa3Boj nHejiHH^HX jjpy- 
niTaBa 3a rjiaBHy namy TpeGa ^ia 6y;jy ncny- 
H^eHH cjihhhh ycjioBH: TeMnepaTypa 20 - 
30°C, BpeMe thxo, 6e3 BeTpa, ^OBOJbHa 



150 



n^ejiap 1999 



BJia>KiiocT 3eivui>HuiTa ii liiro Bella Ria^K 
hoct Ba3Jjyxa. 

Heonxo/jHO je jja n^enap npaTH OBe 
ycnoBe h jja jjHpeKrao ym^e Ha o6e36e- 
rjHBaite HajnoBOJLHHJHX ycnoBa 3a pajj 
nqejiHH^HX jjpynrraBa. /jHpeKTaH yrauaj 
nnenapa ce oniejja y H36opy ojjroBapajyher 
MecTa 3a nocTaBJbaH>e n*iejiHH>HX jjpy- 
nuaBa, hjih, 6ojte peneHO, MecTa 3a 3acHH- 
BaH>e n^ejiHH>aKa. HajGoibe je Ka/ja je 
nHejiHH>aK nocTaBibeH y Henocpe/jHoj 6jih3- 
hhh noBpniHHa ca Me/joHOCHHM KyjnypaMa, 
hjih npHponHHM GnjbKaMa, TaKO jja nnejie 
Mory kophcthth nocTojehy naiuy. ^oGpoje 
xajja je miejiHitaK nocTaBJbeH y 6jih3hhh 
BohH>aKa, jep n^ejie y npojiehe, Kajja Bohe 
HBeTa, KopHde BohHy nainy 3a pa3Boj 
miejiHH>HX jjpyniTaBa. 

3a npojiehHH pa3Boj nnejiHH^HX 
jjpyiHTaBa BeoMa je Ba^cBO jja oko nnejin- 
H>aKa HMa jjobojbho pacTHita ca noneHCKOM 
nauioM (jiecKa, JjpeH, xyxypeK, Bp6e h cji). 
riocjie HBeTajta Bona, n^ejiHfta JjpyuiTBa 
ce Mory cejiHTH, pann nocTH3aH>a Beher 
npHHOca Mejja, Ha MecTa rjje HMa 6ojte 
nnejiHite name. YjeceH n*iejiHH>a JjpyuiTBa 
Tpe6a BpaTHTH Ha crajiHO MecTO (T3B. 3h- 
mobhhk), jja 6h ce nnejie npHnpeMHjie 3a 
3HMOBaH^e. MecTO rjje je nuejinitaK 
nociaBJbeH Tpe6a Jjaje 3auiTHheH ojj xjiajj- 
hhx BeTpoBa, Jjaje cyBO, ouejjHO, XHrajeH- 
cko, cyHuaHO h jjaje 3eMJbHiHTe HarayTO Ka 
HCTOKy hjih jyry. Ako cy n*iejiHH>a JjpyuiTBa 
H3Jio^ceHa BeTpoBHMa, crpajjajy ojj 
xjiajjHohe; 3hmh Tpoiue MHoro BHiue xpaHe, 
a y npojiene ce cnopnje pa3BHJajy. Y 
BJiaxHHM MecTHMa ce 3ajjpxaBa Heno- 
TpeGHa Ba3Jjyuma Bjiara, ihto y3poicyje jja 
ce cahe h nojieH, HenoKpHBeHH 3hmh 
nnejiaMa, y npojiehe Jiaxo y6yrjajy. Ako cy 
n^ejiHH^auH Ha BJia^cHHM h HenpoBeTpeHHM 
MecTHMa, y KouiHHuaMa n^ejie h Jierjio 
neiuhe oGojbeBajy. M3 thx pa3Jiora, Tpe6a 
H36eraBaTH jjyGoKe KouiHHe, ca cjiaGoM 



Ba3Jj,yniHOM BeHTHJiauHjoM, y KojHMa ce 
3ajjp^caBa xjia/jHa h BJiaxHa Mania. 

flnpeKTaH yrauaj nnejiapa ce ca/jpacn h 
y TOMe jja nuejiHitaK, y KOMe he 3HMOBaTH 
nuejraita JjpyuiTBa, orpajjH rycTOM ;>khbh- 
hom, jja 6h KoniHHue Gnjie uyBaHe ojjjaKor 
BeTpa h jja ce CTpaHe, ca Koje JjyBajy xjiajjHH 

BeTpOBH, 3acaJJH MeJJOHOCHO IHHGjbe H 

jjpBehe (Kao ihto cy JiecKa, JjpeH h Jjp.). Y 
caMOM nnejiHH>aKy Tpe6a 3aca/jHTH Bohe 
hhckhx CTaGajia (jaGyxe, KpyuiKe, uiJBHBe h 
cji). 

fla 6h HMajiH ycnexa y pa3Bojy irqejiH- 
h>hx jjpyuiTaBa nuejiapH TpeGa jja pa- 
cnojiaxy ojjroBapajyhHM nojjauHMa y 
npojiehe. 

IlojjaHH TpeGa jja 6yjjy H3 oGjiacra o 
KJiHMaTCKHM ycjioBHMa, CTaity nnejiHitHX 
jjpyuiTaBa; KajieHJjap UBeTaita Me/joHOCHor 
6HJta h pajjoBHMa nuejiapa y TOKy 3HMe h y 
paHonpojiehe. 

JaHyap je HajxjiajjHHJH Meceij y tojjhhh. 
npoce*ma HopMajiHa TeMnepaTypa ce 
Kpehe ojj, -2°C jjo 3°C. MaKCHMajma anco- 
jiyTHa TeMnepaTypa Kpehe ce ojj 13°C jjo 
15°C. To OMoryhaBa jja y jaHyapy nuejie 
H3Jia3e Ha npoHHiuhaBaHie. IlajjaBHHe ce 
yrjiaBHOM 3acHHBajy Ha CHery, jjok y njia- 
hhhckhm npejjejiHMa chc^chh noKpHBan 
ocraje HHTaBor Mecena. 

BeTpOBH cy cjiaGn, Haj^euihe, 3anajjHH h 
ceBepHH, H3y3eB bhcokhx njiaHHHa, rjje jjo- 
CTHxy npHJiHHHyja^HHy. 

Y jaHyapy, Kao h y jjeneMGpy, 6poj 
cyHHaHHX ^acoBaje HaJMa^H y tojjhhh. 

Y 4^^6pyapy, nocjiejjH^er Meceua 3HMe, 
no KajieHJjapy BpeMe je xjiajjHO, Majja ce 
oceha noBehaH^e npocenmrx Mece^HHX TeM- 
nepaTypa, Koje ce Kpehy ojj 3°Cjjo 5°C. An- 
cojiyTHa MaKCHMajiHa TeMnepaTypa je ojj 
15°C jjo 18°C. Y (J)e6pyapy, najjaBHHe cy 
HaJMaH>e, npH neMy cy Behe y njiaHHHCKHM 
KpajeBHMa. 

BeTpOBH cy HeniTO ja^H ojj jaHyapcKHX, 
npH neMy cy Hajjann y njiaHHHCKHM npejje- 



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nnejiap 1999 



jiHMa, a ziyBajy H3 npaBna ceBepo3ana,iia n 
ceBepa. 

Mece^Ha nHcojiannja je Henrro ziysca 
Hero y jaHyapy, Ma.ua 3Ha rsl 6yn;e Bpjio to- 
nao Mecen,. 

MaKO je MapT npejia3HH Mecen, H3Merjy 
3HMe n nponena, npocenHe MeceHHe TeM- 
nepaType 3HaTHO cy Bnnie Hero npeTxo/i- 
hhx Mecenn h H3Ha/i cy Hyjie. AnconyTHa 
MaKCHMajiHa TeMnepaTypa je oko 25°C. 

y MapTy cy na^aBHHe oGnjimrje Hero y 
<j>e6pyapy. npeoBJiarjyje Knina, aynjiaHHH- 
ckhm npe^ejiHMa h CHer. BeTpoBH HHcy 
jaKH, a Hajnenifie #yBajy ca ceBep03ana.ua, 
ceBepa n ceBepoHCTOKa. 

KaKO £aHH nocTajy ,ny>KH h KOJiH^HHa 
cyHHeBor 3pa*ieH>aje Befia, na ce Mece^ma 
nHcojiannja Kpene or 150 no 180 qacoBa. 

npoce^He MeceqHe TeMnepaType ce y 
apnnjiy 6p30 noBenaBajy, #ok ce npoce^ma 
MaKCHMajiHa TeMnepaTypa Kpehe oko 25°C. 

npoce^He MeceqHe na^aBHHe cy oko 50 

1. no m 2 . BeTpoBH ^yBajy Hajqenine ca 3a- 

na#a n ceBepo3ana#a. CyHqaHa nHcojiannja 

je Bena n 6poj cymaHHX nacoBaje oko 250. 

BpeMeHCKe npnjiHKe cy o^ noceGHor 
3Ha^aja 3a pa3Boj nnejinikHX ^pyniTaBa y 
nponene, npe maBHe name. 

LIIto ce TH^e CTan>a nnejinikHX #py- 
niTaBa, y jaHyapy ce HacTaBJLa nojiyaK- 
thbho CTaH>e y 3hmckom KJiyGeTy. Vkojihko 
je BpeMe xjia^HHJe, yTOJiHKO ^pyniTBa 
Tponie BHine xpaHe 3a o^pxaBaH>e onTH- 
MajiHe TeMnepaType y KJiyGeTy, a iraejie 
cjiaGHJnx /ipyniTaBa ynaacy Bene Hanope 3a 
CTBapaH>e TonnoTe. IlpBO noTpome HenoK- 
jionjbeHH Me#, a nocjie OTKpHBajy Majie 
noBpniHHe noKJiomteHor Me#a. 3nMOBaH>e 
nneiia je y TecHoj Be3H ca 4)H3hojioihkhm 
nponecnMa y h>hxobom #e6ejioM npeBy. 
KaKO 3HMa o^MH^e, y ^eGejioM npeBy ce 
roMHJiajy ocTann HecBapeHe xpaHe. J\a 6n 
ce 6naroBpeMeHO ocnoGo^HJie ocTaTaKa y 
/ie6ejioM npeBy, nnene 3a oGneTaite 



KopncTe n KpaTKOTpaJHO OTonjbeH>e y 
cyHHaHHM nacoBHMa npeKO 3HMe. 

K^m cy 3HMe Tonjinje, MJia^e MaTnne y 
jaKHM apymTBHMa noraity jia nojia^cy jaja, 
join KpajeM jaHyapa. 

y 4>e6pyapy nne-Jie cy join y 3hmckom 
KJiyGeTy, Ma^a peTKO H3Jia3e, nocTajy aK- 
THBHHJe, OTBapajy mch h ocjioGarjajy ftejinje 
y cpe^HHH rae3.ua, nojinpajy nx n npnnpe- 
Majy 3a nojiaraH>ejaja. MaTnne y (J)e6pyapy 
noHHH>y nojiaraite jaja n Beh raji, Haje^iaH, 
HBa na n Tpn paMa HMa Jierna ca Bnnie 
pa3JiHHHTor y3pacTa, na naK n hobo- 
H3JiexeHHX MJiajinx iraejia. }\a 6n xpaHHJie 
jierjio n CTBapajie Heonxo^Hy TCMnepa- 
Typy, nnejie Tponie He caMO Me^ Beh n 
nojieH. 

y MapTy, naKO cy nnejie joni y KJiyGeTy, 
aKTHBHOCT miejiHH>HX apyniTaBa ce CBe 
Bnnie noBehaBa. Jierjio #o6pnx ^pyniTaBa 
3ay3HMa Tpn #o ^erapn paMa n HMa ^ocTa 
MJia^nx nqejia. CTape nnejie CBe Bnnie 
n3Jiehy^a Gn^oHejie HeKTap, nojieH n Bo^y, 
a MJiaj,e nnejie Bpuie CBOje npBe 3aje,HHHHKe 
jieTOBe yno3Hajyhn OKOJiHHy. 

y anpnjiy, miejiHH>e KJiy6e Bnnie Hnje 
jaKO 36njeHO n nojiaran>e jaja n pa3Boj 
nnejiKH^HX apyniTaBa 6p30 Hanpe^yje. 
ToMe ^onpHHOcn Tonjio BpeMe, caKynjbeHH 
nojieH n HeKTap, Kao n 3HaTaH 6poj hobo- 
H3JiexeHHX MJia^nx nqena. PaMOBH 3ay3eTH 
jiernoM 6p30 ce noBenaBajy n ko,u; jaKnx 
nHejiHH>HX .opyniTaBa jaBJta ce npBO 
TpyTOBCKO Jierno. 

KajieHj,ap nBeTaita H3rjie,ziao 6n: y (J>e6- 
pyapy nonnity fla UBeTajy npBe GnjbKe. Mc- 
no,n CHe^cHor noKpnBana noMajtajy ce 
BHcn6a6e. Ca n>nx n^ejie caicynjbajy npBn 
HeKTap n nojieH. Flo^HH^e ^a UBeTa n JiecKa, 
n y thxhm, cyHHaHHM ^acoBHMa OKynjta ce 
mhoto nneiia caKynjtajyhn nojieH. Tlo 
myMaMa n JiHBaj,aMa iiBeTa ma(J)paH. 
HapaBHO aKO jio3BOJie BpeMeHCKH ycnoBH. 
MecTa ca HajpaHnjnM UBeTaiteM nnene 
nocehyjy, uito, noBOJLHO yTH^e Ha pa3Boj 
nnejiHHjHX apyuiTaBa. 



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MapTJe npBH Meceu nponeha. flo^Hifce 
m UBeTa CBe Beta 6poj mc^ohochmx 6wjba, 
xao iiito cy: Jiecxa, KyxypeK, flpeH, 
jbyGHHHua, 6ena pa^a, ^hbjbh 3yM6yji h up. 
y ^ojiHHaMa pexa UBeTajy jena, HBa, upHa 
Tonona, a o^ BoftaKa: Kajcnja, ueHepHKa 
(TpHax). OHe npyatajy ixqejiaMa CBe^c Hex- 
Tap h noiieH. 

0,ii Me^oHOCHHX GHJtaKa TpeGa 3acejara 
<j>anejiHJy y hhctom yceBy, hjih 3aje^H0 ca 
rpaxopHupM Kao h 6ejiH KOKOTau. Oaue- 
jiHJa noHHH>e #a UBeTa y nepno^y Ka.ua HeMa 
name, H3Mer)y UBeTaH>a GarpeMa h cyHUOK- 
peTa, a Gejin KOKOTau, aKO ce iiokoch, UBeTa 
nocjie cymioKpeTa. Tpe6a HanoMeHyra #a 
<j>auejraja UBeTa 45-50 jiaua nocjie ceTBe, 
#ok 6ejiH KOKOTau UBeTa or jyHa ro cen- 
TeM6pa. 



AnpHJi je Meceu y KOMe UBeTajy CBe 
GnibKe. J^BeTajy CBe BohKe: KpyuiKa, 
iuibHBa, GpecKBa, Tpeimta, BHinita, jaGyKa 
nap. niyMCKe Bpcre; Tonone, jaBop, jaceH, 
6pe3a, zniBibH KecTeH u jip. yKpacHO pac- 
THH>e - janaHCKa ^yita, joproBaH, TpaBe - 
MpTBa KonpHBa, rjypfjeBaK, Macjia^aK h jip. 
Ca cbhx obhx GnibaKa mejie CKyrutajy 
noneH h HeKTap. 

y Majy HacTyna npBa rjiaBHa nania, 
UBeTa 6ejiH GarpeM. 



JIHTEPATYPA 

n^ejiap 1983. -1997. 
KocTa JainMaK-"Me^oHOCHO Gmte" 
JB. Pa^ojeB - "KajieH,o,apcKH imejiapcKH 
npHpy^HMK" 



153 



rinejiap 1999 



MoryhHOCTH h noTpeSe H3rpa#H>e caha y 
iiHe.iiiibiiM jajcviiiimaMa 



Je^iaH or BaxHHX ycjioBa o^roja nnejin- 
h>hx 3aje,iiHHLta ^a 6n ocTBapmra Maxcn- 
MajiHe npHHOce je n KBajiHTeT n KOJinnnHa 
nqejiHH>er caha. Ochm npHHoca oa Me^ia, 
noneHa h nponojinca, nnejie Jiy^e n 3HaTHe 
KOJinqHHe BOCKa, qnJHM ce yMeniHHM nc- 
KopHnihaBaifceM Mory yBehaTH npuxo/m 
n^enapa. 

Jly^eifce Bocxa n rpa^ita caha o,ii CTpaHe 
nqena 3aBncn oa HH3a cnorbHHX n yHy- 
Tpanntnx HHHHJiaua. M aico je to 
4>H3HOJioniKH nponec caMO ko^ nnejia 
pa^HJiHua o^perjeHor £o6a CTapocTH, oji 
iteroBor ycneniHor h npaBHjmor o^BHJaifca 
3aBHCH pa^ h oncTaHaK CBaxe nnejiHifce 3a- 
je^HHue. Ha n^ejiapyje #a noMorHe h yc- 
MepaBa pa# nnena Ka onTHMajiHOM Jiyqeity 
Bocxa h rparjeity caha. y obom rpa- 
.HHTeibCKOM nocny ayroMaTCKH ce noHaBJta 
HCKycTBO npe^axa nyreM HHCTHHKTa n Ha- 
cjiejxnux ocoGHHa n HeMa HHKaKBe oGyxe, 
no^ynaBaiba n npeHonieita HCKycTBa oa 
CTapHJe Ha MJiarje reHepannje nnejia 

pa^HJIHLta. IlpM OnTHMaJIHHM CnOJBHHM H 

yHyrpainH^HM ycjioBHMa, Jiy^eite Bocxa n 
rpa,o,H>a caha je HaJBeha. CnoibHH yarcoBH cy 
KJiHMaTCKe n naniHe npnjiHKe tj. HBeTaite 
Me/ioHOCHor Gniba n CTanaH yHoc HeKTapa n 
noneHa. yHyTpanntn yarcoBH cy CTaH>e 
CBaKe nnejiHifce 3aje,n;HHne Ha nnejnntaKy. 



Ilemap J5epeoeufa, Hum, meA. 018/49-359 

Tajy npBe nojieHaninne h pacTHH>e ca HeK- 
TapoM. y anpHJiy MacoBHO uBeTajy rajeHe h 
AHBJbe BohKe , inyMCKO #pBehe , yjtaHa 
pennna, pa3He TpaBe, yKpacHO h ^hbjlc 
Gnjte h ninGjbe. y noBOJBHHM MeTeo 
ycjioBHMa, OBaj nepno,ii npe nBeTaita 6a- 
rpeMa Haiue HaJH3,iianiHHJe nnejiMH^e name, 
je Hajnoro^HHJH 3a HHTeH3HBaH pa3Boj 
nnejiMH^HX 3aje,iiHHna, yHoc HeKTapa h 
noneHa h JiyHeite Bocxa h rpa^H>y caha. 3a 
BpeMe Tpajaita GarpeMOBHX naina, 
nqejiHH>e 3aje,0HHne onTHMajme CHare 
noBehaBajy 6poj H3JieTHnna ca MJiarjHM 
iraejiaMa Koje 3ao6njia3e o6aBe3e y He- 
roBaH^y nerjia, Jiy^eity BOCKa h jpyrnM 
"KyhHHM" nocnoBHMa. CMaH>eH)eM KyhHHX 
iraejia CMaityje ce h o6hm H>nxoBor pa^a, Te 
ce npH rpa^HiH caha 36or xypGe oko 
npepa^e HeKTapa n o^roja Jierna (to je 
no3HaTO HCKycHHM n^enapHMa) ^ecTO He 
rpa^H KBajiHTeTHO cahe. n^ejie ny^e BocaK 
h joGpo rpaj,e cahe h Ha ocTaiiHM (thxhm) 
nainaMa Kao ihto cy JinnoBa, cyHnpKpe- 
TOBa, JiHBa/icKa, Me^iJbHKOBa naina h Apyre. 
Oji Ghthot 3Hanaja je MecTO nnejiHH>aKa 
y o^Hocy Ha UBeTHHue ca kojhx n^ejie 
caxyruLajy HeKTap h noneH hjih MQUJbUKO- 
Bau. CBaKaKO %a je 6ojbe HCKOpHinhaBaH>e 
nnejiHJBHX naina ceoSoM nqejiHH^aKa Ha 
HaJH3^,aniHHJe name. 



1. CnOJbllH - KJIHMaTCKM M nillUHII yCJIOBH 

yivrepeHO KOHTHHeHTajiHa KJiHMa Ha 
HaniHM npocTopnivia OMoryhaBa onniTeH>e 
nqejia ca npnpo^oM CBe ^enihe noneTKOM 
npojieha. flaHH noerajy CBe RyKH ca BehHM 
cymaHHM HHTepBajiHMa a npoceHHe 
AHeBHe TeMnepaType pacTy h npnpo^a ce 
nocTeneHO 6yiw. Y MapTy Hajqeuihe nBe- 



2. yHyrpauiibM ycjioen - cTaibe imeJiHH>nx 
iajeiiHiiua 

JlyqeH>e BOCKa n rparjeH^e caTOBa je 
(J)yHKunja ^HTaBor nHejiHH>er ^pyniTBa n 
Mo^ce ce ycneniHO o^BnjaTH caMO yKOJinxo 
nocToje y H>eMy cbh noTpeGHn ycjioBH. 
Mjia/ia n KBajiHTeTHa MaTnna BHinecTpyKO 
yTH^e Ha pajino pacnojioxeH>e ^HTaBe 3a- 



154 



nnejiap 1999 



je^HHue na h Ha Jiyneite BOCKa h rpa,a,H>y 
caha. Ako ce MaTHiia 3aTBOpH y KaBe3, 
jiyneH>e BOCKa ce CMaityje 3a oko 30%, a y 
jjpyniTBy 6e3 MaTHiie Jiyneifce BOCKa ce npe- 
Kixaa hjih je He3HaTHO, Ma#a cy ocTajin 
ycjioBH noBOJBHH. Hexa miejiHita 3aje,n- 
HHua h nopejj cbhx hobojbhhx ycnoBa He 
rpajw KBajiHTeTHO cahe. y cyniTHHH cy 
jioine Hacjie^He ocoGHHe nqejia pajjHJiHiia h 
3aMeHOM MaTHue OBaj HejjpcTaTaK ce 
OTKJiaH>a. 

ynope.no ca GpoJHHM HapacTaiteM y 
nponene, MJia^e rraejie Koje ojjrajajy h 
xpaHe Jierno, npeparjyjy HeKTap h nojieH h 
nojanaHO ce xpaHe. To yTH^e Ha pa3Boj h>h- 

XOBHX BOUITaHHX XJie3,Ha. HayHHO je 

yTBprjeHO jja rraejie CTapocTH 10 ,np 18 jjaHa 
cy HajcnocoGHHJe 3a Jiyneite BOCKa h 
rpajjity caha. n^ejie no*iHH>y JiyHeH>e bo- 
CKa ojj iuecTor jjaHa a Mory JiyraTH y Maitoj 
MepH h y Hyacan h nocjie 18. jjaHa CTapocTH. 

y jaKHM nqejiHH^HM ^pyuiTBHMa cy 
KBajiHTeTHHJe nnejie h koji jejjHaKHX oc- 
TajiHX ycjioBa, 3HaTHHJe cy cnocoGHHJe 3a 
jiyneH>e BOCKa h rpajjH>y caha h OHa ce 
KopHCTe 3a rpajjray pe3epBHor caha. 

JlyHeite BOCKa h rparjeH>e caha y3ajaMHO 
je Be3aHO ca yHocoM HeKTapa h noneHa h 
o^,rajaH>eM pa3Hopo,n,Hor Jierna h nnejia. 
Koji npepajje HeKTapa CBe KyhHe nnejie, 
Merjy BHMa h MJia^e , BHiue nyra nyHe 
Me/iHH Mexyp. MerjyTHM, nnejie He Mory 
noBpaTHTH caB y3eTH HeKTap - jejjaH jxeo ce 
3a^pxaBa y bojbhh, ihto je y Be3H ca pajjpM 
BeHTHJia y HanyiteHOM Me/iHOM Mexypy a 
TpouiH ce h CBeacn nojieH. OrjiejjHMa je 
yTBprjeHO m 3a npoH3BOJjH>y 1 kg BOCKa 
nnejie Tpome oko 3,5 kg Me,na h H3BecHy 
KOJiHHHHy noneHa. MerjyTHM, Ta KOJiHHHHa 
Mejja h nojieHa He Moxe ce yimeaeTH aKO 
ce nnejiaMa ycKpaTH jja rpajje cahe. Hyneite 
BOCKa, Koje Bpine BonrraHe acjie3,ne nnena, 
HHJe caMOBOJbaH npouec tj. He 3aBHCH ojx 
BOJbe nnejia h nnejiapa. rinejie Koje 
npeparjyjy HeKTap h nnejie xpaHHTejbHne 
jierna, o6aBe3HO Jiyne BocaK. Ako y 



kohihhhh He nocTOJH noTpeGaH npocTop jja 
ce Ji^eHH BocaK ynoTpeGn 3a rpajiray caha, 
rraejie BoniTaHe JtycnHire HcnyniTajy 3a 
BpeMe o6jieTaH>a hjih Ha JipH>e caTOHOiue h 
nojjH^aHy rjj,e ce roMHJiajy ajejjaH jxeo rraejie 
H36auyjy H3 KoniHHiia. y HejjpcTaTKy npoc- 
Topa 3a rpa/tfty h npomnpeike caha, 
yMaityje ce yHoc HeKTapa h noneHa h 
CTBapajy ce ycnoBH 3a nojaBy pojeBor Ha- 
roHa. 

yKOJiHKO HenorojjHO BpeMe npeKHHe 
H3JieT nnejia h yHoc HeKTapa h nojieHa, a 
rraejiap je CTaBHO caTHe ocHOBe y nnejiHite 
3ajejjHHite, m 6h ce HacTaBHJia rpajjH>a 
caha, iraejie TpeGa npnxpaitHBaTH inehep- 
hhm CHpynoM ca jjojjaTKOM GejiaH^eBHHa. 
Ako je nnejinite jjpyniTBO npHHyrjeHO Jia 
jryHH BocaK h rpajiH cahe a jja He ojjraja jie- 
rjio, y pajjy yqecTByje caMO oko 30% 
pajjHJiHHa. yKOJiHKO mejiHH>a 3ajejjHHiia 
He ojjraja jierjio h He jrynH BocaK, 6poj 
H3JieTHHua ce cMaH>yje Ha oko 60 jjo 70%, 
Te ce 3HaTHO CMaityje yHoc HeKTapa h 
noneHa. 

Ka.na cy n*iejiHH>a jjpyiHTBa cjiaGa, Jioine 
BpeMeHCKe npHJiHKe h CHpoMaiHHa naiua, 
H30CTaje hjih je He3HaTaH yHoc HeKTapa h 
nojieHa, HeMa Jiyneita BOCKa h rpa^H^e 
caha. 



3. IIoTpe6e 3a rpa/ubOM h iaiueiiOM cafia 

Hay*mo je ^,OKa3aHO jja h ojx KBajiHTeTa 
BOCKa-caha y nqejraitHM 3aje^,HHuaMa 3a- 
bhch KBajiHTeT Mej,a. "HenoGHTHO je 
yTBprjeHO - nnme npo({). ^p JoBaH Ky- 
jiHHHeBHh y "n^iejiapy" 6p. 1 3a npoinjiy 
rojjHHy - ^a nnejiHitH BocaK, kojh y cbom 
cacTaBy HMa oj,perjeHe MacHe KHcejiHHe, 
ynnja aKapHUHJje a noTOM hx OTnyniTa y Ma- 
TepHJe Koje cajjpxe Bo^y, a TaKBa MaTepnja 
je Mejj". FloTnyHHJy cjiHKy KaKBa HaM onac- 
hoct npeTH ojx 3arar)HBaH)a BOCKa h Mejja, 
HHTaou obhx pejjoBa Moxe CTehn aKO 
npoy^H HaBejjeHH pajj. 



155 



n^ejiap 1999 



Ca CTapoinfty cafta y H>eMy ce roMHJiajy h 
3a,npxaBajy cnope 3apa3HHX Gojiecra : 
aiviepH^Ke h eBponcxe Tpyjiexn, KpeqHor 
jierjia h H03eM03e. Ajih, hcto TaKO, h 
odanH aHTHGnoTHKa Koje HeKH nnejiapH 
jjajy npeBeHTHBHO 6e3 bhjjjbhbhx pa3Jiora, 
Te ce 3arar)yjy nnejinikH npoH3Bo/iH. Y cTa- 
poM cany Me/j, ce 6pace KpHCTajraine h BHine 
je H3JioxeH inTeTHHM yranaJHMa, Te je 
Henoro^HHJH 3a npe3HMJi>aBaH>e n*iejiHH>HX 
3ajejjHHna. 

y iuiojihihhom cafty CBaKa reHepannja 
H3Jie^ceHHX nqejia ociaBiba y ftejinjaMa 
cafta KOKOHe a jiejiHMH^HO n H3MeT kojh ce 
roMHJiajy. HoBe reHepannje nnejia ojjjajajy 
ce y CBe MaH>eM npocropy ftejiHJa n CMaityjy 
ce, Te ce H3Jie;>Ky ca MaitHM ^chbothhm cno- 
coGHOCTHMa. Jlocjie CBaKe H3Jie^ceHe re- 
Hepaunje iraejia, cafte je CBe TaMHnje h Te^ce 
h nopejj, XHTHJeHCKor noHaniaita KyrlHHX 
nqena. npocj). TapaHOB npenopynyje ;ja no- 
cjie 12 jjo 15 reHepannja H3Jie;>KeHHX nnejia, 
Tpe6a o6aBe3HO MeitaTH njio/jnniHO cafte. 
KaKO ce to pa/in nocTynHO, npaKTHHHO je 
jja ce Ha caTOHoniaMa 3anncyje Mecen n ro- 
jjinia CTaBibaiba caTOBa Ha H3rpa/jH>y. Ok- 
peTaH>eM caTa npeMa CBeTJiocTH h yBH/joM 
y KBajiHTeT pajjnjiH^KHX ftejiHJa, HeKBa- 
jiHTeTHe caTOBe Tpe6a 3aMeHHTH n npe y 
npaKCH npHXBafteHHX poKOBa jja ce y Bpe- 
MeHy or 3 no 4 rojjHHe 3aMeHH njiojjHnmo 
cafte. 

Cafte TpeGa jjaBaTH Ha rpajjity jaKHM n 
cpe^H>e jaKHM nnejinitHM 3ajejjHnnaMa n 
pojeBHMa y kojihtohh npeMa cnojbHHM n 
yHyrpaiHH>HM ycjioBHMa 3a ycneniHy rpaji- 
H>y. y njio^HniHOM jjejiy jjpyniTBa CTaBiba 
ce paM ca caTHOM ochobom H3Merjy caTOBa 
ca JierjioM n noneHOM npaBHJiHO H3rpa- 
rjeHHM n Ha MetjycaTHOM pa3MaKy or 12 
mm. Je/jaH miojjHniHH H3rparjeHH caT y 
BHineKopnycHOM (J1P) paMyTe^cH 110 aKO/j, 
flB 150 gr. y Me^HiHTHMa Mory ce rpajiHTH 



caTOBH ca npo,ny6jbeHHM ftejinjaMa Ha 
BefteM MerjycaTHOM pa3MaKy. 

y nnejiapcKoj npaKcn kophcth ce paM 
rparjeBH^aK, kojh HMa BHHiecTpyKy yno- 
Tpe6y. Ha H>eMy nnejie H3rparjyjy Tpy- 
tobcko cafte, Marana 3ajie^ce h Ka/ja ce 
ftejiHJe noKJione H3pe3yje ce, a Ka#a je 
cjiaGnja rpajjita cafta OTKJiana ce HoxeM, 
jierno HCTpeca ca BapooM h yHHHiTaBa a no- 
tom Hcnnpa h Bpaha y KoniHnny. Ako cy pa- 
mobh jjyGjBH, nperpatjyjy ce jictbhuom 
xopH30HTajiHO Ha cpe/iHHH, Te ce CTBapa 
Beftn npocTop nnejiaMa 3a rpajjH>y. Obhm 
HaHHHOM 3HaTHO ce yHHiHTaBa Bapoa, Ma/ja 
3axTeBa BHine BpeMeHa y pa/jy. Ako ce 
rparjeBH>aK kophcth caMO 3a jj,o6njaH>e 
Befte KOJiHHHHe BOCKa, nocTaBJta ce y 
Me^HHiTe Ha HHTeH3HBHHJHM nainaMa H 
H3pe3yje CBaKa 3-4 jjaHa, npe nyjBeita HeK- 

TapOM. 

npn nocTojajty rpar)eBH>aKa, nnejie 3a- 
#OBOJbaBajy hhcthhkt m rpajje TpyTOBCKO 
cafte, 3aTO je rpajj,H>a pa/jnjiHHKor cafta Ha 
ocTajiHM paMOBHMa HcnpaBHa. HeMa jih 
rparjeBH>aKa, Beft caMO pajjnjiHHKe carae 
ocHOBe, nnejie nnaK rpa/je h TpyTOBCKe 
ftejiHJe ncnojj caTOHoma, Ha KpajeBHMa h 
jjpyrnM MecTHMa. 

Ca aKTHBHpan>eM paivia rparjeBH>aKa, aK- 
THBHpa ce aeo MJia^inx n^ena rpa^HTejbHua, 
Koje He3anocjieHe Mory aonpHHeTH nojaBH 
HaroHa 3a pojeae n^ejiHHie 3aje,HHHne. 

rparjeBH>aK HaM cnyxH h Kao koh- 
TpojiHH paM. Ha iteMy MoxeMO yTBp^HTH 
HMa jih MaTHue, pojeBHor HaroHa, HHTeH- 
3HTeT nnejiHHse name, rpajj,H>e cafta h 
flPyro. 

y caBpeMeHOM nqejiapcTBy pe3epBHO 
cafte , pajjn noTnyHHJer HCKOpHniftaBaH>a 
nania, HMa BaxHy yjiory. no3HaTO je jja 
n^ejie nyHe HeKTapoM cafte h jio 3 nyra 
Befte noBpniHHe o^ noTpeGHor 3a CKJia- 
jjHniTeH^e Mejja. npeMa npo(}). jjp KpH- 



156 



nnejiap 1999 



BiioBy h JTe6e^,eBy, CTaBJi>aH>e Menuuna. 

HCKJLyHHBO CaMO Ca CaTHHM OCHOBaMa pa^H 

HCKOpHiuhaBaita name, yMaityje ce npHHOc 
3aoKo43% ("Efaejiap" 6p. 12/96). npo$. 
Up Enjiain nnme: ^a 6h nnejiHibe ^pyniTBO 
Morjio ycneniHO #a ce pa3Bnje, m o^jio^h y 
cahe caB ^OHeTH HeKTap h ^a ra npepa^n y 
Me^, Tpe6a jx& pacnojiaxe cjie^ehHM mhhh- 
MajiHHM KOJiHHHHaMa caha: 

- BHineKopnycHa KoniHHna JlaHrcTpoT- 
PyroBa ca 20 njio/iHiiiHHX h 40 mchhihhhx 
caTOBa; 

- flaj,aH-6jiaTOBa ca 12 paMOBa (hckh je 
npenpaBJtajy Ha 10) TpeGa rsl HMa 18 
mioOTiHHHX h 36 mchhiiihhx caTOBa ca 
caheM ("riqejiap" 6p. 8/95). Ako HeMa 
HaBe/ieHor npocropa, miejiHH>e ^pyniTBO ce 
3a,iioBOJbaBa nocTojehnM, He pa3BHj"e ce #o 
onTHMajiHe CHare h He ncKopncra ce naina 
3a MaKCHMajiHH npHHOc Me^ia. YMaiteHH 
npocTop jej,aH je o,ii y3poxa nojaBe pojeBor 
HaroHa. npH ahcbhom yHocy HeKTapa y 
KOHTpojiHy Konmnny or oko 4 kg, Tpe6a 



CTaBHTH ^Ba MCHHiima hjih neo rnio^nniHH 
HacTaBaK paim noTnyHHJer HCKOpnnina- 
BaH>a name. 

npa3HO cahe y UHemnhUM 3ajej,HHuaMa 
jiynn (J)epoMOHe GnoxeMHJCKor cacTaBa 
Kojn yno30paBajyhe yrany Ha nnejie h no- 
cnemyjy h>hxobo pa/iHO pacnojioxeite 3a 
yHoc HeKTapa n nojieHa. npeMa hckhm no- 
AannMa, noBehaH>e noBpmnHe npa3Hor 
caha, noBehaBa caKymbaite Me/ia 3a 10 no 
15%. (npo4).^,pT. PnH^epep, CAfl) 

nnejiHHjH BocaKJe, H3a Me/ia, ^pyra no 
eKOHOMCKOj Bpe^HOCTH. npH 3aMeHH CBaKe 
ro^HHe 1/4 caha, KopHinhetteM BOCKa pa- 
MOBa rparjeBftaKa, BOCKa oji Me^Hnx noKJio- 
nana n chthhjhx 3anepaKa n BonnaHor 
Tpyita, Mo^ce ce or CBaxor miejiHH>er 
/IpymTBa Ha nHejraitaKy ^o6hth npoceHHO 
BHiue ojijeRHOT kg BOCKa ro^Himte. Xlope^; 

OCTaJIHX KOpHCTH Koje CMO HaBeJIH, HHJe 

3aHeMapibHBa n KopncT oa npon3Be,aeHor 

BOCKa. 



157 



n^ejiap 1999 



Hobh onacaH napa jut iPiejiHH»er jwxm y 




IIpo4>. dp Joeim KyAunneeuh 



H3rjie^a ^a hm rajette nnejia He MO^ce 
6e3 yBeK hobmx npo6jieMa. Hnje HaM 6mjio 
AOBOJbHO uiTO je Bapoa nojiOBMHOM oBora 
Bexa M3 JyroHCTOHHe A3MJe 3a pejiaTMBHO 
KpaTKO Bpeivie npenjiaBHjia CKOpo uejiy 
njiaHeTy, a ca#a ce M3 Jy^cHe Amputee, 
npeKO OnopMae m hckmx /npyrax apacaBa Ha 
jyry CAfl, uiMpM hobm no cboj npMJiMUM 
onacaH napa3HT nnejiMtter Jierjia. 

McraHa, He 6n ce Morjio y noTnyHOCTH 
penn ,aaje hob jep je Majia KoniHHHMHa 6y6a 
(Aetina tumida), Ben jxyvo BpeMeHa npM- 
cyTHa Ha nHejiMH>an,MMa y Jyaoioj At^pnnn, 
He npe^CTaBJbajynn HeKy Behy onacHOCT 3a 
TaMoniH>e nnejiapCTBO. Moayja ce niTeTe 
o,a OBe 6y6e, o^hocho o,a H>eHMXJiapBM Mory 
ynope^MTM ca niTeTaMa ojx BocKOBor 
MOibua, c thm uito He CTBapa nay^MHy h He 
pa3apa cahe. 

ITpBa 3ana^caH>a o niTeTH Koje hmhm oBaj 
hobm napa3MT nHejiMH>er Jierjia npMMeTMJiH 
cy nnejiapn OjiopM^e. CaMO y je^HOM pe- 
rMOHy Yjxt cy BpmeHa MCTpa^KMBaH>a 
(Eischen m capa#., 1998) nponeHMJiH cy ,aaje 
Hana^HyTO oko 2.500 nnejiMiBMx apynrraBa. 
3apa3a ce m aajbe uiMpM m cacBHM je Bepo- 
BaTHO #a je OjiopM^a CKOpo noTnyHO 
3apa;>KeHa. 

OTBOpeHOJe nnTaH^e Ka^aje OBaj napa- 
3mt yHeT y CAfl? ITpeMa hckmm MHt^opMa- 
UMJaMa y Jy^KHOJ KapojiMHM MaJK Xya 
(Mike Hood) je npBe npniviepKe Aethina 
tumida M^eHTM(J)HKOBao y HOBeM6py 1996. 
ro^MHe. 

ITpeMa aMepMHKMM HaBO^MMa 3apa>KeHa 
ApyniTBa y OjiopM^M npona^ajy nocjie je,a- 
Hor Mecena. JToKajiHH nnejiapM cy BeoMa 
3a6pMHyTH. Je^aH ojx h>mx y OKTo6py 
npomjie ronmie Bpmenn nperjiea 1500 
^pyniTaBa 6mo je npMMOpaH #a m3^;bojm 100 
KoniHHna n jxa CBe je^HOCTaBHO cnajinjep cy 
napBe OBe 6y6e HanpaBMJie npaBH xaoc y 
nHejiMH^HM rHe3^HMa. HajBenn ^eo nnejin- 
h.mx jiapBM 6mo noje^eH a Morno ce 3ana- 
3MTM jxa. HMcy nouiTeJeHM hm ocTann CTaAH- 
jyMM nHejiMH^er Jierjia (jaja m nyTKe). 
ITojieH m Men, TaKofje, He caMO na jiapBaMa 



Majie KoniHMHHHe 6y6e cjiy>KH 3ajejio, Beh 
tm npOM3BOfln TaKO ynpjtaHM He Mory no- 
cjiy^KMTM 3a jtyacKy ncxpaHy. nnejiMJia 
ApymTBa Koja npe>KMBJbaBajy He 
noKymaBajy jib. nyTeM rpa6e^cn o,a,Hecy 
npeocTajin Mea H3 yHnniTeHHx KoniHMna. 
BepOBaTHO 36or Henera TaKBO cahe ca Me- 
flOM Hnje npMBJia4H0 n o^6nja nnejie M3Jom 
HeHana^HyTMx nnejiMttHx ^pynrraBa. 

nnejiapn noKymaBajy Ha pa3JiH4MTe 
HannHe #a ce 3aniTMTe o,a OBe 6y6e. Konajy 
ce KaHajin oko KoniHHna, j\& 6n ce OHe- 
Moryhno yjia3aK JiapBM n o^pacjinx kojm ce 
Hajia3e y 3eMJbMinTy nenpe^ jieTa. Moryhe 
je npMMeHa hckmx xeMMKajinja Koje ce 
KOpMCTe 3a 6op6y npOTMB BaTpeHnx MpaBa 
kojmx Heivia ko,h Hac, ajin to MO^ce Jiaxo 
flOBecTH #o TpOBaH>a nnejia. IToKyniaJM ca 
HeKMM BpCTaMa Tpaxa ca xeMMKajinjaMa 
Koje CTaBJbajy H3Mer)y OKBMpa HMcy aajin 
pe3yjiTaTe. He npenopynyje ce jxsl nnejiapn 
caMM eKcnepMMeHTMmy ca onacHMM xeMM- 
KajinjaMa jep to MO^ce MMaTH TeuiKnx 
noone^HHa. 

3a cana ocTaje jxa ce bm^m kojimkm he 
CTBapHO npo6jieM nocTaTn OBa Majia 
KoniHHHMHa 6y6a. Y obom MOMeHTy 3apa3a 
ce jaBMJia Ha BMine jiOKannja, ann je 
CTBapHO 036njbHa y hckmm MecTHMa. 

Moryhe je m je napa3HT y 1998. 6no y 
eKcnaH3MJn 36or CTnnaja okojihocth h #a 
he ^ohn jio Hexe BpCTe CMMpMBatta CMTya- 
nnje y 6yayhHOCTM. To 6n 6mo HajGoibM cne- 
HapMO. Ann je Moryhe jx& he ce 6y6a ^ajte 
mnpMTM m HaHOCMTM jom Behe niTeTe. 
noce6HO Mory 6htm yrpo^KeHM npo- 
HSBOrjaHH MaTMna ca h>mxobmm 6poJHMM 
HyKJieycMMa kojm cy o6mhho jiouMpaHH Ha 
necKOBMTMM TepeHMMa "Boptjnje, Ojiopn^e, 
TeKcaca n KajiM(J)opHMJe, a necaK je 
M3rjie,aa M^eanaH cyncTpaT 3a Majiy 
KoniHMHMHy 6y6y. 

y TOKy jeceHM je/ma Beha rpyna Haj- 
KpynHHJMx ajviepMHKMx KOMepuHJajiHnx 
n^ejiapa, oGnmnaje HeKe 3apa^ceHe TepeHe 
n ^ouiJia jxo saKJtyHKa ^a OBaj napa3MT 
MO^ce MMaTH KaTacTpo(J)ajiHe nocjie^Mne 3a 
H>nxoBe nnejiMftaKe. 



164 



n^ejiap 1999 



flp AjuieH (Eischen) n H>eroBe KOJiere cy 
cjiiiHHor MHiujteH>a m M3pa^caBajy HCTy 3a6- 

pMHyTOCT. 

A cajja HeuiTO Majio o MOptJ)OJioraJM n 
6nojiorMJii Majie KoniHHHHHe 6y6e (Aethina 
tumida). 





Ca. 3 JIapee MaAe kouihuhuhc 6y6e Ha 
oueupy ca jieejioM 

Koje ce Hajia3e GjiM^ce rjiaBe, jiok jiapBe 
BOCKOBor MOJtna MMajy Haaoiue pa- 
cnoperjeHe pyx. upBOJinicor Tejia. JiapBe 
BOCKOBor MOJBLia 6e^ce or cbctjiocth y 
nay^MHacTy Macy Ben pa30peHor cana, a 
JiapBe Majie KOiiiHHHMHe 6y6e cy aKTMBHe 
Ha noBpuiMHy cana m He npaBe nay^MHy. y 
jaKO 3apa>KeHMM KOinHnnaMa, o/iMax ce 
Mory BMjjeTM Ha ctothhc jiapBH Koje 
raMM^cy no cany n y oiriauHMa Ha nojjitaHM 
(Cji. 3. h 4.). Kao uito cmo Beh HanoMeHyjin 



Ca. 1 OdpacAa muao. kouihuhuhci 6y6a 

O/jpacTao HHceicrje Majia OBajma 6y6a, 
jxy^mHQ HeuiTO BHme or 0,5 cm. OGojeHOCT 
xnTnHCKor OMOTana njxe ojj, TaMHO CMBe jxo 
npHor, ca KapaKTepncTMHHHM KpymxacTHM 
nnnnnMa (GriHKa 1.). Oapacjin ce Kpehy no 
cany, yHyTpainitoj CTpaHn noKJionHe jjacice 
n nojjHjann h to BeoMa 6p30. Xmtmh MMJe 
rjia^aK n TeniKO ce xBaTajy npciriMa. JiapBe 
jinne Ha upBe h Taico ce n noHamajy (Guinea 
2.). OHe HMajy Tpn napa Majinx Hoaoma 





Ca. 2 JIapee MaAe kouihuhuhc 6y6e y 
heAujajwa caha ca aczaom 



Ca. 4 Ha cmomune Aapeu MaAe 

KouiHUHUHe 6y6e y omnauuMa Ha 

nodmanu 



JiapBe napa3HTHpajy y Jierjiy, npaBehn 
TyHejie Kp03 cahe, jjet^eunpajy y Me/ry, 
y3poKyjyhM jia Me/j, nocTaHe npjtaB h bo/i- 
H>HKaB, cjiMBajyhn ce Ha nojiraaHy n Kp03 
jieTO. Ako nnejiap xohe Jia cnace cahe Mopa 
ra jio6po ncnpaTH bo/iom. JiapBe Majie 
KoniHHHMHe 6y6e HanyniTajy KOinHHiry jia 
6n ce ynaypnjie n npemjie y CTajjHJyM jiyTKe 
y 3eMJBHniTy ncnpe,a KOiiiHuue. Ha Kpajy 



165 



n^ejiap 1999 



3apaxeHa nnejiHita jjpyniTBa yraitaBaJy 
hjih nneneje/iHOCTaBHO HanycTe KoniHHiiy. 

JlpHcycTBO h noje/iHHaHHHX JiapBH OBe 
6y6e y koihhhhh yno30paBa Ha onacHOCT ojj, 
npejicTojene HHBa3HJe h hhm ce h>hxob 6poj 
noBeha inaHca jja lie n^ejiHH>e /jpyniTBO 
npeacHBeTH 6p30 ce CMaH>yje. 

Hnje cacBHMJacHO Kaxo ce 6y6a niHpH, 
hhth KaKO je yonuiTe Jipcnejia y CeBepHy 
AMepHKy. He 3Ha ce KaKO jjajiexo ojjpacjiH 
Mory JieTeTH. By6a ce jaBJta y nnejiHika- 
HHMa KOJH HHKa/ia HHcy cejteHH h Ha ohhm 
kojh ce CTajiHO cejie. V tom nome/jy HeMa 
HeKHX npaBHJia. CacBHM je cnrypHO jia ce 
niHpH npeKO nqejiHH>HX jipyurraBa, calia h 
KoniHHua. HejacHO je jja jih Moxe oncTaTH 
h yMHO^caBaTH ce Ha GnjbKaMa hjih Ha HeKH 
jjpyrn HaHHH, OH^e rjie HeMa n*iejiHH>HX 
jjpynrraBa. HajGojtH nyGjiHKOBaH pa/j, o 
GHOJioraJH OBe niTeTO^HHe noTH^e H3 
Jy^KHe A(J)pHKe (Lunde, 1940) yKa3yje Ha 
ajiTepHaTHBHy ncxpaHy oa hckhx 6njbaKa 
Koje cy jjeo XHBOTHor HHKJiyca Mane 
KoiHHH^HHe 6y6e (A. tumida). 

LllTa Ha obo CBe peliH? Hexo lie noMHC- 
jihth uiTa ce Hac TH^e OBa HeBoiba 
aiviepHHKHX iraejiapa. To je jjajiexo o/i, Hac h 
HeMa uiaHCH jja OBa onacHa GyGniia jiorje jjo 
Hac. Moxjaje to Taxo. 

MnaKTpeGa 6hth Kpajn>e o6a3pHB,jep y 
JyxHoj A(J)pHUH HMa JiocTa Hanrax JtynH a 
aBHOHCKH caoGpaliaj OMoryfiaBa npeHoc 



CBera h CBaqera. Ha OBaj HaHHH je Ha 
CypHHHCKH aepo/jpoM npe HeKOJiHKO ro- 
jjHHa npHcnejia H3 AMepHKe jejjHa 
HiTeTOHHHa Kyxypy3a h BeoMa 6p30 ce 
paiHHpMJia. 

IIpeMa TOMe joinje,naH aneji iraejiapHMa 
jia He yHoce MaTime, miejie hjih 6hjio kojh 
pM3iiHan MaTepHJai ca kojhm 6h MorjiH zia 
H3a30BeMo oBaKee h amine npoSjieivie, jep 
HaMJe h npeBHiue npo6jieMa ca sapooM h 
pa3HHM apyrHM 6oJiecTHMa Hame Me- 
^OHocHe nnejie. 

CeM Tora, no3Haio je jja je npeMa 
nocTojeliHM 3aKOHCKHM nponncHMa Haj- 
CTpo^HJe 3a6paH>eH yB03 MaTHiia h pojeBa 
jjpyrnx paca irae-Jia, jep ce mh Hajia3HM0 y 
ueHTpy HajGojte pace (Apis mellifera car- 
nica) hjih ayTOXTOHe miejie jjaHaunte Jyro- 
cjiaBHJe. 



JlHTepaTypa: 

1. Delaplane, K. S. (1998) The small hive 
beetle, Aetnina tumida, in the South west 

Am. Bee Journ. 138, 884-886 

2. Eischen, F.A, Baxter, J. R., Elzen, P. J. 
Westervelt, D., and W. T. Wilson (1998) 

Am. Bee Journ. 138, 882-883 

3. Lunde, A. E. (1940) The small hive beetle, 
Aethina tumida. South Africa Depart, of Agr. 
and Forestry 

Science Bulletin 220 



166 



n^ejiap 1999 

H3 CTAPHXnHEJIAPCKHXHACOnHCA 

O yji03H MaTHue y nnejiHibeM apyiiiTBy 

("nnejiap" - V/VI - 1963.) 



CxBaTarae yjiore MaTHue y n*rejiHH>eM 
apyniTBy Meitajio ce y TOKy BpeMeHa. y 
noqeTKy ce CMaTpano #aje MaTHua ueHTap 
^pyuiTBeHe opraHH3auHJe, 36or ^era ce 
ynoTpeGjbaBao TepMHH "Kpajb" m ce 
03HaHH BejiHKa je^HHKa, Koja BJia,n,a h 
ynpaBJta cbhm pa^oBHMa y ^pyuiTBy. M^eja 
Ra je "Kpajb" nnejia xeHKa mrje Gnna 
Heno3HaTa Her^aiHibHM HcnHTHBa^HMa, jep 
je join ApHCTOTeji (HaJBenn HayHHHK 
CTapHX TpKa) nncao Ra ce, aico Ta BejiHKa 
nnejia mrje npHcyma, pa3BHJajy caMO 
TpyTOBH a He nnejie. Jlo^eTKOM XVII BeKa 
,HOJia3H ce ro npBHX ca3Haita #a je "Kpajb" 
nnejia y CTBapH "KpajbHiia". Ajihjoih yBeK 
npeoBJiarjyje MHimbeibe Ra je OHa Mynpn 
ynpaBJLan, a He MaJKa cbojhx paAHjrana h 
TpyTOBa y j,pyniTBy. TeK KpajeMXVII BeKa 
,ne4)HHHTHBHOje yTBprjeH noji MaTHue, hto 
or CTpaHe xojiaH/icKor HayqHHKa CBaMep- 
/iaMa, kojh je /niceKUHJOM MaTHue to 
yrBp^HO. JlojioBHHOM XVII Bexa ^,oihjio ce 
ro BejiHKor OTKpHria, npoHarjeH je MHKpo- 
CKon, npHMHTHBaH, aiiH ^obojlho #o6ap Ra 
ce no^ bhm H3BpniH ^HceKUHJa MaTHue. 
Cto roj,HHa ,n;oHHHJe ca3Haje ce Ra ce Ma- 
THua napH ca TpyTOM BaH KOHiHHire 
(JaHiua) h jia OHa He Mo^ce Ra nonaxe 
onnorjeHa jaja H3 kojhx ce pa3BHJajy 
pa^HJiHire h MaTHue ^,ok He HanpaBH CBaR- 
6eHH JieT, ca Kora ce Bpana ca 3HaKOM 
naperaa (OpaHcoa M6ep). Cpe^HHOM XIX 
BeKa #ojia3H ce ro ca3Haiba jia ce TpyTOBH 
pa3BHJajy napTeHoreHeTCKHM nyTeM tj. H3 
HeonjiorjeHHXjaja CLep30H). M TaKO, Mano 
no Mano, ctbophjio ce MHirubeibe Raje Ma- 
THua bhcoko cneuHJajiH30BaHa je^HHKa 3a 
npo/iyKHHJyjaja y tojihkoj MepH #aje H3ry- 
Gnjia cnocoGHOCT jia caKymta xpaHy, rpa/iH 
rae3,n;o h xpaHH JiapBe. Ha Taj Ha^HH ce 
cxBaTaite o yjio3H MaTHue y n*iejiHH>eM 
/IpyuiTBy npoMeHHJio. JloKa3ajio ce Ra Ha- 

3HB "MaTHLta", KOJH Cy CJIOBeHCKH Hapo^H 

or yBeK ynoTpeGjbaBajiH, HajGojbe o/iroBa- 
pa H>eHoj CTBapHoj (})yHKHHJH y ^pyniTBy. 



npotf). dp BacKa <PuAunoeuh-MocK06Jbeeuti 

Hobom cxBaTaay, tj. ^aje npoH3Borje*be 
jaja HaJ3Ha*iaJHHJa <j>yHKHHJa MaTHue, ro- 
npHHejiH cy pe3yjrraTH, kojh cy noKa3ajiH 
Ra MaTHua HMa H3BaHpe/iHy cnocoGHOCT 3a 
jiexeite jaja. Jlo3HaTO je Ra y maBHOM ne- 
pH0j,yjie^ceH>a, o,n cpe,HHHe anpHJia/io cpe- 
^HHe jyHa Meceua, je^Ha n;o6pa MaTHua 
nonaxe j,HeBHO npoce^HO 1.200 ro 1 500 
jaja. Ilpe h nocjie obot BpeMeHa MaTHua 
npo^yKyje MaibH 6poj jaja y Be3H ca 

npOMeHJBHBHM BpeMeHCKHM yCJIOBHMa 

XHBOTa. CMaTpa ce Ra je^Ha ,n;o6pa MaTHua 
Moace Ra npo^yKyje h ro 200 000 jaja 
TORYmm>z. flaje cnocoGHOCT MaTHue 3a no- 
jiaraH>ejaja Bpjio BejiHKa, HajGojte roBopH 
HHH^eHHua Ra 1 500 iteHHX jaja, kojihko OHa 
Moxe Ra npo^yKyje y TOKy 24 qaca, 
o^roBapa yKynHoj TeatHHH H>eHor Tejia 
(0,23 rpaMa). 3aHHMJbHBJe no/iaTaKJe^Hor 
Bpno CTapor HcnHTHBana (JloJKapT) npeMa 
MHJHM npopa^yHHMa miejiHita MaTHita y 
TOKy ,iiaHa nponsBO^H tojihko jaJHe Mace, 
Kao K&R 6h jejiHa kokoih CBaKor ,iiaHa 
HOCHJia 20 jaja. Obh h cjih^hh no^aun 
yHHHHJiH cy Ra ce ctboph MHiHibeH^e ^a Ma- 
THita y n^ejiHHjeM j;pyiHTBy HMa je^HHO 
nojiHy ynory. 

Mo^epHa HcnHTHBaita noKa3yjy Ra ua- 
THua, nopea Tora iuto npoH3BO^H jaja h Ha 
Taj Ha^HH BpniH o6HaBJbaH>e *maHOBa 
/IpyuiTBa, uiToje CBaKaKO je^Ha or iteHHX 
ochobhhx (J)yHKitHJa, HMa h ^pyre (J)yHKUHJe 
y ^pyniTBy , koj e ce npnnHcyjy ^ejcTBy 
MaTHHHe cyncTaHHHJe. Je^HO o,ii HaJ3Ha- 

MaJHHJHX OTKpHha y ^IpyiHTBeHOM XHBOTy 

kor n^enajecTe Ra MaTHua npo^yKyje T3B. 
"MaTHHHy cyncTaHUHJy", Koja cnpe^aBa He- 
roBaH>e hobhx MaTHua h pa3BHhe jajitaKa 
ko,ii nnena pa^HJinua. MaTH^Hy cyncTaH- 

UHJy H H>eHO ^ejCTBO HCnHTHBaJIH Cy CKOpO 

HCTOBpeMeHO, noHeBiHH o,a, 1954. roa;HHe 
XaHHHa FleH, Fpot h Oor, ajin HaJBHine 
BaTJiep ca cbojhm capa^HHUHMa. y no- 
cjie^H>e BpeMe, ^,ejcTBO MaTHue npeKO 
MaTHHHe cyncTaHUHJe, ca Henocpe^HHM 



167 



n^ejiap 1999 



yranajeM OBe TBOpeBHHe Ha jajH>aKe kojj; 
pajjHJinna h H>eHHM nocpe^HHM ynmajeM 
Ha tok ^pyniTBeHHX nojaBa, Ha jjpyniTBeHe 
pajjoBe, excnepHMeHTajiHO cy HcnHTHBajiH 

MHJIOJeBHll, 0HJIHnOBHn-MoCKOBJbeBHn H 

TSaKOBHn (Beorpajj). 

MaTH^Ha cynciaHunja ce CTBapa y 
bhjih*ihhm (MaHJjnGyjiapHHM) }KJie3Jj,aMa 
MaTHue, Koje cy kojj ite Hajja^e pa3BnjeHe, 
jjoGpo cy pa3BHJeHe kojj; pa/jjuraue, jjok cy 
kojj TpyTOBa Bpjio Mane. OBe ;>KJie3Jje cy 
CMeimeHe y rjiaBH, Ha npejjitoj CTpaHH, 
H3Hajj CBaKe bhjihhc (MaH/jnGyjie) nojejjHa. 

CeKpeT Ce H3JIHBa Kp03 KpaTKH KaHaJIHHn 

kojh ce 3aBpinaBa Ha ochobh MaH/jnGyjie, 
o/jaKJie ce pa3Hocn no nejioj noBpniHHH 
Tena MaTHite. n^ene pajjnjinne y jjh- 
peKTHOM KOHTaKTy ca MaTHHpM y3HMajy ca 
H>eHor Tena OBy cyncTaHUHJy, Koja ce 3aTHM 
nyTeM pa3H0ineH>a xpaHe pa3/jeji>yje Met)y 
HJiaHOBHMa jjpyniTBa. Obo *ihhh pa3yM- 
jbHBHJHM KapaKTepHCTHHHO noHaniaH>e 
nqena npeMa MaTHini, Koje je CBaKH nnejiap 
HMao npHJiHKe jja bhjjh: pa/jnjiHue 
OKpyacyjy Marany ca ruaBaMa OKpeHyTHM 
npeMa H>oj, xpaHeje, jjojjnpyjy nnniniMa n 
^ncTe Jinxyhn je je3HKOM. Tom npnjiHKOM 
pa/jHJiHne y3HMajy ca H>eHor Tejia 6noaK- 
THBHy cyncTaHUHJy, xoja cnpe^aBa pa3BHfre 
jaJH>ax:a kojj h>hx. OBa MaTepnja ce Haiia3H y 
npojjyKTHMa MaHJjnGyjiapHHX )KJie3Jja h kojj 
HecnapeHHX MaTHna h kojj MaTHna 
TpyTyma. npeMa BaTJiepy HejjocTaTaK OBe 
cynciaHunje je je/jaH HenocpejjHH y3pox 
3aMeHe MaTHna n Ma kojh Jjpyrn <J)aKTOp, 
Kao ihto cy GojiecTH hjih noBpejje MaTHue, 
ihto pa3HH ayTopH CMaTpajy Kao y3poK 
3aMeHe MaTHne, caMO cy nocjiejjnna 
CMa^eHe cnocoGHOCTH MaTHue jja np0H3- 
bojjh MaraHHy cyncTaHUHJy hjih jjaje pa3Jje- 
jbyje Merjy pa/jHJinnaMa. JIoctojh h 
MHiHJbeH^e jja ojj noKpeutHBOCTH MaTHne 
3aBHCH jja jih he nnejie jjoGhth Maite hjih 
BHine OBe cyncTaHnnje. 

npeMa HaJHOBHJHM ca3Han>HMa MaTH^ma 
cyncTaHunja je xcmhjckh HcnHTaHa, chh- 
TeTH30BaHa h jjecj)HHHcaHa Kao (J)epoMOH 
(Bauiep, KojioynlJoHCTOH). OepoMOHHcy 
cyncTaHUHJe cjihhhc no cbom jjejcTBy xop- 
MOHHMa, caMO ihto ce He Hary^ryjy y KpB, 
Beh y cnojtainH>y cpejjHHy. OBe MaTepnje 
jejjHa HHjjHBHJjya H3JiyHyje, a Jjpyre je y3H- 
Majy ca H>eHor Tejia h OHe kojj h>hx H3a3H- 
Bajy ojjperjeHO noHaniaite, hjih pa3BHfie 
ojjperjeHHX opraHa. TepMHH "(J)epoMOH M 



noTHHe ojj rp^KHX pe^H "4)epeHH M (npe- 
hochth) h "xopmoh" (noTCTHnaTH). Oepo- 
mohh cy hob Ha3HB 3a cyncTaHnnje Koje cy 
paHHJe 03HanaBaHe Kao eKTOxopMOHH, a y 
jjpyniTBHMa HHceKaTa join n Kao "cohh- 

jaJIHH XOpMOHH". 

MaTHHHa cyncTaHunja hjih n*iejiHH>H 
(J>epoMOH, KaKO ce OHa cajja Ha3HBa, npn- 

pOJJHa HJIH CHHTeTHHKa, HMa Hdy 6h- 

ojioniKy aKTHBHOCT. CaMO je yTBpfjeHO jja 
nnejiHHjH (J>epoMOH, Hnjaje xeMHJCKa (J>op- 
Myjia cajja no3HaTa, He Mo^ce norayHO jja 
cnpenn HeroBan>e hobhx MaTHna h pa3BHne 
jajn>aKa kojj pajjnjiHiia. nocTojn join jejjaH 
hhxhGhtophh (cnpenaBajyta) 4>aKT0p, aTO 
je "MaTH^iHH MHpHc", kojh Jjejiyje 3a- 
jeJJHHMKH Ca MaTHHHOM cyncTaHinijoM. H 
cyncTaHunja, or Koje noTme MaTMHH 
MHpnc, npnna^a rpynn MaTepnja, Koje ce 
osHa^iaBajy Kao 4>epoMOHH. 

CajjaniH^a HCTpa^cnBaHia noKa3yjy jja 
MaTHna nopejj penpo^yKTHBHe HMa h Jjpyre 
jjyacHOCTH y n^iejiHH>eM jjpyniTBy, h ^aje je- 
jjaH o^ BaacHHX ^HHHJiaua 3a 0flp^caBaH>e 
jjpyniTBa Kao nejiHHe. MaTnua npojjyicyje 
^Ba (J)epoMOHa kojh Kpy^ce Mejy ^JiaHO- 
BHMa jjpyniTBa h H3a3HBajy ojjpe^eHO 
noHamaH>e h pa3BHTaK o/ipe^eHHX opraHa. 
CBe obo yKa3yje jja cy oj,hoch Mef)y ^JiaHO- 
BHMa n^ejiHH^e 3aje^HHiie Bpjio cjioxeHH h 
pa3HOBpcHH. 36or Tora ce MexaHH3aM 
aejcTBa MaTHue npeKO MaTH^iHHX (J)epo- 
MOHa He Mo^ce nocMaTpaTH H30Ji0BaH0, Ben 
y OKBHpy cjioxeHe h npoMeHJtHBe CTpyK- 
Type n^ejiHH>er jjpyniTBa, y KOMe Jjejiyjy 
MHorn (J)aKT0pH, Kao uito cy y cbojhm HcnH- 
THBaH>HMa noKa3ajiH MnjiojeBHh, Ohjih- 
noBHh-MocKOBJbeBnh h TSaKOBHli. n^ejia 
je connjajiHO 6nhe. LI,eo H>eH xhbot h paR 
ojjBHJa ce caMO y jjpyniTBy hjih y Be3H ca 
h^hm. M3JjBojeH H3 jjpyniTBa Ma kojh HJiaH 
nqejiHH^e 3ajejjHHne TeuiKO ce ojjpxaBa h 
6p30 nponajja. 36or Tora ce h npH Hay^HHM 
HcnHTHBaH>HMa n^ejia h y npaKTH^HOM 
pa^,y ca H>HMa, yBeK Mopa jja bojjh panyHa o 
cjioxeHHM ojjHocHMa kojh nocToje Me^y 
HJiaHOBHMa nHejiHH>e 3ajejjHHue, jep ncnn- 
THBaH^a jjpyuiTBeHor XHBOTa kojj nnejia 
noKa3yjy m cy th oj;hoch jjajieKO 
cjioxeHHJH Hero nrro ce paHHJe mhcjihjio. 

IIpHpeaHo: <D. M. 



168 



nnejiap 1999 



n>iejiHH>H BOCaK 

Ceemo3ap BejbKoeuH y Hympuu i uoHucma 



JejjaH ojj nnejiHifcHX npoH3BO/ia kojh ce y 
CBaKOflHeBHOM XHBOTy Maite cnoMHite, 3a 
pa3JiHKy ojj; Me/ia, MJie^a, nojieHa h npono- 
jiHcaje imejraiM BocaK. 

KaKo imejie lipase BocaK 

O OBOMeje HaJBHiue no/jaTaKa JiaojeJiaH 
on HaJBetax no3HaBajiana nnejiapcTBa 
yonnne, cobjctckh aKajieMHK HayM 
IleTpoBHh JojpHiii. npeMa nncaity y H>ero- 
bom no3HaTOM Jjejry "Xlnejie h Me/jHUHHa", 
BocaK npaBe HCKJtyHHBO rmejie pa/jHJiHue. 
OHe ra CTBapajy noMohy cneuHJajiHHX 
xjte3^a cMeuiTeHHx Ha nerapH nocjiejjita 
TpGyniHa nonynpcTeHa. Kp03 MHoroGpoJHe 
nope ocaM BOIHTaHHX orjie/jajiaua H3Jiynyjy 

Ce BOIHTaHHJIHCTHflH. 

npBH ^OBeK kojh je 3ana3HO Jiaje Bocax 
npoH3BO/j, XHBOTHe aKTHBHOCTH nnejia 
pajjHJiHua je IJoh MapTHH, kojh je JiaBHe 
1684. ro/jHHe, ca TpGyxa nnejie pajjHJiHue 
BpxoM nrjie CKHHyo BouiTaHe JLycnHite. 
Me|)yTHM, ojj, Tor BpeMeHa TpeGajio je Jia 
nporjejoni cto ro/iHHa JioKJe IJoh XaHTep 
jioKa3ao Jia BonnaHe acjbe3Jje iraejie 
pa/iHJiHHe H3parjyjy BocaK. 

MHTepecaHTHO je noMeHyrH Jia cy 100 
BonrraHHX JiHCTHha TeniKHX 25 mg, Taxo ija 
y je/iHOM KHJiorpaMy Bocxa HMa qerapn 

MHJIHOHa BOIHTaHHX JIHCTOBa. 

3a je/jHy miejiHity hejiHJHiry nnejie 
yTpoine 13 mg BOCKa hjih 50 BouiTaHHX 
JiHCTHha, a 3a TpyTOBCKy hejiHJHiry 30 mg 

BOCKa HJIH 120 BOIHTaHHX JiHCTHha. 

CBaKO cahe cacTojn ce H3 jjBa moa uiec- 
ToyraoHHX BouiTaHHX hejiHJnua Koje HMajy 
oniHTy (3ajejjHHHKy) nperpa/jy Koja cjry>KH 
Kao jjho obhx hejiHJHua. TaKBO cahe je 
TeniKO 150 g h HMa 9,100 HiecToyraoHHX 
hejiHJHua 3a ycKJia/iHiHTeike h *iyBaH>e oko 
4 kg Mejja. 



n^iejie pajjHJiHue, Beh ojj TpojjHeBHor 
hjih neTO/jHeBHor y3pacTa, H3Jiyqyjy TaHaK 
cjioj BOCKa Kpo3 BoiuTaHa orjiejjajma, ajin 
HaJ3pejiHJe pa3BHhe xibe3Jja jjocTiDKy 
H3Merjy jjBaHaecTor h ocaMHaecTor jjaHa 
CTapocTH, Hapo^iHTO Kajja y koihhhhh HMa 
jjobojbho nojieHOBor npaxa h Me/ia. 

KaKo HacTaje cafie 

Kajjaje BocaK H3JiyneH, HeKa ojj rrqejia 
pa/jHJiHua noHHH>e ca H3rpajjitoM npBor 
caha, npH^BpinhyjyhH 3a TaBaHHiry Maity 
KOJiHHHHy JienjBHBe cyncTaHue y Kojy cy 

BOUITaHH JIHCTHhH npeTBOpeHH Jjy^HM 

XBaKaiteM, CHaxHHM *iejbycTHMa h 
KBaineH>eM ceKpeTOM mbyBaHHHX 3Gi>e3Jja. 
flpyre nnejie cjie/ie then npHMep h TaKO 
npouec H3rpajjH>e caha noHHH>e. HoBe qec- 
THite BOCKa Jjojjajy ce Ha HBHue rparjeBHHe 
h, y noTnyHoj TaMH, Merjy nnejiaMa noere- 
neHO pacTe o;io3ro Hajjojie JiHBaH "06- 
jeKaT" kojh y ce6n cnaja JiaKohy h CHary, 

TpaUH03HOCT H KOpHCHOCT, HdUTO HITO je 

ojjBaJKajia H3a3HBajio jjHBJbeite h HaBOJjHJio 
Ha pa3MHinjbaH>e h (J)HJi030(J)e , h hc- 
Tpa^cHBane npHpo/je, MaTeMara^iape h rpa- 
jjHTejte, a HapoHHTO rpajjHTejte h MaTe- 
MaTH^iape. 

Cbh ohh kojh cy BHine ro/jHHa pajjHJiH ca 
nnejiaMa, H3ynaBajiH h>hxob xhbot h 
HaBHKe, carjiacHH cy jja je y nocjioBHMa 
nnejia pajjHjraua HajnyjjHHJa h Haj/iHBHHJa 
H3rpajjHoa caha. flnejie, TonnoHH^iapH bo- 
CKa, caMe cnpaBibajy BoniTaHe "uHrjiHue" h 
H3rparjyjy, 6e3 HKaKBor ynyTCTBa h 
UpTe^ca, inecToyraoHe hejiHJHiie Koje 
cjiyxe Kao noAecHe ocTaBe 3a Me^, jjhbhc 
npocTopHje 3a ycKJia/jHiHTefte nojieHOBor 
npaxa, nepre (nMejiHH^er xjieGa), BeoMa 
Jiy6oKe KOJieBKe 3a Gyjjyhe n^ejiHH>e no- 
tomctbo h H3BaHpejjHe npocTopHje 3a oji- 
Mop nnejia. 



169 



flnejiap 1999 



CTBapaH>e cafia jiobojbho roBopH rsl je 
nnejia caBpineH h HeHajiManieH rpajjHTejL h 
Jia je yoniirre caBpineHa y CBeMy, hjih 6ojte 
pehH Ji,a je nnejia BejiHKa TaJHa MohH npH- 
pojie. 



IlHejie HMcy caMo caepuieHH rpajjjrrejMi 
Beh 11 nenpeBa3H^eiiH MaieMaTfiHapii 

BejirnjcKH nHcan; Mopnc MeTepJiHHK 
Gnoje CTpacTBeHH nnejiap. y CBOjoj kh>h3h 
"Xhbot nnejia" oh ramie Jiaje noneTKOM 
18. Bexa no3HaTH <J)paHnycKH 4>H3HHap 
PeoMHp 3aHHTepecoBao HCTaKHyTor 
niBajnapcKor MaTeMaTH^apa Kemira 
cjie^ehHM 3a/iaTKOM: "Kojihkh Tpe6a ja 
6yne Tynn yrao poM6a y ocHOBy nejiHJnue 
cana Me^oHOCHe iraejie, #a 6h nejiHJHna 
Gnjia H3rpaf)eHa ca npopa^yHOM jia ce y H>oj 
CMecTH HaJBeha KOJinnHHa Me.ua y3 HaJMaitH 
yTpoinaK BOCKa"? KeHHrje ojxpejiHO yrao 
KOJHJe 6ho paBaH 109 h 26'. Oh je join Jiojiao 
h to Jjaje 3a H^eroBe npejxxojiHHKe 3a;iaTaK 
6ho HepeniHB, noniTO hm HHJe 6ho no3HaT 
mctojj H3pa^yHaBaH>a. 

HayHHHKMapaji/iH, H3MepHBniH Hajnpe- 
UH3HHJe yrjioBe poMGoBa Koje cy H3pajiHJie 
iraejie - H3paf)HBaHH BOCKa, ycTaHOBHOje #a 
BejiHKH yrao HMa 109 h 28'. Pa3JiHKa H3Mef)y 
jjBa Mepeita H3HOCHJia je 2', iuto npejj- 
CTaBJLa Jieo yrjia kojh je no cbojhm pa3- 
MepaMa totobo HeBHJjJtHB 3a tojio oko. 
Ajih obo ojicTynaite ojj HajeKOHOMH^HHJe 
pa3Mepe HHcy Ha^HHHJie nnejie rpajiHTejBH 
cana, Beh je oho jioihjio ycjiejj rpeniKe 
MaTeMaTHnapa KeHHra. 

To^HHe 1743. Hay^HHK MaKpojiHH H3 
EjjHHGypra nojiHeo je pe<J)epaT KpajteB- 
ckom ^pyniTBy y KOMe je £OKa3ao Jia je 
BejinnHHa Tor yrjia 109° 28' 16". KacHHJeje 
nyKOBHHK J\. O. OapGec H3pa*iyHao jia je 
Taj yrao paBaH 109° 28' 16,349". 

Ha OBaj HaHHH, nnejie rpajjHTejtH cahay 
npaKCH npHMeH>yjy HajeKOHOMH^HHJH h 
HajnejincxojjHHJH MeTO^ irarpaaifce, jep je 



ocHOBa hejiHJe HBpcTa 3aTO hito ce Ha- 
cjiaita Ha HBHixe 3HjipBa Tpnjy hejiHJHna Ha 
cynpoTHOj CTpaHH caha. 

n^ene Mory H3rpajiHTH 3a 24 naca jejjjry 

MHJIHJap/iy H BHUie BOIHTaHHX JIHCTHha. 

M3rpa^H>a caha 3axTeBa bcjimkh yTpoinaK 
eHeprnje Kojy irqejie HajjoKHa?)yjy ynoTpe- 
6om Mejia h noneHOBor npaxa. }\a 6h 
H3rpa,aHJie jejjaH KHJiorpaM Bocxa, iraejie 
yrpoine HeKOJiHKO KHJiorpaMa Mejja. Flo 
OBOMe n^ejiHHiH BocaK Mopao 6h na HMa Be- 
JiHKy ueHy y ojiHocy Ha BpejiHoer 
yTponieHor Me.ua h nojieHa 3a iteroBy npo- 

H3BOJJH>y. 

M3 CBera OBora npoH3HJia3H caMojejjHO, 
a to je, Jiaje nnejia HCTOBpeMeHO H3y3eTHO 
Bpe^Ha h "naMeTHa", "Myapa" Kao peTKO 
ko. 3aTO ce y Hapojjy 3a Hexora Koje Bpe- 
naa hjih yMaH Ka^e: "BpejjaH Kao nnejia" h 
"naMeTaH Kao n*iejia". E, Kyu 6h *i0BeKy 
6ho Kpaj Kajja 6h 6ho Kao nnejia! A Jia 
HeBOJba 6yjxe join Beha, hhko He apxH ro 
jejjHe BeiiHKe HCTHHe, "jja je jejjaH Hapojj, 
ohojihko CHpoMamaH hjih 6oraT kojihko 
KoniHHua HMa" . KaMO Jiene cpene jja HMaMO 
pa3BHJeHHJe miejiapcTBO h mhoto, mhoto 
KoniHHua. Ajih niTa MoxeMO, Kajj HHJe 
CBaKOMe jj,aTO ^a je "Bpe^aH h naMeTaH Kao 
nnejia". 

npMMeiia BOCKa 

HoBeK no BOCKa jjojia3H TaKO uito cahe 
nocjie BpuaH>a Mejja, Hajnpe ohhcth oji 
Mejja, 3aTHM ra Tonn y bojjh Koja KJtyna, 
TaKO jxa BocaK HcnjiHBa Ha noBpniHHy BOJje, 
a Kajj,a ce oxjiajjn oh ce CTBpjjHe, noHOBO ce 
Tonn h JiHJe y Kajiyne, nocjie ^eraje totob 
3a ynoTpeGy. 

Flo cbom cacTaBy nnejiHH>H BocaK je 
Bpjio cjioxeH, a npeMa HeKHM ayTopHMa 
joni yBeK HHJe cacBHM yTBp^eH. 3Ha ce jja ce 
cacTOJH ojj 15 pa3JiH*iHTHX jejjHHjeH^a, ^inja 

KOJIHHHHa BapHpa 3aBHCHO ojj HcxpaHe 

n^iejia h HanHHa fteroBor jj,o6HJaH>a. 

yTBp^eHO je jja cajjpxn 70,4 jjo 74,9% 

CHIDKeHHX eTepH^IHHX MaCHHX KHCeJIHHa, 



170 



n^ejiap 1999 



13,5 #0 15% cjioGouhhx KHcejiHHa, 12,5 ro 
15,5% yribeHHX xn^paia, MHHepajme cac- 
TOJKe, Kao h 6oje h apoMaTH^me cyncTaHue 
or kojhx 3aBHCH H>eroBa 6oja h npnjaTaH 

KapaKTepHCTH^aH MHpHC. 

n*iejiHH>H BocaK HMa niHpoKy npHMeHy 
y pa3HHM rpaHaivia HH^ycTpHJe: Ko^capcKoj, 

ayTOMOGHJICKOJ, TeKCTHJIHOJ, CTaKJiapCKOJ, 

<j>apMaueyTCKOj, npexpaMGeHoj h apyraM. 
YnoTpeGibaBa ce, TaKofje, 3a H3pa#y cnenn- 
jajiHHX ojiobkh, MacTH h TyineBa. IloinTO je 
OTnopaH Ha KHcejiHHe, BocaK HMa npHMeHy 
y rajiBaHonjiacTHHH. Kao MaTepnjaji kojh 
He nponyuiTa Boay, ynoTpeGjbaBa ce 3a hm- 
nperaauHJy Koace, xapTHJe, JiHHOJieyMa h 
/IpBeTa, 3aTHM 3a H3paay H30JiauH0HHX Ma- 
TepHJajia, JiaKOBa, MacHHX 6oja, nnacTe- 
jiHHa, Ma3HBa 3a napKeT, Koacy h £pyro. 

EIoceGHO HMa npHMeHy y Me^nnHHH. 
Join or HajcTapHJHX BpeMeHa BocaK ce 



ynoTpeGjtaBao Kao jickobhto cpe^icTBO. 
Oh je h ^aHac Heonxo^Ha cnpoBHHa y mqrh- 
hhhh, <j>apMaunJH h K03MeTHnn, jep ce 
noMohy H>era npnnpeMajy pa3He BpcTe 
MacTH, MeneMa, KpeMa, noMa^a, JiocnoHa, 
4>jiacTepa h cjih^ho. HapoqHTO BejiHKy 
npHMeHy HMa y H3pa£H MacTH h MejieMa 3a 
jie^eike koxhhx GojiecTH. 

tberoBa npHMeHa y ^epMaTOJiorHJH h 
K03MeTOJiornJH je Taico BaxHa h Heonxo/iHa 
naje coBJeTKOM (JmpMaKonejoM nponncaHO 
m CBe anoTeice Mopajy #a npnnpeMajy 
4>jiacTepe, Mac™ h KpeMOBe ca nHejiHH>HM 

BOCKOM. 

BocaK, Kao n cbh apyrn nnejiHikH np0H3- 
bo^ih HMajy BejiHKy Bpe^Hocr. flpyraM 
pe^HMa, CBe ihto HaM nnejia #aje je o^ Be- 

JIHKe Bpe/IHOCTH H KOpHCTH 3a ^OBeKa. 



171 



n^ejiap 1999 



Ceo6a nnejii/ii-bi/ix APV-UTaBa 



Momhujio M. MuAojeeuh, dunA. npaenuK, Kpaeyjeeat^ 



Ceo6a n4ejiMH>Mx JipyniTaBa Kao jejiaH 
ojx BeoMa 3HanaJHMx nocjiOBa y imenapcicoj 
npaKCM, MOpa ko# CBaKor niejiapa nrpaTM 
Ba^KHy yjiory M3BorjeHy ca nyHO 036hjb- 
hocth, 6e3 o63Hpa Ha 6poj ^pyuiTaBa Koja 
ce cejie, Kao h Ha JxajMHy Ha Kojy ^pyniTBa 

CeJIHMO. 

O npe^HOCTMMa cejt.eH>a nHejiMH>nx 
ApyuiTaBa Ha,a CTaunoHapHMM nnejiapeHoeM 
He Tpe6a nyHO tobophtm Beh caMO Ha- 
noMeHyTM #a ce y3 noBOibHe BpeMeHCKe 
npMJiMKe Mory nocTMhn m Tpw GarpeMOBe 
name, a o jxst Jia h He roBOpHMO. Bajta ce 
caMO no^ceTHTM (y npMJior OBe TBp/j,H>e) /ia 
ce CBaKMx cto MeTapa HajiMOpCKe bmcmhc 
o^jia^Ke uBeTaH>e 6arpeMa 3a oko Tpw JiaHa, 
na HMJe TeuiKO M3paHyHaTH jia ce y Kpaje- 
BMMa Kao uito je IIIyMajiMJa, ca no3Ha- 
BaH>eM TepeHa h Ha/iMOpCKMx BMCMHa, MO^Ke 
ocTBapMTH ycnex cejteH>eM nHejiMH>Mx 
ApyuiTaBa. 

fla 6hcmo MMajiH jacHy cjiMKy Kajja ce ca 
ApyiiiTBMMa Tpe6a npMnpeMHTH 3a cjiejxehy 
6arpeMOBy namy, Bajta kophcthtm nnejiap- 
CKy Bary h to no MoryhcTBy cajejiHOM r/xe je 
6arpeM Beh KpeHyo n jxpyroM rjxe oneKy- 
jeMO cjiejxehy nauiy. HanMe, npw onTMMaji- 
hhm ycjiOBMMa yHOC HeKTapa je HaJBehn oko 
ce^Mor /jaHa, K£ma Tpe6a 6htm m Haj- 
o6a3pMBHJM. ynoperjMBaH>eM ^hcbhhx yHO- 
ca na Mattoj m Behoj HajjMOpCKOJ bhchhm 
aohnheMO /jo npaBnx no/jaTaKa Kajja Koje 
pajiH>e npeay3MMaTH. JeH>aBaH>e yHOca Ha 
je/iHOM MecTy, a noBehaite yHOca Ha 
flpyroM, 3HaKJe Jia Tpe6a njiaHnpaTn ceo6y 
ApymTaBa. 

Ykojimko nuaHHpaMO Jia jjpyniTBa ce- 
jimmo Ha jiMBa^CKy namy, Taj nocao miami- 
paTM ojjMax nocjie 6arpeMa, HapOHMTO yKO- 
jihko je pen o HajiMOpCKMM BHCMHaMa 
npeKO 600 m, jep ce Ta/ia jiMBajja MOiKe mc- 
KOpncTMTM MaKCMManHO, a rue^aHO Bpe- 
MeHCKn, KpaJH>n pOK 6m 6ho Herjxe oko 1. 
jyHa, jep Tajia o/inpMJiMKe MacjianaK Kpehe 



"nyHOM napOM". Ha neniTepCKOJ bmco- 
paBHH y to BpeMe npeoBJialjyje iKyTa 6oja. 

Ykojimko cmo Ha jiMBa/iM, ocTaje HaM 
npaKTMHHO ueo Meceu, jyHM 3a jiMBajxcKy 
naiuy. 

ITocjie jiMBa/jCKe name Tpe6a njiaHH- 
paTM cyHuoKpeTOBy namy panyHajyta jia 
cmo 3aBpmnjin ca jiMBajiOM, a hckm Kpajitn 
TepMHH 3a Ofljia3aK 6h 6ho oko 1. jyjia. 

M36op Gyjjyhe jiOKauHJe n caM npeB03, 
y3 MaKCMMauHe npnnpeMe, HaJBa^cHMJM cy 
MOMeHTH kojj cejinjiGe nnejiMHoMx jxpy- 
mTaBa. CBaKaKo npe noneTKa cbhx no- 
cjiOBa Tpe6a M3BajjMTM yBepette o 3/xpaBCT- 
BeHOM CTan>y imemabHx jjpyniTaBa n MMaTM 
ra kojj, ce6e npnjiMKOM TpaHcnopTa. Ilojjpa- 
3yMeBa ce jxa cmo npe cbhx nocjiOBa Mcne- 
jimjim CBe BMuiKOBe Mejia, kojh HaM y npo- 
tmbhom Mory cTBOpMTM npoGjieMe m ry- 
6wTKe kojh Mory 6htm HeHajTOKHajoHBH. 
HaMMe, ycnen Te^cMHe Mejxa Ha paMOBMMa, a 
noBehaHOM TeMnepaTypOM yHyTap 

KomHHua h noTpeca y bo^kh>h MO^ce jrohn 
jj,o "cp03aBaH.a caha", a TMMe h ro yraHyha 
MaTMue m BenMKor 6poja niejia HHMe je 
jxpyniTBO OHeMoryheHO 3a 6hjio KaKaB npn- 
hoc. CeM Tora, o/jCTpaitMBaiBeM BMiiiKOBa 
Mejia CMaH^yjeMO h Te^KMHe KoniHHna, a 
raMe m CMaH>eH>e Hanpe3aita Jty/JM kojm 
pa^e Ha yTOBapy. Koa KomHHua Koje cy 
pafjeHe npeMa yTBprjeHMM CTaHjoapjoMMa Ha 
MMHMMyM cy CBejxeHe MoryhHOCTM noMep- 
an>a paMOBa, a y npOTMBHOM he ce to cmt- 
ypHO ,aecMTM, Te 3aTO Tpe6a npejjy3eTM 
ojiroBapajyhe Mepe, KOpMmheH>eM ojjcto- 
JHMKa or jiHMa hjih naK yKyuaBaH^eM jieT- 
BMua fle6jbHHe 1 cm m mnpMHe 2 cm npeKO 
cbhx caTOHoma, y j^Ba pe^a. Ha Taj HaiHH 
o6e36ejjnjiH cmo KpyTy Be3y h npo6neMa 
Hehe 6mth. 

BM3yenHM nperjie/i CBaKe KomHnue 
noHaoco6 Bajta o6aBMTM ^eTajtHO, KaKO 6n 
ce yo^Hjie eBeHTyajiHe nyKOTHHe, noMep- 
an>a HacTaBaKa h cjimhho, m y3 o6e36erjeH>e 
Mpe>KacTMx 3aTBapana h ryMeHMx yTera 



172 



rinejiap 1999 



(KaJHUieBH OR TpaKTOpCKHX yHyTpaniitHX 

ryMa) npnnpeMe HacTaBibaMO. 

y^BpinhHBaibe KoiHHHna h h>hxobo 
3aTe3aite oGaBJbaMO ryMeHHM TperepHMa h 
to ca no #Ba KOMajia Hcnojj no/i^ane h 
H3Ha/i 36era h to Taico iuto TperepH jjojia3e 
nonpeuHO y o/iHocy Ha paMOBe. OB/je Bajta 
bojjhth panyHa o CTeneHy pacTentHBOCTH 
Tperepa h npaKTHHHO hx HanperayTH MaK- 
CHMajiHO, jep niTejioBaH>e jjyaoiHe Tperepa 
nocTHxeMO noMohy MeTajmnx inejiHH, 
TaKO jia CHJia CTe3aH>a 6yne ihto Beha. 
JIhhho CMaTpaM jia cy OBaKBH ryMeHH Tpe- 
repH noKa3ajiH jjajieico HajGojte oco6hhc 

3a OBaj nocao noTpeGHa cy /XBa HOBexa h 
y tom cjryuajy nocao HHJe HanopaH, a 
oGaBiba ce BeoMa 6p30 h o6e36eljyje MaK- 
CHMajiHa cnrypHOCT. 3a TpaHcnopT 
KoniHHua y jiBa hjih Tpn HHBoa, y CBaKOM 
cjrynajy H3Ha/j npBor HHBoa, o/jhocho noK- 
jionaua, Bajba HacjiaraTH pacraBJbeHe Kap- 
TOHCKe Kyrnje Ha Koje he jjohn no/jitaqe 
KoiHHHua cjiejjeher HHBoa h TaKO pejjoM. 
Obo H3 pa3Jiora ihto mh 3a oniHHBaite noK- 
jionana Ha KoiHHHuaMa kophcthmo 
Hajnenihe urraMnapcKe JiHMOBe kojh cy 
jaKO oceTJLHBH Ha MexaHHHKa jjejcrBa. 

JloHeTKOM cyMpaKa no^HiteMO ca 
o6aBe3HHM 3aTBapan>eM JieTa Mpe;>KHHaMa, 
KaKO 6h ce jjpyniTBHMa o6e36ejjHO CBeac 
Ba3/jyx. KoniHHue ca Bapoa nojjitaHOM h 
BeHTHJiauHOHOM peineTKOM Ha 36ery cy 
HapoHHTO jjoGpe 3a cejiH/jGy, jep 
o6e36erjyjy MaKCHMajiHy BeHTHJiauHJy. 
Ykojihko y TOKy 3aTBapaH>a JieTa 
Mpe^cHuaMa HMa nnejia Ha nojieTajbUH, 
npoGjieM heMO peuiHTH jihmhjihhpm hjih 
nyMnnuoM ca hhctom bojjom. rinejie 
nonpcKaHe (J)hhom bojjchom MarjioM 6p30 
he yhn y CBOjy KoiHHHuy. 

M3JieTHHite Koje ce Bpahajy ca name, 
yKOJiHKO cmo Beh KpeHyjiH ca yTOBapoM 
KoiHHHHa, Hajqeuihe he nocne Kpaher Bpe- 
MeHa yhn y npBy cyce/xiry Konimmy me he 
6e3 npoGiieivia 6hth npHMJteHe. 

y MerjyBpeMeHy CBaica cnpeMHa 
KOHiHHua Moxe ce yTOBapara y KaMHOH 

HJIH npHKOJIHUy. Obom aKTHBHOHlhy 

no^HH^e 4)H3h*iko Hanpe3aite h MaKCH- 
MajiHa naxita npHJiHKOM o/jjiaraita 



KoniHHua. 3a OBaj nocao HajnpaKTHHHHJnje 
pyHHH Hocan H3BaHpe/iHHX MoryhHOCTH. 

BaxaH MOMeHaTJe naKOBaite h cjiaraH>e 
KoniHHua y npeB03HO cpejjcTBO. npaBHJio 
je jia JieTa nay jjecHO hjih JieBO , ojjhocho pa- 
mobh H/xy napajiejiHO ca ocobhhom 
KaMHOHa-npHKOJiHite. Obo H3 pa3Jiora ihto 
cy npH bo^h^h Hajjaqa GoHHa rnGaita 
B03HJia 36or yuapHHX pyna h HepaBHHHa Ha 
nyry, a iuto ce ojipaxaBa Ha TepeT y 

B03HJiy. OBaKBHM nOCTaBJbaiteM KOIHHHHa 

OHeMoryhnjiH cmo noMepaite paMOBa, oji- 
hochp HjHxobo KJiaheite. BouHa ni6aH>a cy 
TpeHyraa h 6p3a h OBaKBHM nocTaBJbaiteM 

KOHIHHHa eJIHMHHHHieMO H^HXOB JIOHI yTH- 

uaj. Ca /xpyre CTpaHe, KoneiteM B03Hjia ce 
npaKTH^HO HHHiTa He jjeinaBa, jep cy 
KoiuHHite npnGnjeHe y3 3H# KaGHHe h Ty 
HeMa HHKaKBor noMepaita. 

KoniHHue ce naicyjy je/jHa jjo jjpyre h no 
ohojihko y pejjy, kojihko hx Moxe CTaTH, h 
to TaKO jja cy kpobobh npnGnjeHH jejjaH y3 
jjpyra. CBe KouiHHue y jejjHOM pejxy yre^cy 
ce jeAHHM TperepoM kojh Ha KpajeBHMa 
inejiHH HMajy KyKHue 3a Kaueite h to no- 
npeHHO, npeKO cbhx KOHIHHHa y pejjy. Jloc- 
TynaKJe hcth ca jxpyraM, TpehHM h tjj. pe- 

/JOM, KaO H CBHM HHBOHMa. OBaKBH lyMeHH 

ynpTaun cy npaKTHHHHJH ojj KOHonaua, jep 
ce KaneiteM ca CTpaHe 3a apH>eBe KaMHOHa 
Ha HaJBHinoj TaHKH Tperepy CMaityje 
ayacHHa, a noBehaBa CHJia CTe3aita. 

OBaKO HaTOBapeHH KaMHOH HJIH npHKO- 

jiHiia ayTOMoGnjia cnpeMHaje 3aTpaHcnopT 
h Boacity. 

Hnje HaojjMeT HanoMeHyTH /xa ce y 
npnpyHHOj KyraJH noHece h cjie^ehe: 
GaTepHJCKa JiaMna, neKHh, eKcepunhn, 
HOXHh, napue cyHrjepa (3a 3aTBapaH>e 
eBeHTyajiHHX OTBOpa kojh ce jaBe y TOKy 
BOXBe) nnejiapcKa Kana, nap pe3epBHHX 
Tperepa, jjHMHjnma h cji. 

Bo^cH>a he h 3a nnejie h 3a miejiapa 6hth 
y/jo6Ha no /joGpoM h acBajiTHOM nyry. 
MerjyTHM, Haina cy o/jpe/jHiHTa necTO h Ha 
MecTHMa ^o kojhx ce Mopa bo3hth MaKa/ja- 
mom h jioihhm nyTeBHMa. BoxBa MaKa/ja- 
mom H3HCKyje naxH^y h o6a3pHBOCT, ajin 
TaKBa Boxita yjejjHO KOHTpojiHiue h KBaji- 
HTeT HaniHX pajjoBa Ha npnnpeMH, yroBapy 



173 



n^ejiap 1999 



h uenoKynHoj opraHH3auHjH OBor cjio- 
xeHor h o^roBopHor nocna. 

063HpoM jja ce TpaHcnopT oGaBJta 
Hohy, j,ojia3aK Ha o/ipejiHinTe ce o^eicyje y 
TOKy hohh hjih npe/j 30py. Ykojihko cmo 
6ynyny JioKannjy n*iejiHH>aKa ype/iHJiH npe 
JipJiacKa, ocTaje HaM MajiH jxeo nocna, yKO- 
jihko He, npejjy3HMaMO CBe Mepe oko npH- 
npeMa TepeHa h nocTaBJLaita nocTOJba, 
Koineita TpaBe, KpHeita Bp3HHe h cjihhho. 

Ykojihko o/iMax no JipJiacKy HMaMO 
cnpeMHa nocTOJba 3a KoniHHue, noHHiteMO 
ca HCTOBapoM h nocTaBJbaH^eM KoniHHua Ha 
nocTOJba. O/iMax CKHJjaMO ryMeHe Tperepe 
ca KoniHHua h o/iJia^ceMO hx y bo3hjio . Yko - 
jihko je TpaBa jieno noKoineHa Hehe 6hth 
npoGjieMa 3a crceTaH>e nnejia ca name, Majia 
6h, y CBaKOM cjiynajy, Bajbajio o6e36e,0HTH 
npo^iy^eHa JieTa KaKO 6h nnejiaMa 
ojiaKniajin cjieTaite. 

Flo HCTOBapy, yKOJiHKOje MpaK, hjih ce 
TeK pa3JjaH>yje, cjioGojjho ce Mory otbo- 
Phth CBa JieTa Ha KoniHHuaMa, jep he H3JieT 



nnejie 6hth nocieneH, a yKOJiHKO je Beh 
yBejiHKO jjaH, JieTa Ha KoniHHuaMa ot- 
BapaMO TaKO jja to hhhhmo CBaicoj Tpehoj 
hjih ^eTBpToj Ha nojia caTa Kaxo 6hcmo 
H36erjiH HCTOBpeMeHH H3Jia3aK nnejia H3 
cbhx KoniHHua, a THMe H36erjiH h eBeHTy- 
ajiHe npoGjieMe. 

Obhm nocjioM npaKTH^HO je 3aBpmeH 
qHH ceoGe. fla jih Hac je caBJia/iao yMop? 
HeMHCJiehn nyHO o TOMe ycKopo 3a6o- 
paBJtaMO HayMopj'ep npBe H3JieTHHue Beh 
jjojia3e ca npBHM TOBapHMa nojieHa h HeK- 
Tapa, HecBecHO ce pajjyjyhH hobhm npoc- 
TpaHCTBHMa h GoraTCTBHMa npHpojje. 

Mh odajeMO GoraTHJH 3a join jejjHO 
HcxycTBO, OBora nyTay ceo6n iraejia. Hania 
nqejiHita JipyniTBa nocTahe GoraTHJa 3a 
HOBe KOJiH^iHHe Mejja, a mh pajjpcHH 36or 
jjo6po oGaBJBeHor nocjia. Tpyjj he ce 
HcnjiaTHTH h Harpa/ia he crann. YcKopo 

heMO H MH MOhH Jja nOTBpJJHMO aKCHOMy: 
"MeJJ Ha TOHKOBHMa pojw". 



JlHejiap 1999 



CejiHfl6a nnejia 

Mujian Eozoeau,, 011-176-46-96 



YTOBap h HCTOBap KoiiiHHita je TexaK, 
axo He h HaJTe^cH nocao y nnejiapcTBy. OBa 
npoGjieMaTHKa je 3aoKynjbajia MHore 
nnenape h oGjaBibeHJe Beta 6poj pa^oBa Ha 
OBy TeMy. 

PacnonaraTH ca concTBeHHM npeB03HHM 
cpe^cTBOM h HHJe Hexa npej,HOCT, jep 
bo3hjio H3HCKyje CTajiHO o^pxaBaH^e h 
TponiKOBe perHCTpauHJe. 3a6ejiexeHH cy 
cnyqajeBH Kparje KaMHOHa ca cbhm koihhh- 
naMa. Orora ce OBaj npHJior 6aBH cejin^GoM 
iraejia ca H3HaJMJbeHHM KaMHOHOM. 

OB/ie ce yKpaTKO, H3Jiaxe je^aH Ha^HH 
cejteH^a KoiHHHna KaMHOHOM y3 He3HaTHe 
(^HSH^Ke Hanope h y3 MHHHMajiaH 6poj 
H3BpuiHoua h y3 KpaTKO BpeMe yTOBapa h 
HCTOBapa. 

npH CTauHOHapHOM n^ejiapeH>y 
KoniHHue ce Haj^enine ocjiaitajy Ha nap 
rpe^Hua MerjycoGHo pa3MaKHyraM, Kaxo 6h 
ce o6e36e^HJia £o6pa CTaGnjiHOCT. Hobo 
pemeite nojia3H ynpaBO o& Tora, caMO ce 
rpe^nne MerjycoGHo noBe3yjy y ^Bpciy 
uejiHHy h Ha Taj HaHHH ce (J)opMHpa rpe^a 
Koja HMa H3rjie# Mep/ieBHHa. Ha30BHMO je 
JTMHMJCKAnAJTETA(Jin), KojanpHMa 
Ha ce6e oji 8-10 KouiHHua. FlajieTa ca 
KOIHHHUaMa, *ihhh je^HHCTBeHy uejiHHy, 
Koja no 4>opMHpaH>y ocTaje yBex 3aje,HHO 



-3 



A± 



A± 




6hjio Ha nainn hjih y TpaHcnopTy. KoinHHue 
cy Ha HeKH or no3HaTnx Ha^HHa noBe3aHe 
3a KOHCTpyKnnjy Jin. 

KaKoje to Jiaro Ha cji. 1, naneTaje rpe^a 
ca npenycTHMa, Koja npeKO aTecTHpaHnx, 

nO^eiUJLHBHX TpOHOTHX OCJIOHana, /Ip5KH 

KoinHHue Ha no^ecHoj bhchhh, Koja ce 
Moxe (J>hho peryjincaTH, 3axBajbyjynH 
yrparjeHOM HaBOJHOM BpeTeHy h \iaTimii. 

Flo oGaBibeHOM ncTOBapy, nqenap #ejcT- 
ByjynH Ha MaTHiiy ^obojih najieTy Ha 
xejbeHy BncnHy, Kaxo 6h o6e36e^no no- 
bojbho oncjiy^cHBaH^e KoniHHna. 

HaHMH yroBapa - HCTOBapa 

Ilpe^nocTaBHMO ^a ce /ipyiHTBa, Ben Ha- 
jia3H Ha nainn, KaKO je to npHKa3aHO cji. 2, 



Ca. 1. H3Z/ied nunujcKe uaAetue ca 

KOUlHUUflMa 



Ca. 2. Jfpyuimea Ha namu 

Ta^aje noTpeGHO, y unjby yTOBapa, #a Ka- 
mhoh npnrje najieTH 3a#H>HM KpajeM no 
y3,n,y>KHOj ocn. IlajieTa ce no^nrHe Henrro 
BHiue or KOTe no#a KaMHOHa, kojh no^nrje 
no^ najieTy no npBor ocrcoHua. Ta^a ce Ha 
neo najieTe kojh je 3amao y KaMHOH, 
HaGann #eo onpeMe, kojh he o6e36e,THTH 
TpaHCJiannjy n noniTO ce cnycra npe^H>n 
Kpaj Jin, yKJioHH ce npe^H^H ocjioHan;, Te ce 
Taja o6aBH yBJiaqeite najieTe y caH^yK Ka- 
MHOHa, ,iio j,pyror oonoHna. Ta^a ce H3Bpinn 
cnymTaH>e h /ipyror ocjioHua h najieTa ce 
ocjiohh BehHM rcjiom Ha iioji KaMHOHa, na 
ce yicnoHH h Jipyra ocjioHau. 



175 



n^ejiap 1999 



JLl L 




i n r rrr — n 



Cji. J. <I>a3e ymoeapa naietua - koiuhui^u 



OnepauMJa yTOBapa JIIT Tpaje oko 2 
MMHyTe, a ueo yTOBap ce o6aBM 3a npn- 
6jim^cho 30 MMHyTa. Oa3e yTOBapa cy npw- 
Ka3aHe cji. 3. Flo H3BpuieHOM yTOBapy 
ocjiohhh ce HaGaue Ha KpOB KOiiiHHija. Cji. 4 
noKa3yje KaMMOH ca oGaBJteHMM yTOBapOM. 

HcTOBap, Ha hoboj jioKauHJH, o6aBJta ce 
o6pHyTHM pe^ocjiejjOM. flpyuiTBa cy ojjMax 
cnpeMHa /ja npMOHy Ha paa, Heivia noTpe6e 
y3HeMMpaBaTH nnejie hckhm nperjie^OM. 

KaKO je to M3Jio^ceHo y npouecy yTO- 
Bapa m HCTOBapa ynecTByje caMO nnejiap, 
kojh o6aBJt>a H3/iM3aH>e m cnymTaifce 




IB 



im 






Ca. 4. H32Aed naAema - Kouinui^a y mouy 
eojtefbe 



ocjiOHaua m B03an, kojh no Hajiory n^ejiapa 
BpmH TpaHCJiau,HJy, o^hocho noMepaite 
B03HJia Ha3ajj h Hanpe/j. 

H3Jio^ceHO peuieH>eje pauHOHajmo, jep 
ocjio6arja nnejiapa Hanopa h HeMa noTpe6e 
3a ^oijaTHOM pa/iHOM CHaroM. flpyuiTBa ce 
Hajia3e Ha HeuiTO Behoj bhchhh or 3eMJbe 
uito npeMa HaJHOBHJHM caonmTeiBMMa no- 
BOJbHO yTHne Ha pa/iHO pacnojio^KeH>e 
nnejia m CMaityje MoryhHOCTH Heicnx 
o6ojbeH>a. 



176 



n^ejiap 1999 



BecTH H3 ceeTa 




Jlyuan JIucao, Eenej 



1. TproBHHa mchom Ha CBeTCKOM TpJKHIIITy 

y oboj jxeneHHJH JiecHJie cy ce BejiHKe 
npeTyMGannje Ha CBeTCKOM TpxnniTy c 06- 
3HpoM jja ce y nepnojjy 1995-1997. r. no- 
jaBHJia KHHa ca bcjihkhm KOJiHHHHaMa Mejja 
no hidkoj ueHH. HaHMe, pacnajioM CoBJeT- 
CKor caBe3a n yKHjiaiteM jxpxaBHe noMohn 
jioinjio je jjp najja npoH3BO,mBe. y MeK- 
CHKy, TaKorje, Jiojia3H jio nana npoH3BOJiH>e 
Me/ia h TaKO je HaroMHJiaHH Mejj y Khhh H3 
paHHJHX ro^HHa JioGpo jjoueKaH Ha CBeT- 
CKOMTpxHimy. MerjyraM, on 1997. r. KHHa 
H3Jia3H Ha CBeTCKO TpxHiHTe caMO ca Me- 
/Iom H3 Texyhe npon3BOJjH>e, a ocTane Bejie- 
CHJie, ochm ApreHTHHe, h jjajte cjiaGnje 
npoH3BO/ie, TaKO /ia je HacTao BaKyyM y 
CHa6^,eBaH>y CBeTCKor Tp^cHHiTa ca mcjiom. 
To noBehaBa noTpaxity, a ca THMe 
noBenaBa ce h neHa. Ca paHHJHX 1078 
USD/TOHa, 1996. r. npoceHHa neHa Mejjaje 
Beh 1414 USD/TOHa, jiok 1997. r. nocTHrna 
je npoce^Hy ueHy ojj 1500 USD/TOHa. 3a 
1998. r. join HeMa KOHanmrx no,n;aTaKa, ajiH 
npeTnocTaBJba ce h jjajta nopacT neHa. 

HaJBehH yB03HHUH Mejia cy EBponcKa 
3ajejiHHHa, CjejjHiteHe flpxaBe AMepHKe h 
J anaH . EBponcKy 3ajejjHHiry , nope r Be - 
jihkhx npoH3Bor}aHa, CHaGjjeBajy h Mann 
npoH3BorjaHH Mejia: CnoBeHHJa, MarjapcKa, 
MTajinja, ByrapcKa, yKpaJHHa, Hxn./Jyro- 
cuaBHJa ce He noMHH>e hh Kao yB03HHK, hh 
Kao H3B03HHKMe^a - npHM. JlyKsm./ .C 063H- 
poM jxa je noTpaxita 3a MejjpM Bena Hero 
noiryna, to ce o^eicyje jiaihu nopacT neHa 
Me^a niTO 6h TpeGajio jia CTHMyjiHine 
nnejiape 3a Behy npoH3BO/jifcy. 

2. Kopwiiiheibe jmrnwrnue y iraeJiapcTBy 

yjiora JiHMHJiHHe h jjHMa y n^enapcTBy 
HHJe ,110 Kpaja pa3JaniH>eHO. /Jhm ce kophcth 
pajjn yMHpeH>a nnejia npH pajjy ca H>HMa, 
hjih jia 6h ce 0He yji.ajbHjie ca OAperjeHor 
aejia Konmnue. flpeTnocTaBKa jxa iraejie 



jihm acounpa Ha no^cap ojx Kora TpeGa 
GexaTH h jja npH TOMe Tpe6a HanyHHTH 
pe3epBoape ca mchom pain* 6era He 
oojanntaBa 6am npaBO pearoBaite nnejia 
Ha flHM. HaHMe, OHe ce CKJiaitajy, ajiH He 
Ge^ce, a HeKajia, yHaTou hhtch3hbhom jihm- 
jbeH>y, nnaK Hanajjajy h OMeTajy paii ca 
BHMa. Mivia MnuubeH^a %a nnejie Maite Tepa 
jihm, nopejj; Tora uito Hanpaacyje JiHcaJHe 
nyTeBe h ohh, Hero jxa nnejie 6exe Bnnie 
36or Tora niTO je jihm Bpyft na nx npxn. 
Bhjio KaKO Ghjio jihm ce kophcth y nuejiap- 
CTBy, naje BaxHO uito kophcthmo Kao Ma- 
Tepnjaji 3a jjHMJteiBe. HaHMe, HeKajia cy 
nnejiapn kophcthjih caMO npHpojiHe Ma- 
TepHJe, a JiaHac CBe BHme KopncTe pa3HH 
HH/iycTpHJCKH oraaji: naHeji rnione, 
ponoBaHy xapTHJy, JiecoHHT, pa3He Kpne ojx 

CHHTeTHHHHX Maca, HTJI. MHJH flHM CajIp^H 

OTpoBHe MaTepnje KaKO 3a nnejie, TaKO h 3a 
uoBeKa. Te MaTepnje He Tpe6a kophcthth. 
HajGojbe je aKO kophcthmo HaTpyjin xpacT 
hjih 6yKBy, ajin Moace n Jipyre BpcTe JipBeTa, 
Kao ihto cy Jinna hjih Bp6a, caMO uito obh 
6p30 H3rope. KopncTH ce n KyKypy3Ha 
KonaHiKa (manypHKe), Majja HMa nyHO Ka- 
TpaHa. 

noceGaH npoGjieM npejicTaBJBa 
KopnmrieH>e flHMHJiHne y nqejiapcKHM 
npHKOJiHuaMa, r^,e HHJe npenopyqjtnBO hh- 

KaKO KOpHCTHTH HH^yCTpHJCKH OTnaJJ 3a 

/IHMJbeHje. 

3. Ycnexy imejiapcTBy nnaK iiaJBiiuie 3a- 
BMCH Oil MaTHue 

O "KBajiHTeTHOj MaTHUH" TOJiHKO ce 
nnme h roBopn jjaje Beh npocTO ^oca^njio. 
MerjyTHM, no3HaBaoun CTBapn TBp^e ^a 
rpo nuejiapa He yMe na pa3JinKyje y npaKcn 
aoGpy oji prjaBe MaTHue. y Ma^apcKoj cy 
TOJiHKO jjajieKO othuijih, jja jjpxaBa Jiojupa 
y 50% BpejjHOCTn ueHe npH HaGaBUH Ma- 
THije , aKO miejiap MaTnuy y3HMa ojj, 
ojjpefjeHor npoH3Borjana tj. HHCTHTyra. 



177 



nnejiap 1999 



rinejiapH Kyxajy #a cyHHOKpeT He Mejjn, Jia 

JieKOBH HHCy^eJlOTBOpHH, Ra Cy KJIHMaTCKH 

ycjioBH npoMeiteHH, hxh. MerjyTHM, 
yTBprjeHO je jia yjejiHOM mejiHiBaKy on 40- 
50 KoniHHua yBex HMa HeKOJiHKO Koje 
HanyHe KouiHHue, BehHHa jjoHece TeK to- 
jihko jja ce Mory y3HMHTH, a hckojihko nax 
hh tojihko. McnHTHBaH>a cy yrBpjiHJiajja, h 
nope^ pe^oBHor Jie*iejBa nnejia (ycneumor 
jieneH>a), H03eM03a oflHece ojj 10-25% 
nnejia, Kpe^HO Jierno, TaKorje, ojiHece oa 
10-25% Jierna, Bap03a JieceTKyje nnejie, 
ht#. JXa y3MeMO m OBe TpH 6ojiecTH y3My 
MHHHMajiHO no 10% CBaxa, to je 30% 
yMaiBeH>a. Ako tomc jiojiaMO h cjiaGo - np- 
o^yKTHBHy MaTHuy, OHJja je pe3yjiTaT 
nopaxaBajyhn. 

BehHHa nnejiapa npH aHajiH3H MaTnue 
rjiejja H>eH ciiojlhh H3rjie^: BejiH*iHHy, 6ojy, 
h jxa HHJe oniTeneHa. MerjyTHM, ocoGHHa ce 
yrBprjyje Ha ocHOBy yHHHKa MaTHue: 
BejiH^HHa jaja, 6poj JiHeBHO nojioxeHHX 
jaja, BejiHHHHa Jierjia y OKBHpy (jia jih yx- 
BaTH ueo okbhp hjih caMO jejiaH jieo 
OKBHpa), 6poj 3ajie3ceHHX OKBHpa, H3rjie,n; 
jienia (jja jih je Jierjio xoMoreHO hjih uia- 



peHo" hjih ca nyHO npa3HHX hejinja). 
BehHHa nnejiapa He oGpaha na^cH^y Ha obo. 
Taxorje, BehHHa nnejiapa He npoH3BOJiH Ma- 
THue, Hero jio h>hx Jiojia3H KynoBHHOM. 
JlouiTO MaTHue HHcyje<J)THHe, to ce y3HMa 
nap KOMajja Kajia Jiorje jio rySHTKa MaTHue, 
hjih axo ce xejin ;ja ce no Hexa 3aMeHH. 
Ajih peaoBHa 3aMeHa Maraiia ce He Bpuin. 
Tokom BpeMeHa ueo nnejiHitaK ce tojihko 
jxerpajiHpa, jja he nnejiap cyMH>aTH y CBe, 
caMO He y KBajiHTeT MaTnue. 

KBajiHTeT MaTHua ce orjiejia h H>eHHM 
Hacjie^HHM ocoGHHaMa: OTnopHOCT npeMa 
GojiecTHMa, XHrajeHCKa ckjiohoct jjpy- 
niTBa, caGnpHa cnoco6HOCT Mejia h npaxa, 
ckjiohoct Ka pojeH>y, MHpHoha ^pyuiTBa, 
htjj. C Jjpyre CTpaHe Tpe6a bojihth pa*iyHa 
jja nnejiHitaK He nocTaHe noTOMCTBO jejjHe 
MaTHue, ojihocho j^a neo nnejiHitaK 6yn;e y 

6JIHCKOJ CpOJJHOCTH. 

Ohh n^ejiapn kojh obo 3aHeMapyjy Hehe 
Mohn jja ce noxBajie hckhm HapoHHTHM yc- 
nexoM y Mejio6paH>y. 

(H3HJiaHaKay "Meheszujsag"-y 
6poj 1/99/. 



178 



nqejiap 1999 



NLojkjisl HMCxe 3HajiM 



Muodpaa Cmajiemufi, Kpazyjeeau, 



KojiMKaje ,ny5KHHa aoiBOTa nnejie JieTH? 

JieTH, n^ejia ;>khbh Bpno KpaTKO. Ha 
/lyacHHy XHBOTa yTH^e H>eH 4)H3hojioihkh 

CaCTaB (KOJH 3aBHCH OR 6jIH3HHe Bojie, 

noneHa h HeKTapa), ja^HHa BeTpa, TeM- 
nepaiypa Ba3,zryxa h, y BejiHKOj MepH, Ha- 
cjie/iHe oco6HHe. Or 3Hanajaje h KBajiHTeT 
xpaHe Kojy je nnejia ^oGnjajia y CTajHJyMy 
jiapBe. 

Kojihko ,nyro >khbii iraejia nocjie y6o,aa? 

Ilocjie y6o,iia nnejia ocTaje 6e3 xaoKe, 
jieTH H3BecHO BpeMe h yrHHe. Y iraejiHiteM 
apyuiTBy OHa HHJe no^ejLHa h jpyre nnene 
HHcy jpyatejtyGHBe npeMa H>oj. npn onHTy 
ca neT nnejia Koje cy nocjie yGojia (ocTane 
6e3 ^aoKe) Gnjie CTaBJteHe y KaBe3 h 
BpaneHe y jpyniTBO, yTBpfjeHoje r& cyxHB- 
ejie 6,38, 96 h 102 caia, npHMajynn xpaHy 
Kp03 Mpexy Ha KaBe3y kojom cy Gnjie 
3aniTHheHe. rinejia ydoRena or £pyre 
nnejie yrHHe ormslx. 

Kojihko Bpeivieiia MO*e zia >khbh imeria 
6e3xpaHe? 

fly^HHa ^CHBOTa irae-Jie JiHHieHe xpaHe 
3aBHCH or H>eHe CTapocTH h oj TeMnepa- 
Type OKOJiHHe. YTBprjeHoje^a nnejiaxHBH 
Haj/ryxe npH TeMnepaTypH or 16,5°C, a 
HaJKpahe Ha 36°C. HaxpaH>eHa n^ejiaxHBH 
6e3 xpaHe or 21 no 134 caTa. n^ejie, kqr 
H3JieTe H3 KoniHHue, Mory r& H3£pxe rjiafl 
or 4 jo 17 caTH, a MJia^e iraejie oj 7 £o 111 
caTH, npH *ieMy je TeMnepaTypa or 
ouny^iyjyher 3Ha^aja. 

Koje TeMnepaType cy onacHe 3a jkhbot 
iwejie h KaKBe cy nocjicaime o,n h>hx? 

rinejia yrHHe kor TeMnepaType HH^ce or 
8°C. Ha TeMnepaTypH bhkioj or 38°C 
no^HHje r& H3yMHpe Jierno, a npexo 40°C 
H3yMHpe uejio jpyniTBO. 

Kojihko jxyro Mory ja H3,np3Ke nnejie 
H30JiOBane no 20 ro 30 y KaBe3y, npn hhckoj 



TeMnepaTypH h y3 npncycTBo ,noBOJi>He 
KOJiMHiiiie xpaHe? 

M30JioBaHe n^ejie, npn TeMnepaTypH 6- 
8°C H3^pxe 4-9 jaHa, a npn TeMnepaTypH 1- 
3°C, caMO 2 jaHa. Obo Tpe6a HMaTH y Bitny 
npn TpaHcnopTy MaTHua (nocjiarax y jpyro 

MecTo). 

Kojom 6p3HiiOM JieTH iraejia? 

Bp3HHa npn nojieTaH^y 3aBHCH or mhoto 
HHHHJiaua, a HaJBHine or 6p3HHe BeTpa y 
cycpeT, Te^cHHe xpaHe, HeKTapa, nojreHa, 
nponojinca h Bojie, a, h or pacTojan>a ro 
Bojie, CTan>a KpHJia h CTapocTH nHejie. npn 

HenOBOJLHHM KJTHMaTCKHM yCJIOBHMa 

6p3HHa JieTa jocTH^ce je^Ba 20 km/^ac, a 
npn noBOJtHHM ycjioBHMa 24 km/qac, kito 
ojroBapa 6p3HHH 5,5 ro 6,7 m/ceK. 

O^nrjie^HO je rsl je GecKopHCHO npa- 
thth poj KOJHje H3JieTeo. 

Koja Kojurania xpaHe je noTpe6Ha 
nqejiH rsi caBJia^a pacTojan»e o,n 1 km? 

KojiH^HHa xpaHe 3aBHCH or TOBapa kojh 
irqejia hoch h or BeTpa y cycpeT. npeMa no- 
jainiMa h cnpoBejeHHX HCTpa^HBaita, rsl 
ce caBJia^a pacTojaite or 1 km, nnejin je 
noTpeGHO 2-40 MHJinrpaMa mgrsl. Eto 
3aniT0 KoniHHue Tpe6a r& 6yny 
nocTaBJteHe GjiH^ce nanin. 

Kojihko nyra Ha rslb nnejia H3Jiehe H3 
KoniHHue y Bpeivie rjiasne name? 

Bpoj H3JieTaH>a 3aBHCH ORRaibime name, 
or jocTynHOCTH, KOJiHHHHe h rycTHHe HeK- 
Tapa y HBeTOBHMa, OR KJIHMaTCKHX ycjioBa H 

Rp. yTBprjeHoje, Ha npHMep, rsl n^ejie Koje 
caKynjtajy HeKTap pennue, Ha pacTojaH>y 
200 - 300 m or Koumnne, H3Bpnie ro 60 jie- 
TOBaHajaH, a ko^ GoraTe name Jinne 20 - 30 
jreTOBa. 

npeMa HeKHM MnniJbeH>HMa, npH Hop- 
MajiHHM ycjioBHMa (kor caKynjtaH>a HeK- 
Tapa ca nojtcKHX h JiHBajcKnx GnibaKa, cyH- 
HOKpeTa h Rp.) nnejie H3Jiehy H3 kohihhhc 



179 



nnejiap 1999 



oko 10 nyra Ha jjaH, a yjyacHHM oGjiacTHMa, 
no jjyroM h CBeTJioM may, h jjo 14 nyra. 

Kojy MaKCHMajmy Kojuramy xpane 
Moa^e Jja npmMH McnHa BOJtKa nnejie? 

MaKCHMajiHa KOJin^HHa xpaHe Kojy 
Moxe jja npHMH Me/iHa BOJbKa nnejie #o- 
CTH^ce n ro 84 MHJinrpaMa (tj. poj kojh 
H3JieTH ca 10.000 nnena Moxe jxa ojjHece 840 
rpaivia Mejia). 

Kojihko TesKH imejia? 

y HCTpa^cHBaH^HMa cy jjoGnjeHH 
one/jenn nojjanH 3a Teaamy iraejie: nnejia 
Koja H3rparjyje cafie hjih xpaHH nerjio 0,134 
rpaMa, MJia/ja nnejia npe/j H3JieTaH>e 0,122 
rpaMa, miejia y BpeMe H3JieTa 0,120 rpaMa, 
MJiajja irqe-Jia H3JieTHHua 0,108 gr., CTapnja 
H3JieTHHita 0.075 rpaMa. y 3aBHCHOCTH ojj 
y3pacTa 6poj nnejia y 1 kg je cjie/jenn: 
11.000 nnejia pa/injiHua Koje H3Jiehy H3 
KoniHHue, 9.000 H3JieTHHiia Koje ce Bpanajy 
ca cjiaGe name, 8.000 nnejia Koje ce Bpahajy 
ca oGnjiHe name, 6.500 nnena y pojy. 

Kajja imejie M3JieTHHue He yGa^ajy? 

y nepnojjy oGnjme name, nqejie H3JieT- 
mine HanyHe Me/iHy BOJbKy h y tom CTaity 
npaKTHHHO He Mory jja y6ajjajy. M3JieTHHne 
ca npa3HOM Me/iHOM bojbkom He yGajjajy y 
nepno/jy Ka/ia HMJe hhcthhkt 3a ca6npaH>e 
noiieHa h HeKTapa Bpno jaK, a hhcthhkt 3a 
o/jSpaHy Bpjio cjia6. OHe He pearyjy Ha mcit, 
Kojnje nnejiap o/iy3eo H3 Me/jHinTa. 

Koje iraejie xpaHe MaTimy m ca KaKBOM 
xpaHOM? 

Kojj MJiajiHX nnejia pajjHjrana y3pacTa 6- 
12 jjaHa pa3BHJeHe cy xjjpejiHe auieaae. 
CeKpeT H3 H)HX cjiyxH 3a ncxpaHy MaTHue, 
a TaKorje, h 3a KOMnjieTHO Jierno, 
yKJBy^ryjyriH H MaTHiry y CTa^HJyMy JiapBe. 
3aTO ce Ta xpaHa h Ha3HBa nnejiHite MJieico 
(MJien) . H e kh Hay^HHUH CMaTpajy jja 
pa^HJiHue xpaHe onnorjeHy MaTHiry MJienoM 
uejiora XHBOTa, a He caMO y nepnojxy Ka/ia 
OHa nojiaacejaja. 

KaKBa je pa3JiHKa H3MeI)y iraejia Koje 
xpaHe neTBopoAHeBHe h oApacjie jiapse h 



nnejia Koje xpaHe je^Ho, jjbo h Tpo/jHeBHe 
jiapse? 

n^ene CTapocTH 4-6 jjaHa xpaHe qeTBO- 
po/iHeBHe, neTO^HeBHe h mecTOJiHeBHe 
JiapBe, a TaKC(J>e h TeK H3Jierjie MJia/ie 
n^eiie, jjok He no^Hy #a ce xpaHe caMe. 
Mjia/ie nqeiie CTapnje on 6 jjaHa xpaHe jeji- 
HO/iHeBHe, JiBOJiHeBHe h TpojiHeBHe JiapBe h 
npn TOMe hm ce BHine pa3BHJajy acupejme 
xjie3^e JiyqehH Mjiei. 

Illxa ce 3Ha o Mjiajjravi iraejiaMa? 

Mjia/ie nnejie HHKajia He Hanynrrajy ot- 
BopeHO Jierno, hh MaTHiry. OHe ce 6pHHy 3a 
o/ip;ataH>e onTHMajiHe TeMnepaType Heo- 
nxojjHe 3a pa3Boj jaja h JiapBe h o6e36erjyjy 
MaTHitH o^p^caBaHje KOH/jHUHJe, xpaHehnje 
pejipBHO &a ce He CMaitn nojiaraite jaja. 

3auiTo je Bamno jja ce 3Ha Kaoa 
paaii.nma iiocraje H3JieTiinua? 

y n^ejiapcTBy je JioGpo no3HaT M 3aKOH 
3a 40 JiaHa". To je nepno/j ojj MOMeHTa no- 
jiaraH^ajaja onjiorjeHe MaTHue no H3JieTaita 

H3JieTHHUa H3 KOIHHHHe. JlpH nOBOJLHHM 

ycjioBHMa o^ nocTaBJbaH>a jaja y MaTH^ntaK 
nocjie 16,5 ^aHa H3Jiexe ce MaTHna, Koja 
nocjie 10 ,iio 15 /iaHa napeH>a no^HHse #a 
nonage jaja. Eto 3aniTO nnejiap Tpe6a ^a 
peryjiHine npouec Hoineita onuorjeHe Ma- 
THne, na to 6y#e HaJHHTeH3HBHHJe 40 j;aHa 
npej, rnaBHy nainy. Ako ce no^eTaK maBHe 
name oneKyje Hnp. 1. jyHa, CTHMyjiHpaH^e 
HomeH^a MaTHue Tpe6a ^a noHHe 6 He^ejba 
npe Tora, tj. apyre jiexajie anpHJia. JlpH jio- 
BoibHoj kojihhhhh pe3epBe xpaHe y 

KOHIHHLIH H nOBOJLHHM KJIHMaTCKHM 

ycjioBHMa, HHJe Heonxo^HO CTHMyjiHcaTH 
HonieH>ejaja. 

Ka^a Mjia^e nnejie H3Jiehy Ha CBoje npBO 
npOHHCiio H3JieTaH>e h y KaKBoj Mepii la^a 
Mory na ce opHJeHTHuiy? 

HeTBpTor hjih neTor ijaHa no H3JieraH>y, 
(J)H3HOJioniKO CTaae MJiajinx nnena jjo3- 
BOJbaBa jja HanycTe KomHHuy h jxa ce yjjajte 
Ha Kpahe pacTojaite Koje ce CBaxor jxana 
noBehaBa. Tajja ce y^e jja JieTe, ajiH He Mory 
jjoGpo jj,a ce opnjeHTHiny, na no Hexa ojx- 
jieTH y Tyrjy KoniHHuy, rjje 6yjje pajjo npHM- 



180 



n^ejiap 1999 



jteHa. npeMa KpecaKy Ha npo^HCHH jieT 
H3Jiehy CBe Tpo/jHeBHe MJia/je n^ene , y 
CHTyauHJH xa/ja TexHHa H3JiyqeBHHa 
h3hoch npnGjiH^CHO 20-25% TeaciiHe ihnxo- 
Bor Tejia. 

Kajja iraejie MacoBHo M3Jieliy Ha 

IipOHMCHM JieT? 

n^eiie MacoBHo H3Jieny Ha npo*mcHH 
JieT ojj 6 jjo 9 JjaHa no H3JieraH>y h to 
npeTexHO oko nojjHeBa. OHe npeno3Hajy 
KoiHHHityjoin no npBOM nponncHOM H3Jie- 
TaH>y. H3JieTaH>eje MacoBHo, Taxo jja jih^h 
Ha pojen>e. npn TOMe ce nqene ocjioGarjajy 
H3Jiy^eBHHa jjajte ojj KoniHHue, a axo ce Ha 
o/jenn nqenapa BHJje Kann H3JiyHeBHHa, to 
je ojj HaJMJiarjnx tpojjhcbhhx irqejia Koje 
oGaBJtajy CBOje npBO H3JieTaite. Flocjie 
TaKBHX MacoBHHX H3JieTaH>a OHe nocTajy 

H3JieTHHUe. 

KaKBaje ciiocoShoct opiijeiiTauiije kojj; 
imejia? 

Hh je/jHa nnejia jjo 5 JjaHa CTapocTH He 
Moxe jja ce opHJeHTHiue 3a noBpaTaK jjo 
KoiHHHne, aKO ce Harje Ha 100 MeTapa ojj 
H>e. Ojj jjeceTO/jHeBHHX nnena Bpana ce 
80%, ajiH hh je/jHa or h>hx He Moxe jja ce 
BpaTH ca 200 MeTapa. Ojj ocaMHaecTOJjHeB- 
hhx iraejia o/jajteHHX 500 MeTapa ojj, 
KoiHHHne , Bpaha ce 60 % , ajiH hh je/jHa ce He 
Bpaha axo ce Harje 2.000 MeTapa ojj, H>e. Ko- 
jihko cy CTapnje nnejie, Toje h Bene pacTO- 
jaite ca xora ce Bpaftajy. Ako ojjJieTe Ha 4 
KHJioMeTpa, BejiHKH 6poj h>hx ryGn 
opHJeHTauHJy. Hnp., axo nnejiHitaK 
npeMecTHMO Ha jjajbHHy ojj, 4 km h nnejiap 
nycTH o/jpacjie nnejie Ha 100 m ojj hobot 
MecTa nHejiHH>aKa, hh je/jHa irqejia Hehe 
Hann nyT 3a noBpaTaK. Kojj nocTaBJbaita 
n^ejiHH^aKa nnenaMa Tpe6a jjara 
MoryhHOCT jja H3Bpnie opHJeHTauHOHO 06- 
jieTaH>e, na he ycneTH jja ce BpaTe. To 
3HaHH, cnocoGHOCT nnejia jja ce 

OpHJeHTHIliy 3aBHCH, He CaMO OJJ CTapOCTH 

nnejia, Beh w or no3HaBaH>a MecTa. 

KaKBaje (jjyiiKijiija 114e.ua lOBM/miiua? 

n^ejie H3BHJjHHn;e cy o/jpacjie H3JieT- 
HHite Koje Tpaace xpaHy npBeHCTBeHO y 
npojiehe h jeceH h yBeK Ka/jaje HeMa y npn- 
pojjn. Ochm Tora, y kphthhhhm CHTyann- 



jaMa, BorjeHe hhcthktom caMoojjpxaita, 
Mory jja HanajjHy cjiaGa hjih o6e3MaTHqeHa 
jjpyniTBa, jja onycTome jierjio h jja hm noK- 
yne xpaHy. Ta nojaBa Moxe jja ce npoinnpn 
h Ha Jjpyra JjpyniTBa y miejiHitaKy. rpaGeac 
ce cnpenaBa ojjcTpaH>HBaH>eM cjiaGnx 
jjpyuiTaBa h o6e3MaTHHeHHX hjih cnajaiteM 
ca jjpyrHM. Heica/ja je jjobojbho CMaitHTH 
otbop Ha JieTy. 

KajJta ce "6y,zni" iraejiHH»e jJipyuiTBo? 

Ilo^eTaK 3CHB0THe aKTHBHOCTH miejiH- 

H>er JjpyniTBa je MOMeHaT Kajja Marana 
no^He ca nojiaraiteMJaja. riojiaraite jajaje 
GnojioHiKa h^okhoct 3a 3JjpaBy MaTHijy, ajiH 
6e3 Gpnre miejin to He 6h mohio jja ce jjo- 
tojjh. Join npe 3hmckhx Mecenn MJiajje 
miejie oGhjiho xpaHe MaTHiry MJienoM kojh 
CTHMyjiHiue nojiaraite jaja h aKTHBHOCT. 

3a nrra nnejie KopncTe ycHH anapaT? 

Ychhm anapaTOM miejie nonpaBJtajy 
ouiTeheHe hejinje, jjorparjyjy HejjoparjeHO 
hjih H3pe3aHO cane, nonpaBJbajy cahe no- 
cjie ueHTpH(J)yrHpaH)a Mejja, H3Hoce yr- 
HHyjie nnejie, TpyTOBe h napa3HTe H3 
KoiHHHue, H3rpH3ajy h o/jcTpaityjy 
CTBpjjHyra nojieH, ojjcTpaH^yjy yrHHyjio jie- 
tjio h ojj rjiajjH yrHHyjie n^iejie y hejiHJaMa. 
Ilopejj Tora ca ycHHM anapaTOM nonyH>a- 
Bajy nyKOTHHe KoniHHiie nponojincoM, My- 
MH(J)HUHpajy HenpHJaTejbe Koje y6njy (axo 
He Mory jja hx H3Hecy H3 KouiHHije 36or 
Te^HHe), pyniH MaTHqitaice, ojjcTpaH^yjy 
jjpBeHe JtyiHHHije ojj paMOBa, yGnjajy Tyrje 
n^iejie H3BHJjHHiie, napa3HTe h h^hxobc 
jiapBe, npeMa3yjy KoniHHiiy h jjp. 

Koje nnejie H3rpal)yjy MaTHHH>aKe? 

PojeBe MaTHHH>aKe H3rparjyjy nnejie kojj 
kojhx cy xjie3Jje 3a Jiyneite Bocxa 
3aKpxjtajie. 3aTO, 3a H>nxoBy H3rpajjH>y, 
n^ejie KopHCTe BocaK ojj CTapor caria. J\o- 
Ka3 3a to je TaMHa 6oja hejinja. Pe3epBHe 
MaTH^H^aKe H3rparjyjy MJiajje n^iejie h 
nnejie rpa/jHTejBCKe ojj HHCTor Bocxa Koje 
OHe npoH3BOJje. 

Ka/ia ce Jiery nepa3Biijeiie nnejie? 

Hepa3BHJeHe nnejie (BejiH^HHe jjoMahe 
Myxe), jiery ce H3 mhoto CTapor caha, nnje 



181 



n^ejiap 1999 



cy nejinje, Kao pe3yjrraT o,iirajaH>a MHoro 
noKOJieita, BpJioMajie, £a He Mory.ua npHMe 
KOJiHHHHy xpaHe Heonxo^Hy nnejiaMa y ne- 
pHo^iy pa3Boja jiapBe. 

IIoBpeT)xiy J™ nnejie Kopy Ha 3pejinM 

IUIO^OBHMa? 

n^ene He noBpeljyjy Kopy Ha 3pejiHM 
njioj,OBHMa, jep ca cjiaGHM ycHHM anapaTOM 
He Mory m je nporpH3y. OHe nnjy cnaTKe 
coKOBe ca nno^ioBa KOJHMa je Kopa 
noBpefjeHa or oca, MpaBa hjih CTpniJbe- 
HOBa. Jlqejie Mory ja noBpe^e caMO nnoj, 
MajiHHe, aKO npecTaHe CBaxa naiua h nnjy 
H3 h>hx cjia^aK cok. 

Kojihko nyra je Moryhe hckophcthth 
HCTe mejie 3a irarpamty cana? 

Mde nnene Mory jx& ce HCKOpHCTe #0 4 
nyra 3a H3rpa£H>y caha. To je AOKa3ao eK- 
cnepHMeHTajiHO Opocn, ko^ aKTHBHe 
npHxpaHe miejiHH>HX ^pyniTaBa ca ineftep- 
hhm cHpynoM, KOMe je jiojiar KBacau, y nepn- 
ouy 6e3 name (25. VIII - 25. X). 



y ieMy je cyurniHa nojaBe KpeTaita 
iraejia "TaMo-aMo"? 



Kao no KOMaH^n. Y3poK HHJe yTBpJeH %o 
ca#a. XojiaH/icKH nnejiap MnH/iepxoyT je 
yoHHO jx& ce OBa nojaBa noBehaBa Ka^a 
HBeTa upBeHa zieTejiHHa, na nnejie xohe jia 
ce ocjioGo^e nojieHa. flpyra nnejiapH obo 
onoBpraBajy, jep OBa nojaBa Moxe na ce 
jaBH h Kajia OBe GHibKe He nBeiajy. Ko^i m- 
BaH>a He3HaTHe KOjra^HHe xpaHe obh noK- 
pera ce koj nnejia npeKimajy. H3 ^era 

CJie^H %£L Cy OBH nOKpeTH H3pa3 HHCTHHKTa 

3a nainy. 



HMa jim iwejia 6e3 jKaoKe? 

nnejie 6e3 xaoxe ce cpeny npeiexHO y 
neHTpajiHoj AMepHUH, pelje Ha Ky6n, y 
MeKCHKy h XoH^ypacy. J43Me|)y obhx h Me- 
^OHOCHe iraejie HMa BejiHKe pa3JiHKe y 
HaHHHy H3rpa#H>e caha. Jlqejie 6e3 xaoxe 
pa,ae cane xopH30HTajiHO, ftejiHJe cy 
H3rpa5eHe je^HOCTpaHO, ca yjia3HHM otbo- 
poM o^o3ro. Te nqene cy npejia3 o# 3eMHe 
nnejie h Me^oHOCHe nnejie. KojiH^HHa h>h- 
xoBor npoH3Be^eHor Me^a npH noBOJLHHM 
ycjioBHMa flocraace 3 kg, or je^Hor iraejiH- 
H>er jjpyniTBa. rinejie 6e3 xaoxe H3 Xonny- 
paca yje^ajy ^ecTOKO. Vje^i je GojiaH Kao h 
y6o^ oji Me^oHOCHe nnejie. 



KpeTaH>e nnejia "TaMO-OBaMo" (Kao 

koji peH,HHcaH>a), Hanpe,n na Ha3a/i, Moxe jia 
ce yoHH Ha nojieiajbUH, rjie ce iraejie Kpehy 



IJpeMa kh>u3u: "1001 numaft>e u odeo 
eop U3 nnejiapcmea" od Bojmexa Kpu 



jtcahta. 



182 



nnejiap 1999 



nHEJIAPCKA nPHHHIJA 



MefieAn 



^Ba KpniHa MOMKa H3 cena 3eKyne, Mr- 
H>aT h Xhbko, yKpa^oine Hofry KoiHHHiry 
nqena, BpuiKapy, komiiihjh Cpe^ojy, 
nqenapy. Tjie^ajiH cy to ohh KaKO Cpe^oje 
Bajw Me,a Ha KpcroB^aH. Ha pyxe Ha- 
ByKoine napane MecTO pyKaBHna a maBy 
OMOTame MapaMOM yMecTO nHejiapcxe 
Kane. 3aBHine Konmnny y noitaBy h 
o^Henie y pexy JlyacHHiry Koja je TeKJia 
nope^i cena. KoniHHuy cnycTHine y je^aH 
nyftibw BHp. IlHejie ce yryniHine, Bo^a hx 
H3Hece H3 KoniHHue h o/iHece HH3 pexy, y 
CKpane^c. 

LllTajia MritaTOBor ona Snjia je 
y^ajteHa o^ Kyne oko 100 MeTapa, na ce jio- 
roBopHine #a KoniHHiry Hoce Ha MrH>aTOBy 
niTajiy, aa Ty noBa^e Me,u, y JioHau, jia Hohy 
£OJia3e h je^y Me,u, kojihko ro^ Mory h ko- 
jihko ra 6y#e Ghjio. M Taxo h ypa^Hine. Ka# 
BHine HHcy MorjiH ,a;a je^y Me^, noKpnine 
jraiiifreM mcr h KoniHHiry h oj,oine cbojhm 
KyhaMa. 

Ka^i je Cpe^oje yciao, npHMera jxa My 
Merjy KoiHHHnaMa je^He HeMa, h to 
HaJTe^e. OTpqa jio ^caH^apMepnjcKe 
CTamiue Koja je 6HJia aajieKO oko nojia 
KHJioMeTapa n ^exypHOM ;>KaH,napMy Ha 
3anncHHK aa^e H3JaBy. Ycnyr oGaBeera h 
KOMUiHje kojh HaBpaTHiue na ce CTBapHO 
yBepeyTO. HeKH nocyMH^aine Ha MrH>aTaH 
XnBKajep Hxje HeKOJiHKO nyTa AjieMmije 
XBaTao Hohy xaji cy My KpaiiH JiyGeHHue. 
CTHxe h naTpona xaH/iapMa. Ilo3HaTH 
jiaxoB y 3eKynaMa, CnaBHina, Kaxe: 



Jbyzni, Me^Be^ je o^Heo KoniHHiry. Ja caM 

HOhaC H3Jia3HO H3 Kyhe fla MOKpHM, BH/iex 

HeniTO orpoMHO, ajin He3HaM HaniTa jih^h 
na ojie y JlaHTOBHna raj npexo Pocnna jih- 
Baixe. OcTajin nyre. 3Hajy jx& mcrecr xohe 
Me^, ajiHH ^aCjiaBHinaxohe^ajia^ce. >KaH- 
%ap BejiH pene #a oh 3Ha jia cy iteroBHM 
KOMinHjaMa Mej,Be^H chhochjih KoniHHue. 

JbyRH, yna/ie y peq ByKocaB, HHKaj, 
Me^e^, HHJe BnrjeH y 3eKyjiaMa. Koumnnyje 
o^Heo HeKy, ^bohoth Merje/i. npHCTHxe n 
KOMinnja BHheHTHJe, KOJHJe npoinao nope^ 
MrH>aTOBe niTane na Ka/i ca3Ha iHTa ce #e- 
chjio pene: Cpe^oje, eHO th nnena Ha Mr- 
H^aTOBOj niTajiH. Oko niTajie HMa neT po- 
jeBa nnejia. 

M nyne GpyKa. naTpona ^caH/iapa o^e 
rope h yrBp^H oho ihto pene BHheHTHJe. 
Cpe^ojeBe nnene h ocTajinx KOMinnja oce- 
THJie cy Ha niTajiH Mnpnc Me#a h noniTO 
/Ipyre name Hnje 6hjio, jiok cy ohh Benajin 
ko je yKpao KoniHHiry, nnejie cy CKOpo CBe 
nojejie h o^Hene y Konmnue. vKaH^apMH 
npHBe^onie MraaTa, noTOM n XnBKa h ohh 
npH3Hame cbc 

KaKO ce cnynaj ,necHO npe 80 ro^HHa, 
36or npoTeKa BpeMeHa, HeMaMO no^aTaKa 
KaKO cy nponiJin y xaH^apMepnjcKoj CTaH- 
hlih MrH>aT h Xhbko. Ajih, y 3eKyjiaMa h 
#o aaHaniH^er jiaua ocTanie ^Ba Ha^HMKa: 
"Merje^H", Koje ^a^oine MrH>aTy h XHBKy. 

npHnoBe,nao: CMMidi Mno^par 



184 



nnejiap 1999 



nOPYKE H nOYKE 



ITnejiapHMa o^ iraejiapa - CBeT03apa BaTe Ore(|)aHOBHha H3 H. Ca^a 



- JaBHcennejiaMa, Ka^aHMnpH^eni, ajiH 
He ca zioSap ,aaH, ,no6po jyTpo hjih ,no6po 
Bene, Hero CA MJIA30M £HMA 

- npe Hero iiito noHHem %a pa^Hin ca 
nqejiaivia, nocTaBH ce6n 3a,aaTaK inra liein 
m pa/iiiiii. 

- Ako jianac npe^BH^eHO He ypa^Hin, cy- 
Tpa Moxe ,na 6yzie Kacno. 

- Ill to Me MaH>e OTBapaui, Biiuie heui 
Me,na ,na ue,zmm. 

- OdaBH nHejraH>eM j,pyuiTBy KHJiorpaM 
Me^a, BpaTHhe th tph h Biiuie. 

- 3anaMTH, nnenapy, #a nnejie lipase 
Me,n, a mch npaBH nnejie . 



- 3hmh, HeMoj HHKaKO nnenapy jia Me 
y3HeMHpaBaui, hhth ^a Me paHo y npojiehe 
6y^Hui, ajiH Ka^a Me 6yaeni npo6ynHO He- 

MOJ MM £03BOJIHTH B1IUJO Ra 3acnHM. 

- 3anaMTH h obo, nnejiapy! On 3HMe 
Henem Me oj,6paHHTH axo HanpaBHiu 
KoinHHiiy o,n #e6ejie #acKe. Ajih axo mm 
o6e36e/iHin MJia/iy h KBaiiHTeTHy MaTHiry, 
HcnpaBHO cane h MHoro KBajiHTeTHor Me^a, 
raiia cnrypaH 6yziH #a He nocToje L[eji3Hy- 

COBH MHHyCH KOJH Me MOry yHMIUTMTM. 

- Boibe je MHHyc neT 6e3 BeTpa, Hero + 
10°C cajaKHM BeTpoM. 

llo^cejiH, n^ejiapy, je/iHO jaKO 
nqeiiHH^e apyniTBO, Koje he th 6hth Bpea- 
HHJe on neT cjia6nx. 

- Oji neT namaje^Haje Hama - aoBO.wio. 



'TpeniKOM LllTaMnapHJe norpeuiHO je HiTaMnaH 6poj Tejie(J)OHa na HMaMO o6aBe3y 
jxa orjiac noHOBHMO y3 Haiue H3BHH>eH>e. Bpoj TejiecJ)OHaTpe6a,na 6yae 011/816-46-28." 

ype^. 



185 



n^ejiap 1999 



l~loKa3aTe/i> Ksa/iMTeTa Maniua 



Uuejioeodcmeo 6p. 10/84 



B. A. IVEMH 



Kao iuto je no3HaTO, npojjyKTMBHOCT 
nnejiMiier /jpyniTBa ce y 3HanaJHOJ MepM 
noBe3yje c pa3MepaMa m MacoM MaTMue. Ty 
TanKy rjieaMiirra Tpe6a CMaTpaTM mctmhh- 

TOM H HaCTOJaTH RZL CC y IIHeHMHjMM 

flpyuiTBMMa KOpiiCTe no MoryhHOCTM iuto 
KpynHMj'e MaTMue. McTOBpeMeHO Tpe6a 
MMaTM y BMjjy jra miojjHOCT MaTMua He 3a- 

BMCM CaMO OR 06HMa H>e3HHMX jaJHHKa H 

6poja jaJHMx ueBHHua, Beh, BepoBaTHO, 
TaKorje m or HacjiejiHO ycjiOBibeHe MHTeH- 
3mbhoctm pa3MeHe MaTepnja, KBaJIMTeTa 
nnejia Koje OKpyiKyjy MaTnny, xpaHe m jrpy- 
rax ycjiOBa. 

Hajno^ceibHMJe je, MnaK, MMaTM Ha 
n*iejiMH>aKy KpynHe MaTMue, Koje tie, npn 
cbmm /jpyraM je^HaKMM ycjiOBHMa, o6e36e- 
jjmth 6piKH pa3BOJ nHejiHiter JpyniTBa m 
H.eroBy npojjyKTMBHOCT. TaKBa KapaKTe- 
pMCTMKa MaTMue, Kao iuto je H>e3HHa Maca, 
hjih BejiMHMHa H>e3MHor Tejia, jiaKO ce 
ojjpeljyje BH3yejiH0 mjim MepeiteM. IIoKa- 
3aTejbM, nax, H>e3HHor 4>M3iiojioiiiKor 
KapaKTepa, Ha >KanocT, 3a ca/ia ocTajy He- 
AOCTynHH 3a nnejiapa. 

CnoibauiH^M K3Tiiejx MaTMue y H3BecHOJ 
MepM MOiKe ce CMaTpaTM 3a;jpBOJbaBajyhoM 
KapaKTepHCTMKOM Ha cbmm eTanaMa H>e3M- 
hot pa3BOJa, Koje Tpaje He caMO y TOKy 16 
jiaHa, Heonxo/iHMx 3a npeo6pahaH>e jajeTa y 
napBy, JiyTKy m o/jpacny MaTMuy, Beh m y 
TOKy cbmx tmx ,aaHa Ka#a ce ojjMipaBajy 
3aBpniHM npouecn ca3peBan>a MaTMue m 
H>e3HHor npeo6pahaH>a y je/iMHKy Koja 
nojia^ce jaja. 3aT0Je noTpe6HOJom oko 10 
jjaHa m no cboj npHJiMnn, Hnje CBejejjHO y 
KaKBMM he ce ycnoBMMa Hajia3MTM MaTMua y 
to BpeMe, a Hapo^MTO npBnx aaHa nocjie 
H>e3HHor M3JiacKa M3 MaTMHH>aKa. y 
cymTMHM cue^ehnx jxslhsl nocjie pofjeita Ma- 
TMue 3aBpmaBa ce npouec ca3peBan>a 
H>e3HHor nojiHor cncTeMa, kojm ce okoh- 
naBa Gpa^HMM M3JieTaH>eM m cnapMBaiteM. 
y tom nepMOjry ce, BepoBaTHO, y H>e3HHOM 
opraHM3My /jeniaBajy CBe Te npOMeHe, Koje 
y RSUhQM TOKy, y M3BecHOJ Mepn o6e36eJyjy 
tok 4>m3mojioiukmx npoueca, kojm ojjpefjyjy 
KapaKTep hochboctm. 36or Tora je BeoMa 

Ba^KHO 06e36eflMTM MJiajJpj MaTMUM HOp- 

MauHe ycjiOBe ;>KHBJi>eH>a o,a npBnx jjaHa 



H>e3MHor iKHBOTa. Ha ;>KajiocT, Ha obo ce He 
oGpaha yBeK na;>KH>a m necTO ce TeK 
M3Jie^ceHa MaTMua CMeniTa y TaKBe ycnoBe 
kojm He o6e36erjyjy H>e3MH HOpMajiHM pa3- 
boj, Kao m ca3peBaH>e. flyro 3aap^caBaH>e 
MaTMne y KaBe3y, noHeKa/j ca ocKyjiHOM 
xpaHOM, mjim y HyKJieycy ca hckojimko rc- 
ceTMHa nnena, Koje je^Ba o6e36erjyjy H>e3- 
mho oncTajaite, CBaKaKO, BeoMa mhoto ce 
pa3JiMKyje or ohmx ycjiOBa y KOJMMa ce Ha- 
na3M MJiajja MaTMna nocjie M3JiacKa M3 
MaTMHH>aKa m cnapMBaita Kajra ocTaje y 
cbom JTpymTBy. 

BepoBaTHO ce y 3HaTHOJ MepM ynpaBO 

TMMe MO^Ce 06jaCHMTM KpaTKOBeHHOCT Ma- 
TMua m H>MX0Ba npeBpeMeHa 3aMeHa o,a 
CTpaHe nnejia jjpyniTBa y Koje je OHa 
npecaJeHa, iuto, Ha »:ajiocT, 6nBa npn- 
jimkom Ha6aBKe MaTMua or ra3jjMHCTaBa 
Koje mx y3rajajy. 

IToctojm o^peJeHa 3aBMCHOCT M3Meljy 
Mace njiojiHe MaTMue m H>e3MHor CTaita ro 
cnapMBaH>a. KpynHa m TeniKa Henjio/iHa Ma- 
TMua nocne cnapHBaita m noneTKa nojia- 
raH>a jaja, TaKoJe, ce o^jiMKyje 3Ha*iaJHMM 
pa3MepaMa Tp6yxa "h o^aje yTMcaK jjo6po 
pa3BMJeHe iKeHCKe je^MHKe. Cmthc, He- 
njiojj,He, MaTMue He ^ocTM^cy, naK, TaKBe 
pa3Mepe h Te>KMHe nocjie cnapMBaita no- 
neTKa nojiaraH>a jaja. y unity pa3JaniH>eH>a 
3aBMCHOCTH BejiMHMHe njioj^He MaTMue Kap- 
naTCKe pace or H>e3MHor npBoGMTHor 
CTaH>a, CBaKy MJiajry MaTMuy cmo MepHJiM 
flBa nyTa - HaKOH jejjHor flaHa no M3JiacKy M3 
MaTHHHjaKa m y noneTKy nojiaraH^ajaja. Hc- 
Tpa^KeHO je yKynHO 164 Henjiojj,He m 118 
njiojiHMx MaTMua. Pa/iM OTCTpaH>MBaH>a 
Moryher HeraTMBHor yTMuaja m nocjieflHua 
cjia6or HyK/ieycHor apyniTBa Ha KBajiHTeT 
MaTMue, CBe MaTMue Koje cy npoynaBaHe 
cmo ap^cajiM y ^pyniTBMMa Koja cy 3anoc- 
ejjajia HaJMan>e Tpn paMa M3 rHe3jja 
BejiMHMHe 300x435 mm. npoce^Ha Te^KMHa 
nnojiHe MaTMue je y ojouocy Ha HennojiHy 
M3HOCMJia 137%, (Ta6ji. 1). 

CjiMHHe no^aTKe je jjoGmo M. K. flaBM- 
/leHKO (1969.), kojm je ycTaHOBMO jja cy He- 
nno^He KapnaTCKe MaTMue npoce^HO 6MJie 
TeniKe 190,5 mg, a r& cy onjiorjeHe 6njie 
Te>Ke 3a 80,5 mg. 



103 



n^ejiap 1999 



Tadeaa 1 MACA HEIIJIOflHHX H IIJIOflHHX KAPIIATCKHX MATHIfA Mg 



Maca Ma- 

THUa 


D 


M ± m 


lim 


% 


Ilanam H, K. HaawaeHKa, 1969. 


n 


M ± m 


lim 


HeruiOA, 


164 
118 


191,9 1,02 

263,01,70 


145-219 
212-302 


100,0 

137.(1 


213 
91 


190,5 1,19 

271,1 2,16 


144-230 
198-323 



Tadejta 2 MACA HEIIJIOflHHX KAPUATCKMX MATHIfA H Y nOHETKY 
nOJIATAIhA JAJA 



Maca Henjiojj. 
MaTHua, mg 


Maca nnoAHHX MaTHija mg 


M ± m 


lim 


TH 


161-180 

181-200 
201-220 


248.0 3,10 

266.1 1,73 
274,8 2,83 


222-267 
232-299 
246-302 


4,9 

2,8 



XIoaanH H3 TaGeiie 2 £03BOJbaBajy ^;a ce 
npHMeTH npeBara iuiquhhx MaTHna, HHJaje 
Maca npe cnapHBaH>a Gnjia MaH>a. 




W5 13S W3 t?J ?85 W5 20S 

Maca uciimyiimx uzitkiei ma 



hoct Mace iltio^hhx MaTHna o,n H>HXOBe 
Mace npe cnapHBajta (rpa(J)HKOH). 

AHajiH3a ^o6njeHHX MaTepnjajia #03- 
BOJbaBa jx& ce roBopH o TOMe ^a ce npH 
/Ip3caH>y, KaKO Heruio^HHX TaKO h iijiquhhx 
MaTHna, y 3a h>hx noBOJBHHM ycjioBHMa, 
pa3JiHKa H3Mel)y Mace nno^He Maraue h 
Mace Te HCTe MaTnue ro cnapHBajta, jio- 
CTHace 45 - 80 mg, a y npoceicy 71 mg, nrro 
h3hoch 37% c\ii Mace Henjio^HHX MaTHna. 
HaBe^eHH no^ann ce 3HanaJHO pa3JiHKyjy 
o,n, ohhx KapaKTepHCTHKa, Koje ce HaBo^e y 

Pa^HOJ TaGjIHLIH O npOH3BO/IH)H iraejiHH>HX 

MaTHna, a, Taicorje, y MHCTpyKUHJH o 6ohh- 
THpaH>y nHejiHH>HX .npyunaBa, Koje npe- 
nopy^jy #a ce CMaTpa m ce Maca njio^He 
MaTHue y o,HHOcy Ha HeiuioflHy noBehaBa 3a 
20 mg. rioiiiTO nHTaite KBajiHTeTa MaTHna, 
Koje npoioBo^e y3rajajiHiiiHa ra3,iiHHCTBa, 
npo^yacaBa ^a npHBJia^H Ha ce6e naxity, 
HaMehe ce Kao Heonxo^HO npoBorjeite cne- 
UHJajiHHX HCTpa^cHBaH^a nocBeneHHX KBa- 
jiHTeTy thx MaTHiia, y Be3H ca yarcoBHMa 
H>HXOBor o^rajaH^a h £pxaH>a, c HHJbeM 
pa3pa^,e ocHOBaHHJHX KapaicrepHCTHKa, 
Koje TaHHHJe oapefjyjy h>hxobo cbojctbo, 

KBaJIHTeT. 



/•5 ttf .tf.f /5? / A 5 flW r/75 

Maca HeiuionHHX Maxima mg 

Ha ocHOBy #o6HJeHHX no^aiaKa 

OMoryheHa je rpaflita KpHByjbe perpecnje, 

Koja CBe^oHH #a nocTOJH 3HanaJHa 3aBHC- 

104 



Kamedpa 3a nuejiapcmeo TCXA 

C pycKor upeueo, 
Tiop^e CTaHoJHHli, 1 Iobii Ca,n 



n^ejiap 1999 



IIo^aBaH>eH 3aivieHa MaTHua 



3aMeHa MaTHuajeje/jaH o/j HajcjioxeHH- 
jhx npoGjieMa 3a iraejiape. IloTeinKohe y 
npoHajiaxeray MaTHita cy caMO #eo Tora. 
nnejiapH HMajy pa3JiH*iHTe CTeneHe ycnexa 
npH jiojiaBaiby MaTHua, *iaK, h axo npH TOMe 
npHMeHe HCTy MeTO/jy. C Jjpyre CTpaHe, pe- 
jjobhom 3aMeHOM MaTHita jjoGnjajy jana h 
npo^yKTHBHHJa nnejiHifca jjpyiHTBa. J\o 
jjaHac HHJe npoHafjeH Ha^HH jjojjaBaH>a h 
3aMeHe MaTHita kojh je 100% cnrypaH. 
Taxo, CBaKH nnejiap HMa HeKe CBOje MeTO/ie 
h pyKOBO^H ce yrjiaBHOM H>HMa Ka/ja yBO/iH 
HOBe MaTHue y CBOja nqejiHita JjpyiHTBa. 

Ochobho niTO iraenapH TpeGa Jia 3Hajy, 
Ka/ja Bpine 3aMeHy CTapnx MaTHua, je Jja 
MJia/ia MaTHita Mopa 6hth y cjih^hom CTaity 
y norjie/jy nojiaraitajaja Kao h Marana Koja 
ce 3aMeH>yje. Ykojihko OBe paBHOTexe 
HeMa jjo/jaBaite MaTHue HaJBepoBaTHHJe 
Hene ycnera. 3aTO ce 3aMeHa MaTHua Jiaxo 
oGaBJta y nepHO/iHMa hhckot HHBoa 
nexeH>a MaTHne tj. 3a BpeMe npojielme 
name hjih yjeceH. Ykojikko ce 3aMeHa Ma- 
THua BpniH Ka^a je npncyraa BejiHKa 
KOJiMHHa Jierjia OH/ia MJia/ja MaTHua Mopa 
6hth o^JiHHHor Ghojioihkot KananHTeTa. 
Mjia/ia MaTHua ce oGhhho y3HMa H3 oiijiojj- 
H>aKa y KOMe je HMajia jjobojbho npocTopa 
3a nojiaraite jaja. 

npBH KopaK npH yBorjeH>y MJia/jnx, 
cnapeHHX MaTHita je jja ce y jjpyiiiTBy y KOMe 
ce BpuiH 3aMeHa npoHarje h yioioHH CTapa 
MaTHita. Ty Tpe6a o6paTHTH noceGHy 
naaaty Ha eBeHTyajmn nponec THxe 3aMeHe 
kojh Moxe OHeMoryhHTH ycneniHy 3aMeHy 
MaTHua. 06h*iho ce MJia/ia, cnapeHa Ma- 
THita npe jjpjjaBaH>a Hajia3H y TpaHcnopT- 
hom KaBe3y cajoin 5-6 nqejia npaTHJba. npH 
jio;iaBaH>y ce npBO H3 KaBe3a o/jcTpaHe 
nqene nparajbe, a 3aTHM ce KaBe3 ca Mara- 
uom CTaBJta y npeTxo/iHO o6e3MaTHHeHO 
nqejiHH>e JipyiHTBO. Otbop jjo jjejia ca 
iuehepHHM TecTOM ce Majio npoinnpH exce- 
poM hjih ^aHKajiHHOM h KaBe3 ce CTaBiba 
H3Merjy jjBa OKBHpa ca JiernoM Taxo /ja Myje 
CTpaHa ca MpeacoM OKpeHyTa Harope. Ot- 
bop ca inenepHHM TecTOM ce ycMepaBa 
yxoco Harope h npeMa JieTy. flnejie oGhhho 



ocjioGojje MaTHuy 3a 3-4 jjaHa. Ojj H>eHor 
noHainaH>a no ocjio6arjaH>y H3 KaBe3a 3a- 
BHCHhe h ojjhoc nqejia npeMa itoj. Ykojihko 
ce MaTHita noHaina mhpho, HecMeTaHO 
npHMa xpaHy h nonaace jaja 6nhe TpaJHO 
npHXBaheHa. npBHX 7-8 ijaHa o/j jjojjaBaH^a 
HHJe noacejbHO HecTO OTBapaTH KoniHHuy 
jep to Moace y3poxoBaTH yKJiynHaBaH>e 
HOBe, TeKnpHXBaheHe, MaTHne. 3aToje npH 
yTBpf)HBaH>y jja jih je MaTHua npHXBaheHa 

HJIH He JJOBOJbHO yCTaHOBHTH npHcycTBO 

HopMajiHO nojioxeHHX jaja Ha je/iHOM oa 

OKBHpa y KOIUHHUH. 

MnaK ce Mjia/j;e, cnapeHe MaTHne Ha- 
jycneiHHHJe yBOJje y HyKJieyce kojh ce (f)op- 
MHpajy ojx jejjHor jxo jjBa OKBHpa ca 3aT- 
BopeHHM JierjioM, jejjHor OKBHpa ca MejjpM 
h nojieHOM h nap npa3HHX H3rpaJeHHX 
OKBHpa. 06hhho ce TaKaB HyKJieyc 
noja^iaBa CTpecaaeM OKBHpa ca MJia/jHM 
nqejiaMa. TaKO 4)opMHpaH HyKJieyc ce npn- 
naja npeTxojjHO o6e3MaTH i ieHOM nnejiH- 
H^eM jjpyniTBy TeK Kajja MJiajja MaTHua 
jjocTHTHe ojjperjeHH hhbo y kojih^ihhh jie- 
rjia. Bpjio ^ecTO ce nnejiapH ojxny^iyjy jja 
TaKaB HyKJieyc , y3 ajjeKBaTHy Hery h 
nojaHaH>e, npeTBOpe y HopMajiHO nHejiHH>e 

JJpyiUTBO. 

MaTHne ce Mory yBecTH y HacTaBJba*ie h 
y3 noMori jjBOCTpyKe Mpeace kojom ce noK- 
jiana njio/jHiHTe ca CTapoM MaTHUOM. y 
ropH>H HacTaBaK, rjje ie noKJionjbeHO Jierjio 
ca MJia/jHM nnejiaMa, oGh^iho ce 6e3 npo6- 
jieMa yBOJjH MJia/ja MaTHua. Jlocjie H3Bec- 
hot BpeMeHa, CTapa ce MaTHua yKJiaH>a a 
HacTaBUH cnajajy yKJiaH^aHjeM jjBOCTpyKe 
Mpexe. 

JejjaH ojx HajcnrypHHJHX MeTO/ja 3a Jjo/ja- 
BaH>e MaTHua je KopHinneite MpexacTor 
KaBe3a noKJiana^ia. JloMoriy H>era ce Ma- 
THita noKJiana Ha OKBHpy ca Kora cy npe- 
txojjho CTpenieHe nnejie. KaBe3 oGyxBaTa 
noBpiHHHy Ha kojoj je noxejbHO npncycTBO 
H3BecHor Gpoja hejinja ca OTBOpeHHM Me- 
jjom, hejinja ca noKJionjbeHHM JierjioM h 
HeKOJiHKO npa3HHX hejinja. MaTHita ce y 
tom npocTopy cjioGojjho Kpehe, KOH3yMHpa 
Me/j, nojiaxejaja a nqejie, Koje ce H3BOJje H3 



105 



rinejiap 1999 



noKJionjbeHHX hejraja, npnxBaTajy Marauy. 
HeKOJiHKO jjaHa KacHnje KaBe3 ce jeji- 
HOCTaBHO yKJiaifca h MaTHua 6HBa 
npHXBaheHa 6e3 hckhx Behnx npoGjieMa. 

noHeKajj ce JieiuaBa %a je HeKOM 
jxpyuiTBy je^HOCTaBHO HeMoryhe ^o^ara 
HOBy MaTHuy. Pn3HHaH nocaoje h ,ziojiaBaH>e 
MaTHita 6e3MaTHUHMa ca CTapHM nnejiaMa 
hjih ^pyuiTBHMa ca JiaxHHM MaTHiiaMa. 
TaKorj e , Tpe6a H36eraBaTH jjojjaBaite 
HecnapeHHX MaTHua HopMajiHHM nqejiH- 
h>hm jjpyuiTBHMa. y TaKBHM cnyqajeBHMaje 
Gojbe jjo/iaBaTH 3pejie MaTH*iH>aKe. 

J\& 6h HauiHM nqejiapHMajoin BHine no- 
jacHHJiH npouece kojh ce o/XBHJajy y 
kouihhuh npHJiHKOM 3aMeHe MaTHua 
noTpeGHO je yKa3ara jxa ce necTO npeBHfja 
niTa je Te npouece H3a3Bajio. OGhmho ce 
Tana naxita ycMepaBa Ha nocjiejjHue Koje 
cy H3 thx nponeca HacTane. y npHJior TOMe 
Hjje h pa3MaTpaite nnTaita yBorjeita h 
3aMeHa MaTHuaje/iHor ojj no3HaTHJnx o/ira- 
JHBa^a MaTHita H3 KajiH(J)opHHJe E/jBapjja 
AjieHa (Echvard L. Allen, CA) kojh 
noceGHO Te^cnniTe Gaua Ha npHpojjy caMor 
noHauiaH>a nonejia. 

HaHMe, necTO ce uyje jja nuejie He yGa- 
jjajy nuejiape jep hx, HaBOJjHO, no3Hajy. 
Taxorje, HeKH nnejiapn ociaBJbajy MpTBy 
Marany y koihhhhh Kaxo 6h nnejie 3Hajie jja 
je OHa MpTBa. IlqejiaMa ce TaKO npHnHcyjy 
H3y3eTHe cnocoGHOCTH, Kao uito je cnocoG- 
hoct jia MHCJie, a to je y cyniTHHH BejiHKa 
rpeniKa. flnejie cy ycTBapH "nporpaMH- 
paHe" Jia oGaBJbajy 6hjio kojh nocao Kojnje 

Ha3HaHeH OJJperjeHHM KpHTH^HHM OKOJI- 

HOCTHMa. To hhcthkthbho noHamaite 
nqejia noKa3yjy HajGojte nnejie nojie- 
Hapnue. Ako ce TaKBHM nqenaMa nojieH yK- 
jiohh ca Hornna OHe Hehe npoMeHHTH CBOje 
noHainaite Koje je KapaKTepncTHHHO 3a 
nojieHapnne: 3aBHpHBahe y hejinje cana, 
CKH/iahe nojieH h ca6njahe ra Ha cjioGojiho 
MecTO Kao jiaje oh npncyraH Ha iteHHM ho- 
ranaMa. JlpeMa TOMe, aKO ce 3ancTa3cejiH 
cxBaTHTH noHamaite nuejia, noTpeGHO je, 
yMecTO jia joj ce npHnncyje pe30HOBaH>e h 

pa3MHniJbaH>e, HJXeHTH(j)HKOBaTH H>eHO 

noHamaH>e h ycTaHOBHTH mra ycjioBJtaBa 
TaKBO noHamaite. M3 OBora je jjecj^HHH- 



thbho jacHO jia nuejie, oGaBJbajynn CBOje 
aKTHBHOCTH, He M pa3MHinjbajy", TOMe 
niTa pajje h niTa he cjiejjehe yuHHHTH. Tlo 
CBeMy cyaeta nnejia Bpjio peTKO caMa 
3anoHHH>e HeKy JiejiaTHOCT Beh ce oGhhho 
yKibyqyje y HeKH Beh 3anoueTH nocao aKO 
HHJe Beh 3ay3eTa He^HM JxpyraM. TaKO 
nuejiap Tpe6a ycTBapH jja noHynH hjih 
TaHHHJe "cepBHpa" oho uito nqene Tpe6a 
jja o6aBe. 

LIIto ce THue caMe 3aMeHe MaTHua yBeK 
nocTOJH onacHOCT jja HOBoyBe/xeHa MaTHua 
6yne yGnjeHa h 3aMeiteHa oji CTpaHe 
"jjHBJbe" MaTHne ojjrajeHe y nnejiHiteM 
jjpyniTBy r#e ce Bpnin 3aMeHa. Ty ce yBeK 
nocTaBiba nHTaite 3aniTO cy nuejie o/xra- 
JHJie JJHBJby MaTHny aKO cy 6njie 3ajjoBoibHe 
KBajiHTeTOM HOBe, MJiajje Maraue? HaHMe, 
nuejie he nocjie yKJiaH>aH>a CTape MaTHne 
3anoueTH HeKOJiHKO MaTHHitaKa Koje he 
HeroBaTH h ojjpxaBaTH CBe jjok ce HOBa Ma- 
THua He jjoKa^ce. Oho uito CTBapHO koh- 
Tpojinuie h>hxobo noHauiaH>eje yKynHa 6h- 
oiiouiKa paBHOTexa yHyrap KouiHHue a He 
HeKH cjumeHH MHcaoHH npouec. 3HauaJHH 
(J>aKTOpH cy KOMGuHaunja Tora kojihko 
MJieun ce npoH3BOJjH yHyrap KouiHHue h 
noTpeGe jja ce pacnojioxHBa KOJiHHHHa 
MJienn ynoTpeGn TaMO rjje je HajnoTpeG- 
HHJa. no CBeMy cyjxehn BejiHKe cy uiaHce jia 
ce H3 3aTBOpeHHX MaTHHitaKa H3Bejje HeKa 
jjHBJta MaTHna h yGnje MJia^y, TeK jjo^aTy 
MaTHiry. 3aTO je noxejLHO npeKOHTpojin- 
CaTH H yKJIOHHTH CBe 3aTBOpeHe Ma- 
THHH>aKe H3 /ipyuiTBa KojeM ce jiojiaje 
MJia^a, cnapeHa MaTHua. 

TaKofje, qecTaje nojaBa cjiaGor npHXBa- 
Taita jjojjaTHX MaTHua Ka^a HeMa H3Jiy- 
HKBaiba HeKTapa y npnpo^H. HaHMe, 
npeparjHBaite oGhjihhx KOJiH^HHa HeKTapa 
he cnoHTaHO aKTHBHpaTH o^roBapajyhe 
xne3Jje kojj nneiia, jiok he GecnauiHH nepn- 
ojj oGycTaBHTH OBaj Ghojiouikh npouec. 
Kao nocjiej,Hua Tora ce necTO jjemasa jja 
nuejie xpaHHTejLHue HHcy y MoryhHOCTH ^a 

HH KBaHTHTaTHBHO HH KBaJIHTaTHBHO On- 

CKp6e OTBOpeHO nerjio noTpeGHOM xpa- 
hom. TaKO ce uecTO ^euiaBa jja ce y 
kphthhhhm GecnauiHHM nepHO^HMa OHe- 
MoryhaBa HecMeTaHa TpaHC(J)opMauHJa h 



106 



nnejiap 1999 



pa3Boj jajeTa y o^pacny jcuHHKy. Obo CBe 
HMa TecHe Be3e ca npHXBaTaiteM MaTHue. 
HaHMe, HHJe TaHHO jia MaTnua He Mo^ce jxa 
ce caMOCTajiHoxpaHH. McTHHa, MaranaHMa 
He^,OBOJLHO pa3BHJeH npoGaBHH TpaKT, He 
Moxe jia BpiHH npepa^y HeKTapa h BHine je 
CKJioHa jxa 6y#e xpaiteHa. Ajih, OHa Mo^ce 
jxa ce xpaHH h caMa n to hhhh Bpjio cnpeTHO 
npe cnapHBa^a h 3a BpeMe 3hmc MerjyTHM, 
o,ii HaJBetierje 3Ha^aja HnaK H^eHa ncxpaHa 
MaTHHHHM MJienoM jep caMO TaKBa ncxpaHa 
CTHMyjiHine npon3BO,HH>y Jierna h MeH>a 
(J>epoMOHCKH CTaTyc apyniTBa. y TOKy 6e- 
cnauiHor nepno/ia iraejie He pacnojiaxy jio- 
bojbhom kojihhhhom CBexe xpaHe h HeMajy 
"acejby" jia HOBoyBej,eHy MaTHiry xpaHe 
MaTHHHHM MJieHOM, noroTOBO OHy crcaGnjer 
KBaiiHTeTa. tboj, no npaBHJiy, Hej,ocTajy 

XOpMOHCKH HH/iyKOBaHH (J)epOMOHH KOJH 

peryjiHiny nominate nnejia xpaHHTejbHua. 
yKOJiHKO OBe nnejie He oinoHHy o^Max ca 
xpaH^eH^eM MaTHue oGhhho £OJia3H jio 
jioiner npHXBaTaita MaTnue. CaMO #o6po 
xpaH>eHa MaTHua Moxe noKa3aTH CBOjy 
npaBy GHOJionucy Bpe^HOCT. 

npeMa TOMe, cjiaGo H3JiyHHBaH>e HeK- 
Tapa pe3yjiTHpa CMaH>ejteM kojihhhhc 
H3JiyneHe MJieqn. He/iocTaTaK MJie^H y 
TOKy npoueca 3aMeHe Marana CMaityje 
BepoBaTHohy m he nnene xpaHHTejbuue Ha 
a^eKBaTaH HannH xpaHHTH HOBy MaTHiry. 
CBe to CMaityje iuaHce jxa OHa 6yne yonniTe 
npHXBaheHa. TaKofje je no3HaTO jia aKO ce 
npH 3aMeHH MaTHua #03bojih aa npoFje 
HeKOJiHKO jxana HaKOH o^cTpaiMBaika 
CTape MaTHue HOBa he MaTHua HMaTH 
MHoro Behe inaHce jia 6yne npHXBaheHa. To 
je 36or Tora hito nnejie HeMajy BHine JiapBe 
TaKBe CTapocTH jia Mopajy jxa hx xpaHe 
MaTHHHHM MJieTOM h CBy CBOjy naxity yc- 
MepaBajy Ha ncxpaHy MJia^ie MaTHue. 

JXbq HaBe^eHe cnryanHJe, yGnjaite HOBe 
MaTHue oji CTpaHe jinBibe Koja ce pa3BHJia y 
TOKy 3aMeHe h onaGa ncxpaHa MaTHue Koje 
He Mory m noKaxy CBOjy Bpej,HOCT y 
kohihhuh, cy y3poHH 3a BehHHy nponajiHX 
3aMeHa MaTHua. 3aT0 ce o6aBe3Ho Mopa 
BpniHTH KOHTpona ,apyniTaBa Koja ce Ha- 
Jia3e y (J)a3H H3MeHe MaTHua. TaKorje, yKO- 
jihko ce pazni o GecnauiHOM nepHO/iy, npe- 



nopyqyje ce o6aBe3HO npHxpaitHBaifce 
apyiHTBa. ^oGpo je n jia ce nocjie yK- 
jiaitaika CTape Marane npHHeica HeKOJiHKO 
Jiaaa, yHHiHTe cbh ^hbjbh MaTHHH>aun n TeK 
OH^a yBe^e HOBa MaTnua. 

MHTepecaHTHO je pa3MOTpHTH h no- 
HainaH>e nqejia npn npouecy 3aMeHe CTape 
MaTHue noiviohy 3pejinx MaTH^itaKa. ycnex 
npH obom nocTymcy 3aBncn, ymaBHOM, o# 
npHcyraor o^Hoca H3MeI)y OTBopeHor h 
3aTBopeHor Jierjia y iraejirabeivi apyuiTBy. 
Ako HCKJtyHHMO BpeMeHCKe ycnoBe Kao 
(J>aKTOp kojh yTHHe Ha ycnex 3aMeHe, qecTO 
ce ^eniaBa jxa hhcmo y MoryhHOCTH Jia per- 
HCTpyjeMO TeK H3anuiy MJia^y MaTHiry h aKO 
je eBH^eHTHO ^aje H3anuia H3 ^oj;aTor 3pe- 
nor MaTHHH^aKa. HuiBeHHua jia ce MJia^a 
MaTHua H3Bejia H3 jiojiaTOT MaTHHH^aKa h jia 
je npHXBaheHa noTBp^yje ce h o^cycTBOM 
hobhx MaTHH-ftaKa. OGhhho ce Ta^a no- 
mhcjih ^a je HOBa HecnapeHa MaTHua 
H3amjia Ha cnapHBaH^e h HHJe ce BpaTHJia. 
To je caMO noHeKa^ TaHHo. floGap npone- 
HaT Heycnexa npH OBaKBOM Ha^HHy 3aMeHe 
OTna^a Ha nopeMehajy y nponopuHJn 
pa3JiHHHTHX CTa^HJyMa Jierjia. ,Ho Tora ^o- 
jia3H 36or npeKH^a y ^HHaMnnn nojiaraH>a 
jaja. TeK H3Be/ieHa MaTHua y npe^cTojeheM 
/IBO-Hej,ejLHOM HHTepBajiy ca3peBa, cna- 
pyje ce h noHHite jia nojiaace jaja. y tom ne- 
pno^y JiapBe pacTy h HeMa jaja h MJia^nx 
jiapBHua. TaKo^e ce H3 3aTOBpeHor Jierjia 
h3bo/ih H3BecTaH 6poj MJia^HX n^ejia xpaH- 
HTeibHna Koje HeMajy mTa jxa xpaHe. Obo ce 
He ^emaBa ko/i HopMaiiHor nHejiHH>er 
/IpyniTBa h 3aTO ce CTBapa npHBH^ j\a ce 
pa#H o "Heycnenoj MaTHLtn". 3aTO n^ene 
pearyjy TaKO hito He ,aajy maHcy MJia^ioj Ma- 
thhh jxa OTno^He ca nojiaraH>eM jaja. C 
#pyre CTpaHe, MJia^aTeK H3JiexeHa MaTHua 
h nope^; MHoniTBa n^ena xpaHHTejLHiia 
HHJe 3anHTepecoBaHa 3a MaraHHH MJie^, 
hhth noHHBe ^a Jiexe jaja. To jxobojw jio 
jej,He 3aMpmeHe CHTyaunje h cse to CKyna 
niaibe je^aH KOH(J)y3aH CHmaji nMejiHH^eM 
^pymTBy. 3aTO y obom cnyqajy n^ene necTO 
pearyjy Kao uito 6h pearoBajie y cjryqajy 
je^He "Heycnejie MaTHue", c thm uito OB^e 
HeMa ycjioBa 3a pa3Boj ^hbjbhx MaTH^HjaKa. 



107 



nnejiap 1999 



OBaj "e(J)eKaT Heycnene MaTHue" ce He 
jjemaBa necTO. Oh ce ^eniaBa o6hhho TaMO 
me He hoctojh cneuH(J)HHHa paBHOTexa y 
npcuiyKUHJH h noTponiHiH MJieHH. HapaBHO, 
mh He MoxeMO ca CHrypHouriry tbp^hth 
Ka^a MaTHua HecTaje, ajiH noniTO ro HCTor 
e(J)eKTa jjpJia3H h ica^a ce Jjojjaje cnapeHa 
MaTHua noMohy KaBe3a, to 3Ha*iH j\a ro 
Heycnexa jjojia3H HaKOH cnapHBaita MaTHue 
h H^eHor noBpaTKa y nnejiHite JipyiHTBO. 

Ha Kpajy, 3aHHMJbHBa je CHTyauHJa npH 
RojiaBaiby MaTHua miejiHH>HM j,pyniTBHMa 
ca T3B. JiaxHHM MaTHuaMa. Ta^a he ce 
Gojbh ycnex ocTBapHTH axo ce nnejie 
CTpecy H3BaH h jiaibQ oji KoniHHue. npeT- 
nocTaBJba ce m JiaxHe MaTHue HHcy cno- 
coGHe jja Harjy nyr jjo KoiiiHHne, na ce CTora 
noBehaBajy uiaHce 3a npHXBaTaite HOBe Ma- 
THue. TaKBa nqejiHH>a jjpyiHTBa oGhhho He- 
Majy BHine Jierna. YrjiaBHOM ce Ty pajjH o 
CTapHM nnejiaMa h HeMa MJia/iHX njiena 
xpaHHTejbHna. noKyiuaJH jja ce y3rajn jie- 
rjio HMajy 3a nocjiejjHiry aGHOpMajiHH 6poj 
jiapBH. JTyTKe cy oGh^ho Gnerje 6oje h jje- 
Jiyjy Kao jxa cy ciiaGo xpaiteHe. Ha noqeTKy 
HeMa HH^HKauHJa jia nnejie acejie jja ce H3 
jaja H3Jiery JiapBe jep pacno3Hajy m ce pajjH 
o HeorinorjeHHM jaJHMa, Koja ce pa3JiHKyjy 
ojX HeonjiorjeHHX jaja npaBHX MaTHua. y 

TaKBHM n^eJIHH>HM JJpyiUTBHMa nOCTOJH Be- 

jiHKa KOJiH^HHa HeH3JiexeHHX jaja h to no 
HeKOJiHKO y hejiHJH. MaTHHH>auH s naico 
HHcy yBeK npHcyraH, TaKorje, HeMajy Hop- 
MajiaH H3rjie/j. Ohh ca^pace MHoro jaja xoja 
HOHeicajj CTOje Ha MJie^H hjih cy nojioxeHa 



y heiiHJaMa ca nojieHOM. MaTHHH>aini kojh 
HHcy BHiue HanpejjpBajiH Mory jja HMajy 
oGHJte MJie^H, ariH je oh o6hhho GjierjH h 
HMa 3pHacTy CTpyKTypy. Ha ocHOBy cbhx 
obhx qHH>eHHua JiaKO ce 3aKJbyqyje jja je 
koa OBaKBHX n^ejiHHsHX 3aje^,HHua Hejjo- 
BoibHa CHaG^eBeHOCT MJienoM. MefjyTHM, 
HHJe jacHO jia jih je to 36or Tora ihto cy 
nqene xpaHHTejbHue cyBHine CTape, 3aTO 
iuto BejiHKH 6poj pa^HJiHua noKyinaBa %a 
nojiaate jaja h Taxo Tpoine BeiiKe kojihhhhc 
MJieqa hjih ihto Hejjoeraje MHpnc MaTHiie h 

MaTHMHa (J)epOMOHCKa KOHTpOJia aKTHB- 

hocth. JejjHO je cnrypHO. CBaKH ^onpHHOc 
npHpojjHoj paBHOTexH noBehane H3TJie^e 
Ha ycnex. 3aTO je ,ao6po jja y OBaKBHM 
CHTyaunjaMa ^pyiHTBy ^ojjaMO okbhp ca 
3aTBOpeHHM JierjioM h cnapeHOM MaTHiioM 
hjih join 6ojbe ca 3pejiHM MaTHHH>aKOM jep 
ce Taxo yHyrap KoniHHue CHMyjiHpajy Hop- 

MaJIHH yCJIOBH. 

Ha ocHOBy CBera H3HeTor Moxe ce pehn 
jja je je^Ha ojj TaJHH ycnexa y ^o^aBaity h 
3aMeHH MaTHua, Kao h y nqejiapcTBy 
yonuiTe, y HanieM pa3yMeBan>y nnejiHibe 
npHpoj;e h chocoGhocth jja ctbophmo 
ycjioBe kojh he npejjcTaBJtaTH "oKHJjaq" 3a 
OHe peaKHHJe iraejia Koje acejiHMO nocTHhn. 
TaKO neMO yHHHHTH jja nnejie pajje 3a Hac h 
Ta^a heMO 6hth BHine ojj nqenapa, GnheMO 
Bo^ehn Merjy nnejiapHMa. 

H3 American Bee Jouranl 

No 2,1995. IIpHpeaHO, 

mmji. hht. CialjaH Paimm, 

"APICENTAR" 



108 



n^ejiap 1999 



flpojietiHM pa3BOJ menwther APywTea 



Eama u Mufia JJempoeuft 
Kpaeyjeeau, 



ITpBa MCTpa^KMBaiia npojietiHor pa3B0Ja 
MHejiHHjMx ^pyuiTaBa BpuieHa cy noneTKOM 
OBor Bexa m CKynjteHa cy h oojaBJbeHa 1925. 
ro/iMHe. HcTpa^KHBaH je 6110 aMepHKaHau 
W. J. Nolan. Oh je jxbc ro^MHe 4>oto- 



Ta6ejia 1 a 



]l-twfl 


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Tadena 1 6 



i „ 




J Hi 



rpa(J)Mcao m 6pojao nejinje 3aTBopeHor jie- 
rjia y KOiimHuaMa TMna JIaHrcTpOT. Hcnn- 
TMBaHe KOiiiHMue cy npoiunpHBaHe noTpeG- 
hmm 6pojeM HacTaBaKa npeMa janHHM 
^pyuiTaBa m yHOcy HeKTapa. 

npeMa H>eroBMM hc- 

Tpa^KHBajfcMMa MaTMLia 

o6hhho noHMH>e jx& hocm 
cpe^MHOM <J)e6pyapa, 
CTajiHO noBehaBajyhii HO- 
CHBOCT £0K He ^OCTHTHe 

MaKCMMajiHy hochboct o# 
1500 jaja Ha ,n,aH uito 
o6hhho 6y#e jxo noneTKa 
Maja. npH TOMe ce 
KOJiMHMHa 3aTBOpeHor 
nerjia CTajiHO noBehaBa 
/jo Kpaja Maja. Or Ta^a 
no4HH>e jiaraHO aa ona^a 
jxo Kpaja cenTeM6pa, jxa. 

6m nOJIOBMHOM OKT06pa 

jierjio noTnyHO HecTano. 
^yBeHM aMepMHKH 
nnejiap m MCTpa^cHBaH y 
oGnacTM nnejiapCTBa C. 
L. Farrar je HCTpa- 
^KMBaH>a CBor npeTxoa- 
HHKa ^onyHHO h ycTaHO- 

BHO 4eTMpM HaJBa>KHM]'a 

4>aKTOpa or kojhx 3aBHCM 
npojiehHM pa3BOJ jipy- 
uiTBa. To cy: 

1. Hochboct MaTHue; 

2. O^hoc 6poja nnejia 
h KOJiHHHHe jierjia; 

3. Yhoc nojieHa h HeK- 
Tapa hjih eBeHTyajiHa 
npHxpaHa h 

4. ITpocTOp 3a npo- 
niHpeH>e Jierna h yHOC 
HeKTapa. 

Farrarje nomao o,a no- 
TiaTKa yTBprjeHor npe- 

TXO^HHM HCnHTHBaH>MMa 

jia MaTHua hoch MaKCH- 






^ fl 



109 



n^ejiap 1999 



ManHO oko 1500 jaja ^hcbho h HHiteHHHa 
jxa\ 

- (J)a3a jajeTa Tpaje Tpn ^aHa 

- (J)a3a OTBOpeHor nerjia Tpaje mecT 
jxana 

<J)a3a 3aTBOpeHor nerjia Tpaje 
^BaHaecT jiaHa 

- npojieliHa rmejia ;>kmbm oko 35 jjaHa, ojj; 
nera 21 jjaH Kao KyliHa nnejia, a 14 JiaHa Kao 
M3JieTHMua, Kao h npeTnocTaBKe Jia je 

^pyiUTBO #o6pO M3MMMJIO m fla y TpeHyTKy 

npOHOiueH>a MaTHue HMa oko 10000 nnejia, 
yTBp^MO cjie,aene: 

- Bpoj jaja y kohihhhh ce noBehaBa jio 
54-or ^aHa or npOHomeita MaTHue #ok He 
nocTMTHe yKynHO 4500 jaja (1500 jaja 
#HeBHO x 3 JiaHa). 

- KojiHHMHa 3aTBOpeHor jierjia ce no- 
BenaBa jxo 72-or /jam, jxok 6poj nejinja He 
jjocTHrae MaKCHMyM ojj, 18000 (1500 jaja 
jihcbho x 12;iaHa). 

- Bpoj KyliHHx nnejia ce noBenaBa jio 84- 
or JiaHa, Ka/ja jjocTMace MaKCHMyM o/j 31500 
(1500jaja,o,HeBHOx21 nam). 

- flpyuiTBO ^ocTH^ce cboj MaKCHMyM no- 
cjie 105-or jjaHa Ka/ja HMa 52500 nnejia 
(1500 jaja jthcbho x 35 nana) on Hera 21000 

Ta6ejia 2 




H3JieTHHua (1500 jaja jihcbho x 14 ijaHa) h 
BHiue ce He noBehaBa. 

ITpeMa Farrara pa3BOJ nnejiHiter 
^pyuiTBa je j\o 54-or aaHa ojj, noneTKa 
npOHomeita MaTHue 3aBHCTaH ojx 6poja 
npe3HMejiHx nnejia y kohihhhh, a nocjie Tor 
nepHO^a ojx KBajiHTeTa MaTHue, ojjhocho 
H>eHe hochbocth. Obo o6janiH.aBa no/j,aT- 
kom flaje ojjhoc Jierna npeMa 6pojy nnejia 
MaKCHMajiHO 1,6:1. KacHHJe Ka/iace 3aMeHe 
3HMCKe nnejie hobhm, a MaTHua flOCTHTHe 
MaKCHMajiHy hochboct pa3BOJ jjpymTBa 

HaJBHHie 3aBHCH ojx MaTHue. HCTpa^CHBaHH 

kojh cy KacHHJe npoynaBajin npojienHH pa3- 
boj nHejiHH>er flpyuiTBa noTBpjj,HJiH cy Far- 
rar-OBe 3aKJtyHKe h nepno/j, npojiehHor 
no/jejiHJiH y neT UHKJiyca y Tpajaity ojj, no 24 
/jaHa. ITpeTnocTaBKa je jia H3HMJteHO 
apyuiTBO HMa 6 jxo 7 yjinua nnejia ca oko 
1500 nnejia no yjinnn (10000 nnejia) dito 
OMoryhyje jja AOCTHme 4 paMa Jierjia ca oko 
4000 hejiHJa ca jierjiOM no paMy j\o noneTKa 
3aMeHe 3hmckhx n^ejia npojienHHM 
nnejiaMa. 

- y npBOM HHKJiycy ojx 24 jjaHa ojj, aaHa 
npOHOineita KOJiHHHHa Jierjia ce nonaKO 
neite jxo 15000 hejinja. 

- y /jpyroM HHKJiycy, ojx 25-or jxo 48-or 

/jaHa, noHHH^e 3aMeHa 
CTapHx 3hmckhx n^ejia 
MJia^HM jxo npe/j; Kpaj UHK- 
Jiyca, Ka/ia 6poj nnejia y 
kohihhhh noHMite jxa 
pacTe 3a oko 600 jnreBHO, h 
MaTHua nocTH^ce MaKCH- 
Majmy hochboct. npe/j, 
Kpaj jjpyror UHKJiyca Ka/ja 
ce njio- AHuiTe HanyHH 
nnejiaMa (15000 jj,o 16000), 
Tpe6a npouiHpHTH 

njioaHniTe 3aMeHOM MecTa 
HacTaBaKa jxa 6h ce 
n^ejiaMa 3ajiOBOJbHO npH- 

pO/JHH HHCTHHKT 3a 

npoiuHpeite Jierjia Ha rope 
y TonjiHJH jxqo KoniHHue. 
KaKO Tajja CKOpo jxa HeMa 
H3JieTHHua no^cejbHO je 
nnejie npH- xpaitHBaTH 

MaHoHM KOJIH- HHHaMa CH- 

pyna (150 rp. Ha jxslh) ca 
jjo/iaTKOM KBacua hjih 
nojieHa jj,a 6h ce 3a/j,o- 



110 



n^ejiap 1999 



BOJLHJie noTpeGe JjpyniTBa 3a bo^om h xpa- 

HOM. 

- y TpefteM uHKJiycy, or 49-or no 72-or 
nana, MaTHiia hoch MaKCHMyM jaja, na Ha 
Kpajy UHKJiyca Jierno nocrnace cboj MaK- 
CHMyM on 32000 hejinja. Bpoj KyhHHX nnejia 
je oko 20000, na HeMa BHinKa KyhHHX nnejia 
jep cy CBe Kytae nnejie 3ay3eTe HeroBaiteM 
nerjia h CBaKO H3rpaTjHBaH>e caTHHX ocHOBa 
CMaityje Jierjio. Bpoj H3JieTHnua ce 
noBehaBa 3a oko 800 ^HeBHO, jiok npe/j Kpaj 
UHKJiyca yxynHH 6poj H3JieTHHua He 
jjocTHrHe 15000. Tajja, yKOJiHKO HMa pena- 
thbho jjoGpor yHoca, HacTajy npoGjieMH. 
M3JieTHHue yHoce HeKTap jok cy Kytae 
iraejie 3ay3eTe HeroBaiteM Jierjia, na H3JieT- 
HHne jjenoHyjy HeKTap y Jierno. J\a, He aofje 
jo 3acToja y Jierjiy hjih eBemyajiHe Gjio- 
Ka,ne, m Ha jjpyuiTBa Koja 3ay3HMajy jjBa 
HacTaBKa, TpeGa o6aBe3HO jjojjaTH Tpehn jja 
eBeHTyajiHH yHoc He yrp03H Jierjio h H3a- 
30Be HMnyjrc 3a KacHHj'y nojaBy pojeBor Ha- 
roHa. 

- y neTBpTOM UHKJiycy, ojj 73-er jjo 96-or 
jjaHa, #ojia3H jjo CTaGHjnoauHJe 6poja 
KyhHHX nnejia, Jierjio ce He noBehaBa, 6poj 
H3JieTHHita CTajiHO pacTe n jpyniTBO je 
cnpeMHO 3a eBeHTyajiHO ^o^aBaite 4-or 
HacTaBKa, H3rpaf)HBaH>e caha n yHoc Me/ia. 

- y neTOM UHKJiycy, nocjie 105-or JjaHa 
jjpyniTBO nocTHxe cboj MaKCHMyM. Haj- 
Gojte pa3BHJeHa jpymTBa HMajy MaKCHMyM 
53000 iraejia: 20000 nnejia 3a Hery Jierjia, 



12000 KyhHHX nqejia 3a npnjeM h npepa/iy 
HeKTapa, H3rpa,jH>y caha h noKJianaite 
Mejja h 21000 H3JieTHHiia. 

IleTH UHKJiyc je HajonacHnjn 3a nojaBy 
pojeBor HaroHa, na nnejie y tom nepnojjy 
TpeGa noceGHO HajjrjieijaTH. y HejocTaTKy 
name TpeGa hx npnxpaitHBaTH jj,a Gh ce 
jjpyniTBa ojjp^cajia y pa^HOM pacnojio^ceHjy 
h eBeHTyajiHO npaBHTH pojeBe. 

IloTpeGHO je npoy^HTH OBe Hay^HO 
yTBprjeHe ^HiteHnue h nnejiapcKy npaKcy 
npHJiarojjHTH Hay^HHM ca3Han>eM. 

Hainn nnejiapH TpeGa jja ce ocjioGo/ie 
3a6jiyija n^ejiapeH>a ca MajiHM npocTopoM 
y njiojjHHiTy, KacHor npoinnpHBaita iijio- 
jjHinTa, KacHor jjo/jaBaita Me^Hnrra h Kac- 
hot cnajan>a jjpyniTaBa 3a Hamy HaJBaxHHJy 
nainy - GarpeM. 

3 a3HMJbaBaH5eM Matter Gpoj a j aKHX jjpy- 
niTaBa, Koja npoHonieite MaTHna rapaH- 
TOBaHO jjoqeKyjy ca 6 j\o 7 yjinua nnejia, jio- 
Gnjajy ce jjobojbho jaKa jjpyniTBa 3a nainy 
cjiejjehe rojjHHe. 

3nMCKe ryGHTKe h jjoGap npojiehHH pa3- 
boj TpeGa njiaHHpaTH yjeceH npeTxo^ne ro- 
jjHHe. 

KynoBHHOM jjoGpnx, cejieKHHOHHcaHHX 
MaTHna OMoryhHTe ,ja BaM JjpyniTBa y 
npojiehe CTapTyjy ca jjoGpoM MJiajjoM Ma- 
thiiom, Koja rapaHTOBaHO nocTH^e ho- 
chboct ojj npeKO 1500 jaja jjHeBHO h TaKO 
OMoryhn h MaKCHMajiHH pa3Boj jpymTBa 3a 
npojiehHy nainy. 



Ill 



nnejiap 1999 

Je,uaHOA iiaHiina iwejiapeita T3B. <J>apapoBorvi 

KOUJIIimOM 

^pyuiTBo nnejiapa "Beorpa^" one 3HMCKe ce30He oSaBiuio jejcuaH 3aiiameu eKcnepw- 
MeHT. 063HaH>jyhH "KOHKypc" 3a cjiaibe pa^osa M3 TexHOJiorwje iraejiapeita, KOMe cy ce 
Oiia3Bajm imejiapH 113 cbhx Kpajesa Cp6nje, ii3a6panoj Komhchjh npHCTHTJin cy mhoih pa- 
aobh, Kojeje OHa noMHo oueibHBajia. Osaj no^yxBaT ,HpyuiTBa iraejiapa "Eeorpa,n" je 3a 
CBany noxBaJiy. Hwje to caivio npiuniKa na ce HcnpoSajy HCKycHM nnejiapii y npenaBUMKoj 
BeiiiTiiiiM, sen tie naj6ojbn pa^OBii 6iitii iiiTaMiiaini y exuiiuijii ^pyuiTBa nnejiapa "Beo- 
rpaii", him he ce lbiixoBii pa,aoBii, 6e3 o63npa Ha noHeraHMKe KopaKe, iiahu 11 Ha CTpaiiii- 
uaMa "IlMeJiapa". 

IIoaiejiHMo hm MHoro Binne ycnexa y aajbeM ycaBpuiaBaiby y tom nocjry. HaaaMo ce #a he 
MHoru ojx h>hx nocTaTH h epcHii miciui iraejiapcKHX MJiaHaKa y Haiiie\i qaconiicy . 
Ca^a BaM npcucTaBjbaMo, Beh no3HaTor Mmouia AHTOHHha H3 KoitejteBe. 

ypcuHHK 



36or cneuH^H^HOCTH CBOje npo<j>ecHJe 
h naniHHX npHJinica y mom Kpajy, Kao h Ha 
TepeHHMa trq cejiHM nnejie, ycBOJHO caM 
HaHHH n^ejiapeiba ca je/iHOMaTH^HHM 
/IpyniTBHMa, HacTojeta #a y3 iuto MaH>e 
yTponieHor BpeMeHa nocraraeM ihto Belie 
npHHOce Me.ua. Il^ejiapHM ^eceio-paMHHM 
HacTaBKOM h paMOM yHyTpainite BHCHHe 16 
ueHTHMeiapa. 



y3HMjbaBaH>e nnejia 

Ilocao oko ysHMJbaBaraa nnejia cejiHM 
Ha £Ba BpeMeHCKa pa3/io6iba: npnnpeMe 3a 
y3HMJbaBaH>e, Koje ce oGaBibajy o,n;Max no- 
cjie name Ha cyHnpKpeiy (noqeTaic 
aBrycTa) , n caMO y3HMibaBaH>e , Ka^a 
npecTaje H3JieT nnejia (KpajeM OKTo6pa). 

npHJIHKOM 0^y3HMaH5a CyHHOKpeTOBOr 

Me/ia, Ka^a Beh CKH/iaM Me^Hima, CKJiaraaM 
MaTHHHy peineTKy ca ^pyror HacTaBKa h 
BpuiHM nperjie/i mioaHiirra. FloceGHy 
naxH^y oGpanaM Ha jaraHy j,pyuiTBa, 

3,IIpaBCTBeHO CTaH>e H KOJIHHHHy 

caKynibeHe 3HMHHne y njio^Hiirry. Ako je 
MaTHua GjioKHpaHa Me^,OM - o,iiy3HMaM 2-3 
paMa ca Me/ioM a y ueHTpajiHH %eo 
njio^Huna RojiajeM hcto tojihko npa3HHX 
H3rpal)eHHX paMOBa, ca ncnpaBHHM 



MuAOuiAHtnoHuh, ceemmenuK, Koupjbeea 

pa^HJiH^KHM caheM, H3 kojhx ce H3Jierjio 
HeKOJiHKO reHepauHJa nnejia. nperjiej; 
oGaBJtaM Bpjio naxjbHBO h onpe3HO KaKO 
He 6hx H3a3Bao rpaGeac Ha nnejiHikaKy. 
0/iy3eTH Me^ B03HM Kyfrn Ha BpnaH>e a Ha- 
pe^HHX #aHa h nnejie #obo3hm icyta y 6a3HH 
n^ejiHH^aK - me ociajy ro Hape^He nnejiap- 
cxe ce30He h ceo6e Ha #pyra GarpeM. 

JloHiTO H3BpuaM Me/i, HacTaBKe yBene 
BpahaM nqenaMa Ha HHinneH>e h nonpaBKy. 
Cyrpa^aH o^y3HMaM orainneHe HacTaBKe h 
y iuio^HiiiTe CTaBJtaM JieTBHne npoTHB 
Bapoe, me ociajy ro noqeTKa ceirreMGpa - 
ro Hape^Hor nperjie^a iraejia. Tom 
npHJIHKOM npeKO 36era nocraBJbaM noioio- 
nHy ^acKy, me ocraje no jeceH>er yronjba- 
BaH>aKoniHHiie. 

y aBrycTy BpuiHM caHHpaite ^pynnaBa 
Koja cy HejaKa hjih ca Jia^cHOM MaTHUOM 
TaKO ihto hx cnajaM ca cyce/iHHM 
/IpyniTBOM noMohy hobhhckc xapTHJe. 
CBaKO ^pyniTBO y aBrycTy ^o6nje no 4-5 
oGpoKa inehepHor cnpyna 1:1, no ^Ba JiHTpa 
Ha CBaKHX 5-6 jiana. 

riocjie^HiH nperjie^ y ce30HH oGaBJtaM 
noqeTKOM cenTeMGpa. JloceGHy naxH>y 
oGpahaM Ha KOJiMHHy cnpeMibeHe 3HM- 
HHite n yKJiaaaM (J)JiyBajiHHaT JieTBnue H3 
KoiHHHue. EBHj,eHTHpaM jpyniTBa Koja 



112 



n^ejiap 1999 



HHcy o6e36e^HJia jjobojlho xpaHe 3a 3HMy h 
caMO H>HMa jjojjajeM noTpeGHy kojihhhhy 
nienepHor cnpyna, KaKO 6h CBaKO jjpyniTBO 
y to BpeMe HMajio oko JiBajjeceTaK khjio- 
rpaMa xpaHe 3a 3HMy h npojiehHH pa3Boj. 
Ca npHxpaH>HBaH>eM 3aBpinaBaM nojioBH- 
hom cenTeMGpa. 

KpajeM OKToGpa BpniHM KOHTpojiy ^a 
jih cy nnejie onninheHe or Bapoe h axo 
Tpe6a TpeTHpaM hx hckhm or jjhmhhx cpe,a- 
CTaBa. y obo BpeMe BpniHM h jecen>e 
yTonjLaBaifce nnejia. Ca KoniHHue yKJiaitaM 
noKJionHy jjacxy a Ha Mpeacy 36era 
CTaBJbaM HeKOJiHKO JiHCTOBa HOBHHCKe xap- 
THJe. npeKO xapTHJe jjojia3H KpoB kojh je Ha 
yrjioBHMa ojjHrayT 3a jejjaH ueHTHMeTap, 
hito OMorynaBa CTpyjaite Ba3jiyxa ncnofl 
KpoBa a npeKO yronjbaBajyner MaTepnjajia. 
Ha OBaj Ha^HH nannp HHKa^a He 6yne 
BJiaxaH h HHJe ra noTpeGHO 3aMeH>HBaTH y 

TOKy 3HMe. 

THMe ce 3aBpniaBaje/iHa ce30Ha Ha mom 
nqejiHH>aKy, KOMeje npeico 3HMe noTpeGaH 
caMO MHp h noBpeMeHO OTonibeike rsl 
nnejie o6aBe npoHHCHH H3JieT. MeHH npeo- 
CTaje jja hx noBpeMeHO oGnfjeM h yBepHM ce 
jja jih je CBe y pejjy, rsl ™ ce HHJe Harjia HeKa 

KOIHHHUa H ^a JIH HM HeiUTO He peMeTH 3HM- 
CKH MHp (CJIHKa 1 H 2). 



3aKJLyqyJeM KaKBO je CTan>e y kohihhuh. 
Ako je HeKO jjpyniTBO cyMH>HBO, cjiaGo 
H3Jiehe hjih He jjohoch hbcthh npax, H>era 
Ha 6p3HHy npenie/jaM h oflMax BpniHM 
caHauHJy. Aicoje jaxo a HeMa Marauy raeMy 
jjojjajeM HyKJieyc ca MaTHHpM. Ako je He- 
jaKO a HMa Marany, H>y ojjMax JiHKBH/iHpaM, 
irqejie cnoJHM ca cyce/jHHM jjpyniTBOM h 
TaKO BpiuHMJej,aH bhjj cejieKHHJe. 

IIpojieTiHii pa3Boj 

AKTHBHa nnejiapcKa ce3ona Ha nnejin- 
H^aKy noHHH>e y Jjpyroj nojioBHHH MapTa - 
Ka^a yuBeTajy npBe BohKe ueHepHKa h 
KajcHJa. npBH jjeTajtaH npojiehHH nperjiej, 
BpniHM npH jjHeBHOj TeMnepaTypH Befroj or 
17 CTeneHH. JloceGHy naacity oGpanaM Ha 
KBajiHTeT MaTHue, janHHy jjpyuiTBa, kojih- 
^HHy Jierna, KOJiH^HHy xpaHe h 3JjpaBcr- 
BeHO CTaH>e iraejia. CBe hito 3ana3HM yHO- 
chm y nnejiapcKy GejiexHHuy h th no/jann 
he mm 6hth jjparoueHH y npaneity pa3Boja 
jjpyniTaBa h npnnpeMa 3a HCKOpHinnaBarae 
rjiaBHe name. 

KBajiHTeT MaTHue oneityjeM npeMa 
KOMnaKTHOCTH Jiema h yonniTe ce He Tpy- 
jjhm jja je bhjjhm. JaHHHy jjpymTBa oneity- 
jeM npeMa Gpojy paMOBa ca JiernoM kojhx, y 




Cauk(i 1. JJpymiuea 3UMyjyy dea uac- 
maeKa 




+ HyKJwyr 



Cauku 2. HyKAeyc 3a3UMJben U3nad oc- 
H06H02 dpymmea 



KpajeM <j>e6pyapa CBaKO miejiHH>e 
jjpyuiTBO, 3a CBaKH cjrynaj, jjoGnje noje^Hy 
norany npeKO caTOHonia ropH>er Hacra- 
BaKa. Tajja BpniHM h jjojjaTHO yTonibaBaH>e 
KoniHHua ca joni HeKOJiHKO JiHCTOBa hobhh- 
CKe xapTHJe. Ka/ja n^ejie no^my nenine ^a 
oniHTe ca okojihhom y 6jih3hhh KoniHHua 
nocTaBJbaM XHrnjeHCKO nojnjio. Ha JienoM 
BpeMeHy nocMaTpaM H3JieT nnena h 



obo BpeMe, jaKa j,pyniTBa oGh^ho HMajy 6-8 
paMOBa. KojiH^iHHy xpaHe, TaKofje, npo- 
BepaBaM h yKOJiHKO HeKO jjpyniTBO HeMa 
3ajiHxy 8-10 KHJiorpaMa Mejja, H>eMy Jjojja- 
jeM no je^Hy-jjBe norane. Y CBaKO ^pyniTBO 
CTaBJbaM JieTBHue npoTHB Bapoe, Koje 
ocTajy y KoniHHUH Mecen jjaHa, ojjhocho jjo 
cjiejjeher nperjie^a h npoinnpeita koui- 
HHiie. 



13 



n^ejiap 1999 



Obom npHJiHKOM oGaBJtaM join JiBe 
BeoMa BaxHe onepannje. JlpBO, HacTaBKe 
nno^HniTa 3aoKpeHeM 3a 180 CTenemi, h 
#pyro, CKJiaitaM 36er ca KoniHHne a noKpn- 
BaM je HajnoHOM hjih noKJionHOM jiacKOM 
on JiecoHHTa, npeKO Hera oneT Jiojia3H caB 
yronibaBajyliH MaTepnjaji h Haj3a# KpoB 

KOIUHHLie. npOJiellHO CTHMyJiaTHBHO npH- 

xpaibHBaifce 3ambnx rojjHHa He npHMeity- 
jeM jep 3a Taj nocao HeMaM hh BpeMeHa. 
CMaTpaM jia je y3HMJbaBaH>e nnejia ca 
oGhjihhm 3ajiHxaMa xpaHe, Koje he 6hth ro- 
bojbho jio npBe 036njbHHJe name, HajGojbH 
rapaHT JioGpor pa3Boja miejiHH>HX jjpy- 
niTaBa y npojiehe. fla 6n pa3Boj ^pynrraBa 
y6p3ao BpniHM T3B. "ayTOMaTCKO eraMyjia- 
thbho npHxpaitHBaite". 

npBa onepanirja y tom npaBijy je 3aoK- 
peTaite HacTaBaKa npHJiHKOM npBor npe- 
TJiena. Flocjie zieceTax /iaHa noHOBO BpniHM 
3aoKpeTan>e HacTaBaKa, ajin cajja hm 
BpniHM h 3aMeHy MecTa. TopitH H^e Ha 
nojjraany a noibn u3Han H^era. Obom 
npHJiHKOM He nperne/iaM nnene hhth Ba- 
rkm paMOBe, ceM axo je HeniTO cyMH>HBO. 
HaKOH JieceTaK aaHa, Ka/ia yuBeTa Tpennta 
h niJBHBa, BpniHM join jejiHOM 3aMeHy MecTa 
HacTaBUHMa ajin OBor nyra 6e3 3aoKpe- 
Taita HacTaBaKa. Hh obom npHJiHKOM He Ba- 
rwm paMOBe h He npeme^aM nnejie na no- 
cao BpJIO 6p30 oGaBHM. 

npMiipeivia 3a rjiasny nauiy 

Ilocjie CKOpo Meceu jjaHa on npBor npe- 
rjie/ia, KajjajaGyKa 6yne y UBeTy, cperjyjeM 
/IpyiHTBa 3a ruaBHy nauiy, H36auyjeM H3 



Konnnine (J)JiyBajiHHaT JieTBnne h 
npoinnpyjeM KoniHHue jjo^aBaiteM Tpeher 
HacTaBKa. Obom npHJiHKOM BpniHM cejieK- 
niijy jjpyniTaBa Koja he hhh Ha jxpyrn 6a- 
rpeM, Jinny h cyHHpKpeT, a Koja he ocTaTH y 
6a3HOM nuejiHitaKy, jep HHKajja He cejiHM 
neo nqejiHH>aK, Beh caMO nojioBHHy 
Konmnna. IloniTO y mom Kpajy npBH 6a- 
rpeM noHHite ^a UBeTa oko 10-or Maja, OBaj 
BeoMa BaxaH Jxpyra nperjiejj nnena, 
o6aBJtaM Ha oko Tpn Hejjejte npe noneTKa 
name. Ha OBaj HauHH caM hckophctho on- 

THMaJIHH pOK 3a pa3BOJ mieJIHH>HX 

/IpyniTaBa 3a 6arpeMOBy nauiy. Cajxa cy Beh 
KoniHHite nyHe MJiajjnx nnejia h BpeMe je jja 
ce nponinpH KoniHHua, cnpeun eBeHTyajiHa 
nojaBa pojeBHor HaroHa h nouHe ca H3ipaji- 
h>om caTHHX ocHOBa. npepaHO jiojxare 
caTHe ocHOBe He caMO uito Hehe 6hth oa- 
Max H3rpa^eHe , Beh he ^OHeKJie 6hth 
KOUHHua pa3Bojy Jierna. 

J\& 6hx H36erao MyKOTpnaH nocao oko 
Tpaxeita MaTnue, H3MeF)y npBor h /ipyror 
HacTaBKa CTaBJbaM MaTHHHy penieTKy, jja 
6nx Kp03 HapejjHa /nsa-TpH jjaHa JiaKO npe- 
no3Hao y kom je HacTaBKy MaTHiia. Ohhm 
/IpyuiTBHMa Koja he kophcthth caMO npBH 
6arpeM MaTHny orpaHHuaBaM Ha caMO je- 
^aH HacTaBaK Ha no#H>anH. npeKO npBor 
HacTaBKa CTaBJtaM MaTHHHy penieTKy na 
HacTaBaK ca T3B. M (f)HJioBaHHM caneM" - Ha- 
H3MeHHnHO noperjaHHM H3rparjeHHM caheM 
h caTHHM ocHOBaMa. Kao Tpehn jjojia3H 
HacTaBaK ca npeoerajiHM JierjioM (cjiHKa 3). 

flpyniTBa Koja he kophcthth h HapejjHe 
name npoinnpyjeM Ha cne^ehn HanHH: Ha 
no;iH>aHH ocTaje jejiaH HacTaBaK ca JierjioM 




■uiriiit^lK f'Jl .lorjioM 
noun r |o;urrH uarmiWK 
huth-ihu |M"ini-nca 

y^, JM*I .Ml H %UITHIU1 

immh*j»mii 




KfHHl 

1KIK.14MUUI .UlfKII 

*U|TTlHHH |M^ I II IT lit I 

mm* h mtiHiui 



Cauku 3. flpyuiuieo Koje he Kopucuiumu 
caMO npeu 6aepeM 



Cauku 4. JJpyuiuieo Koje he Kopucuiumu 

cee name 



114 



nnejiap 1999 



n MaTHUOM; Ha H>era ^o^ajeM hobh Hacra- 
BaK ca "(J)HJioBaHHM caheM" ; noTOM 
CTaBJbaM MaTH^Hy peineTKy na HacTaBaK ca 
npeocTajiHM JierjioM. /JaKjie, HOBO-^o^iaTH 
HacTaBaK jiojiajeM y njio^nmre, a He y 
Me^HiiiTe Kao y npeTxo^HOM anynajy 
(cjiHKa 4). J4enaH>eM Jierna h yMeTa^eM 
Tpeher HacTaBKa cnpenaBaM nojaBy pojeB- 
Hor HaroHa a %a ^pyuiTBO nporje 6e36oji- 
HHJe Hero koji HP Konimme, r^e cy Hac- 
TaBUH BHinn. llocjie HeKOJiHKO jiaua npe- 
rjie^aM Tpehe HacTaBKe h nopyniHM CBe 
eBeHTyajiHO H3rparjeHe npHCHJiHe MaTHH- 
H>aKe, KaKO He 6h H3a3Bajra pojeite 
/IpyniTBa. 

Kopiiiuheibe iipue 6arpeMOBe name 

3a ^Ba^ieceTaK #aHa on npomnpeita 
KoiHHHue Beh je cbo Jierjio H3auuio H3 
Tpeher HacTaBKa a ,apyrn, y KOMe je 6hjio 
caTHHX ocHOBa, je noTnyHO H3rpaf)eH. Beh 
oko 10-or Maja h no^eTKa rjiaBHe name 
BpeMe je jia ce H3Bpine TpH 6HTHe pa^H>e: j\a 
ce Me^HiHTe npoinnpH , o^hcth mcji cut 
BohHe name h o6e36e^,H £o6pa BeHTHJia- 
nnja Konmnne. 

flpymTBHMa Koja KopHCTe caMO npBH 
GarpeM, mrje cy MaTHne orpaHH^eHe Ha 
caMoje^aH HacTaBaK, hobh HacTaBaK caT3B. 
"(J)HJioBaHHM caheM" #o,najeM o^Max H3Ha,u, 
MaTMHe pemeTKe, 3aTHM ^0Jia3H HacTaBaK 
ca Beh H3rparjeHHM caheM, 36er h KpoB 
KomHHue (cjiHKa 5). Ehbiiih Tpehn, H3 Kora 
je Beh H3amjio Jierjio, n#e Ha qHinheite o,u, 



CTapor h BohHor Me^a. Oj,BajaH>e OBor 
Me^a je BaxHO pa#H Tora ihto 6h oh 
yMaiBHO KBajiHTeT GarpeMOBor Me^a. 

flpyniTBa Koja cy o/iperjeHa 3a 
KopHinheifce ^pyror GarpeMa, y kojhx je Ma- 
rana orpaHHHeHa Ha m& HacTaBKa, 
npomHpyjeM Ha cjie/iehH HaHHH: Ha 
no^JtaHH h jxaiht ocTajy j,Ba HacTaBKa 3a 
rnio^niHTe - caMO hm H3BpmHM 3aMeHy 
MecTa a H3Ha# MaraHHe pemeTKe ^o^ajeM 
o^je^HOM #Ba HacTaBKa ca T3B. "(JmjioBa- 
hhm caheM". McTOBpeMeHO 0£y3HMaM 
Ghbhih Tpehn HacTaBaK ca CTapHM n 
BohHHM Me^oM h ^pyniTBO ocTaje ca 
HeTHpn HacTaBKa (cjiHKa 6). 

Tpeha Gnraa CTBap Ha noneTKy HBe- 
TaH^a GarpeMaje o6e36er)eH>e floGpe BeHTH- 
jiaunje y kouihhuh. J\a 6n ejinMHHncao 
3arymjLHBOCT y kouihhuh h Moryhy nojaBy 
pojeBHor HaroHa, a yje/iHO OMoryhno Gpace 
HcnapaBaH>e HeKTapa, ca KoniHHue CKJia- 
H>aM HajjioH hjih noKJionHy ^acxy h caB 
yronjBaBajyhn MaTepnjaji a nocTaBJbaM 
36er, me ocTaje CBe no aBrycTa h npnnpeMa 
3a y3HMJbaBaH>e nnejia. 

Ka,na GarpeM noHHe HajoGnmnrje jia 
jiynn HeKTap (oko ce^Mor ,n,aHa) BpmnM 
KOHTpony Me/inrnTa h npeMa noTpeGn ro- 
^ajeM neTBpTH, o/ihocho neTH HacTaBaK ca 
H3rparjeHHM caheM H3 Kora je o^HinheH 
BOhHH Me^. 

npn Kpajy npBe GarpeMOBe name, caMO 
ne^eceTaK KHJioMeTapa o,u, 6a3Hor miejin- 
H^aKa, noHHH>e jxa useTa ^pyrn GarpeM. 
n^ene TpeGa 6e3 HKaKBor o^JiaraH>a npe- 




uom>>;Hi;tfkTii iinrraBak 

jhtjio h H&rmw 
jioaiui'ui 




Cauku 5. JJpyuimeo Koje Kopucmu como 
npey duepejxtoey namy 



Cauku 6. JJpyuimeo Koje he uhu u hu 
dpyze name - cnpejuuo 3a npeu 6azpeM 



115 



nnejiap 1999 




Cauku 7. flpymmeu koju ocmajy uyhu 
epuie do3peeafhe Meda 



.IffVtClfal MilTHIH 




^^ 



illimH d H>;iMTtt HaCTdBllH 



,1<>V.M> H MHTHUU 



Cauku 8. fipyuimeo cupeMtto 3a dpyeu 
6uzpeM 



cejiHTH niTO npe, ajra ce nojaBibyje npo6- 
jieM: niTa ypa^ura ca nyHHM HacTaBnnMa 
He^;o3pejior Me.ua? j\a ce Bpna He Mo^ce, jep 
join HMJe fl03peo a %a ce pynHO yroBapajy n 
cene nyHe Konmnne hh to Hnje h3bo^jbhbo. 
Kao HajGojbe pemerae noKa3ajio mm ce 
ocTaBibaifce nymix Me^HinTa Ha Konmnne 
Koje He cejiHM, Koje he nyBara n ,ZK)3peBaTH 

MQJX. Ca KOIHHHUa KOJe CeJIHM jej,HOCTaBHO 

nocKH/iaM nyHe HacTaBKe ca Me,n,OM h CTpe- 
ceM nnejie - Kao Kaa ce 0Ay3HMa Me# 3a 
BpnaH>e. TaKO OHa ApyniTBa Koja ocTajy y 
6a3HOM nnejraH>aKy ^oGnjajy join no ^Ba- 
Tpn HacTaBKa nyHa Hefl03pejior Mej,a 
(cjiHKa7). 

3a HeKOJinKO jxana no 3aBpineTKy 6arpe- 
MOBe name Me^ he 6hth 3peo 3a Bpnaite. 
flpyniTBa Koja KopncTe caMO npBn GarpeM 
HMana cy orpaHH^eHy MaTnny Haje^aH Hac- 
TaBaK. }\a HHcaM Taico pa^no, Ha Kpajy npBe 
GarpeMOBe name, HMao 6n BennKy 
KOJiHHHHy nnejia, Koje 6h ocTane hchck- 
opnniheHe n caMO 6n Tpoinnjie caKymbeHH 
Me^- 

Ceo6a Koiuiuma Ha apym 6arpeM 

McTOBpeMeHO ca o,iiy3HMaH>eM Me^nnrra 
- He3penor Me#a, KoniHHiry Koja he ce ce- 
jihth cperjyjeM Ha cjie^ehn Ha^HH: Ha 
no^H^ann ociaje je^aH HacTaBaK ca Mara- 
uom h JiernoM, 3aTHM CTaBJbaM MaranHy 
penieTKy na £Ba HacTaBKa, je^iaH ca "<j>n- 
jioBaHHM caheM" a ^pyrn H3rpaf)eH, neT- 
BpTH HacTaBaK je ca JierjioM 6e3 MaTnne - 
Ghbihh /ipyra (cjinxa 8). Ha OBaj Ha^HH ne- 



naM Jierno n MaKCHMajiHO 3anoniJbaBaM 
iraejie, Kao HajGojLH JieK npoTHB nojaBe po- 
jeBor HaroHa. npeocTaje caMO Be3nBan>e n 
3aTBapan>e Konmnna, yTOBap n TpaHcnopT 
Ha jioKannjy flpyror GarpeMa. 

3a BpeMe nBeTan>a npBor GarpeMa y 
6a3HOM nnejiHH^aKy pa^HM Ha npon3BO/iH>H 
MaTHHitaKa, ymaBHOM AnejeBOM mcto^om, 
TaKO %a MaTHnH>ann 6yzjy 3pejin 3a 
npecarjHBajte KpajeM Maja, oj;hocho cpe^n- 
hom nepno/ia UBeTaita ,u,pyror GarpeMa. 

y o6njia3aK Konmnna Ha TepeHy 
KpeheM nociie HeKonnKO ^aHa no ceo6n. 
Ka/ia Beh HMaM 3pejie MaTH^ntaKe cnpeMHe 
3a npecarjHBaH^e. Tom npnjiHKOM Ha TepeH 
noHeceM "CHeprjioBe" noKJionHe iiacKe 3a 
CBe Konmnne Ha ApyroM GarpeMy. Jlocao 
Ha TepeHy je cne/iehn: CKH/iaM KpoB, 36er n 
HeTBpTn HacTaBaK ca Konmnne; 3aMeHHM 
MecTa apyroM n TpeheM HacTaBKy; cam Ha 
Tpehn HacTaBaK CTaBHM noKJionHy j,acKy ca 
OTBOpeHHM JieTOM; 3aTHM CTaBJtaM neT- 
BpTH HacTaBaK y KOMe HMa joni ^ocTa jie- 
rjia, ymaBHOM 3aTBOpeHor; npeme^aM pa- 
MOBe ca JiernoM n nopyniHM CBe npncnjiHe 
MaTnHftaKe n Ha Kpajy CTaBHM 36er n KpoB 
(cnnKa 9). MaTHHH^aKe He RonajeM o,u,Max y 
^eTBpTH HacTaBaK Beh cyrpa^aH, Ka.ua CBe 
CTape nnejie (H3JieTHnne) HanycTe oj,bo- 
jeHH HacTaBaK. 

Cyrpa^aH noHOBO o^Jia3HM Ha TepeH n 
hochm 3pene MaraHH>aKe. Jlocao oGaBJbaM 
Bpno 6p30 : CKHHeM KpoB n 36er ca 
KoiHHnne; H3Merjy £Ba neHTpajma paMa 
neTBpTor HacTaBKa yca^HM MaTHnraaK; 
BpaTHM 36er n KpoB Ha CBOje MecTO n nocao 



116 



n^ejiap 1999 




jht.io &£* 

MHTKHHa tH'U WTKH 



Cauku 9. <I>opMupathe onAodwaKa Ha 
mepeuy 




HUTHHHU |M>MKTKtl 
HOrMH.M>JlitTH HNCTHBHk 



Cauku 10. Ilpoiuupueaihe nAoduuima na 
nneAutbUKy y 6am 



je 3aBpnieH. Hape^He rbq He^ejte He o6h- 
na3HM KoniHHue Ha TepeHy, He y3HeMHpa- 
BaM rrqejie y BpeMe onjro,HH>e MaTHiia n bh- 
cok nponeHaT ycnexa je cnrypaH. 3a to 
BpeMe ce H3Jiery MJia^e MaTHne, onuo^e h 
no^Hy %3l nojiaxy jaja a Me^ o,a ^pyror 6a- 
rpeMaje CKOpo caB 3aTBOpeH. 

y MerjyBpeMeHy y 6a3HOM nnejraikaKy 
HMaM nyHe pyxe nocna. 0,ny3HMaM mqr or 
npBor GarpeMa. McTOBpeMeHO npoinnpy- 
jeM njio/iHHiTa pa#n gaiter pa3Boja 
apyiHTaBa oji kojhx KacHHJe (J)opMHpaM 
noTpeGaH 6poj onjio^H>aKa h BeuiTa^KHX 
pojeBa (cjiHKa 10). 

Ilocjie ABe He^eibe or npecarjHBaH>a 
MaTHHH>aKa (oko 10-or jyHa) o,HJia3HM Ha 
n^ejiHH^aK paiw o,zry3HMaH>a Mej,a ca apyror 
GarpeMa h KOHTpojie KBajiHTeTa MJia^HX 
MaTHiia. Ha TepeH hochm ^OBOJbaH 6poj 
npa3HHX (H3BpuaHHx) HacTaBaKa h npnGop 
3a o,iiy3HMaH>e Me#a. Bpnajte He oGaBJtaM 



Ha TepeHy Beh o,zry3eTe HacTaBKe bo3hm 
KyriH Ha Bpuaite. npHJiHKOM o,zry3HMaH>a 
Me/ia npeyperjyjeM KoniHHiry Ha cjie^eriH 
HaHHH: Ha no/uta^m ocTaje HacTaBaK ca jie- 
tjiom h CTapoM MaTHitoM; Ha H>era CTaBJbaM 
npa3aH HacTaBaK ca H3rparjeHHM caneM; Ha 
to j,ojia3H MaTH^Ha peineTKa na Tpenn Hac- 
TaBaK ca H3rparjeHHM caheM; 3aTHM noKJio- 
nHa #acKa h neTBpTH HacTaBaK ca mjieljiom 
MaTHUOM (cjiHKa 11). TaicaB pacnope,n Hac- 
TaBaKa ocTaje Hape^He rbc He^ejte, tj. #o 
ceo6e Ha Jinny. Ykojihko HeKa MJia.ua Ma- 
THua HHJe ycnejia Jia ce BpaTH ca onjiojjH>e, 
TaKBO jjpyniTBO noja^aBaM JiojiaBaH>eM 
HyKJieyca ca JiernoM h MJiajjoM MaTHUOM. 

Ceo6a Kouiiuiua Ha jiwnoBy namy 

Ceo6y Ha jnmoBy namy oGaBJtaM oko 
25-or jyHa. npe/i, nojia3aK KoniHnne 
npeyperjyjeM Ha cjiejjehn asmmu: Ha 




"nitprjitMu JUMttfl" 

IHMMl-.tO.'IDTll IUC11IHSIK 
MtfTttHHU petfWTKM 

H(HH*-.UMUJ|I HiK UIHHSi 

^ jinjiu m rxapa turmityi 




npafcusii HMrrniuiK 
Mtrnmta pcwmcd 

JMHM m M-iu,ui 

MHTMIIJI 



Cauku 11. IIocAe ody3UJuatba jueda ca 
dpyzoz fiaepejwa 



Cauku 12. H32Aed Kouiuuu i e nped noAa- 
3UK Ha Auny 



117 



n^ejiap 1999 



no^raaHH ocTaje je/iaH HacTaBaK ca JierjioM 
oa CTape MaTHiie - Kojy JiHKBH/jnpaM; Kao 
Jjpyrn JipJia3H Ghbiiih neTBpTH HacTaBaK ca 
jiernoM n MJia^oM MaTnupM; 3aTHM Jiojia3H 
MaTH^Ha peineTKa na Tpehn HacTaBaK kojh 
je yrjiaBHOM npa3aH n Haj3a/i, qeTBpTH Hac- 
TaBaK y KOMe HMa nerjia ojj CTape MaTnue n 
HeniTO Me.ua ojj KynHHe h JiHBajje (cjinKa 
12). 

liBeTaite Jinne He Tpaje jjyro a ca bom 
ce npexjiana HBeTatte cyHHpKpeTa. Flocjie 
HeKOJiHKO jjaHa o6HJia3HM nnejie Ha jrann, 
nopyiHHM npHCHJiHe MaTH*iH>aKe y 

HeTBpTHM HaCTaBUHMa H TpaXHM JlOKaUHJy 

Ha no3HHj"eM cyHKnpKpeTy, jep aKO Kopnc- 
thm Jinny He cthxcm Ha paHH cyHHpKpeT. 
Ha jinnn iraejie ocTajy MaKCHMajiHO ABe 
Hejjejte. Ilocjia oko KouiHima Ha jranoBoj 
naniH HeMaM. flpyuiTBa cy y nyHOM pa/iHOM 
pacnojioxeH>y a yBorjeiteM MJia/je Marane 
MaKCHMajiHO caM yMattno MoryhHOCT no- 
jaBe pojeBHor HaroHa. 

KopHiiiheibe cyHuoKpeTOBe name 

rioniTO Jinna Harno npeciaje ca Me- 
jjetteM yBex caM cnpeMaH 3a 6p3y HHTep- 



njiojjnniHa HacTaBKa - caMO hm 3aMeHHM 
MecTa; H3Hajj MaTHHHe penieTKe jjojia3H 
HacTaBaK ca "(J)HJioBaHHM caheM" n Kao 
HeTBpra jjojia3n HacTaBaK y KOMe HMa ot- 
BopeHor JinnoBor Me/ja (cjiHKa 13). Hac- 
TaBKe ca ojjy3eTHM Me/ioM ocTaBJtaM Ha 
CTpaHy a y TOKy Hohn BpniHM TpaHcnopT 
KoniHnua Ha cyHnpKpeTOBy nainy. Y 
noBpaTKy CBpanaM no HacTaBKe ca o/jy- 
3eraM MejjoM h B03HM hx Kyhn Ha Bpnatte. 

Ilocjie HeKOJiHKO jjaHa o6njia3HM nnejie 
Ha cyHUOKpeiy. Tom npHJiHKOM oneT 
noByneM no je/jaH npa3aH HacTaBaK 3a 
CBaxy KoiHHHiry. Ca/ia ojjy3HMaM *ieTBpTe 
HacTaBKe y KojnMa je JinnoB n cyHnoKpeTOB 
mqr noMemaH. M3Hajj MaTH*me pemeTKe 
yGanyjeM npa3aH HacTaBaK a Kao ^eTBpTH 
jjojia3n (Ghbihh Tpehn) HacTaBaK y KOMe 
HMa HHCTor cyHnoKpeTOBor Mejja (cjinKa 
13). 

Ojjy3eTe HacTaBKe B03HM Kyhn Ha 
Bpuaite a Konmnue ocTajy Ha cyHnpKpeTO- 
boj naniH jjo H>eHor Kpaja. 

Ako cyHUOKpeTOBa naina Gyjje H3JjaniHa 
Ha Kpajy name HMahy nyHe Konmnne Mejja, 
na qaK n Jierjio y njiojjnmTy he 6hth 
GjioKHpaHO MejjoM. /J,a 6nx Ha BpeMe noneo 




FUmo-JKiilUTH IIUCTIBHK 



Cauku 13. Kouiuuuu 3u epejxte Auue u 
cynupKpema 




Cauku 14. Kpuj nuuiue ce3one u npu- 
npeMU 3U y3UMA>ueuH>e 



BeHnnjy jja 6n Maite KacHHO Ha cyHnpKpeT. 
JinnoB Me/j o/xy3HMaM npejj nojia3aK Ha cyH- 
UOKpeT (oko 10-or jyjia). Ha TepeH jjo- 
B03HM 3a CBaKy KoniHHuy no je/iaH HacTa- 
BaK ca T3B. "(J)HJioBaHHM cafreM". Ojjy3H- 
MaM no jejjaH HacTaBaK JinnoBor Mejja (aKO 
ra HMa) h KouiHHue cpefjyjeM Ha cjie/jehn 
HaHHH: Ha no/jH>aHH ocTajy oGajjBa 



ca npnnpeMaMa 3a y3HMJtaBaH>e, Me/j, 
ojjy3HMaM KpajeM jyjia h Konmnne BpahaM 
y 6a3HH nnejiHHjaK, r/je he 3HMOBaTH n 
npnnpeMaTH ce 3a Hape/my nnejiapcKy 
ce30Hy, jep mhoth ncKycHn nnejiapn Kaxy: 
"Ako ch ca npnnpeMaMa 3a 3HMy noqeo 
jjpyror aBrycTa, Beh en 3aKacHno je/jaH jjaH M 
(cjinKa 14). 



118 



n^ejiap 1999 



3A pybphky "yPAHH cam* 



KaKOcanyBaTH njieTapy 

JJo6pucae Todopoeuh, Yotcui^e 



KouiHHue ca HenoKpeTHMM caneM j\o He- 
aaBHO cy 6MJie 3HaTHO 3acTynibeHe y nuaH- 
hhckmm npe^ejiMMa 3ana,aHe n hctohhc 
Cp6nje. ITpe oko 40 ro^HHa CKOpo CBaKO 
apyro aoMahiiHCTBO Ha TapM MMajio je 
nHenMH>aK. '"Bep30HKe" cy MO^ma HMHMJie 
1/4 ojx yKynHor 6poja. Y 3HaTHOJ BehMHH cy 
6MJie je^HOCTaBHe KoniHHne - njieTape 
(BpuiKape) h noHexa ^auinapa (TpMKa). 

OBM £0 KpaJHOCTH je(J)TMHM, je^HOCTaBHM M 

pauMOHajiHH "ype^ajw" oap^Kajiii cy ce 
CTOJienwMa h ca H>HMa ce o^p^cao 3,apaB 
nnejiMHjM poa. JacHO rsl je TOMe ^onpHHejia 
CTapa TexHOJiornja nnejiapepfca m caMa koh- 

CTpyKUMJa KOUIHMUe. 

3a H3pa^y njieTape mrje noTpe6aH noce- 
6aH ajiaT. ,H,OBOJbaH je omTap KajieMapCKM 
hox m Majio xaHana. IlpoHa^e ce y myMM 
CMpna MJiH jejia BejiMHMHe OBehe hobo- 
roaMuijfce jenKe. AKOJe Ha MecTy noro^HOM 
3a paa He o^ceua ce, Ben ce o6par]yje yc- 
npaBHO ;>kmbo £pBO. Ako to HMJe Moryne 
ohjisl ce flpBO Oflcene h " noca^M" y 3eMJby Ha 
MecTy 3a paji. Tpe6a H3a6paTM wpBO Koje 
HMa HaJMan.e neT ROYbHx rpaHa, jxyy&mie 1- 
1,5 m M3pacjiHx M3Je^Hor "paMeHa". H3Ha^ 
h Hcno^i tmx rpaHa ocTajie (HenoTpe6He 



rpaHe) o/iCTpaHMTM. JXeo CTa6jia M3Ha,a 
rpaHa He Tpe6a o^cenaTH, Ben ce caMO 
3ape^ce TaKO ^a ce no 3aBpmeTKy pa^a 
Mo;>Ke naKO o^jiomhtm. CKHHyTH KOpy ca 
cTaGjia n rpaHa. Ochobhc npyTeBe (rpaHe) 
MCTaH>HTM Ha ,ae6jbHHy 5-10 mm n mnpHHy 
10-20 mm. Ka^a je o6pa,aa roTOBa OBe npy- 
TeBe noBMTH HaBMine, pacnope^HTH no 
oGpyny n npHBe3aTM KaHanoM 3a KJinuy m 3a 
o6pyn (cji. 1). Obmmjc npe^o^perjeH oGjihk 
h BejinHHHa KoniHwue. OGpyn npe^HHica 30- 
35 cm MO^ce 6mtm or npyTa hjim aoiue n 
cjiy^cn Kao uiaGnoH npn n3paan BHine 

KOIUHHUa HCTMX, ^MMeH3MJa. rieT OCHOBHHX 

nyTeBa Hwje aobojlho. IToTpe6HO je npH- 
npeMHTHJom 10 hcthx, kojh he ce #o,aaBaTH 
y TOKy njieTeH>a Ka^a ce ^ocththc o,ape- 
rjeHa mnpMHa. npn CBaKOM ao^aBaH>y yxy- 
naH 6poj ochobhmx npyTeBa MOpa 6mtm He- 
napaH 6poj, ^a 6h npenjinTaH>e 6hjio 
Moryhe. 

Kao MaTepHJaji 3a njieTette oGhhho ce 
KOpHCTn jiHJaHa (naBHTa) hjih npyhe 
fle6jt.MHe 5-10 mm. Haj6ojt>e je npaBHTn 
"BHTKe" o,a jiecKOBMx uiTanoBa kojh ce ne- 
najy no ^y^KHHH. BnTKy Tpe6a oGpa/nTTH Ha 
noTpe6Hy r ae6jtHHy. npenjiMTaH>e noHHH>e 




HOBHTlt 



Jlt"U» 





Ca. 1. Odpaffeua ocnoea Ca. 2. 3aepuien onAem 



Ca. 3. roiuoea nAemapa 
ca KanmapoM 



124 



nnejiap 1999 



ofl CTaGjia h 3aBpniaBa ce Ha ^eibeHoj 
bhchhh (npeMa cji. 2.). nocjie/iraH pea 
yqBpcTHTH noBHJaifceM BHinKa ochobhhx 
npyieBa yHyTpa. Herjje H3Hajj nojioBHHe 
BHCHHe yrpa^HTH jiBa uiTannna yHaKpcT, 
TaKO m ce cnpenaBa cpo3aBaH>e cana npn 
BpytiHHaMa. 3a yHyTpanntH npeHHHK oc- 
HOBe 32 cm h BHCHHy 50 cm jjoGnja ce 3a- 
npeMHHa oko 35 JiHTapa. OGhhho ce He 
npaBe MaH>e KoniHHue ojx 20 JiHTapa. 3a 
"Me/iape" ce KopHCTe KoniHHue 3anpeMHHe 
h jxo 40 JiHTapa. OHe Maite (oko 20 7.) 6h- 
Bajy 6p30 nonyiteHe na HacTyna pojeBHO 
pacnojioateite. 

"Majnep" ce cnpeMa ojj MeinaBHHe 
roBerje Ganere h 1/4 rauieHor Kpe^a. TpeGa 
jjojjaTH njieBe hjih roBerje jjnaKe pajjn 
cnpenaBaita nyKOTHHa. Obom CMecoM npe- 
Ma3aTH cnojta nneTapy y cjiojy jje6jbHHe 1- 
1,5 cm TaKO jxa ce jjeo Mamepa yTHCHe y on- 
jieT, ajiH jja He H36nje yHyrap KoniHHue. 

OdaBHTH Ha OCyHHaHOM MeCTy HeKOJIHKO 

jjaHa jxa ce ocyinn h Ha Kpajy OKperaTH. 
CacynieH erajitaK je o/jJimaH TonjioTHH 
H30JiaTop, a Kpen cjiyscn 3a jje3HH(|)eKHHJy. 
OBa KoiHHHua He 6h 6njia noTnyHa 6e3 
KanTapa. y Ty CBpxy ca jje6ejror jenoBor 
hjih CMpneBor CTaGjia CKHHyTH Kopy 
noBpuiHHe oko 1,5 x 0,7 m h ojx H>e Ha- 
npaBHTH "4)HiiieK M . 3a "yiHHBaH>e" Kope 
ynoTpeGHTH npyr (npeMa cji. 3.). 

Ilocao ce HajjiaKine oGaBJta y npojiehe, 
HenocpejjHO npejj, pojeite miejia. Ta/ja y 
jjpBeny Kpehy cokobh na je jjpBO ca- 
BHTJtHBHJe h JiaKO ce oGparjyje. Tpe6a jom 
HMaTH y BHJjy jja ce jejiKa h Kopa 3a KanTap 
Mory jjoGhth caMO H3 ojipGpeHe ce*ie h 



npope/ie niyMe, KaKO He 6h Ghjio Hecnopa- 
3yMa ca myMapoM. 

IljieTape cy noceGHO KopHCHe 3a 4>op- 
MHpaH>e hobhx n^ejiHH^aKa ojj npHpo/iHHX 
pojeBa. npe oko 15 ro/iHHa no*ieo caM #a 
o6HaBJbaM o^eB n*iejiHH>aK kojh ce 6ho 
CBeo Ha TpH njieiape. M3 jiHTepaType caM 
"cBe 3Hao M o BeniTaHKOM pa3pojaBan>y h 
HaMepaBao caM Jia nce^ieM cajjpxaj njie- 
Tape h npecejiHM y HOBe J1P KoniHHne. Ha 
cpeny ojjycTao caM ojj Tora h noneo jja (J>op- 
MHpaM hobh nHejiHH>aK XBaTaaeM npnpojj- 
hhx pojeBa. 3a TpH rojjHHe Hacejino caM 
oko 20 J1P KomHHua, BenHM jjejioM npnpojj- 
hhm pojeBHMa. BeniTaHKO pa3pojaBaH>e 
Ben HacejbeHHX HP KoniHHua HHJe npo- 
jia3HJio 6e3 npoGjieMa. Hnje 6njia y nHTaity 
caMO no^eTHHHKa HecnpeTHOCT. Tpe6ajio 
je jja nporje BpeMe #a ce cxBaTH jjaje jejjHHa 
MaHa npHpo^Hor poja Ta hito je noHeKa/j, 
HeyxBaTJLHB. Y ojjHocy Ha BemraHKH poj 
CBe jjoGpe ocoGhhc cy na CTpaHH npHpojj- 
hot poja. FloceGHO pajjHa eHeprnja h 
3Jj,paBJte miejia. TaKofje je TpeGao Beta 
CTax y BeniTa^KOM pa3pojaBaity h rajeity 
MaTHua na jja ce 3aKJbyHH jja to HMa BHine 
ycnexa aKO ce pajjn y "pojeBHHM rojjHHaMa" 

H "pojeBHHM JjaHHMa". 

M cajja Ha nnejiHitaKy jjpxhm h 06- 
HaBJbaM no 3-4 njieTape. HacTOJHM 
canyBaTH npocTe KoniHHue, He caMO 36or 
HOCTajirnje 3a nponuiHM BpeMeHHMa. 
Moxjia he oneT 3aTpe6ara HeKH "ypefjaj" 
cjiHHaH njieTapn 3a "npnpojjaH nopofjaj 
nnejie". Ka^ceM "n*iejie" jep ce HeKajj y 
obhm KpajeBHMa oho niTO cajja 30BeMO 
"jjpyniTBo" CMaTpajio jejjHHM xhbhm 
GnheM h 3Bajio ce "n^ejia". 



125 



n^ejiap 1999 



M 



IOCTM 



MpuauAO Hypafy, Hum 



OrpyHHa jiMTepaTypa o n^ejiapCTBy je 
6poJHa. nope/j Haconnca h KH>Mra, nnejiap- 

CTBOJe npMCyTHO M Ha CJieKTpOHCKHM MeflM- 

JHMa (TB eMMCMJe, BM/jeo KaceTa), a y 
nocjiejjite BpeMe h Ha HHTEPHETY 

Man>e je no3HaTO, ycTBapn nporje 
He3ana^ceHO, jja cy rmejie h nnejiMHoH npo- 

M3BOJJM npHCyTHM H y KHoM^KeBHHM /jejiMMa. 

IItub je aa ce hckh jorarjaj uito cjimkobm- 
THJe onMiue. n^ejia ce mctmhc Kao cmm6oji 
Bpe/nrone, 4MCTone h opraHM3aHMJe pajja. 
Ako xohe jib. ce MCTaKHe jieitocT Ty cy 
TpyTOBH. 3a njio/jHOCT 3eMibe Hecro ce 
KopncTM H3pa3 ;ia Ty tchq mcjx h mjicko. 

Ko/j Hac je BepOBaTHO Hajno3HaTMJM 
EberomeB ctmx M3 'TopCKor BMJeHua": 

"Haiuy MEIJAjoui hmko He nonn, 
,aaje HaiiiOM ^cy4H He 3arpHM; 
^auia ^cynn Murre namy M F/TA . 
CMHJeuiaHe HajnaKiue ce nHJy." 

Ctmx neBa KOJIO, KOJieKTMBHH jyHaK 
tj. Hapcva, a ynyheH je BJiajjMKM flaHMJiy kojm 
ce KOJie6a /ja OTno^He 6op6y 3a mc- 
Tpe6ibeH>e noTypMua. flaHHJio ce He 6ojh 
6op6M npOTMB TypaKa, ajiM ce nuauiM 6pa- 
Toy6MJiaHKe 6op6e tj. /ja Hana/jHyTOM 
6paTCTBy, Koje je npMMHJio MCJiaM He 
npMTeKHy y noMon ocTajia 6paTCTBa H3 mc- 
tot njieMeHa, Koja cy ocTajia y xpMiunaH- 
CTBy. OB^e cy y3eTe ^se Kpajite cynpOTHe 
CTBapn. ME3 Kao cmm6oji cjia/jKone m pa/jo- 
cth aico ce HCTpe6e noTypMue m 3aycTaBH 
,aajbe noTypHHBaite LJpHoropaua m ^cyn 
Kao chm6oji ropHMHe aKO 6m jjohijio ro 
noKOJta Mefjy 6paTCTBHMa m nueMeHMMa. 
Bjia/iHKa 4mhm joiu je/raH noKyinaj jia He 
aorje jio npojiMBaH.a KpBM. IIo3HBa no- 
TypMue Ha pa3TOBOp r#e mm npejjjia)Ke jia ce 
BpaTe CTapoj BepM-xpMiuhaHCTBy. Ohm to 
ojj6MJajy. rio3MB CMaTpajy 6ecKOpMCHMM 
nocjiOM, uito Eberom Kp03 penn CKeH,aep- 
-are ynoperjyje ca xBaTaiteM poja nnejia y 
Kany: 



" Ojim HEJIE xBaTaT y KanHiry 
aa YJLAHHK y ropn 3aMeTHem? 
Hmko MESA OTJie jecTM Hehe!" 

Mycraj-KajjHJa ra nojjp)KaBa m jjaibe Hac- 
TaBJta ca xBajbeiteM MCJiaMa m CTaM6ojia. 

"O CTaM6ojie, 3eMajtCKO Becejte, 
Kyno MEflA, ropo o/j uiehepa. . ." 

y TOKy OBor pa3roBopa 3a BJia/iHKy 
CTH>Ke nMCMO ojj CejiMM name, rae My Hymi 
flapOBe ojj cyjiTaHa m no3MBa jx& npM3Ha 
TypCKy BJiacT, a yjejjHO m npeTM. 

y o^roBOpy flaHHJio He npMCTaje ^a 
npH3Ha TypCKy BJiacT m nope/j ocTajior ot- 
nMcyje: 

"THJecHa cy BpaTa yJbAHHKy, 
3a Mefje/ja CKOBaHa cjeKHpa..." 

Cmm6ojihhho OB/ie je YJLAHHK (nne- 
jiMH>aK) LlpHa Topa, Merjejj je mohho Typ- 
cko uapCTBO, a CKOBaHa cjeKHpa o/yryHHOCT 
upHoropaua jj,a canyBajy cno6o^y. 

nocjie CBera LJpHoropuH AOHeme ojx- 
nyKy m MCTpeGnuie noTypnue, Ha Ba^H>e 
Bene. 

H nocjie cto ne;jeceT rojume or npBor 
mTaMnaH>a 'TopCKor BHJeHua" EberouieBH 
ctmxobm: "KoMe 3aKOH jie^KH y Tony3y, Tpa- 
tobh My CMpjje HenoBJeiiiTBOM" hjih "3a 
Merje/ja CKOBaHa cjeKHpa", Kao ^a cy m 
aaHac aKTyejiHH y OBa TeuiKa BpeMeHa Koja 
cy ce Ha^Hejia Ha,a CpncKH Hapoa. 

Joiu H3 6h6jihjckmx BpeMeHa na #o 
TiaHac, jia 6m ce MCTaKJio 6oraTCTBO m yijiojx- 
hoct HeKor Kpaja hjih jjp^caBe, Kaace ce jia 
Ty "Tene Me/j m mjimjcko". 

TaKO npOTa M. HeHa/jOBMn y cbojmm 
MEMOAPHMA HaBO/jM m cy h^hxobh cTapM 
(no npejj,aH>y), Kajja cy KpeHyjin M3 Xepu,e- 
roBHHe y Cp6njy yHMHMJiH 3aBeT, jxa ce OH^e 
Hacejie rjie nyjy Bona jra 6e3 ojjMOpa 
HaJBMuie nyTa pMKHe. HacTaHMiue ce y 



83 



n^ejiap 1999 



BpaHKOBHHH 6jiH3y BajteBa, jep no TOMe 
3aKJbyHHine ,naje Ty mioflHa 3eMiba h /io6pa 
nauia 3a CTOKy (Te he 6hth h MJiexa) . . . 
"flPYTA JUTEMEHA KOJA CY MMAJ1A 
3ABET M CE OHAE CTAHE T^E HAEY 

n 4 e jt e y rPMy OTMiiuiA cy y MAHBy '. 

CynpoTHO TOMe o Henjio^Hocra h 
KpineBHTOCTH 3eMJbe y UpHoj TopH tBeroni 
Kaxe jia je Jinjena LlpHa Topa He6n ce TaKO 
3Bajia Beh MJ1MJE4HA RflM MEflEHA. 

Me.ii h MJieKO ce ynoTpeGjtaBajy h Kao 
H3pa3 ^oSpoTe. Jl. Tiocnft y cbom npBOM po- 
MaHy "flajieKO je cymje", onncyje cjiynaj 
Ka^a ce KOMaH_nnp je^He cpncKe BojcKe pac- 
nHTyje jxa jih je y 6jih3hhh flpyra cpncxa bo- 
jcKa Capyre H^eojiornje), na yno30paBa 
HOMahuuy y nnjoj cy Kynn 3aHonHJiH jia 
Kaxe HCKpeHO "HeMoj maBOM m ce 
niajiHiu, jep cmo mh 3a #o6pe MF/1 H 
MJIEKO, a 3a prjaBe cmo KypjanH." Ka^a ce 
noMHite Ma^Ba h nnejie y rpMy, TpeGa 
HCTahH jia ^aHac y TOMe Kpajy Hanie 3eMJte 
HMa BejiHKH 6poj bpchhx nnejiapa, Merjy ko- 
JHMa je Hajno3HaTnja nopo^niia BecejiH- 

HOBHh. 

Je^aH apyra BecejiHHOBHh h MaHBaHHH, 
no HMeHy JaHKO, 6ho je KH>HaceBHHK. Oh ce 
y cbom poMaHy "XAJflyK CTAHKO", Ha 
HeKOJiHKO MecTa cjiy^n KoumnnaMa h 
nqenaMa. 3a nopo^Hiry Koja HMa BejiHKH 
6poj qjiaHOBa (KMeTa JoBe) Kaace #aje nyHa 
Kao KOLQHMLIA- 3a ^OMahnHa Mnjioma 
CaBHha, TaKorje, noxBajia: "Y Kynn Myje 
6ho pe# Kao y K0IIIHMIIJ4, CBaKO ^eiba/ie 
3Hajio je h pa^HJio cboj nocao". MerjyTHM 
Kyhy CiaHKa AneKCHna (nocjie cnneTKH 
Typ^HHa KOJHJe TaMO BJia^ao), onncyje Kao 
KOllIHMLiy KOJA JE 3AMPJ1A 

KoniHHue ca nqenaMa cy ynoTpeGjba- 
BaHe h Kao Bpjio ycneniHO 6op6eHO cpe,a- 
ctbo. y noMeHyTOM poMaHy BecejiHHOBHh 
onncyje 6auaH>e KOIUHMUA ca EIHEJIAMA 
Ha TypcKy KOH>Hiiy (Kaj,a je HecTajio ue- 
6aHe). CjiHHaH npHMep H3 IlpBor ycTaHKa 
onncyje n npoia HeHa,o,OBHn caMO uito cy 
Konmnne ca rmejiaMa ca^a GauajiH Typun. 



1. IJeGaHe - MyHHUHJa. o,iihocho Gapyr h ojiobo 
3a ue(J)epiiape, ocrporyme n nninTOJbe (IlpHM. 
ypeaHHKa) 



M necHnnn ce ^ecTO KopncTe nnejiaMa n 

Mej,OM. 

BpaHKO Pa/nmeBnn ca o^ynieBJbeiteM 
neBa o CpeMCKHM KapJioBHHMa. Ilo #o- 
JiacKy y Taj rpaj Kao #eTe (porjeH y Cji. 
Bpo/iy), pa^iocT 3CHBJbeH>a ynoperjyje ca 
cjiamhy MF/1 A n CMOKBe. 

IlecHHK n JieKap JoBaH JoBaHOBnh neBa 
o Mejry: 

"A o^ MF/1 A HHiiiTa cnarje, 
3j,paBa xpaHa, a n JieK 
ko ra Kyca yMepeHO, 
npoflyxcyje ce6n bck" 

Obh 3MajeBH cthxobh necTO ce KopHCTe 
jxa 6n ce HCTaKao jickobhth 3Ha^aj Me^a, h 
o^jeKyjy Kao pe<j)peH HeKe (HeHanncaHe) 
n^enapcKe XHMHe. 

Haniy no3Haiy necHHKHH>y flecaHKy 
MaKcnMOBHh, Kaaa cy nnTajin m oojacHH 
KaKO ce ko/i H>e ^orarja CTBapajia^KH hhh, 
KpaTKO 6n o/iroBopHJia jxa joj cthxobh ao- 
jia3e Kao POJ FREJLA 

Me^ ce CMaTpao Kao xpaHa o^iaGpaHnx, 
TaKO Myca y Hapo/iHoj necMH Ka^ce: "^,a ce 
Hehe yKJioHHTH cnyra MapKy KpaibeBHhy" 
. . . M aKO Te po^HJia Kpajbnua, y ^HCTy Te 
CBHJiy 3aBHJajia, o^ipaHHJia MF/I OM M 
UlETiEPOM. . .". 

M y ocTaiiHM oGjinunMa Hapo^He 
KH>H^ceBHOCTH npHcyrHe cy n^ejie h MeA. 
HecTO ce noMHH>y y nocjioBnuaMa, 3aroHeT- 
KaMa h 3ApaBHiiaMa. Hapo^Ha 3^,paBHita 
Kaxe: ". . . y tbojoj ce Kyhn CBaKa cpeha 
CBHJia . . . OBue th ce XHJta^HJie, a riHEJlE 
TO HEBO nOMPAHMJIE". 

Obo: nnejie th He6o noMpannjie - ca 
crpyrae CTpaHe Moxe ce TyMa^HTH jibo- 
jaKO. Ca^a, y MO/iepHOM n^ejiapcTBy, Kao ^a 
ce ^OMahHHy xejin jia HMa hito ja^a 
nnejiHita ^pyuiTBa h zioGpy nainy. Me- 
rjyTHM, noniToje 3^paBHna HacTana mhoto 
paHnje BepoBaTHO ce xenn ^OMaftnHy ^a My 
ce nnejie H3 cbhx KoniHHita (tpmkh) hc- 
TOBpeMeHO poje ^a nqejie He6o noMpaqe, a 
jxa flOMahHH Ha Taj Ha^HH nocTaHe GoraTHJH 
ca yMHoaceHHM KouiHHuaMa, noniTO nox- 
BaTa CBe pojeBe. 

y cbhm jiejiHMa ,Ho6pHne Tiocnha npn- 
cyrHe cy nnejie, Me^ n BocaK. floceGHO je to 



84 



nnejiap 1999 



KapaKTepHCTHqHO 3a iteroB poMaH 
"BPEME CMPTM", y KojeM je, npeKO cbojhx 
jiHKOBa, onncao paTHe ^orajaje y CpGnjn 
oji npHHunnoBa nyuita y CapajeBy na jio 
npejiacxa npexo ArcGaHCKHX iuiaHHHa h 
yKpuaBaite y Jiaf)e OpaHnycKe. Jlo TeMa- 
thhh Kojy o6paf)yje h CHa^cHoj nnnmeBoj 
peHH, MHorn OBaj poMaH Ha3HBajy "CpncKH 
paT h MHp", ynopeJjyjyhn ra ca no3HaTHM 
TojicTojeBHM AejiOM. Onncyje Ha^HOBe^aH- 
CKe Hanope noje^HHana n nene CpGnje. 
Kpo3 JieneK MaJKH h cynpyra 3a cbojhm 
norHHyjiHM paTHnnnMa, jayK pajteHHKa h 
3arjiymyjyhy 6yxy TonoBa, y poMaHy ce Ha 
BHine MecTa npoGnja MHpnc Me#a, njiaMeH 
BonrraHHua, 3yjaH>e nnejia h Teaata raero- 
bhx jyHaxa Ka HexaKBOM nopeTKy r^e ce 
He6n rHHyno h pe^y Mefjy Jty^HMa Kao ihto 
je y koihhhuh. 

HaTajiHJa ftepica yHHTejba no neo nan 
nnme nncMa BOJHHnnMa Ha (J)poHT h ^HTa 
H>HXOBa HenHCMeHHM MaJKaMa h cynpy- 
raMa. YBe^e no noBpaTKy Kyhn. . . "Te penn 
Gpyjejoj Kao II4EJ1E". 

IIochjihh Teinn paH>eHor Majopa 
TaBpHJia CTaHKOBnha n oGenaBa &a he ra 
xpaHHTH MF/I OM n MJieKOM #a 6h ce iuto 
npe onopaBHO. 

Ha BajteBCKOM rpoGjty . . . "BOIHTA- 
HMIJE pacnnaMcaBa BeTap" . . . hjih "... 
CByna no rpoGjby rpynnne BOLUTAHMLIA 
Myqe ce jxa ,u,orope ..." (BajbeBCKa paTHa 
GojiHHua Gujia je nyHa paiteHHKa n TH(J)y- 
capa. 36or jioiuhx ycnoBa CMeniTaja, He^o- 
CTaTKa xpaHe n JieKOBa CMpT je Gmia Ma- 
coBHa h CBaKO/iHeBHa. BehHHa GojiHH^apKH 
Gnjie cy aoSpoBOJbUH, HJiaHOBH opraHH3a- 
nnje "Kojio CpncKHx ceciapa". Mefjy 
H>HMa je Hajno3HaTHJa HA/1H>K7TA FIETPO- 
BKR - cjiHKap, (xoja Jie^ehn GonecHe h 
caivia oGojih oji TH(J)yca n TaMO ncnycra 
cBojy njieMeHHTy flyiny). 

CeocKH yHHTejb KocTa /JyMOBHh y cyM- 
pax, KpHinoM yjia3H y yqnoHHuy, cy3HHX 
OHHJy, rojiornaB najin BOLIITAHMIJE 
Ghbiiihm yqeHHUHMa najiHM Ha (J)p0HTy. 
"Ta^HO je 3Hao r^e je kojh ce^eo h TaMO Ha 
CKaMHJaMa rope CBehe". 

Kaixa je y npBoj roaHHH paTa 6poJHO 
CTaH>e ,iniBH3HJa npenojioBJbeHO h ko- 



MaH/iHH Ka^ap H3rHHyo ce^aM^eceT nocTO, 
CpGnja MoGHJiHiiie Jaxe n CTyneme. Flocjie 
Kpaher KannapcKor Kypca y CKomty majbe 
CBojy HHTejiHreHLtnjy h MJia^ocT Ha (J)poHT 
^a npHMe BO^OBe n neTe. KoMaH^aHTH cy 
3a^0B0JbHH HjHxobhm pa^oM , xpaGpH cy 
ycneniHO KOMaHjiyjy ajra h ohh raHy . . . 
"rHHy Kao II4EJ1E". npexnBejin nocjie 
paTa (J)opMHpame yzipyaceibe "1300 
Kanjiapa". 

CnpoMainHH cejtaK - Ha^HH^ap Tojia 
flannh Kpehe Ha (J)poHT 3a bojckom. TaMO 
cy My chhobh. riope/i paKHJe h cjiaHHHe y 
TopGn hoch . . . "h ABa KOTypa BOCKA 
BejiHHHHe Kao #o6pa norana h CTOTHHaK 
CBeha". 

3Ha Tojia jia cy 3a bojckom Koja je ro- 
HHJia uiBaGy npeKO flpHHe ocTajra mhoih 
rpoGoBH 6e3 KpcTa^a n 3anajteHHX 
BoniTaHHita. OHJe ^oGpo^yinaH, paH>eHHKe 
nacTH cjiaHHHOM h paKHJOM, norHHyjiHM 
najin CBehe, ajin Ka^a cy My bojhhuh yKpajin 
TopGy ca paKHJOM oh hx je KJieo pe^HMa: 
"jia6oTR?L y BpeiiH BOCAK B o r hx no- 
TonHo". Tona HMa 4 CHHa Ha (J)poHTy hjohi 
tojihko BaHGpaHHHX kojh cy ce paljajiH y 
GoraTamKHM KyhaMa. Je,n,aH o^ ibMX je h 
A#aM KaTHh - KOH>aHHK. MMa HajGojber 
KOH>a y ecKa/ipoHy "... h hobo ce^Jio ^KYTO 
KAO BOCAK". 

y KpHTH^HHM MOMeHTHMa KojiyGapcKe 
GHTKe Tiocnh onncyje TemKO CTan>e. MMa 
MHoro mptbhx h nornHyjinx "... MCKp- 
BaBHine Koce n bhcobc", ko,ii BehHHe bo- 
JHHKa pacnajin ce onaHijH, na cy caMO y 
napanaMa, XBahy 3aMp3HyTe ocTaTKe Ta- 
JHHa. E, ycpe^i OBor naicia ^Ba nnnineBa jy- 
HaKa 5 aKa - Ha P e ^ HMKa ; no CHexHoj Beja- 
bhuh Ha MajteHy (y npej,axy H3Mel)y rbc 
6op6e) bojiq pa3roBop o I14EJ1AMA "... 
BOCAKMMEflflMBHOMMPMUiy... nHETIA 
JE JE^MHM MMPMlUJbMBM CTBOP y HA- 
UIOI EAJ1AKCMJM . . . y UEJIOJ rAJlAK-CM- 
JM HEMACABPUlEHMJErnOPETKAnPAB- 
flE M ^y)KHOCrM KAO KOfl nHEJIA . . .". 
(Je/iaH on OBe ^Bojniie 3Bao ce /JaHHJio 
npoTnh, po^oM H3 OKOJinHe HoBor Cajia. 
HanycTHO CTy^nje npaBa y nemra, 
npenjiHBao peKy CaBy h Kao ^oGpoBOJLaii; 
CTynno y cpncKy BojcKy. y TOKy MnmnheBe 



85 



n^ejiap 1999 



npoTHBO(J)aH3HBe nororjeH aycTpHJCKHM 
KypinyMHMa TparHHHO je 3aBpniHO ;>khbot. 
Hnje jjpneKao ocjio6orjeH>e BoJBOJiHHe h 
H>eHO npHcajejjHH>eH>e MaTHHH CpGnJH. A 
HHJe Jio^eKao hh Jia ce noHOBO cpeTHe ca 
cbojhm jjejjpM, kojh Myje ^ecTO roBopHO jja 
nojj CTape JiaHe HMa caMO jejjHy xejby, a to 
jejjaBHJiH cpGnjaHCKe o(J)HUHpe Ha 6e- 
jihm KoibHMa^ajaniy nopejj jbhxobc Kyne). 

/Jochtcj OGpajjpBHft y cbom Jjejiy 
"BACHE" nojjyqaBa cpncxy OMJia^HHy una 
je JioGpo a una HHJe. HeBajta 6hth JieH Kao 
TPYTOBM. Mjia/ie TpeSa ojj Majinx Hory 
BacnHTaBaTH ;ja CTH^y pajjHe HaBHKe h #a 
Gyjjy Bpe^HH Kao MpaB h IIHEJIA, a Kajja ce 
roBopH o nyHHM aMGapHMa nopejj XHTa, 
Meca . . . Tyje h ME^. Kyaa ro/j ce MJiajjH 
HOBeK KpeTao HMa una Jia 3anaxa jep cy 
MHoroGpoJHa Jiejia Bo^nja h HaBOJiH HHTaT, 
kojh ce ^ecTO y upKBaMa neBa y cjiaBy Bora 
TBOpua: 

"Bo3BejiHHHHia cja Jijena TBOja focnojiH, 



Bcja npeMyjjpocTHjy ctbophji jecn 



^HBehn ce JIHEIIM Kao CTBOpy Bo- 
XHJeM OBe peHHJe HMao HanncaHa Hayna3y 
y cboj nuejiHtfcaK h JOBAH XMBAHOBMTi. 



IIobojiom 150 ro^HUHBHue porjeita )Kh- 
BaHOBHha, jrp KojiapeBHh je y "Jluejiapy" 
Hanncao onniHpaH qjiaHaK. Ilope^ 6ho- 
rpa<j)CKHX no^aTaKa h XHBaHOBHneBHX 
3acnyra Ha nojby OHJiojiornje, a noceGHO 
3acjiyra 3a yBof)eH>e MOJjepHor HaHHHa 
nnejiapeifca ko^ Hac, Tyje HCTaKHyTO Jia cy 
ra 36or Bpe/iHone caBpeMeHHHH Ha3BajiH 
nHEJl OM y JbyaCKOM J1MKY, a oh caM j e 3a 
cboj ^chbot H3JaBJLHBao jja cy to Ghjih JjaHH 
xyHH ajiH h MTyTA T 

Haje/iHoj CBeTocaBCKOj npocjiaBH JoBaH 
XHBaHOBHhje ojjpxao Gecejjy y kojoj je hc- 
TaKao Jia ce Cbcth CaBa KAO JIHEJIA 
o^peKao cbhx OB03eMajbCKHX y3CHBan>a h 
nocBeTHO Bory h Tpyny Ha npocBenHBaity 
Hapojja h ycTpojcTy h y*iBpinneiBy Hanie 
cpe^HiOBeKOBHe Jip;>KaBe. 

M, Jia 3aBpuiHM BpahajyhH ce y Jip6a He- 
MaiBHna, r^e 6Horpa(J)H Teojjocnje h J\o- 
MeHTHJaH CBeTor CaBy ynoperjyjy ca nTH- 
hom, kojh ce Kao opao bhcoko y3JiHrao h 
HajjKpHJino CBy cpncKy 3eMJby, a no 
Bpe/iHohH cy ra ynoperjHBajra ca n4EJ10M, 
Koja JieTH ca HBeTa Ha HBeT. 

Ma Koje /ipyre pe^H Jia cy ynoTpeGnjin 
He6n Ghjih yGejjJBHBHJH, hhth 6h BepHHJe 
H3pa3HJiH H>eroBy BpejjHony h Tpyjj Ha 
jjo6po6HT cpncKor Hapojja. 



86 



n^ejiap 1999 



rpejaH>e iraejiHiMix jajtvxiiima (2) 



JlejaHoeufi Pojko dunn. npaenuK 
men. 015/342-530 



3aMeHa erapHX 3hmckhx nnejia MJianHMa 
oGaBJta ce paHHJe kqh rpejaHnx apyiiiTaBa. 
Ha Kpajy Borme name OHa cyjana, ca BHiiie 
nnejia h BefrHM GpojeM paMOBa ca JierjioM. 
npHJiHKOM HaBe^eHe noceie ^ejieranHJe 
ilpyniTBa iraejiapa "Beorpa/T 20. anpHJia 
1996. vojxmiz y A>K TpoM KomHHHH TSypHHHn 
ToMHCJiaBa, H3 UleBapHua, ko£ lllanna, Harje- 
ho je 9 paMOBa, KaKO cy rocra npoKOMeHTa- 
pHcajiH, JieTH>er Jierjia. Iljio^HinTe h mohh- 
niTe Te 3aje#HHHe 6hjih cy Kpnara iraejioM. 

y HacTaBJtaqaMa, noKa3ajio ce, MaTHua 
caMa nperje y £oh>h HacTaBaK me pa3BHJa jie- 
tjio HapoHHTO OH^a Kaj je rpejaq nocTaBJteH 
Ha no,HH>a*ry KoinHHne a noBpniHHa Myje Be- 
jiHKa. PajoBH Ha j,e6jioKa^H Jierjia yoauH- 
BaH>eM paMOBa H3Merjy Jierjia h noneHOBor 
npaxa, OKpeTa^y HacTaBaxa 3a 180 creneHH, 
3aMeHH MecTa njio^HiiiHHM TejiHMa h cjihhho, 
HHcy Heonxo^HH. E<j>eKTH thx nocTynaKa Ha 
pa3Boj nHejiHH>er ^pyuiTBa Ben cy ocTBapeHH 
Ha panyH rpejaita, 6e3 pH3HKa m. ce npey- 

paH^eHOM HJIH HeO^MepeHOM HHTepBeHHHJOM 

nqenapa H3a30Be pa3Boj KpeHHor Jierna, ho- 
3eM03e, npexjiarjeHor Jierjia h zipyrax Hera- 
thbhhx nocjie^Hua no pa3Boj 3ajejiHHne. npe- 
nacKOM y #oh>h HacTaBaK y KOMe je Tonno Ma- 
THua HMa Ha pacnojiaraity ^obojbho npoc- 
Topa 3a HecMeTaH pa3Boj Jierjia. 

Bp^cn pa3Boj irqejiHJBHX ^pyniTaBa y3 npn- 
MeHy rpejan>a, npHMeheHO je, Moxe koa 
Hajjannx 3aje^HHua ^OBeera j\o npepaHor pa3- 
Boja pojeBCKor HaroHa. To je H3paxeHO ylojx 
KoniHnna ca orpaHHHeHHM npocTopoM y ro^n- 



HaMa Ka^je npojiefiHa nania ojx Bona, Bp6e h 
nepKa H3£aniHHJa. TaKBa CHTyannja ce ecjm- 
xacHO pa3peniaBa GiiaroBpeMemiM o^y- 
3HMaH^eM paMa ca JierjioM H3 TaKBe 3aje#HHne 
n yMeTaiteM caTHe ocHOBe yMecTO H>era. Qny- 
3era paM ca 3aTBOpeHHM JiernoM flonaje ce y 
Hexy Matte pa3BnjeHy 3aje£HHiry, Koja ce thm 
nocTynKOM nojana. nnejiapn kojh npHMeibyjy 
rpejaite CMaTpajy jia. OBaj MeTO# £03BOJbaBa 
Hsje^HaHaBaH^e HnejiHJBHX ^pyniTaBa y H3Bec- 
hoj pa3yMHOj Mepn mro ce noBOJBHO oapa- 
xaBa Ha noBenaity yicynHe CHare nHejiHH>aKa. 
Bpe/iHOCT npHMeHe rpejaiBa je BeoMa 
H3paxeHa koj, Majinx ^pynrraBa. HyKJieycn h 
Majie 3aje£HHue ca MJia^HM pe3epBHHM Mara- 
uaMa ^HBe n 3,iipaBe ^oneicajy npojiene #a 6h 
Ta^a nocjiyxnjie cbojoj HaMeHH. Je^aH 
npHMep H3 n^enapcKe npaKce to he HajGojte 
HJiycTpoBaTH: noneTKOM aBiycTa 1997. ro- 
Jl\mz Mnjiom >KHBaHOBHn je Ha irqejinitaKy 
HMao j,pyniTBO y Tpn OapapoBa HacTaBKa 
(BHCHHa 17 cm) y pojeBCKOM CTan»y ca 3aT- 
BopeHHM MaTH^HjauHMa. M3^Bojnoje MaTHiry 
ca ^Ba paMa Jierna h Tpn paMa ca xpaHOM y 
npa3Hy KoniHHiry a ociaTaK 8. aBiycTa no^e- 
jiho y neT onjio^H>aKa ca no neT paMOBa 
(BHCHHa 16 cm) o^ Hera no ^Ba ca JierjioM h 
npecejiHO Ha HOBy JioKaunjy. Cbhx neT Ma- 
THita ce cnapHJio h npoHejio y ^pyroj nojioB- 
hhh aBiycTa. KacHnJe, Ha npe^Jior ayropa 
OBor TeKda, o^jryqHO je ^a hx y3HMH CBaKy y 
cbojoj koiiihhhh 6e3 noja^aBaH^a, Kao ^;py- 
niTBa ca pe3epBHHM MaTHuaMa. y ^eueMGpy 
npHKJLyqno hm je rpejarae a y MapTy 1998. Te 




YepatjeHU epejan y 
nodwany Koiunuu,a 



14 



nnejiap 1999 




Majie 3aje^HMue cy 6iuie XHBe h 3^paBe, 6e3 
BJia^HHX paMOBa, 6e3 KpeHHor Jierjia h Tpa- 
rosa H03eM03e. Ipejao Hxje ro Kpaja 6arpe- 
MOBe Maine £0 Ka/ia ce CBaKa pa3BHJia y TpH 
HacTaBKa. 

rpejaite M6^ce Hata npHMeHy h y aKTHB- 
Hoj ce30HH: 3a Hery onjioflitaKa h pojeBa y 
npoH3BO^H3H MaTHua 3a noGojbinaae ycjioBa 
y CTapTepHMa h cwaJKBa^KHM ^pyuiTBHMa, 3a 
rpejaite noJHJia 3a Bony y npojiefte h y #pyre 
CBpxe. 

riope^, no3HTHBHHX e(J>eKaTa Koje rpejaite 
npyaca y 3HM0BaH>y h nponetaoM pa3Bojy 
miejiHH>Hx 3aje^HHua, o neMy je £0 caaa Ghjio 
pe^H. y jiaibeM TeKCTy 6nne y rjiaBHHM 
UpTaMa onncaHH rqjiobh ypet)aja 3a H>eroBy 
npHMeHy. 

Ha 6m ce rpejan>e motjio npHMeHHTH 
noTpeGHO je j\& Ha rraejiHraaKy hjih y Henoc- 



Ypef)aj 3a epejatbe 
KOiuHuu,a PajKa IJe- 
janoeuha 
(0omo: Jlyi^uH) 



pe^Hpj 6jih3hhh nocTOJH ejieKTpHHHa Mpexa 
ca HanoHOM ojx 220 bojith. Taj HanoH HHJe no- 
ro^aH 3a npHMeHy y KOHiHHuaMa na je 
noTpeGHO CMaitHTH ra noMohy TpaHC<j>opMa- 
Topa. TpaHC({)opMaTop Tpe6a ^a HMa BHine 
H3Bo^a a y npaKCH HaJHemhe ce KopHCTe ohh 
ca HSBO^HMa Ha 12 h 24 BOJiTa. Cipyja Tor Ha- 
noHa HHJe onacHa no )khbot h 3,apaBJbe Jbyun 
na je noro^Ha 3a OBy HaMeHy. TpaHC(J)opMa- 
Topo^je^Hor KHJioBaTa flOBOJtaH je 3a rraejiH- 
itaK or 50 KoniHHua. 3a BHine ^pyniTaBa 
noTpeGaH je jaqn TpaHC(J)opMaTop mm BHine 
MaftHX. Oh Tpe6a na 6yne cMenueH ihto 
GjiHace nnejiHHjHM apyniTBHMa oGhhho y 
je^Hy npa3Hy KoniHHuy 3aniTHneH on paao3H- 
ajiHX norjiej,a h aTM0C(J)epcKHX ynniaja. 
HajGoibe je kbji ce TpaHC<j)opMaTop nociaBH y 
ueHTap nnejiHH>aKa jep ce Taaa Moxe 




Tlodnu epejan 3a nac 

maeibane neeo Mu- 

pocAaea Jlasuha 

decHo PajKa IJe- 

janoeufia (0omo: 

Jlyi^uh) 



15 



n^ejiap 1999 




IllunKacmu epejan 

Epauucjiaea 

TjypuHuha 

(0omo: Jlyi^ufi) 



Hajjiaiaiie noeraBHTH Mpe^ca npoBOJXHHKa 
kojh Mopajy jjoceta jjo CBaKe KoniHHne. 

HaH3MeHMMHa CTpyja hhckot HanoHa, Kojy 
Hcnopy<iyje TpaHC(popMaTop, JipJia3H jxo 
KouiHHixa MpexoM npoBOJjHHKa, kojh Mopajy 
6hth ojjroBapajyner npecexa Kaxo 6h HanoH y 

npBOJ H 3a#H>OJ KOIHHHUH 6HO HCTH. Y npOTHB- 

hom, rpejaite Hene (J)yHKHHOHHcaTH paB- 
HOMepHO. Beha jjyapiHa 3axTeBa Beta npecex 
npoBOJjHHKa. 3aToje noxejbHo^aTpaHC(J)op- 
MaTop 6yae Ha cpejjHHH nqejiHitaKa. M 6poj 
KoniHMua yrane Ha noBenaite npecexa npo- 
BO^HHKa (BHine noTpoinana 3axTeBa Beta 
npeceK). 3aTO je JioGpo jja ce nocTaBH BHine 
jiHHHJa npoBO^HHKa na jja CBaxa oncjiyacyje no 
je/jHy ipyny KoniHHua. Ha Kpajy CBaxe jmHHJe 
nocTaBiba ce KOHTpojiHa JiaMnnna, Koja cnja 
Kafl rpejaite pajjH. lloMohy H>e rrnejiap HMa 
HH(f)opMaLiHJy jja CTpyja jjpJia3H jjo 3a/jH>e 
KouiHHue hjih He ^ojia3H, na Tpe6a HHTep- 
BeHHcaTH . OHa jjaje h HHC^opMaiiHJy o 
BajbaHocra HanoHa y MpexM npoBOijHHKa axo 
ce jiaMnnna He racn y npaBMJiHHM HHrep- 
BajiHMa, hjih ce yomnTe He racn, noTpeGHO je 
Ha TpaHc^opMaTopy HanoH nosenaTH Ha 
ojjroBapajyny BpejjHOCT (3aTO oh Tpe6a jj,a 
HMa BHine H3BOJja) Kaxo 6h rpeja™ y koihhh- 
uaMa MorjiH o/jpxaBaTH 3a#aTy TeMnepaTypy. 

OjjperjHBaH>e TeMnepaType y kouihhuh 

BpIHH Ce TepMOCTaTOM. IIOCTOJH BeJIHKH 6poj 

THnoBa TepMOdaTa ojj ohhx ca eTpoM hjih 
xhbom na jjo ejieKTpoHCKHX. CBaKH THn Mo^ce 
jjoGpo nocjiyxHTH aKO HcnyH>aBa ojjpefjeHe 
3axTeBe. Oh Tpe6a jja MepH npenioHO TeM- 
Hepaiypy y oncery ojj Hyna jjo TpHJjeceT 
CTeneHH h jja Moxe nponycraTH cipyjy 
o/xpetjeHe aMncpa^ce. JlpenopyHJtHBO je 
nocTaBHTH join jejjaH TaK03BaHH cnrypHOCHH 
TepMOCTaT, kojh ce yicbyqyje caMO OH/ia Kajj 
eBeHTyajiHO OTKaxe OHaj npBH, TaK03BaHH 
pa^HH TepMOCTaT. To je noTpeGHO, jep y 
cjryqajy KBapa Ha pajjHOM TepMOCTaTy 



rpejaHH Mory rpejaTH HenpeKHJjHO, 6e3 nay3a 
uito 6h jjoBejio jjo ToiLTbeita cana y kouihhuh 
h yraHyha miejiHiter jjpyuiTBa ycjiejj nperpe- 
BaH>a. 

MMa nuejiapa, kojh TepMOCTaT noBe3yjy 
Hcnpe/j Tpa(J)oa na y tom cjryqajy Kajj He pajje 
rpejara h TpaHC<J)opMaTop He pajjH; a jjpyrn 
ra noBe3yjy H3a TpaHC<J)opMaTopa (Ha ceKyH- 
jjapy) na Tana TpaHC(J)opMaTop pajjH Henpe- 
khjjho. Koja BapHJanra je y KOHKpeTHOM cjry- 
*iajy noBOJBHHJa Tpe6a jja npoueHH CTpyuitaK. 

netaHa nnejiapa TepMOCTaT nocTaBJta 
KouiHHiry ca nuejiHH>HM jjpyuiTBOM npoceHH 
jaHHHe. MaH>H 6poj niejiapa nocTaBJta y 
npa3Hy (HeHacejteHy) KouiHHiry, pyKOBOJjeriH 
ce ^cejbOM Ra. 3a^aiy TeMnepaTypy HMa 
KoniHHua ca HajcjiaGnJHM jjpyuiTBOM. TepMO- 
CTaT ce Moxe nocTaBHTH cnojta Ha 3hji, 
KoniHHue Kaxo je npHKa3aHO Ha cjihuh y npe- 
txojjhom npHJiory, h Tajja ra Tpe6a 3auiTHTH 
ojj aTM0C(J>epcKHX yTHuaja, a MO>Ke h yHyrap 
KoniHHne, Ha npHMep, y 36ery, hjih Hcnojj, 
KpoBa, ajin TaKO jj,a ce H>HMe Moxe MaHnnyjiH- 
caTH 6e3 y3HeMHpaBaH5a n^ejiHHjer jjpyniTBa. 
Bhtho je jj& coHJja TepMOCTaTa 6yae y 6jih3- 
hhh rpejana HajGojte H3Ha,a rpejana a Hcnojj, 
KJiyGeTa. Ako je rpejan nocTaBJteH Ha 
nojjHja^iy coHJja ce nocTaBJLa H3Met)y rpeja^ia 
h KjrySeTa (Ha nojioBHHH bhchhc cpe^H>er 
paMa jjoH>er HaeraBKa ko^i J1P Kouinnue). 

CBaxa KoniHHna HMa cboj rpeja^i kojh je 
noBe3aH Ha jniHHJy npoBOJjHHKa (ojj TpaHC- 
(J)opMaTopa ao 3a,iiHje KoniHHue) . CBaKH 
rpejan Moxe 6hth caMOCTajiHO noBe3aH Ha 
jniHHJy (napajiejiHO Be3HBaH>e), a Moxe 6hth 
no jjBa hjih BHnie MerjycoGHO cnojemrx na 
npBH h 3ajjJLH noBe3aHH Ha Mpexy npoBOJj- 
HHKa (pe/XHO Be3HBaH>e). 

TepMOCTaT ce Mo^ce KynHTH y tptobhhh 
hjih ra H3parjyje 3aHaTCKa pajjn>a. llorojjHHX 

rpejana 3a npHMeHy y KoniHHitH HeMa y 



16 



nnejiap 1999 



BepmuKajiHu epejan 

3a A)K KovuHuuy To- 

Mucnaea Tzypunuha 

(Oomo: Jlyi^uft) 




TproBMHH. 3aTO mx iuaGaHKH mejiapM yrjiaB- 
hom caMM H3pat)yjy. HeKM 3a Ty CBpxy 
KOpHCTe Man>e CHJajiHHe Koje (J)ap6ajy hjih 
o6jia>Ky ajiyMMHMJyMCKOM (J)ojimjom #a cbct- 
jioct He y3HeMHpaBa imejie. Te cnjajiHue OH#a 
yrparjyjy y npa3aH paM kojh o6jio^ce TaHKHM 

aJiyMHHHJyMCKMM JIHMOM. Y TOJ BapHJaHTH 

ropH>a nojiOBHHa paMa ce npeype/iH y paMCKy 
xpaHHJiHiry. OBaj o6jimk rpejana ce noKa3ao 
noro/iHMM 3a M&na apyniTBa. flpyrn, y TaKO 
npwnpeMJbeH paM, yrparjyjy mHrncacTH rpejan 
Ko,a Koraje rpeJHO Tejio HaMOTaHO Ha neB o,a 
jiaKor MeTajia. MMa m rpeja^a LUMnKaeror 06- 
jiHKa koji KOJHx je rpeJHO Tejio (xcnua or 
uexaca hjih KaHTajia) yrparjeHO y CTaKJieHy 
neB. IUnmcacTH rpeJan ce kopmctm h 6e3 
yrparjHBaiBa y paM uito, no MHnirbeiky ohhx 
kojh ra npMMeityjy, jj,aje BehH H36op 
MoryhHOCTM npMMeHe (H3Haa KJiy6eTa, wcno^ 
hjih ca CTpaHe a MO^ce h H3Mefjy HacTaBaxa). 

Tpejan MO^ce 6hth h y o6jiMKy TpaKe 
niHpHHe HeKOJiHKO caHTMMeTapa, kojh ce 
MO^ce kophcthth h Ha nojjitaHH. Ayrop OBor 
TeKda je HanpaBHO njio^acTe rpeja^e ojx rbq 
CTaKJieHe mioie jjHMeH3MJa 25 nyra 25 caHTM- 
MeTapa (H3Merjy kojhx je rpeJHO Tejio) a 
jj,e6jtHHe 7 MHJiHMeTapa. npM ojjperjHBaiky 
AHMeH3HJa rpejaia pyKOBOjjno ce bcjthhhhom 

(npeHHMKOM) 3HMCKOT KJiy6eTa HOpMaJlHO 

pa3BMJeHe miejiHH>e 3ajejjHHHe. TpejaH ce 
nocTaBJta Ha nomtany KOiuHHire. YparjeH je 
3a HanoH or 12 bojith, MMa 18 BaTH m 1,3 Am- 
nepa. 

HpocTOp He ^03BOJtaBa ynymTaifce y rq- 
TajtHMJH onnc BejiHKor 6poja MoryhHOCTH 
npM H3paaM rpejana. 3aHHTepecoBaHM HMTa- 
jian. Tpe6a jj,a KOHcyjnyje o^roBapajyher 
CTpy^Hjaxa eneKTpo CTpyxe. 

Kaj ce CMCTeM 3a rpejaite nycTH y pajj, 
Tpe6a noBpeMeHO KOHTpojincara jja jim npaB- 
HJiHO 4)yHKUMOHHiue. Kojj napajiejiHor Be3H- 



BaH>a rpejana KOHTpojiHa jiaMiuma yBex CMja 
na h OH#a kzw hckm or rpeja^a He pa^e 
(H3ry6ibeH KOHTaKT ca jihhhjom). nnejiap 
HeMa MH(J)OpMaij,HJy jj,a HeKM rpejai He pajin. 
3aTO MOpa noBpeMeHO npoBepHTH CBaKM 
rpejan. Kojj noBe3HBaH>a rpeja^a Ha pea koh- 
TpojiHa jiaMiwma Ha Kpajy jiMHMJe cnja caMO 
Kajj cy cbh rpeja^H y (J)yHKiiHJH. Ako jqrslh 
rpejan He pajxM, cbh rpejara y jihhhjm H3a 
H>era He pa#e. HcKaKaite je/xHor rpejana kor 
napajiejme Be3e HaHOCH uiTeTy caMO tom 
nHejiHH>eM jjpyuiTBy, a kojj, pe/iHe Be3e inTeiy 
Tpne CBa /xpyuiTBa y KomHHiiaMa ro Kpaja 

JiMHMJe. 

Kao iuto je H3HeTO Kp03 onnc noTpe6MMx 
aejiOBa, yperjaj 3a npHMeHy rpejaH>a jjociynaH 
je CBaKOM miejiapy. H3,iiaiiM 3a iteroBO 
nocTaBJbaite BpaTHne ce Beh y npBOJ naiiiH 
Kao pe3yjiTaT noBehaHor npHHOca or jainx h 
s^paBMJMx nnenHHsHx 3ajejjHHiia. 

TpouiKOBH rpejaita HMcy bcjimkh. ITo 

KOIHHHIIH, nO MHIHJbeifcy CBHX KOJH npM- 

MeH>yjy rpejaH>e, ohm He npejia3e Bpe/iHOCT 
je^Hor KMJiorpaMa mcrsl. 

YuiTe^a Kpo3 Man^y noTponiH.y xpaHe no 
saje^HHUH Bena je or TponiKOBa rpejaH.a. Kelr 
ce TOMe rorsl h yuiTe^a Ha npHMeHM pa3Hnx 
jieKOBa npoM3HJia3H ^a je aajieKO eKOHO- 
MMHHMJe nnejiapHTH y3 rpejan.e. TpejaHe 3a- 
je^HMue cy 3^paBe na hm no npaBHJiy jickobh 
HMcy noTpe6HM. H3y3eTaK je napa3HT Bapoa 
ajiM MMa HaroBeniTaja ^a he y 6op6n npOTMB 
OBor HenpnjaTejta n^ejia rpejan>e HMaTM 
3anaiKeHy ynory. Ymccto cejiH^6e m rpejan»a 
nnejia y MeTajiHOJ nocynw KaKO 6m noBefiaHa 
TeMnepaTypa (n3Haa 40 CTeneHn) M3a3Bana 
OTnyniTaH.e Bapoe ca nnejie, nnejiapn kojh 
npMMettyjy rpejaH>e raje Ha/ry r& he ce hctm 
e(J)eKaT nocTMhM OKpeTan.eM ayrMeTa Ha Tep- 
MOCTaTy y BpeMe Kaa y koiuhmlim HeMa Jierjia. 



17 



rinejiap 1999 



npoM3BOAH>a MaTMHHor M/iena Ha TajeaHy 



O mejiapcTBy y HP Khhh HMajiH cmo 
npHJiHKe jja *ryjeMO JiHpeKTHO ojj ^hxobhx 
npe^aBaqa. IloceGHO cy 6nna HHTepecaHTHa 
H>HXOBa H3Jiarafta o npoH3BOJjH>H MaTMHor 
MJiena. Ta/ia je pe^eHO, anon pamrje je Ghjio 
no3HaTO, jia je KnHa HaJBenn npoH3BorjaH 
MJiena Ha CBeTy ca Heiarx 800 TOHa ro/jHimte. 

HeiiiTo o nnejiapcTBy Tajuaiia 

TaJBaH je octpbo y khhcckom Mopy 
ynajteHo 200 km ojj KOHTHHeHTajme Khhc 
Obo ocTpBoje paHHJe Ghjio no3HaTO Kao Oop- 
M03a h iiojihthhkh ce CMaTpa cacraBHHM jje- 
jiom HP KiiHe. 

nocjie/jftHX ne^eceTHHy ro/jHHa TaJBaH je 
HMao CBOj noceGaH nojiHTHHKM h npHBpe/jHH 
pa3Boj, naje h miejiapcTBO nonpHMHJio HeKe 
noceGHe KapaKrepHCTHKe. 

Ha ocTpBy, nopejj aMaTepa, HMa oko 1000 
npo(J>ecHOHajiHnx mejiapa mhjh ^chbothh 
CTaimapjj 3aBHCH ojj OBe/iejiaTHOCTH. M nopejj, 
Tora ihto HMa aocra H3B0pa miejiHite name 3a 
npoHSBOJjity Me/xa, rjiaBHH npoH3BO/j, obhx 
nqejiapa je MaTHHHH MJie*L 36or Tora je OBaj 
npoH3Bcui rraejia Ha jpyroM MecTy Kajja ce 
pajjH o H3B03y nojLonpHBpe^HHX npoH3Bo^ia, 
TaKO jja ce Moace ynoperjHBaTH ca qajeM, 
CBHJieHOM 6y6oM hjih UHipycHMa. 

npe AOHomeH>a 3anajjHe MeiioHocHe 
irqejie (^cyra HTajinjaHCKa) nnejiapHjio ce ca 

JIOManOM HCTO^HOM MeJIOHOCHOM iraejioM 

Apis cerana, Koja jxaje 3HaTHO Maite Me#a 
Hero eBponcKa nnejia ajiH 3aTO ce Taj Me/j, npo- 
jjaje Ha JioKajiHOM Tp^cnrnTy 10 nyra CKynrbe. 
CBaxa KomHHua Apis cerana jjaje oko 10 kg 
Me/ja mTO je jjajieKO Maite Hero mTO ce Moxe 
jjoGhth ojj eBponcKHX rraejia. 

BejiHMHna nMtvinH>aKa h npoH3Bo,HH»a 
MJieia 

Kao h y 3anajjHoj EBponn pajjHa CHara Ha 
TaJBaHyje Bpjio CKyna h Kao nocjie/iHna Tora 
miejiapette je nocao kojh ce orpamraaBa Ha 
aHra3COBaH>e concTBeHe nopojjHue. 36orTora 
BejiHHHHa nnejiapcKe (J)apMe je y npoceKy 200 
jjo 250 miejiHH>HX JipyiHTaBa. Haje<|)HKacHHJH 
npoH3BorjaHH MJie^a Ha hctomhom jjejry oc- 
TpBa JjoGHJy jio 950 kg MaTHHHor MJiena ojj 
210 nHejiHH^HX jjpynrraBa. JX& 6h to nocTHrao 



n^enap ce Mopa aHraxoBaTH 9 nacoBa jjhcbho 
y TOKy 9 Mecenn. 

3a BpeMe ocTaTKa ro/iHHe npoH3BO^H>a ce 
ycMepaBa Ha jjoGHJaite Me/ja a BepoBaTHO h Ha 
onopaBaK jjpyniTaBa h Ha npnnpeMy 3a 
cjiejjefty ce30Hy jjoGHJaita MaTHHHor MJiena. 

Ha OBaj Hamm npo(J>ecHOHajiaH nnejiap 
ycneBa m ocTBapn JioxojjaK kojh npeBa3HJia3H 
npocenaH ^chbothh CTaHJiap/j Ha TaJBaHy. 
npeivia nncaity Y. OepeT-a, (J)paHiry3a y 
American Bee Journal-u, Kojnje onncao npo- 
H3B0^aHe MJiena, nnejiapH h hshxobc 
nopo/jnue cy BeoMa 3ajjoBOJBHH h nopejj jbh- 
xobot Bpjio HanopHor pa/ia. noceGHO 36or 
Tora mTO XHBe h pajje H3BaH 3ararjeHOCTH 
Ba3 r iryxa y rpajioBHMa. 

n^ejiHH>auH 3a npoH3BOJjH>y MJie^a 
oGh^ho cy JionnpaHH Ha TpH Meera y 
pa3^ajbHHH no hckojihko KHJioMeTapa. 
OMaH^H KaMHOHeT cjry^cH hm Kao noKpeTHa 
jiaGopaTopHJa y kojoj ce Bpmn npeca^HBaH^e 
jiapBH h caKyrubaiBe MaTH^Hor MJieqa. 
noMohy Jiaivme ca GaTepnjoM Ha rjiaBH 6p30 h 
jiaKO Mory bhticth JiapBHue y cahy y nponecy 
npeca^HBaH>a. 

CBaKH jinn, y Toxy ,aeBeT Meceun, yje^HOM 
o,n, TpH nnejiKH^aKa Bpmn ce caKyrubaH>e 
MJiena h npeca^HBaH^e HOBe napTHJe JiapBHua. 
TpH hjih neTHpH JieTBHue ca 34 njiacTHHHa 
noqeTKa MaTmntaKa Jjojjajy ce CBaKOM nqejiH- 
H>eM jjpymTBy. npecarjyjy ce jjBOJjHeBHe 
JiapBHue noMohy 6aM6ycoBe nrjie "a3HJCKOM 
6p3HHOM M oji 1700 JiapBHna no jejjHoj oco6h 
Ha caT, mTO je JiBa hjih TpH nyra BHine Hero 
mTO to Moxe HeKO y EBponn nocTHhn, a 
HaniH nnejiapH y JyrocjiaBHJH kojh ce obhm 
nocjioM 6aBe HeKa ce caMH ynopejje. 

TpH jjaHa KacHHJe, MaTHHHH MJien ce 
caKyruta noMony Majinx 6aM6ycoBHX 
KamHKHua 6p3HHOM Koja ce Moace ynopejjHTH 
ca HajGojLHM BaicyyM nyMnnuaMa 3a Ty CBpxy. 

KomHHue Koje cjryxe 3a OBaj nocao cy 
CTaHJjapjjHor Langstroth-Root THna (J1P) ca 
noKpeTHOM XaHeMaH pemeTKOM. y jjejry 6e3 
MaTHne Hajia3H ce no jejjaH okbhp Jierjia ca 
CBaKe CTpaHe OKBHpa y KOMe cy npecarjeHe 
JiapBHue. npHJiHKOM CBaKor jj,ojjaBaH>a 
npeca^eHor MaTepnjajia, imejiHHsa jjpymTBa 
ce npHxpansyjy mehepHHM cnpynoM (30 kg y 
TOKy ce30He) a 3a BpeMe KHiuHe ce30He Jjojjaje 
ce nojieHCKa nora^ia HanpaBJteHa ca 50% 



39 



n^ejiap 1999 



nojieHa ojj naja hjih yjtaHe pennne h 50% co- 
JHHor Gpanma CBe to 3aMenieHO ca MejjoM. 

n^ejiHita jjpyuiTBa cy HCKJtyHHBO or 
HTajiHJaHCKHX iraejia (Apis mellifera var. 
ligustica) Koje cy ^yrorojjHimkHM pa#OM ce- 
jieKHHOHHcaHe 3a BHCOKy npoH3BOJjH>y 
MaTH^Hor MJiena (0,4 g no MaTimibaKy). 

npeMa H3JaBaMa TaJBaHCKHX nnejiapa 
OBaKBe nnejie HHcy yonuiTe noro^He 3a npo- 
H3BO#H>y Mejia- OBOje cacBHM JioraqHO jepje 
je^HOCTpaHa cejieKnnja Ha BHCOKy npo,nyK- 
thbhoct MaTHHHor MJiena yqHHHJia CBOje. 
(npHMe^GaJK). 

MaKO ce Ha ocTpBy npoH3Bejje 4 xnjbaje 
TOHa Me^a, npon3BOR}ba MJiena or oko 350 
TOHa ro/jHunte no Bpe^HOCTH npeBa3HJia3H 
Me#. TaJBaH je no kojih^hhh npoH3Be/jeHor 
MaraHHor MJie^a Apyra 3eMJta y CBeTy. npBa 
je HP KnHa ca oko 600 TOHa. IlojioBHHa npo- 
H3BO^H>e MJiena ca TaJBaHa H3Be3e ce y JanaH 
h EBpony. OcTaTaK ce KOH3yMHpa JioKajiHO. 
Tbpjjh ce jja je KBajiHTeT MaraHHor MJie^a ca 
TaJBaHa cynepnopHHJH ojj OHor H3 HP Kime n 
TajjiaH^a n 36or Tora ce Ha cbctckom 
TpacnniTy npo/jaje no jxyroio bhihoj neHH. CeM 
Tora, H3rjie^a jia CTpymtann Mory OTKpnra 
KBajiHTeTHy pa3JiHKy H3Merjy npon3Bo^a 

pa3JIHHHTHX perHOHa. HO CBOJ npHJIHHH 

(J)jiopa ojjhocho BpcTe GnjbaKa ynme Ha yKyc 
h KOH3HCTeHunjy MJieqa. Mjie*i ca TaJBaHa je 
BeoMa nnxTHJacT, cjiajjyttaB h H3y3eTHor 
yicyca. 

npoH3BO^H5a Mara^Hor MJiena Kao cneun- 
jajiHor n^ejiHH^er np0H3B0^a 3anoneTa je 
HeTpjjeceTnx rojjHHa OBora Bexa y JanaHy. 
36or Tora je JanaH, Baibjia, h HaJBenn yB03HHK 
h noTponia^ MJiena Ha CBeTy. y Ty 3eMJty ce 
rojjHimfce yBe3e Bnnie or 400 TOHa OBor 
nqejiniter npoH3Bo;xa. JloinTO cy y ojpe- 

fjeHOM MOMeHTy npOH3BOJJHH TpOUIKOBH 3a 

jjoGnjaite MaTHHHor MJie^a y JanaHy nocTajin 
BeoMa bhcokh, Ta ce npon3BO^H>a npecennjia 
Ha TaJBaH a noTOM y KHHy. Cajja ce 36or Tora 
ca TaJBaHa noHHH>e npeMenrraTH y TajjiaHJj. 
JejjaH or HaJBennx nponsBofja^a MJie^a To- 
cno^HH 4eH (Chen) je npe nap roRnna aBH- 
ohom npeGanno ca TaJBaHa 600 nHejiHH>HX 
jjpyuiTaBa y TajjiaHJj me je y6p30 CTBOpeHa 
(J)apMa or 2000 rraejiHH>HX jpynnaBa 3a npo- 



H3BO^H>y MJieqa Ha kojoj ce kophcth HCTa Tex- 
HHKa n MeToj,e Kao Ha TaJBaHy. 

MHTepecaHTHO je HanoMeHyra m ce 
MaTHHHH MJie^ HHTeH3HBHO H3yqaBa Ha 
yHHBep3HTeiy y Tajpei-u h jj,a cy h>hxobh 
HayqHHun £OKa3ajiH Ra MaTH^HH MJien ry6H y 
nponecy JiHO<|)Hjra3anHJe HaJBenn ^eo cbo- 
jcTaBa h Ra MJia^e MaTHHHHe JiapBe xpaH>eHe 
TaKBHM MJie^oM HHcy Morjie npexHBeTH. Obo 
je H3y3eTHO MHTepecaHTHO jep ce ro caRa CMa- 
Tpajio Ra je HajcHrypHHJH HaHHH Ra MaTH^HH 
MJien onyBa CBOjy BpejjHOCT 6am axo ce nyreivi 
jiHO(J)HJiH3auHJe npeTBOpn y cyB Geo npax. 

MaTH^He JiapBe 3a rypMaHe 

Ha TaJBaHy ce KOH3yMHpa BHUie or 150 
TOHa CBexer MaraHHor MJie^a. y KHHecKoj 
Me/iHUHHH n JjnjeTH, Koje (J)aB0pH3yjy 3/ipaBy 
h H36ajiaHcnpaHy ncxpaHy, MJien je JiaKO 
Haniao CBOje MecTO. ^ok ce y EBponn npe- 
nopy^iyje y3HMaite 1 g Ha ^aH y A3hjh Ta 
KOJiHHHHa H3HOCH 10-20 g. OHaj ko Moxe m 
to (J)HHaHCHJCKH no^Hece y3HMa OBy 
KOJinqHHy MaTHHHor MJiena npBo yjyrpy. 

MaTH^He JiapBe Koje ce Ba^e H3 
MaTHHH>aKa npe caKynjtaH^a MJiena cy HeuiTO 
oko nera ce jarMe cjihthh pecTopaHH. Typ- 
MaHH kojh Jjpxe jxo TpajjHunje HajpajxHJe ne 
nojecTH ^Ba jio Tpn ^aHa CTape JiapBe MaTHue 
je^HocTaBHo noMemaHe y OMjieTy. OHe ce 
TaKorje Mory ncnehn Ha BHHy. 

noceGaH yracaK npejjcTaBJta caBpnieHa 
opraHH3an;HJa Ha OBaKO cneitHJajiH30BaHHM 
nqejrapcKHM (J>apMaMa. flajte, je^aH ojj hm- 
npecHBHHJHX ^ocTHTHyha je ycnex y ceneK- 
unJH tokom, HeKOJiHKO jjeneHHJa ^a ce jjoGnje 
TaKO npojxyKTHBHa nnejia y npoH3BO£H>n 
MaTH^Hor MJiena. 

Ako ce CBeMy obom Jjojjajy H3y3eTHH kjih- 
MaTCKH n naniHH ycjroBH 3a n^ejie HHJe nyao 
jja je TaJBaH nocTao njjeajiHO MecTO 3a npoH3- 
Bojjfcy MaTHHHor MJiena. 

American Bee Journal 

October 98, CTpatia 843-745 

Ca eHniecKor npeBeo h npnpeziHO 

ripo4). zip JoBaH KyjiHHHeBHri 



40 



n^ejiap 1999 
IIHEJIAPOBA nPHHA 



fleAa JecTpMHa no/iowxa 



"Chhko moj, HHinTa y XHBOTy He Moxeni 
caM noeranH, aKO th HeMa ko noMonn", tobo- 
pHO je j&jia Jecrpa cbom yHyxy Ti>oprjy, npe 
BHiiie o^ 55 roj,HHa. HHirrra th y XHBOTy He 
Mo^ce 6hth Jienuie, hh JiaKiue, Hero Ka# hm Ha 
nerjHMa JiexHin, a OHe Becejio pa#e h pa3,npa- 
raHO neBajy", noKa3HBao je jiejia JecTpa cbom 
yHyxy Koxyx Ha KpoBy nojioniKe, me 6h no- 
cjie HanopHor pa#a y nojby, ^oiuao npHJiehn. 
"Eto, moj Tooprje, to MHJe HaJMHJiHJH h Ha- 
jyro^HHJH KpeBeT" , MHJiyjynH yHyxa no 
CMerjoj kochhh, noKa3HBaine My "apMHJy" 
H3JieTHHua, nneiia Koje cy ^ypHO ^ojieTane, h 
xao oaaneTa CTpejiajoui 6pxe H3JieTajie h Ha 
nainy xnrajie "nnejiHire Maje", KaKO nxje H3 
MHJioiHTe Ha3HBao Rem JecTpa. 

ype3ajia ce yHyxy Tioprjy, y KpHByaaBe 
MowiaHe 6pa3/ie, cjiHKa Koxyxa Ha KpoBy 
nojiouie h ^e^oBe pe^H o HaJMHjrnjeM "ofl- 
Mopy Ha JierjHMa. . .", h noui o yHyK CTonaMa 
jjcjjobhm, Te noxHTa h KoiuHHuy HaGaBH. 
HapaBHO, Kao h cbh MJiajiH h JipGpo 
oGaBeiHTeHH nnejiapH, onpejjejiH ce 3a JIP 

CHCTeM. 

Cbojhm yrauajeM h npHMepoM, 3aHH- 
TpHTHpaoje jjpyroBe nopejj ce6e, h y cyoopuH- 
HauHJH, OHe H3Haa h ncnojj ce6e h nocejao 
"ceMe" HyKJieyca y innpoj cpejjHHH me je 
" CTOJioBao". Kao ntHBe nocne KHine/'HCKJiH- 
jajiH" nnejiMHiauH Ha CBe CTpaHe. M H>eroBJe 
nqejiHH^aK Ha Mecry, me je HeicaJia jiem Jec- 
Tpa Ha "JierjHMa" cbojhx nqejia jsyuiy ojjMapao 
h 3ajieT 3a ^yra xhbot y3HMao. flo^yuie, 
TSoprje hm He Jie^cn Ha JierjHMa, ajin BepyjeM 
jja ce Kao h ja cajja, y obhm ro/iHHaMa, Kajja Ma- 
HHnyjiHHie c HacTaBHHMa JIP KoniHHiie, ceTH 
mm JecTpHHe nojioniKe. 

A, nojioniKa, o xojoj je a(J)HpMaTHBHO iih- 
cao rocn. Mnxanrco OHJiHnoBHh, aKTyejiHH 



npejjce,HHHK n^ejiapcKor caBe3a, h Jocnn 
EejiHHft y cbojhm jjejiHMa "3jiaTHa KH>Hra 
rraejiapcTBa" , "FLqejiapeite JiaHac h ,zrp., 
npyaca KOJiocajiHe ycnoBe mejiapHMa aMa- 
TepHMa y noojjMaKJiHM rojjHHaMa (a cbh he 
jjonn y Te rojjHHe) m y3 HaJMan>e HanopHor 
pajja pa3BHJy BeoMa jaxa nqejiHH>a jjpyuiTBa h 
cnpeMHO jjqqeKajy npBy npojiefiHy nainy, a h 
h>hx JiBe cnojeHe, nocjryace m ce Jierja ncnpaBe 
h Hore onpyace, h 6e3 matyxa. Y to caM ce h 
caM yBepHO Kajja caM npe jjBajjeceTaK ro,nHHa 
" cTaacHpao" Ha nHejiHH>aKy ojx 70 nojiouiKH ca 
CTapHM nnejiapoM lilep Bhjihmom, KaKO cyTa 
jjpyniTBa 6njia CHa^ma h kojihko cy mhoto 
Mejja HaKynnjia. HaJTeacn paM ca 3aTBOpeHHM 
MejjoM o,n, 5-6 kg TepeTa, nnaKJe JiaKHiH ojj JIP 
HacTaBKa HcnytkeHor mcjiom, ihto 3a nnejiapa 
aMaTepa y me3JjeceTHM rojjHHaMa HHJe Majio 
Beh BeiiHKO 0JiaKiHaH>e, thm BHine ihto ro- 
jjHHe, Koje Hajjpjia3e, Hanaacy noTpe6a 3a 
pa3MHinjbaH>eM KaKO ojiaKinaTH <J)H3H*nce no- 
cnoBe Ha nqejiHH>aKy ca JIP HaeraBHHMa. 

Cajja, Kajj mh je noTpeGHa noMon m ckh- 
HeM Me^oM HcnyH^eH HacTaBaK, noxajiHM hito 
He nocjryuiax rocno/jHHa LLlepa jja ce onpejje- 
jihm 3a nojioiHKy, axo ce jjyro BpeMeHa xejiHM 
GaBHTH nnejiapejBeM. Jep, roBopno mh je: 
"HaJBeta TepeT y pajjy ca nojioniKOM je 
okbhp HcnytteH h 3ane^atieH Me^oM Te^caK o^ 
5 jio 6 kg, Kojer h ja ca 92 roj,HHe CTapocra 
jiaKO ^pacHM y pyxaMa, a h Bh heTe 
ocTapeTH". Caaa bwihm m je rocno^HH lilep 
6ho y npaBy, na pa3MHiHJLaM ^;a ca hckhm ojx 
n^enapa HanpaBHM TpaMny. Jla ny h ja, Kao 
Hexa/ia j\em JecTpa, o^MapaTH Ha "JierjHMa" 
mojhx nnejia. 

Jobo H. KaiiTap, Beorpaa 



44 



nnejiap 1998 



IIIehepHa norana og HHBepTHor inehepa 

(cTaKjieHKa) 



ripoiiiJia h OBa rojjHHa 6wjie cy H3y3eTHO Jiome 
3a Haine micjiapcTBO, npimocH Mc/ja no jjpyuiTBy 
BeoMa cjia6H Te je npuxpaHa 3a rraejiHita /tpyniTBa 
Heonxo^Ha h c thm y Be3H xtco 6hx jja noMoraeM Ra 
iirro eKOHOMHHHHJe, a KBajiHTeTHO, o6e36e/jMTe 
Baina nHejiHH>a npyniTBa ca (Karxafla 3JiaTHHM) pe3- 
cpBaMa xpaHe pajTH 6c36emror npe3HMJbaBaH>a h 
iiito 6ojber nporcehHor pa3Boja ro o6HJiHHJe name. 

y HeaocTaTKy Mc/ja 3a cnpaajbatte menepHO 
mcjjhhx norana Mo^ceTe hx npaBHTH n 6e3 Me/ja or 
KOH3yMHor iiiehepa no obom peneiny: 

npnnpeMHTe nmopeT, eMajjinpaHH JioHau; Bene 
3anpeMMHC kojh hmjc hh HaJMatbe ourreheH, Behn 
cyn y kojh moxc m cTaHe eMajjinpaHH jioHan ro 
nojia HanyiBeH xjia/moM bojjom, 3 1 Bo/te. 15 kg 
KOH3yMHor niehepa, Mann TaiBHpnn. KaniHHHiry m 
30 gr KALIJUM NATRIJUM TARTARIKUM-a. 

y eMajjrapaHH JioHau cnnaMO 3 1 Bo/je h 3arpe- 
BaMO je Ha mnopeTy y3 noBpeMeHO /to/jaBaiBe 
MaH>HX KorowHHa inehepa h CTajiHO MemaH>e /ja 6h 
ce uiehep Tonno h jja He 6h 3aropeo. EMajjinpaHH 
JioHau, Mopa 6hth 3a 1/4 npn Bpxy npa3aH, jep ce npn 
KyBaH>y CMCca rvdkq. BaTpa cc HenpecTaHO 
nojanaBa n CMeca Mema rok He noHHe jja Bpn Kajja 
RORajtMO 30 gr kalijum natrijum tartarikum. y3 
CTajiHO Memaite nocjie 3 MHHyra Bpeita y3HMaTe 
CMecy KauiHHHnoM (3-4) Ha TaiBHpHh h MemaTe Ra 
ce 6pxe oxjiajjH. CMeca y JioHuy ce n jjajbe Mema jja 
He 6m 3aropejia. Kana ce CMeca y TaiBHpnhy oxjia/m 
y3HMa cc MeTjy npcTe h Mecn y Kyrjinny h aKO je 6ejie 
6oje n He Jienn ce 3a npcre Hero 6yne cnnKacTa n 
Tonn ce y ycTHMa 3HaK je jja je CMeca jjobojlho Ky- 
BaHa na JioHau Tpe6a 6e3 o/XJiaraita CKHHyrn ca Ba- 
Tpe h CTaHHTH y Beny nocyiry ca xnajjHOM bojj,om 
pann 6p^cer xjiarjetta. 

Kajja ce BHim Ra CMeca /jo6HJa 6ejry 5ojy Hac- 
Tann ce ca MeniaiteM jjok CBa He no6ejin h Tajja ce 
Mo^ce RORaTW Ha CBaKH KHJiorpaM OBe CMece 1 gr 
(J)yMarajiHHa h OH/ja jjo6po npoMema Ra 6h ce 
^HTaBa CMeca cnojnjia ca obhm aHTH6noTHKOM. J\o- 
naBan>e <J)yMarHJiHHa je micro Bama CTBap jja jih he 
Te ra jjara Ha OBaj hbhhh hjih He. 

HaKOH 3aHpmeTKa Meman>a jjo6HBeHa Maca ce 
pa3JiHBa y njiHTKe Kanyne m HaKOH nornyHor 
xjiarjetba npeTBapa ce y *mpcry KOMnaKTHy Macy. 
Taxo flo6njeHe norane CTaaibaTe y HajjioH Kece 
OirroBapajyhe BejiHHHHe pajw HyBaiBa or anare jep 



je Maca XHTipocKonHa na 6h Momo jjohn ro OTanaita 
mm ry6HTKa Biiare. 3a Kanyne MoxeTe ynoTpe6HTH 
h OKBHpe Ha Koje npnGnjeTe jiccohht c jcnpe CTpaHe 
CKp03, a ca Rpyrc CTpaHe ocTaBHTe pa3MaK or ca- 
TOHomc 20 mm me CTaHe OTnpnjiHKC oko 1200 ,110 
1500 gr. Taxo npnnpeMJbeHy norany MoxeTe jjo- 
rsltr jjpyinrBy Ha KpajeBHMa KJiy6eTa. 

Haj6ojbe ,aojjaBaH>e nora^a npynrrBHMa je 
mtnocpejiHO H3Haa irqejiHH>er KJiy6eTa. Ako cy 
nora^e y KecaMa Tpc6a ca /joite CTpaHe Ha Tpn 
MecTa, nonpeKO y o/mocy Ha caTOHome pa3pe3aTH 
na 6h Morne rraejie jja hx kophctc. 

OBaKO npnnpeMJteHe norane cy ce noKa3ajie 
H3BaHpejjHO jep hx MoxeTe rorsctr KacHO y jeceH 
Him y (})e6pyapy 6e3 HKaKBe 6oja3HH, jep he hx 
nqejie TpomHTH caMO ohojihko kojihko hm je 
noTpe6HO. Ka,na nora^a 6yzje noTpomeHa MoxeTe 
no/jara HOBy Taxo Ra apymTBO yBeK HMa Ha pacno- 
jiaraH>y pesepBy xpaHe. ripeaHOCT obhx nora^ajc y 
TOMe mro jc cnpaBJbeHa or HHBepTHor niehepa 
(Koje mene H3y3eTHO Ro6po npnxBaTajy) h to 
noMohy kalijum natrijum tartarikuma xeMHJCKOM 
npenapaTy, kojh ce Kopwera y Jia6opaTopHJaMa. 
TaKorje , kalijum natrijum tartarikum MoxeTe 
KopHCTHTH npHJiHKOM npHxpaHe miejia KyBaHHM 
cnpynoM TaKO mTO ce Ha 1 kg mehepa Jjojjaje 2 gr 
kalijum natrijum tartarikuma. 

OBaKaB HaHHH jeceH>e-3HMCKe npwxpaHe 
KopncTH h Ham no3HaTH n^ejiap BpaHKO PejiHh h 
jom HeKH ca kojhm caM nja H3y3eTHO 3a£OBOJhaH. 

MHinjbeH>a caM ^a OBaj Ha^HH npnxpaHe aaje 3a- 
HOBOJbaBajyhe pe3yjrraTe h Ra ra Tpc6a npHMeH>H- 
BaTH y HameM nnejiapcTBy jepje eKOHOMHHaH, mTO 
je 3a Hame ycjioBe BeoMa BaacHO. Kajja ce y3Me CBe y 
o63Hp ueHa 1 kg noraqe He npejia3H 10 mmapa y 
3aBHCHOCTH or HaSaBHe ueHe mehepa. 

XTeo 6hx Ra HanoMeHeM Ra je OBe nora^e npe- 
nopyHHBao noKOJHH Thxomhp JeBrah, Ham no3HaTH 
miejiapcKH nncau y cbojoj kibh3h ^Chbot h rajeH>e 
nnejia. Beorpajj 1955. ro^. Ha crpaHH 198. 

Ca xejbOM Ra Hame irqejiapcTHO 6yzje mro 
ycneiimnje, eKOHOMHHHnje h panHOHajiHHJe apyrap- 
ckh Bac no3/tpaBJbaM. 

TopaH I|>6nh 

CojiapcKH Tpr 6/20 

22000 CpeMCKa MirrpoBima 

tcji. 022/212-881 



449 



nnejiap 1998 



HA1IIM MHOBATOPM 



rhe/iapei-be caJlaHrcTpOTOBUMKOLUHMuaMaM AL/iaajii/iuoM 



tmenap CmaHKoe Muea , dunn. e?CK., Earned Tonona 



HHTajyfru qjiaHaK jjp Jby6MHKa MMJiaHOBnha 
"n^ejiapeHje m (j)M3HqKa KyjiTypa" oSjaajbeHOM y 
rinejiapy 6poj 7 o/jjyjia 1998. rcwMHe jjomao caM 40 
3aKJtyHKa j\a m ja Tpe6a jja HannmeM HJiaHaK o cbom 
MCKycTBy Koje he MO)Kna 6mth o/j, kopmctm jom ko- 
jeM nnejiapy. 

JXp Jby6MHKO y cbom HJiaHKy m3hocm na nnejiapM 
36or npnpo/je pajiOBa Ha nqejiMi-baKy HaJHemhe 
MMajy noBpe^y KiMMe, 6pyx, MCTe3aH>e m ynany 
MMniMha, MCTe3ai-fae jinraMeHaTa h zipyro. Ha 
xanocT ja caivt je/iaH on n^ejiapa kojm je onepncao 
6pyx m MOpao caM m TpaxMM peinei-be Kaxo ^a Hac- 
TaBMM ca nnejiapeHieM a Jia ce iiohobo He nojaBM 
6pyx. Pcmei-bc caM Hauiao thko hito caM Kynno jxw- 
3ajiHiiy "flasncug" ojx 500 KMJia hocmboctm ca kojom 
no^MxeM KOuiHMue. 

Ha cjiMUM 6p 1 bmam ce jxa caM Ha KpajeBMMa 
npMKOJiHue nocTaBMO ueBM, rope Ha ueBMMa nocTa- 
bho caM Hocan ojj npo<})MJiHe ueBM, a 3a H0ca4 je 
3aKa4eHa jjM3ajinna. Mcno/j /iH3ajiMue caM ojj npo- 
(})MJiHe ueBM, HanpaBMO Hocan 3a "KyrMJe", Kojwje 
MCTe ,nMMeH3HJe Kao h "KyrMJa", a ca CTpaHe Hoca^ia 
caM nocTaBMO 3aKa4Ke. 3aKanKe cy ca HOcaneM 3a 
Kymje noBe3aHe jiaHueM kojm MO^ce jja ce CKpahyje 
h nponyxaBa y 3aBMCHOCTH ojj, Tora na jim hy na 
no^MxeM je/n-iy, jipe mjih Tpn KyrMJe. nopen OBora 







Mopao caM Ha KymjaMa ca CTpaHe na nocTaBMM 
jiajcHHue ncnon kojmx ce nociaBe 3axa4Ke na 6m mo- 
rjia Kyrnja na ce nonMace. 

Ha cjihhm 6p. 2 bmah ce npaKTMHHO KaKO to 
M3rjiena Kana cy KyrMJe nonnmyre. KyrMJe cy no- 
awn-Tyre rope m CTOJe aja Mory komotho na bpiiihm 
nperaen nnejia. nocjie M3BpmeHor npeniena, Ky- 
TMJe cnyuiTaM nojie m nocjie npejia3MM Ha aneneny 

KOlUHHUy. 

UIto ce Twne 6p3MHe pana ca nM3ajiMHOM hjim 
6e3 AH3ajiHue CBe 3aBMCH on nnejiapa. Ako je 
nnejiap MJian, 3npaB m jaK na Moxe na nonnxe kom- 
njieTHe KyrMJe onjia ce 6p^ce pann 6e3 4M3ajiMue. 
MerjyTHM, axo je n^ejiap y ronnHaMa na Mopa na 
Bajm paMOBe M3 KyrMJa, na 6m Kyraja 6njia jiaKina 3a 
4H3aH>e. na nocjie M3BpmeHor npemena m Bpanaita 
KyrMJe Ha CBOje Mecro, MOpajom na Bpaha paMOBe y 
Kyrnje. OHnaje pan ca nn3ajiniipM mhoto 6p^cn. no- 
totobo aKO nnejiap pann ca MaTMHHOM pemeTKOM, 
Koja ce o6m4ho Hajia3M Ha npBOJ KyrnJM, y tom 
cjiynajy ca nM3ajinnoM ce onjviax no£M>Ky ^Be hjim 
TpM Kyrnje, TaKO aaje OMoryheH rrperjiefl Jierjia. 

Ha Kpajy Tpe6a MCTahM m ce nnejiapCTBOM Mory 
na 6aBe caMO 3jj,paBM h (})M3HqKM cnpeMHM nnejiapn 
ajiM Kaxo ro^MHe npojia3e CBaKH nnejiap MOpa na 
pa3MMnuba o TOMe KaKO 34paBJbe ^a canyBa. 



458 



nnejiap 1998 



MCTOPMJA nHEJIAPCTBA 



120 roflMHaoACMpTuJoBaHaMepMHra (1816-1 878) 



IJpupeduo: Mujiout Anmouuh, ceevumeuuK, Koi^ejbeea 



Merjy HaJ3HaivieHMTMJe nqejiape XIX BeKa cnajja 
n JoBaH (JoxaH) MepMHr. npOHajia3aH Beuna^Kor 
caha. Flo Hapo/jHOcraje 6mo Heivian,. a no 3aHMMaH>y 
je 6mo CTOJiap, aim ce 6aBMO m nnejiapCTBOM. m 6mo 
qyBeHM n^ejiap CBora BpeivieHa. PoljeHJe 1816. toji,. 
y OpaHKeHTa/iy m 6mo jc caHpeMeHMK BeoMa 4yBe- 
Hor TSep30Ha m SapOHa Bepjienuia. 

Kao npaicnmaH nnejiap MepMHr je ym\jxto ko- 
jiMKa je Bpe^HOCT m 3Hanaj 3a ycnex y n^ejiapCTBy 
MMa™ /jobojlho w Jio6por caha. 3ana3iio je #a 
nnejie M3rparjyjy cafte /jocTa cnopo m r& 3a rpam-by 
caha Tpomc mhoto eHeprnje, BpeMeHa m Me/xa. 
Pa3MHiiiJbajyliM KaKO 6m n^ejiajvia ojiaKiuao rpam-by 
caha MepMHr je ^oiiiao Ha MMcao /ja or BOCKa Ha- 
npaBM BeuiTa^Ke ochobc 3a rpajjH>y caha. Jlocjie 
HeKOJiMKO noKyuiaja ycneo je jia. 1857. ro/jMHe koh- 
CTpyMMie Kanyn 3a M3pa/],y jxna caTHMx hejiMJa Ha 
BOMiTaHOJ njiOHM m noneo M3paf)MBaTM Ta6^e mjim 
ocHOBe BeMiTa^Kor caha. Ha tom Kanyny HMcy ce 
oupTaBajiM no^eMM 3MjipBa hejiMJa, na cy Ha TaKBMM 
ocHOBaivia n^ejie 4ecT0 M3rpar]MBajie cahe 
He3aBMCHO o/j yrMCHyrMx MecTa. 

M HauiM nqcjiapM, KpajeM npOMuior Bexa npo- 
M3BOAMJIM cy BeuiTa^KO cahe no Mmpmhtoboj Tex- 
HOJiorMJM. O TOMe Mmjimboj ByrapCKM y CBOMe /jejiy 
"n^ejiapCTBo" Ha CTpaHM 204 nMine: "npeTxo/iHO 

Cy CM npaBMJIH BOUITaHM J1MCTOBM y BCJ1M4MHM 

OKBMpa. y y3aHMM, a ,ay6oKMM cynoBMMa 6mo je 
Bpeo MCTombeH BOcaK. y ttera cy ce yMaxajie 
Bna>KHC JxainnaHe Ta6jiMne y BejiM4MHM noTpeSHMx 
BomraHMx jiMCTOBa. Obm jimctobm cy cana Jipjia3MJiM 
y npecy cjiMHHy npecM 3a KonnpaH>e TproBanKHx 
nncaMa. Ha #oh>oj iuiohm npece 6njie cy ocHOBe 
nnejiMH>Mx hejinja, a Ha ropH>oj - yrBprjeHOJ 3a 3aBp- 
TaH> - mcto TaKO. Kajra ce BOuiTaHM jimct yMeTe y 
npecy, ropn.a ce ruio^a 3aBpTH>eivi cnycTM m /jp6po 
CTeme, Te ce Ha BonnaHM jimct yrMCHy ocHOBe 
miejiMH>Mx hejiMJa". 

JacHO je na je y no^eTKy M3parjMBaH>e 
BCimaMKor caha 6mjio HeycaBpmeHO, ami ce to 
xacHMJe nocTeneHO ycaBpuiaBajio. Heivian Pnne je 
M3yMeo pyqHy npecy 3a jiMBeH.e BeuiTanKor caha. 
aiiM ce Ha H>oj He Mory M3parjMBaTM jjobojlho TaHKe 
caTHe ocHOBe. 

Haj6ojLe BeuiTa^KO cahe nonejio ce M3pa- 
rjMBaTM y AMepMiin oko 1875. ro/iMHe, m to noMohy 











■PI >. . . 










%ii 


HBgfli 




Wm 




^amSswifc 


■ 


"^^^*> ^tSi^jsIBS 


Wm 


Mr* 



Joeau Mepum 



BajbaKa, KOje cy ycaBpuiMJiM ajviepn^KM nnejiapM 
CaMJyeji Bamep m Pyn, M3rpajjMBuiM Ha H>MMa m 
ejieivieHTe 3a noneTKe 3M#OBa hejiMJa. 

MHTepecaHTHO je noMeHyrM, jxa je npBM 
aMepM^KM nnejiap kojm je no^eo nnejiapnTM ca 
BemTaMKMM caheM, hmm je npOHarjeHO, 6mo lllapn 
JJaaaH. KacHMJe je ^ajxaH m caM npOM3BO,aMO m npo- 
^aBao BeuiTanKO cahe y bcjimkmm KOJiM^MHaivia, oko 
50.000 KMJiorpaMa ro/jMim-be. 

BeuiTanKO cahe nivia orpOMaH 3Hanaj 3a caBpe- 
MeHO n^ejiapCTBO . Oho OMOiyhyje 6p3y m 
eKOHOMMHHy MsrpajjHjy m o6HOBy n4ejiMH.er THe3Jia. 
a ca h»mm m npomnpaBai-be n4ejinH.aKa n ycneniHO 
MCKopnmhaBaHje nnejuuBe name. 

npOHajia3an BeuiTa^Kor caha JoBaH MepMHr 
yivipo jc 1878. ro/jMHe. Cbojmm 3HanaJHMM npOHa- 
^acKOM Jipjia3M y pen n^ejiapa kojm cy HaJBMme yHa- 
npejjMJiM n^ejiapcTBO. 



464 




nqenap 1998 

HAYHHO OBPA3nOXEHM HAHMHM YCnELUHOr 
3MMOBAhbA nHEJlHhbHXflPYLUTABA 

II^EO 



JIe6edee B. H., Toponu.ee A. H. 
Haynno-ucmpaDfcueanKU uncmumym 3a nnenapcmeo Pycuje 



CarjiacHO HopMaTHBHHM jioKyMeHTHMa (TOCT 
20728-75 " nnejiHita apyniTBa") , npyuiTBa Tpe6a m 
HMajy no^eTKOM jeceHH He MaH>c or 2 kg rraejia, iuto 
ojiroBapa 8-9 yjiHna. HcKycHHJH nnejiapH. pann 
rapaHUHJe, npHnpeMajy 3a 3HMy jana apyiirrHa c Ma- 
npM rraejia He MatBOM or 2.5 kg (10 - 11 yjinna). 

Cjia6a. HeycneuiHa h MajionpoAyKTHBHa me- 
jiHH>a apyuiTBa y jeceH Tpe6a pac<})opMHpaTH. 
YTBp^eHO je na npncaje,HHH>eH>e jchhom nHejiHH>eM 
npyuiTBy /ipyror apyuiTBa, Kpje 6poJHO He npejia3H 
TpehHHy rraejia ocHOBHor^pyiHTBa, He o/ipaacaBa ce 
Ha pe3yjiTaTe 3HMOBaH>a, npojiehHH pa3Boj h npo- 
nyKTHBHOCT y nopeI)eH>y c nejioBHTHM apyniTBHMa 
HCTe ja^HHe . ripHcaje,iiHH>eH>e rraejiHHjHM jipy- 
niTBHMa apyrax apyuiTaBa no 6pqjhocth 50% h 
Binue y o^Hocy Ha 6poj nnejia ocHOBHor apyuiTBa, 
noropinaBa 3HMOBaH>e h CHioKaBa pacT ooje^H- 
H>eHHX jipyuiTaBa h itHXOBy nponyicraBHOCT y 
nopetjeity c apyuiTBHMa hcto TaKBe ja^HHe y 
npojiehe. 3aTO, cjra6a npyuiTBa y jeceH Tpe6a npn- 
caje^HH>aBaTH k apyuiTBHMa cpejiH>e ja^HHe, a He 
o6je^HH>aBaTH hx no 3 - 4 3ajejiHO. 



ripn o6je^HH>aBaH>y jipynrraBa y jeceH o^jiy- 
nyjyny yjiory nrpa He HannH cnajan>a, Ben CTaH>e 
rrcejia y thm apyuiTBHMa (Ta6ejia 3). 

flpyurrBa c nnejiaMa jezmaicor 6HOJiouiKor 
CTaH>a, nocjie o6je/iHH>aBaH>a HHcy HMana no- 
y3a,aHHX pa3JiHKa hh no pa3BHTKy, hh no npo^yK- 
thbhocth y nopeljeity c aHajiorHHM Heoojenn- 
H>eHHM jipyuiTBHMa. 06jeflHH>aBaH>e apyuiTaBa Koja 
HMajy nnejie pasjin^HTor SnojioniKor CTaita, ro- 
bqhh no noropuiaH.a 3HMOBaH>a h ro H>HXOBor 
3aocTajaH>a y pa3Bojy y nparcene, a Taicolje ro ch- 
rypHor CMaH>eH>a npoflyKTHBHOCTH. CBaxo oojeflH- 
H>aBaH>e apyuiTaBa y36yf)yje rraene h bork Ka 
noBenan>y TeMnepaType y me3jry. Ffaejie HCTor 6h- 
ojrouiKor CTaH>a o6je^HH>aBajy ce cnoKOJHO, He hc- 
nojbaBajy 3HaKe MeI)yco6He arpecHBHOCTH, He 
npHMehyjy ce cjiyqajeBH h>hxobhx nponacTH. 06je- 
£HH>aBaH>e apyurraBa Koja ce Hajia3e y pa3JiHHHTHM 
Ghojioiukhm CTan>HMa (Ha npiiMep, axo je je^HO 
apyuiTBO c njio^HOM MaTHnoM, a Jipyro c 
TpyrymoM), noBHinaBa hhbo h TpajaH>e 
y36y5eHOCTH BHine oji 2 nyra. 3aTO. y jeceH 
HeycneuiHa ^pynrrBa (c HemiojiHOM ManmoM hjbm 



Ta6e;ia 3: YTHIIAJ OBJEflHH>ABAH>A 11HEJIHEBHX ^PyUITABA HA PE3VJTTATE 
3HMOBAH>AH nPO^yKTHBHOCT 

(npocenno nojednoM nneAuweM dpyuimey) 



[70KA3ATEJhM 


Hea6jt>dts. 

AUfbO 

dpyutuuta 


OCjedUHrtHQ Cine Ait thu 
dpyuitRaa 


H^eAejed- 

KQftfflOt&Q 


Hoi 6uoA<mt- 


KrjJtuHuna Uhcaq y dpyumwy y 
fecettj kg 


t&QXI 


2A±il22 


2.4&U9 


KrtJiitHUHa uhvaci y dpymtTitiy upu 

U3HOttteH>y UA BWKOmtUKOf kg 


lit±0.13 


1.7±031 


L5±().27 


KoAUHuna Sntaa y dpymuiay uoc- 
Ae CMette UpesttMeAUX feduttxUj k$ 


1_5±Q,23 


I.2±U,2y 


(I.9±0a9 


Koauhuho odtiewftaftof AelAa 3U 
36 d a) id Hocjte wJHoutiftha uneAa 

i U3 3HMO6HUK0, cuiotTlUHL* htiAUJa 


154^+23,3 


912±26,5 


47,titl^7 1,, 


ytcyHiw upuHoc MedBt kg 


2L4±2,2 


17,8+3,1 


3,1±1* 


y odHOCV ltd KOHtUpOAHU, % 


100 


K3.1 


14,5 


') Pa.iAith-Lt tu'jhtOth twtjmi 









415 



nqejiap 1998 



TpyryuioM, 6e3 Marane hjeh c JiaacHHM MaTHuaMa) 
Tpe6a pac(J)opMHpaTH, a He npncaje,HHH>aBaTH Ka 
ycneuiHHM /royniTBHMa. 

Kao uitojc 6hjio rope peneHO, y3roj 3HMCKor 
noKOJieH>a rrcejia 3anoHHH>e or flpyre nojioBHHe 
maBHor Me^,o6paiBa. y ycjioBHMa ueHTpajiHiix 
o6jiacTH PycKe Oejicpairnje, nnejie H3Be^eHe y 
npBoj nojioHHHH jyjia He jiaacHBe ro 3HMe, a mejie 
H3Be^,eHe KpajeM jyjia - no^eTKOM aBrycTa - Hny y 
3HMy h *MHe ocHOBHy Macy^o6po 3HMyjytuix n^ejia. 
y npBOKJiacHHM flpyiirrBHMa Koja H^y y 3HMy c 
30.000 MJianHx rrcejia (3 kg), n^ejie ce H3BQ0,e tokom 
6 He^ejba. ITpeMa eKcnepHMeHTajiHHM noRaimMa 
HayHHO-HCTpa^cHBa^Kor HHCTHTyTa 3a nnejiap- 
ctbo, y TOKy 20 ramma noKa3ajio ce: m je 3a 
CTBapaH>e jaioix, jio6po 3HMyjyhirx flpyurraBa He- 
onxQUHO Ra cpejiHHOM aBrycTa y itHMa 6yn,e Jierjia 
Ha 5 - 6 paMOBa (npoce^HO oko 12.000 nejinja 3a- 
TBopeHor Jierjia) h Ra Hapo^HTO ycneniHO npe3HM- 
JbaBajy, a y npojiene HHTeH3HBHO Heryjy Jierjio. 
mejie H3BeneHe y nepHqny on 5. aBrycTa no 10. cen- 
TeM6pa. 

H3yHaBaH>e Kopejiannje Merjy noKa3aTejbHMa 
OTnopHOCTH Ha 3HMOBaH>e nnejia h KOJiHHHHe qnHe- 
roBaHor Jierjia npe/i 3HMOBaH>e (36 flam - o^ 5. 
aBiycTajio 10. cenreM6pa)noKa3ajiojc,na, npnapy- 
thm je^HaKHM ycjioBHMa. yenex 3HMOBan>a 
npyuiTaBa y MHoroMe 3aBHCH on 6poja MJia/iHX 
rrcejia H3BeneHirx y tom nepnoAy (Ta6ejia 4). 



Ta6ejia 4. KOPEJIAIJHJA nOKA3ATEJLA 
OTnOPHOCTH HA 3HMOBAELE H KOJIH- 
HHHE OflHErOBAHOrJIErJIAy JECEH 



QBEJIEXJA KOJA 

KOPFJWPAJVCA 

KOJIMHMHOM 

OMHEfOBAHOrJlErJlA Y 
J EC EH 


Ktnxpu- 
HujiiHiu 
tropejia- 
liuje (r) 


Epftjf itneAQ v Upojteke 


+0,836 


CaaB&etbe dpymuma y tilQKy 


-0.539 


CAafijheHjf iipvutJTtmt y QpoACfcc 


-0711 


Flouipfjuttha xp&tte y CuaKy guMe: 
- tipocenuo do dpytuuitty 

ItfttU i"iliit it..' Mi \i\l\'hf>} Y. litHit 


+0.017 
-0241 


. npucy&biocUi Sipazo&a QpoAtisa 

I v ?MC3dy 


-0395 


npuc\cuiti<i iiuiecuu y inesdy 


-0.473 


1 G6o.\cnniiA< ltH€Aii oO H03CMOZ6 


-0,591 


Kua u h u ita O r}«e I f wa no! a ea jia y 
utttKy 36 daaa tt&cte it3MMieH>u 
dpyttt&aea u \ ■" wtmittKa 


+0737 



KojiHHHHa o^HeroBaHor Jierjia y Toxy onTHMan- 
Hor nepnona npe^ 3HMOBaH>c, nosHTHBHO Kopejinpa 
ca 6pojeM nnejia y npojiene h kojihhhhom ozme- 
roBaHor Jierjia y TOKy 36 ,naHa nocne H3HomeH>a 
mejiHH>HxnpyuiTaBa H3 3HMOBHHKa. OHa ce ynpaBO 
Haiia3H y 3HaTHOj Mepn y o6pHyroj Bepo^ocTOJHOj 
3aBHCHOCTH ca cjia6jbeH>eM apynrraBa y TOKy 3hm- 
CKor h npojiefmor nepHo^a, a TaKo^e ca kojih- 
hhhom nqejia o6ojiejiHX or H03eM03e. 

CeMTora. HcnojBaBa ce jmpeKTHa Bepo^ocTOJHa 
KopejiauHJa jaxo HarjiameHa H3Mef)y noTpouiH>e 
xpaHe y TOKy 3HMe h ^HCTolie me3jia, kojikhmhc 
imecHH h o6ojbBaH>a nnejia or H03eM03e (p = 0.615 
+0.070). 

Kor cjiaSnx apyuiTaBa o^roj Jierjia y jeceH 
3aBpuiaBa ce KacHHJc Hero kor jaioix, a to ce 
ozipaataBa Ha noTponiH>y xpaHe tokom jecemi h Ha 
npenyH>aBaH>e ^eGejior upeBa H3MeTOM. Ko,n nnejia 
jaKHX apyuiTaBa npenyH>eHOCT ^eSejior upeBa H3- 
MeTOM yjeceH je 3a 3 - 4 mg Matta Hero ko^ cjia6HX. 
nnejie y jaKHM jipyniTBHMa Beh CTynajy y 3HMy c 
MaH)HM - oirreperieH>eM upeBa, or Kojer 3aBHCH 3a- 
npjtaHOCT THe3fla npojiHBOM y npojiefte. 

HapoHHTO je aKTyejiHO hhtch3hbho noBefta- 
BaH>e 6poja MJiannx nnejia yjeceH nocjie o6iuiHe h 
KacHe name, Kaaa cc y apyuiTBHMa Hajia3e yrjiaB- 
hom CTape HJaKO H3HypeHe nnene. 

yTBp^eHO je Ra Mjiane nnejie cnrypHO MaH>e 
o6ojieBajy or H03eM03e Hero CTape, (J)H3hojiouikh 
HcupiubeHe. ZtaHacje OTKpHBeH 3auiTHTHH MexaHH- 
3aM cpe£H>er upeBa MJiannx n^ejia. y cpc/iH>eM 
UpeBy OTKpHBeH je (J)epMeHT xeM03HH, kojh yqecT- 
Byje y (jwpMHpaity nepHTpo^H^Hor OMOTa^a, 
3auiTHTHHKa opraHH3Ma or npoflHpaH>a y enHTejiHe 
hejiHJe MHKpoopraHH3aMa H3a3HBana SojiecTH, 
HapoHHTO cnopa H03eMe. <l>epMeHTJe HajaKTHBHHJH 
kor MJiannx rraejia CTapocTH 9-12 rslksl, a ko^ 
CTapnJHX H>eroBa aKTHBHOCT ce 3HaTHO CMaH>yje. 
CTape nnejie, 36or CMaH>eH>a aKTHBHOCTH (J)ep- 
MeHTa, jiaKo o6ojieBajy or ho3cmc H3Mc5y aKTHB- 
hocth (J)epMeHTa h npoueHTa nnejia o6ojiejiHX or 
H03eMe yrBprjeHa je Bepo^ocTOJHa Be3a. 

y3HMajyhH to y o63Hp, join yjyjiy Tpe6a ce no- 
6pHHyni Ra y rHe3/iHMa mejiHitHX apyuiTaBa 6yne 
Hobojlho cana 3a nojiaraH>e jaja or MaTHua. y tom 
UHJby o^y3HMa ce cane ca Me^oM (3a HCTpecaH>e 
Me^,a hjm 3a H>eroBO HyBaH>e #o (J)opMHpaH)a 3hm- 
ckhx rHe3^a) h y 3aMeHy nocTaaiba cane noro/iHO 3a 
Hery Jierjia. CBa apyuiTBa Koja cy H3ry5HJia MaTHue, 
Tpe6a Ra 6yny utto je Moryhe npe o6jeflHH>eHa c 
HyKJieycHMa y KojnMa ce jipace pe3epBHe MaTnue. 

Tpajaitc h HHTeH3HBHOCT jeceH>er nepnozia 
y3roja n^ejia y MHoroMe 3aBHCH or nocTojaH>a 
3ajinxa xpaHe h yHoca y KOHurnny CBe^cer Heicrapa h 
npaxa. 3a y3roj BejiHKor 6poja (J)H3hojiouikh MJia- 
nnx nnejia KpajeM JieTa, npyuiTBa Tpe6a Ra 6yny 
CHa6aeBeHa nyHOBpe^HOM xpaHOM (1.5 kg Mena h 
0.25 kg nepre no yjnmri nnejia) h no/ip^caBajynHM 
Me#o6paH>eM. ^pyuiTBa Koja HMajy TaKBy CHa6,ne- 



416 



nqejiap 1998 



BeHOCT xpaHOM, y TOKy jeceH>er nepnona (6 Henejba 
- on no^eTKa aBrycTa no 20 cenTeM6pa) onHeryjy 
no 9 ymma MJia^HX nnejia, y nponene ce hhtch- 
3hbho pa3BHJajy n caKyrutajy Binne Mena Hero npy- 
uiTBa c MaiBHM 3aiiHxaMa xpane. noerojaiBe nonp- 
acarajyfte name h yHoc y KoniHnny CBexer UBeTHor 
npaxa, noronyje bhcokom 3aneraH>y jaja on rraenn- 
h>hx MaTnua. y3rojy iryHOBpenHnx Mnannx iraejia h 

HOpMaJIHOJ (J)H3HOJIOUIKOJ npnnpeMH 3a 3HMOBaH>e. 

Ako cy y nepnony jecen>er pa3Boja h (J)h- 
3HOJioniKe npnnpeMe 3a 3HMOBaH>e nnejie JiinneHe 
MorynHOCTH na y Konmnny yHoce CBeacn HeKTap. 
Heonxo^HO jc npymTBa npiixpaitHBaTH cthm- 
yjnauyhoM xpaHOM y Bnny 50% - Hor inenepHor cn- 
pyna no 200 - 300 g CBaKonHeBHO hjih CBaxor npyror 
naHa. CTHMyjinuiyna npnxpaHa aKTHBnpa nnejiHH>a 
npyniTBa, uito o6e36erjyje npomnpeite 30He CTa- 
6njiHHXTeMnepaTypayK0inHnn n Ha Taj Hamfflno- 
npnHOCH na MaTHua HHTeH3HBHO nojiaace jaja. 

ripn HecTaninnn UBeTHor npaxa y koiuhhuh, 
nenncxonHO je irqennita npyuiTBa npHxpaH>HBaTH 
TecTOM or Mena h nepre hjih TecTacTHM 6enaHHeBH- 
HacTHM CMecaMa (TY 10 PCOCP 339-88). 
YTEprjeHO je na 6enaHHeBHHacTa npnxpaHa rrcena y 
aBrycTy no3HTHBHO ynwe Ha H>nxoBy npnnpeMy 3a 
3HMy n Ha pe3yjiTaTe 3HMOBaH>a. MetjymM, Tpe6a 
3anaMTHTH m je HenenncxonHo npnMeH>HBaTn 
6ejiaHHeBnHacTy npnxpaHy nociie 20. aBrycTa. y 
tom cjry^ajy rrcejie nay y 3HMy c ne6ennM npeBOM 
npenyHjeHHM HecBapjbHBOM MacoM, iuto npnMeTHO 
CMaH>yje nyxnHy H>irxoBor :*CHBOTa. 06e36erjeH>eM 
iraennitHM npyuiTBHMa cjia6e name hjih npnxpa- 
hom HeBejiHKHM no3aMa mehepHor cnpyna, 
noBehaBa ce KonnnnHa onHeroBaHor Jierjia y to 
BpeMe 3a 30 - 50%. 

Ha KOJiHHHHy Jierjia Kojy onraje rraejie y nepn- 
ony npnnpeMe npynrraBa 3a 3HMOBajbe, 3HaTaH ym- 
naj nMa CTapocT Maxima. ycTaHOBibeHO je na 
irqennH>a npymxBa c jenHoronninifcHM MaxnnaMa 
onHeryjy KpajeM JieTa R$a. nyra Bnme Jierjia Hero 
npyniTBa c TporojinuiH>HM MaTHnaMa. ^pyniTBa c 
MJiannM MaTnnaMa CTynajy y 3HMy jana, c BehnM 
6pojeM MJia^nx mena, HMajy Man>y 3aKpneji>eHOCT 
h 3HaTHO 6oji>e npe3HMJbaBajy. CTape MaTHne 3hmh 
yrnH>aBajy 3a 50 nyra *ieinne Hero Mnane. CMeHy 
cTapnx n HeKBannTeTHnx MaTnna MJiairaM Tpe6a 
BpmnTH no jyiia, ann He KacHnje on 3 no 4 Henen>e no 
no^exKa HHTeH3HBHor pa3Boja nnejia 3a 3HMy, na 6n 
n^ejiap SjiaroBpeMeHo Morao na oneHH KBajiHTeT 
HOflaBaHnx Maxima. 



4. yxHuaj BHCOKOKBajnfreTHHX 3ajnixa xpaHe 
Ha KBajnTTer JiiMOuai ba iwejia 

y TOKy JieTH.er, aKXHBHor nepnona mene 
HenpeKH^HO npenajy xpaHyjenHa npyroj. 3hmh ce 
TaKBa Be3a Merjy nnenaMa HapymaBa ycnen 
CMaH>eH>a H>nxoBe aKTHBHOCTH. y 3hmckom nnejin- 



H>eM KJiySeTy ncxpaHa ce Bpmn nyreM HenocpenHor 
y3HMaH>a Mena H3 hejinje CBaKe jennHKe no- 
jennHamio. 

y Me r zffloj BOJbnn nnejie y3eTe H3 Kny6eTa 
CTajiHO ce Hajia3n 3-6 mg Me,ua, kojh je nnenn ^o- 
BoibaH 3a 1 -1,5 rslh. IT^ejie ^pynrrBa npBO KopncTe 
Me,n H3 hejinja Koje Hncy 3aTBopeHe BouiTaHHM noK- 
jion^nhnMa. CanoTponiHjOMXpaHe, CBa Maca n^ejia 
nocTeneHO ce Kpene Harope, a 3aTHM, y cjryqajy nc- 
KopnuineH>a CBer Meaa, OHa Moxe ^a ce noMepa y 
CMepy Ka 3aflH>eM 3nay KouiHHiie. rinejie 3hmckot 
Kny6eTa HHKaja ce He noMepajy Hajojie no cany, 
ynopejio c noTpounbOM Me^a, noMepaH>e nnejia y 
ropH>H rqo rae3/ia Be3aH je c h>hxobom tc^ch>om na 
3ay3My HaJTonrajn jieo TKQ3Ra. He/iocTaTaK xpaHe 
Ha nyry noMepan>a nHejiHH>er KJiySeTa, npnHyrjaBa 
nx rel npejia3e y jipyre yjinne n ^a owia3e ynecHO 
hjih yjieBO 0^ HjHxobot 3HMCKOT Jie^HuiTa. Tope 
yxa3aHO necTO ^obojjh ro fleibeH>a KJiy6eTa Ha m& 
jjejia, uito ce ^ecTO 3aBpmaBa crpajj,aH>eM y 
HaJMan>y pyxyje/iHor on, h.hx. 

riuejie KJiySeTa Mory jja npejia3e y Jjpyre yrnue 
caMO npn TeMnepaTypn bhuioj or 0°C. Ako ce Taj 
nepHon noKJiana c hhckhm TeMnepaTypaMa okojihc 
cpeziHHe, to he imejie apyuiTBa yniHyTH or maJXH 
npn nocTojaH>y BejiHicnx pe3epBH xpaHe cjieBa h 
3aecHa on 3hmckot JiexnuiTa. 36or Tora je, npn 
(JDopMnpaity THe3,iia 3a 3HMy, Baaoio Ra pe3epBe 
xpaHe 6yny MaKCHManHO KOMnaKTHO pa3MeuiTeHe 
Han 3HMCKHM KJiy6eTOM nnejia. 

OpraHH3aM nnejia no6po je npHJiarorjeH 3a 
noTponiH>y Me/J,a y 3HMCKOM nepnony, kojh cajjp)KH 
HwraB KOMmieKC HeonxojjHnx, MajioycBOJHBnx 
xpaHJLHBHx MaTepnja, o6e36e5yjynH h>hxobo 
ozip^caH>e y ^cnBOTy. YjeRfio, Hnje CBaicn Men npnro- 
naH 3a 3HMOBaH>e nnejia. HaponnTO je onacHa 3a 3H- 
MOBaH>e npHMeca y H>eMy MejjJbHKe - cjianyH>aBe 
Te^HOCTH Kojy nnejie caKyrubajy c Jinmha HeKor 
npBeha n ^c6yH>a. MenJBHKy nsjryqyjy chthh hh- 
ceicm kojh napa3HTHpajy Ha GmbicaMa - jracHe 
BaniH, jihchh CMOTaBun h 6y6e. 

MejjjLHKOB Men rraene nyro He noKnanajy y 
nennjaMa. Oh KpHCTannme y CHTH03pHacry. 
canyHacTy Macy, ^emhe c BenHKHM TanoroM BonH>n- 
KaBe (J)paiaiHJe. Me,nn>HKOB Men onnnicyje ce BehoM 
XHrpocKonHomhy on HeKTapHor n 6p30 ce yKHcenn. 
HapoHHTO nocne HCTpecan>a H3 hennja HenoK- 
nonn>eHHX BoniTaHHM noKnonnnhnMa. 

XeMHJCKH cacTaB Menn>HKOBor Mena BeoMa je 
pa3HOBpcTaH h 3aBHCH on BpcTe HHceKaTa - 
nsnyHHBaHa MenJtHKe, on BpeMeHa caKyn.aHja 
Menn>HKe n^enaMa, MeTeoponomioix ycnoBa h on 
MHKpo(})nope Koja cc pa3Bnja y MenJtHnn no H>eHor 
caicynn>aH>a nuenaMa. 

Me,nn>HKOB Men, 36or BennKor canp^aja neK- 
CTpnHa. HMa 3a 2 - 3 nyra Befty nenn>HBOCT h pac- 
Tern>HBOCT, onniiKyje ce on ubcthot BennM 
canp^cajeM conn, 3aT0 je onuiTa KonnunHa 
nenen>acTHX MaTepnja y H>eMy 3a 8 - 10 nyra Bena 
Hero y ubcthom Meny. 



417 



n^ejiap 1998 



MejubUKa. 3a pa3JiHKy or Heicrapa, HeMa <J)h- 
TOHiiitaa h npyrax aHTnSHOTH^Kiix MaTepHJa kojh je 
3aiiroiftyjy or pa3BHTKa MHKpoopraHH3aMa. 36or 
Tora, y Membnun 3a BpeMe noK ce Hajra3H Ha Jiniuhy 
6njtaKa, cjio6o,iiho ce pa3HHJa MHKpo<})Jiopa, Koja 
MeH>a H>eH cacTaB h y pacTBOp yHOCH MaTepHJe 
niKOHJLHBe 3a nnejie. 

n^ejie Koje 3HMyjy Ha Me r oibHKOBOM MQjjy, no 
npaBHJiy, yrnifcaBajy CKopo HHTaBHM npyuiTBHMa, a 
OHe Kojc ocTaHy y 5KHBOTy necTO yraitaBajy npBHX 
nam nocjie H3HouieH>a H3 3HMOBHHKa h npBor 
npouncHor H3JieTa. 

ynoTpe6a MenJBHKOBor Mena H3a3HBa kor 
nuejia o6ojbeH>e upeBa, nopeMehaj y Bapeity xpaHe 
h noTnoMa^ce pa3Bojy H03eM03e. 

Kojx nnejia Koje 3HMyjy Ha mcajbhkobom Me^y, 
Ben y OKTo6py canp^caj H3MeTa y ne6ejioM npeBy je 
jiobojbho bhcok h y to BpeMe kqh, h>hx noHHtte npo- 

JIHB. 

npojiHB icon nnejra, Koje ce 3hmh xpaHe 
Me^LHKOHHM MenoM, HacTaje yarcen HaroMHJiaBaita 
npeTepaHO pa3BonH>eHor H3MeTa. Kor nuejia ce 
nemaBa HapyuiaBaH>c (j)yHxnnje ycncaBan>a Bone n y 
H>oj pacTBopeHHX MaTepnja. OTpoBHe MaTepnje 
Koje ce Hajia3e y mcajbhuh h BejiHKa KOJinunHa mh- 
HepajiHHX MaTepnja, HapyuiaBajy {J)yHKnnjy pex- 
TajiHnx 2cie3jia nuejia. 

Hajnory6HnJH yrnuaj Ha nuejie nMajy, npe 
CBera, nponyicra pacna#aH>a 6ejiaH i ieBHHa kojh ce 
Hajia3e y Mejijbmm xao pe3yjiTaT ^khbothc aicrnB- 
hocth jihchhx Baurn, 6y6nua n flpyrax HHcexaTa. 
Bhcok canpacaj MHHcpajmnx cojih cHiDKara aicrnB- 
hoct <})epMeHTa KaTajia3e, kojh HMa 3amTHTHy 
yjiory y 3a#H>eM upeBy. HaponnTO je nrreTHO 
npncycTBO cojth ajiKajiHHX MeTajia (KajinjyMa, Ha- 
TpnjyMa). 

flpn ncxpaHH nnejia Me/ubHKOBHM Me,noM 
noBperjyjy ce enHTeime nejinje cpe^H>er npeBa, iuto 
noTnoMaace o6ojieBaH>y nuejia or H03eM03e . 
OniTenyje ce ipyajia MycKynaTypa n nuejie ry6e 
cnocoSHOCT JieTeita. 

36or Tora, na 6n ce cnpeunjio ymH>aBaH>e 
inejia or Me^JtHKOBor Me,na 3a BpeMe 3HMe, He- 
onxonHO je ony3HMaTH ra y jeceH H3 rae3,na n 

3aMeH>HBaTH BHCOKOKBaJIHTeTHOM XpaHOM. 

KpajeM JieTa nnejiap je nyacaH na naaotHBO n 
GjiaroBpeMeHO npoaHajiH3npa KBajinreT 3ajinxa 
xpaHe 3a rrcejie Ha npncycTBO Me^JbHKe n 
xeMnjcKHX OTpoBa y H>oj. Flpn OTKpnBaH>y uaK He- 

BeJIHKHX J103SL XeMnjcKHX OTpOBa y MeAJBHUH, MQJl 

Tpe6a noBannm n Rani mehepHH cnpyn y 

KOJIHHHHH flOBOJBHOJ 3a 3HMOBaH>e. 

YcTaHOBibeHoje na mene 6ojte 3HMyjy Ha cbct- 
jiom Me^y. ripn 3HMOBaH>y nuejia Ha TaMHOM Meny, 
h>hxobo neSejio npeBO ncnyitaBa ce bcjihkhm 
KOJTHHHHaMa H3MeTa, a Kao pe3yiiTaT Tora y 
nparcene ko,h TaKBnx ApyniTaBa 6nBa Bnme ynnryha 
n npojiHBa (Ta6ejia 5). 



TaSejia 5: YTHUAJ KBAJIHTETA XPAHE 
HA PE3yJITATE 3HMOBAH>A nHEJTA 



IIOKA3ATE&H 


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dpymuinai "A* 


(1 


UJ 


0.8 


21,0 



3a 3HMyjc HenpnroAaH Me,n kojh ce OAnnicyje 
noBHnieHOM cKJioHomny Ka KpncTajiH3annJH: Me£ 
or 6njbaKa KpcTauinua (cjiannna, yjtaHa pennua, 
KynycHja^a), a TaKorje or BpecKa, naMyKa n cyHUOK- 
peTa y cynmnM rojinHaMa. YKpncTajincaH Men je He- 
AOCTynaH 3a ncxpaHy n 3hmh n^ejie CTpajiajy or 
rjiaflH. 

Ha cTeneH KpncTajiH3auHJe Mena 3HaTaH ymnaj 
HMa CTapocT cana, npncycTBO no^eTHnx KpncTajia, 
HapymaBaH>e nejiHHe cajip^caja hejinje, HecTa6nji- 
hoct TeMnepaType h H>eHO noBpeMeHO onanaHje. 

YcTaHOBibeHO je Ra npn 3HMOBaH>y nnejia Ha 
TaMHOM cahy, CTeneH KpncTajiH3aHnje 3ajinxa 
xpaHe y H>eMy je 3a 45% bhuih, 3a 58% Binne 
iipyuiTaBa H3Jia3H H3 3HMOBan>a c TparoBHMa npo- 
jiHBa y rHe3AHMa h, Haj3an,, 3a 12% ApynrraBa 

yrHH>aBa y nope5eH>y c pe3yjrraTHMa Bnme 3HMOBan>a 
IipyuiTaBa Koja 3HMyjy npBeHCTBeHO Ha cbctjiom 
cany. 

Men HCTpeceH H3 nejinja HOBOH3rpaljeHor caha 
He KpncTajinme tokom 2 Meceiia, uito je 5 nyra 
ny^ce y noperjen>y c pokom KpHCTajin3annjc Me^a 
ncTpeceHor H3 TaMHor caha. Men H3 caha y KOMecy 
nuejie HeroBajie Jierjio, KpncTajinme 3a 3.3 nyra pa- 
HHJe or Mena HCTpeceHor H3 caha y KOMe miejie 
yonuiTe nncy HeroBane Jierjio. 

y TaMHOM cahy mqr ce ^emhe n 3HaTH0 6p^ce 
yKHcejin. ^a Shcmo cnpeunjin KHUiejbeH>e Me^a 
3hmh, nnejiaMa ocTaBJtaMO y cahy 3peo h noK- 

JIOTLJLeH MQR. y Be3H C THM UITO Ce MQR BehHM AeJIOM 

yKHcejin y Kpajn>eM cahy me3Aa, me cy TeM- 
nepaTypHH ycjioBH MaH>e CTaSnjiHH, npn (Jdopmh- 
pan^y me3na y kouihhuh ocTaBJtaMO tojihko pa- 
MOBa,. kojihko je noceAHyro nuejiaMa. Ha Kpajn>eM 
cahy He CMe 6hth OTBOpeHor Me^a. 

KpncTajiH3annjy Mena y cahy H3a3HBajy n Hanie 
npoMeHe TeMnepaType y kouihhuh. Mqr Haj6p^ce 
KpucTajiHuie npn TCMnepaTypn 13-14°C, npn bhuioj 
h (hjih) HH>Koj TCMnepaTypn 6p3HHa KpncTajiH3a- 
unje ce cMaH>yje. y jaKHM nuejinH>HM npyuiTBHMa. 
trq cy cbh paMOBH noTnyHO nocenHym nuejiaMa, 
mqr KpHCTannme BeoMa peTKO. 



418 



nqejiap 1998 



Kao ueHTpn KpHCTajiH3aiiHJe nojaBJbyjy ce n 
nojieHOBa 3pHira Koja cy c HeKTapoM nocnena y Men. 
3aTO Men KOJH cazip^KH noBeftaiiy KonnHHtry nojie- 

HOBHX 3pHa, KpHCTaJIHUie 3HaTHO 6p3CC 

KpHCTajiH Mory na cc o6pa3yjy y ftennjaMa 
nocjie HCTpecaH>a Mena H3 cafta, Kana ce 3aocTajie 
HajcHTHHJe Kami Mena ocyme. j\a 6n ce cnpemwa 
KpHCTajiH3aiiHJa Mena, nocjie H>eroBor HCTpecaita 
TpeSa naBara cafte rraejiaMa Ha "npocyniHBaH>e".TJ. 
na 6h OHe noicyniine c h>hx h HaJMarae ocTaTKe Mena. 

Hay^HHUH cy TaKorje ycTaHOBnnn na nnene, 
Kpje ce tokom 3HMe xpaHe caMO MenoM, jkkbq Man>e 
on ohhx Koje ynopeno c MenoM KopHCTe 6enaHHCBH- 
HacTy xpaHy. 

5. npMiipervia ssumsa xpaiie 

KpajeM aBrycTa - no^eTKOM cenTeM6pa cnpo- 
bqhh cc (J)opMnpaH>e meama 3a 3HMOBaH>e iraenn- 
h>hx npynrraBa. Ca Konimnia ce CKHnajy Kopnycn h 
MennniTa. H3 rae3na ce ynajbaBa cahe ca Majio Mena 
h HeH3rpar)eHO, a TaKorje CTapo cahe Koje nonneace 
niKapTHpatby. rHe3na ce (J)opMHpajy on cafta Koje 
canpaoi He Man>e on 2 kg Mena noronHor 3a 3hmo- 
BaH>e. CacBHM TeniKO cafte, noTnyHO HcnyuieHO Me- 

IIOM H 3aTBOpeHO BOIUTaHHM nOKJIOIRHftHMa. 

pa3MeniTa ce Ha KpajcBHMa raeama, nopen H>era 
pa3MeuiTa ce cafte c mchom h neproM. y rjempy - 
cafte Koje canp^cH 2 - 2,5 kg Mena (iiBOCTpaHO (})op- 
MHpaH>e THe3na). OeraBJba ce tojihko cafta. kojihko 
jc noTnyHO h rycTO nocenHyro nnenaMa. Hanan>e, 
ca 3axnarjeH>eM, imene ce caKyim>ajy y 3hmcko 
KJiy6e, njenaH-nBa Kpajn>a paMa nocrajy cnoGonmi. 

CpeiiHHOM cenTeM6pa, nocne H3JiacKa HHTaBor 
nerna, cnpoBonn ce KOHa^HO (j)opMnpaH>e rae3na. 
npn TOMe cafte ca Majio Mena, ocnoGorjcHO on Jierjia, 
yuajbaBa ce H3 KoniHHna. npn TaKBOM (})opMHpaH>y, 
Ha 6hjio kom paMy na ce o6pa3yje 3hmcko nnennike 
KJiy6e, H>eMy fte 6hth noBOJbHO xpaHe 3a nnraB 
xjiaanH nepnon. 

y rHe3^HMa irqenHH>irx npynrraBa cpenH>e 
jamme, Koja HMajy 7-8 ynnua n*iena, 3ajiHxe xpaHe 
ce pa3MeuiTajy "yrjioM" hjih "nony6panoM". tj. c 
jeoHe CTpaHe CTaBiba ce cafte HajncnyiteHiije Me- 
noM, a 3aTHM ce pacnoperjyje cafte c MaitoM 
kojih^hhom Mena. y Kpajn>eM paMy Tpe6a na ce Ha- 
jia3H He Man>c on 2 kg Mena. 

Kon cna6nx npyniTana h HyKJieyca (c pe3epB- 
hhm MaTHuaMa), KOJH HMajy 5-6 yjinua, 3aniixe 
xpaHe pa3MeuiTaMO "6panoM",TJ. nyHOMenHO cafte 
nocTaBibaMO y neHTpy rae3na, ManoMenHO - no Kpa- 
jeBHMa. TaxaB pacnopen 3ajiHxa xpaHe o6e36er)yje 
nocTojaH>e MaKCHMaiiHe kojihhhhc Mena Han 3H- 
MyjyftHM n^ejiHHjHM KJiySeTOM. 

Ako ce y meany npoHarjc cafte c MenoM He- 
npHro^HHM 3a 3HMOBaH>c, oho ce onysHMa h 
3aMeH>yje cafteM c KBajiHTeTHHM MenoM, kojh je 
caKynjteH Ha no^eTKy rjiaBHe name. Ako HeMa 
MoryftHocTH m ce npyniTBo o6e36enn KBannTeTHOM 
npnpo/iHOM xpaHOM no ycTaHOBJteHHM HopMaMa. 
iraene npnxpaH>yjeMO meftepHHM cnpynoM. 
CarjiacHO ycraHOBJbeHHM HopMaMa (Koje ce onHoce 



Ha PycHJy - npHMenSa npeBonHona), CBaKO ny- 
HOBpeiiHo npyuiTBo Koje yna3H y 3HMy, y 3aBHc- 
hocth on npnponHO-KJiHMaTCKHX oco6eHOCTH pe- 
nioHa, Tpe6a na HMa 22 - 30 kg xpaHe (yKJbyqyjyftn 
meftepHy npiixpaHy). 

y rHe3jiy (J)opMnpaHOM 3a 3HMy Tpe6a jxa 6yne 
ocTaBJteHO y onuiraM OKOJiHOCTHMa 18 - 25 kg Me^a 
h 1,7 - 1,9 kg (2 - 2,3 paMa) nepre. Oerana 3ajraxa 
xpaHe nyBa ce y paMOBHMa Ha cKJiaaHmTy, 3a nony- 
H>aBaH>e pe3epBH xpaHe y npojieftHOM nepnony. 

npnxpaHa nHejiHH.HX npymTaBa 3a 3HMy. yje- 
cch nnejiHHja npyniTBa npnxpaHjyjy ce y TpH 
cjiyqaja: 

- npn He^ocTaTKy Me^a y rHe3^y; 

- npn 3aMeHH McmtHKOBor hjih Mena kojh 6p3o 
KpHCTajiHme, a TaKo^e Mena kojh canpacn xeMHJCKH 
OTpoBHe MaTepHJe; 

- y npo(J)HnaKTHHKOM nnn.y (3a npiixpaHy miena 
Koje cy y jeceH CHCTeMaTCKH caKyiubane Menn>HKy h 
3a npo(})HnaKTHKyH03eM03e). 

Illeftepmi cnpyn, npepa^eH nnenaMa h 
3aneHafteH y ftennjaMa cafta, ycBaja ce 3hmh CKOpo 
noTnyHO (oh naje CBera 0,6% HecBapn>HBiix ocTa- 
TaKa). ZtpymTBa Koja cy CHa6neBeHa TaKBOM xpa- 
hom, H3na3e H3 3HMOBaH>a y no6poM craH>y h c hkc- 
thm nie3nHMa. IlpeMa nonauHMa ncnHTHBaH>a 
HayHHO-HCTpaacHBamcor HHCTHTyra 3a nnenap- 
ctbo, Maca ne6enor npeBa Kon n^ena thx npynrraBa 
y nponefte npen H3neTaH.e H3Hocnna je npoceHHO 
25,3 mg, Kon xpaH>eHiix MenoM - 34,0 mg. 

Me^yrHM, npn npnxpaHH y jeceH h HcxpaHH 
nnena y 3iiMy meftepHOM xpaHOM, nyroiKHBefte 
iraene cy npHHy^eHe na Tpome, Ha nponec H>eHe 
npepane, 3HaTHy KonHHHHy xpanitHBiix MaTepnja 
npHnpeMJteHHX opraHH3MOM 3a 3HMy. ITpH TOMe, 
Kon h>hx ce npHMeftyje nereHepauHJa ^npenHHX 
2CJie3na h MacHor Tena. 

IlpeMa TOMe, npnxpaHa nnena 3a 3HMy meftep- 
HHM cnpynoM HMa KaKO no3HTHBHe, TaKO h Hera- 
THBHe CTpaHe. 3aTO H>yTpe6a npnMeH>HBaTH caMO y 
HeonxonHHM cny^ajeBHMa, CTporo ce np^eftn Tex- 
HonomKHX npnHunna o BpeMetry n KonnnnHH 
meftepHor cnpyna kojh ce naje. 

Hay^HHirn cy ycTaHOBnnn na KoniiHHHa meftepa 
3a npnxpaHy y rpammaMa 0.5 kg no ynrnm n^iena, ne 
H3a3HBa npnMeTaH HeraTHBaH yrnuaj Ha 3HM0BaH>e 
n^ena. ITpn HeonxonHocm 3aMeHe HeKBariHTeTHnx 
MenoBa, no3Bon>eHa je npnxpaHa no 1,0 kg no ynmin 
n^ena. npnxpaHa no 1,5 kg meftepa no ynmrn miena 
Bonn Ka npeBpeMeHOM HCTpomeH.y 3HaTHe 
KonHHHHe pe3epBHHX xpaHn>HBHX MaTepnja nnenn- 
H>erTena. IlpepanaTaKO BenHKe Konn^HHe meftep- 
hot cnpyna noBonn no HCHprubHBaH>a ^cnpenHHx 
2cne3na, Koje npoH3Bone (J>epMeHT HHBepTa3y, h no 
cmypHor cKpafteH>a ny>KHHe iKHBOTa nnena n 
npeBpeMeHor yniHyfta. 36or orpaHH^ieHe Moryft- 
hocth xnpenHHX xnc3na, n^ene HenoBon>HO (He y 
noTnyHocra) HHBepryjy cnpyn h xpaHa ce, naicne, 
no6nja HenoBoibHO KBannTeTHa 36or hhckot 
canp^caja HHBepTOBaHnx meftepa. 

HapoHHTO o6a3pHBO Tpe6a npiuia3HTnjeceH>oj 
npnxpaHH nnena HananHyrax BapooM. OrBap je y 
TOMe, mTO Kana ce Ha Kpajy name KonirqnHa nerna y 



419 



nqejiap 1998 



rae3,ziHMa CMan>H, a y3roj TpyroBa narnyHO o6yc- 
TaBH, 6poJHO CTaH>e Kpnejta yjeceiteM nnejiHifceM 
jierjiy Harjio pacTe h uiTeTa Koja ce hhhh 3hmckom 
noKOJieity rraejia ce noBehaBa. n^ejie Kpje ce H3- 
Boue, He Mory HaroMHJiaBaTH y opraHH3My 3anHxy 
xpaHJBHBHX h Jipyrax MaTepnja HeonxQUHHX 3a 3H- 
MOBaite y Behoj KOJinqnHH. H axo TaKBa apyurrBa y 
jeceH join HaxpaHHMO ca MHoro mehepHor cnpyna. 
nnejie he oarca6HTH h yraHyTH. 

FlpHxpaHy 3a nonyH>aBaH>e 3hmckhx 3anHxa 
xpaHe y ueHTpajiHHM pejoHHMa PycKe Oe^epairnje 
Tpe6a BpuiHTH y6p30 nocjie rjiaBHe name (nojioBH- 
HOMJyjia - npHMejiGa npeBO,nHOHa) h 3aBpniHTH He 
KacHHJc ojj, 5. cenreMSpa, yjyxHHM - He KacHHJe or 
Kpaja ccnTeM6pa. y to BpeMe H3 nejinja neHTpaji- 
hhx paMOBa rHe3jia H3Jia3H nocjiejnbe Jierjio . 
IIIenepHy xpaHy nnejie o,iuiaacy y cpqzih>hm pa- 
MOBHMa, me ce <})opMHpa KJiy6e, h nnejie y npBoj 
nojioBHHH 3HMe, Kara HeMa Jienia, xpaHnhe ce 
uiehepHOM xpaHOM. IlpH KacHHJHM npnxpaHaMa, 
nnejie He ycneBajy m npepa^e cnpyn, jep npn Hacry- 
nan>y jeceitHX 3axjiarjeH>a koh h>hx ce Harjio 
CMaH>yje aKTHBHOCT rjpepMeHTa HHBepTa3e. n^ejie 
Kpje npeparjyjy cnpyn y KacHHJHM poKOBHMa, jaKO 
cc HCHpnjByjy, a one H3Jie:aceHe Kao pe3yjiTaT 
CTHMyjiaTHBHor aejcTBa KacHe jcceite npnxpaHe, He 
Mory Ra H3Bpuie npo^HCHH H3JieT h yraH>aBajy 
tokom 3HMe. IIlTaBHnie, Jierjio onrajeHO Kao peayji- 
TaT CTHMyjiaTHBHor yrnnaja KacHHX npnxpaHa, jio- 
npHHOCH ozirojy /jpjiaTHor noKOJieita Kpnejta 
Bapoe. Ochm Tora, KacHa npnxpaHa H3a3HBa 

nOHOBHH pa3BHTaK }KJJ,peJIHHX h :*cjie3,iia 3a 

H3JiyqHBaH>e Bocxa, a Kao pe3yjrraT Tora, nnejie 
nay y 3HMy ocjiaSjbeHHJe. Obo noBehaBa aKTHBHOCT 
nnejia y to BpeMe, kzr ce y npnponHHM ycjioBHMa 
2CHBibeH>a OHe Beh Hana3e npn hiokhm TeMnepaTy- 
paMa h CMaH>eHoj pa3MeHH MaTepnja. IlpH KacHHM 
npnxpaHaMa rraejie He ycneBajy m 3aneHaTe xpaHy 
BoniTaHHM noKJionnnhnMa. IIocTojaH>e y hejinjaMa 
caha BejiHKe KOJiHHHHe He3anenaheHe iirehepHe 
xpaHe, bo,hh Ka HaKHajxHOM 3acnheH>y BOJjeHOM na- 
poM Basnyxa kojh OKpy>Kyje nnejie, Ka jmtxobom 
y36yrjHBaH>y, uito, no npaBHJiy, CTHMyjinme MaTnuy 
jia npeBpeMeHO nojiaace jaja. 3a ycnenmo 3hmo- 
BaH>e, iraejie Tpe6a CHa6jj,eTH 3pejiHM MejjpM 
pa3MeuiTeHHM n 3anenaheHHM y hejinjaMa, uito he 
cnpenaBaTH 3acnheH>e Ba3/jyxa bojjchom napoM. 

ripe npnxpaHe Tpe6a 0Jjy3eTH H3 KoniHHua 
cyBHinHe MaiioMe^He paMOBe. MerjyrHM, npn TOMe 
He Tpe6a cyBHine jaKO cy^KaBara me^na, HapoHHTO 
aKO ce Ha nHejiHH>aKy .apace nnejie jyatHHX paca hjih 
h>hxobh xn6pnnn (Mejie3n) - npn noBHmeHHM TeM- 
neparypaMa Ba3jryxa y 3HMOBHHKy, Te nnejie he ce 

jaKO y3HeMHpaBaTH H H3Jia3HTH H3 KOUIHHUa. 

3a nonyn>aBaH>e 3ajrnxa xpaHe HeonxoixHe 
nnejiaMa 3a 3HMy, cbpchcxojjho je xpaHHTH nx koh- 
ueHTpoBaHHM (64%-hhm) pacTBopoM caxap03e, 3a 
H>eHy npnnpeMy Ha CBaKa 3 kg mehepa y3HMa ce 2 
jiHTpa Bo^e. npn TaKBOM ojjHocy, nnejie Haj6p^ce h 
c Man>HM yrponiKOM mehepa npeparjyjy mehepHH 
CHpyn h noKnanajy ra y hejinjaMa. npnnpeMJbeHy 
BOJjy (6ojbe MOKy) jiobojxhmo ro Kibyiaiha, 3aTHM y 
H>y JiaraHO cnnaMO noTpeGiry KOJiHHHHy mehepa, 



eHepmHHO Memajyhn npn TOMe pacTBop ro nonry- 
hot pacTBapaita mehepa. He CMe ce jjonycTHTH Ky- 
BaH>e cnpyna, jep to jk>bo,zih ro 3aropeBaH>a 
mehepa, fteroBe KapaMejiH3annje, o6pa30BaH>a y 
H>eMy MaTepnja nrreTHHX 3a nnejie, mTO je onacHO 
3a h>hxob xhbot. Kajja ce mehep nonryHO pacT- 
Bopn, CHpyn ce oxjiajjn ^o 35 - 40°C. y cnpyn ce ,zio- 
jjaje KOHueHTpoBaHa cnpheTHa KticnnHHa y ko- 
jinHHHH 0,3 g Ha 1 kg mehepa, nun cnpheTHa eceH- 
UHJa - no 0,4 g Ha 1 kg mehepa. KncejiHHa m- 
jc mehepHoj xpami KHceny peaKunjy KapaKTe- 
pHcinHHy 3a Mejj. 

IIIehepHH cnpyn ce npaBH or npexpaM6eHor 
mehepa ^o6porKBajiHTeTa. Chpobh mehep je Heno- 
rojjaH. IIIehepHH pacTyp, pa3HH OTnaiiH, mehep ca 
CTpaHHM npnMecaMa, noro^HH cy y tom cjryqajy aKO 
ce y H>HMa He caap^ce npnMece mTeTHe 3a n^ejie - 
KHcejiHHe,cojiH, rjy6pHBa wrji. 

DryK030M y hhctom BHjy nnejie He Tpe6a xpa- 
HHTH, HeonxojjHO je y H>y^onaBaTH He MaH>e on 50% 
o6nHHor mehepa. Cnpyn kojh cajjp^KH 25% nryK03e 
(ojj, onmTe KOJiHHHHe mehepa), 3hmh tojihko 6p30 
KpncTajiHmc jja nnejie He Mory y3HMaTH xpaHy h 
yrHH>aBajy or rjia/iH. 

Cokobh or Boha, noBpha, rpbqtq. (6pe3e, 
KJieHa) n pa3HH 6e3anKoxojiHH Hannun, 3a ncxpaHy 
miejia cy HenoroiiHH jep y H>HMa HMa cyBHme MHoro 
KncejiHHa h MHHepajiHHX MaTepnja. 

Tpe6a naMTHTH to na mene,. npn npnxpaHH 
mehepHHM cnpynoM. Tponie Ha H>eroBy npepa^ry 
npH6jiH5KHO 20% mehepa. Ta KOJin^HHa mehepa y 
roTOBOj xpami 6nhe 3aMeH>eHa bottom. Ha Taj 
HaHHH,ofl 10 kg yrpomeHor mehepa 6nhe npnnpeM- 
jbeHO nnejiaMa 10 kg xpaHe, Koja ce cacTojn H3 80% 
mehepa n 20% Bone. 

Haj6ojbe jc npnxpaiBHBaTH nqene y bcuhkhm 
ropn>HM n 6ohhhm xpaHHJinnaMa. Ojrje/moM jaKHM 
jipymTBHMa RasaTU 4 - 5 kg cnpyna. 

nocne KOHaHHor (J>opMHpaH>a nie3Jj,a 3a 3HMy h 
o6e36erjeH>a npymTaBa 3ajinxaMa xpaHe, uejio- 
KynHO rHe3/io ce yTonjtaBa o,no3ro n c SoKOBa. Kao 
yTonjbaBajyhH MaTepnjaji Kopncm ce MaxoBHHa. 
acypa ojj, cjiaMe, pacmH>e MO^Bapa n Rpym MaTepn- 
jajin, kojh Jxp6po nponyurrajy hjth ynnjajy BJiary h 
kojh ce He 6yr)ajy. JacTynn oji OTna^aKa BaTe HeMajy 
TaKBa CBOjcTBa h 3aTO ce Bo^eHa napa. Kojy nnejie 
ocjio6ar}ajy, KOHJjeH3yje y KomHHnn, mTO roborw 
ro HeraTHBHHX pe3yjiTaTa 3HMOBaH>a n^ejia. 

C HacrynaH>eM jeceH>nx 3axnarjeH>a, 6htho 
pacTe noTpomH>a xpaHe Ha ORpyKaBaihc onTHMajiHe 
TeMnepaType y rHe3jiHMa nHejiHH>nx jipyurraBa. 3a 
CMaH>eH)e ry6HTaKa TonjioTe n yTpomKa xpaHe, 
TpeSa 6jiaroBpeMeHO cy3Hm Roiba Jiera Ha 2 - 5 cm. 
,a ropH>a 3aTBopnTH. Ha ^OH>a JieTa nocTaBJBajy ce 
pemeTKe pajjn H36eraBaH>a yjiacKa rjio/iapa y 
KomHH/ry. TpeSa naMTHTH, TaKorje, Ra jeceH>H 
BeTpoBH noTnoMaacy KpHCTajiH3aHnjy MQRa y cahy. 
36or Tora je y jeceiteM nepno^y Heonxo^HO 
nojanaTH 3amTHTy KoniHnna or BeTpa, no- 
CTaBJtaH>eM 3aicioHa ny>K orpajje, ca CTpaHe c Koje 
jxyBajy BeTpoBH. KomHHue OMOTaTH py6epoHJj,OM 



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hjih nojineTHJieHCKOM (Jdojihjom, ajin TaKO na OHM He 
npexpHBajy BeHrarcaHHOHe onymice KpoBOBa. 

6. Hyuaite pe3epBHHX m;i miui 

HyBaH>e pe3epHHHX Marana mnpoKO ce npaK- 
THKyje y nnejiapcTBy 3a HcnpaBJi>aH>e 6e3MaTiwHiix 
npynrraBa ynpojiefte, 3a (J)opMHpaH>e paHHX pojeBa 
kojh ce KopucTe 3a o6e36efjeH>e ruiaHCKor npnpa- 
CTa jipynrraBa Ha nnejiHitaKy, 3a HapacTaH>e mejia 
3a nainy, a TaKolje 3a npon3BOJj,H>y h peajiH3auHJy 
naxeTa n*iejia. Ha mhothm irqejinifcaHHMa 
ocTaBJBajy 3a 3HMy pe3epBHe Mannje y HyKJieycHMa 
y kojihhhhh 10 - 15% h BHine y ojjHocy Ha 6poj oc- 
hobhhx apyuiTaBa Ha irqejirotaKy. Hanpe^HH 
irqejiapn y ycjioBHMa 3apa»ceHOCTH nnejiHH>HX 
ZlpyuiTaBa BapooM, ocTaBJbajy 20-25% pe3epBHHX 
MaTHua, a 3HaTaH /jeo hcthx KopncTe 3a (J)opMH- 
pan>e pojeBa. 

Ha npcTe^cHoj BeftHHH iraejiHitaKa, HyKJieycn ce 
o6pa3yjy o6hhho na 3 ruionnniHa paMa ca 3ajiHxaMa 
xpaHe He MaH>HM or 2 kg Ha CBaKOM, a yxynHO ce 
jipyuiTBaHuy ocTaBJba 6-8 kg. LUrojeja^H Hyicieyc, 
to oh 6ojte,npe3HMJbaBa. HaJMan>a jj,03BOJteHa 
ja^HHa Hyicieyca yjyacHHM pejoHHMa - 3 yjinue, y 
ueHpajiHHM o6jiacTHMa - 4-5 (oko 15 kg n^ejia). Y 
3ace6HHM KoniHHuaMa TaKBH HyKJicycH He npe3HM- 
JbaBajy yBeK ycneniHO. 36or Tora ce y je/iHoj 
jlBaHaecTopaMHOj koidhhhh CMeurrajy no TpH HyK- 
jieyca, nperpafjeHHXjejxaH or Jjpyror HenpeKHJjHOM 
nperpaaoM. CBaKH Hyicieyc Tpe6a Ra ravta ca- 
MOCTanHO JieTO Ha npejjH>oj CTpaHH KoniHnne: y 
cpe^H>eM o^ejteHiy - HacnpaM cpenH>er paMa, a y 
6ohhhm o^,ejbeH>HMa - HacnpaM Kpajn>nx yHyr- 
paniHiHX paMOBa. EjiH3HHa JieTa npnMopaBa irqejie 
npyuiTaBa jj,a (J>opMHpajy KJiy6eTa Henocpe/iHO 
jejjHo y3 jxpyro n, y onHocy Ha TomioTy, Tajja ce 
CTBapa Kao je/iHO omirre KJiy6e. CeM Tora, Ha npeji- 
H>eM 3HJxy KouiHHne 3aKynaBajy ce ynpaBHO npe- 
rpane, Koje o6pa3yjy 3ace6He npmieTe CBaKOM 
jieTy, a nponjwi 3hhobh CBaxor Hyxjicyca (})ap6ajy 
ceyTpn pa3JTHHHTC 5oje, iuto jaxo CMaH>yje JiyTaH>e 
rrcejia n ry6HTaic Maraua npn noBpaTKy c 6pa i iHor 
H3JieTa. y KouiHHLtaMa-nojiouiKaMa Moryfte je ocra- 
bhth pe3epBHe MaTHue y HyioieycHMa kojh ce 
opraHH3yjy nopejj ocHOBHor jjpynrrBa. npn 



pa3MeuiTaH>y yje/iHoj koiuhhuh Tpn Hyicieyca hjih 
irqejiHH>er npyuiTBa c HyioieycoM, rrcejiaMa je, npn 
y3ajaMHOM 3arpcBan>y je/iHHX jxpyrmt, Jiaiane Ra 
oflpacaBajy noTpe6aH toiijiothh pexHM, OHe 3HaTHO 
Man>e Tpome xpaHe h 3HaTHO 6oibe 3HMyjy. 

HyKJieycn c pe3cpBHHM MarauaMa npnnpeMajy 
ce yo 1 ^! noneTKa rjiaBHe name. QnJaKHX jjpyurraBa 
o/jy3HMajy ce 1 - 2 paMa ca 3aTBopeHHM JierjioM 3a- 
je/jHO ca nnejiaMa h 1 - 2 paMa ca xpaHOM, kojh ce 
nocTaBJbajy y onejbeH>e npHnpeMJteHO 3a Hyicieyc 
(y KoniHHHH-nojiouiKoj HenocpejjHO y3 6ok ochob- 
Hor npyuiTBa). HcTOBpeMeHO H3Mef)y paMOBa c 
JierjioM jjaje ce 3peo MaTH^ntaK hjih MJia/ia Heo- 
njio^eHa MaTHua y KaBe3y. Kpo3 3-4 jj,aHa npo- 
BepaBa ce H3Jia3aK MaTnne H3 MaTHHH>aKa, a Kp03 
jJBe Hejj,ejte - no^eTaK nojiaraita jaja. y nepnony 
name HyKJieycn ce noja^aBajy n, no npaBHJiy. 
ycneumo npe3HMJi>aBajy. 

Bhjio je MHoro noKymaja Ra ce CMaitn yrpouiaK 
xpaHe kojj n^ejia 3a 3hmcko jjpacaH>e pe3epBHnx 
omiorjeHHX Marana, c thm Ra ce, npn MHHHMajiHHM 
pacxojjHMa, OHe HMajy Ha nnejinikanHMa y paHO 
npojiene. 

OnHTH RpyKaiba pe3epBHHX MaTnua y HeBe- 
jihkhm npyuiTBaHHHMa Ha yMaH>eHHM paMOBHMa, 
HHcy^ajiH no3HTHBHe pe3yjiTaTe. noniTO iwejie 3a 
onp:>KaBaH>e Heonxojj,Hor TeMnepaTypHor peiKHMa 
Tpome mhoto xpaHe, jaKO ce ncupne h He jjoacnBe 
Kpaj 3HMe. 

Bho je npe/uioxeH HaHHH nyBan>a pe3epBHiix 
MaTHua BaH KJiy6eTa jjpyuiTBa. ^OKa3aHO je Ra Ma- 
THne Mory 3HMOBaTH y MajiHM KaBe3HliHMa 7x5x4 
cm, kojh ce nocTaBJBajy y HHKy6aTop 42 x 35,6 x 47 
cm c ejieKTpnHHHM 3arpeBaH>eM 40 W h TeMnepaiy- 
poM 17 - 18°C. HHKy6aTop ce pa3Menrra npn co6hoj 
TeMncpaTypn 12 - 24°C. Ha jejjHy MaTnuy Koja je 
npe3HMHJiay KaBe3y, yrpomn ce npoce^HO 300 - 400 
rrcejia n 273 g Me;xa. MaTnue Koje 3HMyjy BaH KJiy- 
6eTa He noropuiaBajy cboj KBajiHTeT. 036nji>aH He- 
HOCTaTaK Tor Ha^HHa cacTojn ce y TOMe iuto je y 
TOKy 3HMe Heonxo/iHO 4-6 nyra MeH>aTH rrcejie y 
KaBe3HhHMa. TaKBa 3aMeHa 3axreBa MHoro Bpe- 
MeHa ojj, nnejiapa, a CKomiaHa je c ph3hkom na Tylje 
miejie Mory y6nm MaTHiry. 

C pycKor npeBeo n 3a nrraMiry npHpejjno 
jjp MnjiaH TinpoBHn, n^ejiap, KparyjeBau; 



421 



n^ejiap 1998 




HAYHHO OBPA3nOXEHM HAHMHM YCnELUHOr 
3MMOBAhbA nHEJlHhbHXflPYLUTABA 
IflEO 

JIe6edee B. H., Toponu.ee A. H. * 
HaynHO-ucmpaoicueaHKU uncmumym 3a nneAapcmeo Pycuje 



I.Yboa 

YcnemaH hcxqu 3HMOBan>a y MHoroMe 
oflpetjyje npojiyKTHBHOCT nHejiHH>HX .npyurraBa, 
npoH3BOflHOCT paaa nnejiapa h eKOHOMCKy 
e^eKTHBHOCT n^ejiapcKe <|)apMe y hcjihhh. Ako 
cy n^ejTHH>a apyuiTBa ycneuiHO npe3HMHJia, 
canyBajia hhcto rHe3/io, HHcy HMajia BejiHKor 
cjia6jbeH>a (BejiHKor H3yMHpaH>a), HMajy pe3- 
epBy xpaHe h H3 3HMOBaH>a cy Hsamjia Kao eH- 
eprHHHa, 3Hann TaKBa nnejiHita apyuiTBa noce- 
^yjy BHCOKy xhbothoct h H>nxoBa Hera y 
npojiene Hefre 3axTeBaTH MHoro Tpyna. y 
npojiene OHa ce 6p30 pa3BHJajy, Heryjy BejiHKy 
KOJiHHHHy jierjia h o6e36et)yjy bhcoko mcho- 
6pan>e. 

ExoHOMCKa uneTa, Kojy HMa nnejiapcTBO Py- 
CHJe ojx Jiomer 3HMOBaH>a nnejia, npHSjinatHO je 
je^Haxa bpchhocth CBer ojx h>hx ^o6HJeHor Me#a. 

BejiHKO ocnnaH>e huh jaxo cjia6jbeH>e iwejra- 
h>hx flpyuiTaBa y 3hmckom nepHony, Moxe jia CBeae 
Ha Hyny caB HanopaH pan nnejiapa tokom HHTaBe 
npanenHO-JieTH.e nperxo^He ce30He. TTo cpenH>HM 
BHinerouHiHifcHM no/iauHMa, yraH>aBaH>e nnejiHHjHX 
HpyurraBa y PycHJH y 3HMCKO-nponenHOM nepno^iy 
aocricKe npoce^HO 12,6% om H>nxoBor onurrer 
6poja y 3eMibH. Joih Befty urreTy HaHocn rrcejiHH>a- 
HHMa BejiHKH ry6HTaK nnejia y nHejiHH>HM 
apyiHTBHMa Koja cy jiouie npe3HMHJia, Koja jxo- 
crirate y HH3y cjiy^ajeHa 50-75 % H>nxoBor SpoJHor 
cratta yo^H 3HMOBaH>a. HopMajiHa cmpthoct nnejia 
3a BpeMC 3HMOBan>a He CMe jxa npefje 10% o,n 
onuiTer 6poja y ^pyuiTBy. y hckhm rojinKdMa ry- 
6hhh nocTHacy 40 - 60% apyuiTaBa. Ha nnejiHH>aKy 
KOJH je Jiouie npe3HMHO, 3HaTaH ^eo cc30He, a no- 
HeKan h ^HTaBa cc30Ha, oiyiasH Ha OTKJiaH>aH>e 
nocjie/iHua 3HMOBaH>a. O bhcokoj npo^yKTHHHOcra 
itckjihh>hx flpyurraBa, hcto Kao h o bhcokoj npons- 
bo^hocth pa#a nnejiapa Ha HHTaBOM nHejiHH>aKy, He 
Moxe 6hth hh penn. llo3HaTO je jx& cjia6a h yomirre 
HpyuiTBa y JiomeM CTaity (y KOJHMa yrHH>aBajy Ma- 
THue h nojaBJbyjy ce 6ojiecTH iraejia) He /iajy npo- 
ayKHHJy, 3axreBajynH HCTOBpeMeHO BejiHKH yrpo- 
maK pa^Hor BpeMeHa 3a h>hxobo HcnpaBJbaH>e, 
3aTO cc CMaTpa %a je uneTa or flpyjuraBa Koja cy 
npe3HMHJia, ann cy H3 3HMOBan.a H3auuia ocjia6- 



*Ayropn cy capa,nHHUH HayMHO-ncTpajKHBa'iKor HHCTHTyTa 3a 
n'lejiapcTBO PycHJe y rpa^y Ph6hojc y Pja3aH>CKOj oSjiacTH; 

B. M. JIe6eaeB, aoierop nojbonpuBpe^HHX HayKa, npo<J>ecop 
no-tonpHBpe^Hor 4)aKyjiTeTa y Pja3an>y h anpeKTop Ojiciheiha 3a 
TexHOJiornjy npoH3BOflH>e rrqejiHH>HX npoH3BO.ua HHCTHTyTa; 

A. M. ToponueB, Kax.HH.aaT (MarHCTap) nojT.onpHBpe.nHHX 
HayKa, (cTapHJH HaymH capa^HHK HHCTHTyTa. 




IIpo(p. dp B. H. JleSedee 

Chumuk npuAUKOM npedaeawa odpwcaHOM 

nneAapuMa Eeozpada ua IIojbonpuepedHOM 

(jyattyjimemy (<I>omo: II. Hemuh) 

jteHa, 3HaTHO Befta Hero ojx flpyuiTaBa Koja cy cac- 
bhm yrHHyjia. 

CBaKH nnejiap je o6aBe3aH aa ^o6po 3Ha 
y3poKe HesaflOBOJbaBajyher 3HMOBaHia n^ejin- 
h>hx apyuiTaBa. He3aflOBOibaBajyne 3HMOBaH>e 
n^ejia Mo^ce 6hth H3a3BaHO HH30M y3poKa oa 
kojhx cy ochobhh cjie^etiH: 

- HapymaBaH.e npHHHHna pacnor pejoHHpa- 
H>a (y3roj y ceBepHHM perHOHHMa seMJbe cua- 
6ooTnopHHX Ha 3HMy paca nnejia, Jiouie aaanTH- 
paHHX Ha MecHe ycjioBe); 

- HapyuiaBaH>e poKOBa h npnnpeMe n^ejin- 
h>hx apyuiTaBa 3a 3HMOBaH>e; 

- HapyiuaBaHje npaBHJia npnnpeMe apyuiTaBa 
(npncycTBO y ^pyuiTBHMa CTapnx, He3a^oBOJta- 
Bajyhnx no KBajiHTeTy, MaTHua hjih h>hxobo o^i- 
cycTBo); 



381 



nqejiap 1998 



- nocTojaH>e Ha nnejiHH>annMa y jeceH Be- 
jiHKor 6poja cjia6nx flpynrraBa, c (})H3hojtouikh 
HCTpomeHHM n^ejiaMa; 

- o^cycTBO ycjioBa 3a HHTeH3HBHH nopacT 
6poja MJiajiHX nnejia y npen3HMCKOM nepno/iy 
(cjia6a o6e36et)eHOCT ^pynrraBa xpaHOM, or- 
cycTBO noap^caBajyhe name n ernMyjinniynnx 
yribeHOXHflpaTHHX h 6ejiaHneBHHacTnx npnxpa- 
Hanflp.); 

- HapyinaBaH>a pe^cHMajeceH>e HcxpaHe rrae- 
jihh>hx flpyuiTaBa inenepHHM CHpynoM (KacHHj'a 
HcxpaHa, BejiHKHM fl03aMa h He onTHMajiHOM 
KOHqeHTpauHJoM) ; 

- HapyniaBaite poKOBa cnpoBoljeita npo(j)n- 
jiaKTHKe npoTHB 6ojiecTH h KopHinheH>a npn 
TOMe Majioe^eKTHBHHXHa^HHa 6op6e c BapooM, 

UITO ^OBOflH RO BHCOKOr HHBOa 3apa2CeHOCTH 

npyuiTaBa Koja nay y 3HMy, h ro jaxor 
(J)H3HOJiouiKor HCTpomeH>a opraHH3Ma nnejia; 

- He Bol)eH>e panyHa o npaBHJiHMa pa3Me- 
niTaja pe3epBH 3HMCKe xpaHe y rae3,oy, Heno- 
BoibHO H>eroBO yTonjbaBaH>e h BeHTHJiauHJa; 

O/ICyCTBO HayHHO-OCHOBaHHX npo(J)H- 

jiaKTH^KHX h Mepa 3a JieneH>e, ihto ^obo^h ro 
3apaxaBaH>a nnejia ^pyniTBa onacHHM 6ojiec- 
THMa (Bapoo3a, H03eM03a, eBponcKa Tpyjieac, 
acKoc(})epo3a); 

- HeuoBoibHa KOJiHHHHa yribeHOXH/ipaTHHX h 
GejiaH^eBHHacTHX pe3epBH xpaHe 3a 3HMCKy 
HcxpaHy nnejiHH>HX apynrraBa; 

- jioui KBajiHTeT pe3epBH xpaHe (npHcycTBO y 
H>oj Me^JbHKe h otpobhhx xeMHJCKHX MaTepHJa, 
kojh nopa3HO aejiyjy Ha opraHH3aM n^ejia h ro- 
BO,ne ,zio CMpTHor Hcxo^a, yicpHCTajiHcaHOCT 
xpaHe); 

- HapymaBaHje hopmh KOMnjieTnpaH>a rae3,zia 
(npncycTBO BejiHKe kojihhhhc CTapor cafta y 
rHe3/iHMa 3a 3HMOBaH>e iraejia, Koje H3a3HBa y6p- 
3aBan>e nponeca KpHCTajiH3aHHJe yrcbeHoxn- 
apaTHe xpaHe); 

- He Boljepte panyHa o onraMajiHHM ycjio- 
BHMa BeHTHJiauHJe rae3,zia n*iejiHH>HX apyuiTaBa; 



- HapyinaBaH>e poKOBa noneTKa Here Jierjia 
n^ejiaMa y apyniTBHMa (o/i cpe^HHe 3HMCKor 
nepHo^a). 

2. Ehojiouiko o6pa3Jio>Keibe ochobhhx lin'mua 
si i Moita i i>a iwejiHH>Hx apyurraBa 

npnnpeMa miejiHH>HX flpynrraBa 3a 3hmo- 
Ban>e noHHH>e join on JieTa. npnnpeMajynn h 
npepaTjyjyftn HeKTap, npeoSpanajynn ra y Me,n, 
nnejie caMe npHnpeMajy BeoMa xpaHibHBy koh- 
LteHTpoBaHy xpaHy 3a 3hmcko noKOJbeH>e. 
HaHMe, 3a cypoB 3hmckh nepnoa JieTH>a reHepa- 
nnja npnnpeMa BejiHKe pe3epBe xpaHe. Men je 
caBpuieHO cnpeMaH npon3Boii 3a ycBajan>e op- 
raHH3MOM nnejia. MoHocaxapn^n Mena - rjiyK03a 
n (J)pyKT03a -HenocpejiHO ce ycncaBajy ennTejr- 
hhm nejinjaMa cpe£H>er npeBa n ^ocneBajy y 
xeMOJinM(})y niejie. HcTOBpeMeHo, Men kojh 
npe^cTaBJba ocHOBHy 3HMCKy xpaHy, 6e3 o63npa 
Ha fteroBy Bncoicy ycBojnBOCT, nnaK jiaje Hec- 
BapeHe ocTaTKe (no 1,8%). Tokom HHTaBor 
nepno^a 3HM0BaH>a, nnejie He ocjioSafjajy npeBa 
or H3MeTa. Oh ce HaroMHJiaBa y#e6ejioM upeBy, 
36or nera ce oho y npojiene jaico noBenaBa no 3a- 
npeMHHH. FpaHHHHO onTepeneH>e ^eSejior 
npeBa H3MeT0M He npejia3H 43 mg, uito nnrai 
46,3% onuiTe Mace ^cnBe n^ejie. /Jok on- 
TepeneH>e He flocrarHe cboj MaKCHMyM, nnejie 
HopMajiHO 3HMyjy. ^ajte noBenatte onTepeneita 
npeBa H3MeTOM H3a3HBa npojiHB nnejra, 
cjiaSjbeHje jipymraBa, h>hxobo o6ojieBaH>e n 
nponacT. 

npnnpeMajynn ce 3a 3HMy, nnejie Hapo^HTO 
ycnjbeHO yHoce y Konmnny nponojinc, kojhm 
SpnacjLHBO Jiene inynjbHHe y kouihhuh , 
CMaH>yjyhH caMHM thm nnipnHy JieTa. To 3HaTHO 
CHH^caBa ry6HTaK TonjioTe ,npyniTaBa npn 3hmo- 
Ban>y. llocjie 3aBpmeTKa rjiaBHe name, n^ejie H3 
Ho6pnxnpyniTaBa, Koja HMajy miouHe Marane, y 
noTnyHOCTH ncTepyjy TpyTOBe. OHe npecTajy na. 
xpaHe TpyTOBCKe JiapBe. IIlTaBnme, axo Tpy- 



Ta6ejia 1. OH3MOJIOUIKO CTAH>E nHEJIA y OCHOBHHM nEPHO^HMA PACTA H 
PA3BHTKA ^PYIIITABA 
(TIpoceHHO no jednoj nnejiu) 





HEPMOm PA3BMTKA TlHEJlMhbMX RPVWTABA 


HO 

OBEJ1EXUE 


\ uepnab - 
VMirtm tlpcjttM- 


// tiepuod' 

amTtcn-iu&ait 

puciTt <)pystt- 

iuamt 


tl ilepuad v 

% 

ftptiMa 1 


/// (it'pfn)d - 

mtoMttAoea- 

jfcwix rt'icjiu v 
dpvutiTtev 


IV fiepuoi) - 
nptiftpcMa 

JltMOHlIlhC 


JVSepttffd 

y% 

fipcMtl /// 


V tlepttof} - 
(iuejttt 


/ itepitftd* 
y% 

ftpCMtt V 


Maui cupofie 
utafflciHtie. t?jk 


65J 


-.--. 


100.1 


7L0 


78^ 


1KU 


75.7 


86 J 


w4tiai cyeti 
'Mituit'pujt:, ma 


ma 


20.7 


X025 


23.7 


768 


1133 


24.7 


St 3 


h^Kytfitti t'adp- 
mat Bm)f, % 


ft9J 


h$A 


- 


h6.ri 


BSjj 


- 


hlA 


- 


htncifttt, mx 


13K 


1.97 


142.7 


I.S6 


224 


12U.4 


Ltf 


K3,6 


\Cadpxaj 


2.49 


2.69 


rORjd 


IJS? 


2.27 


135 M 


3.2ft 


76,4 



382 



nqejiap 1998 



tobcko Jierjio Ben nocTOJH, nuejie ra yHHUiTaBajy 
(oTBopeHO, y CTaflHJyMy MJia^e JiapBe h jaja - no- 
je,ny, a 3aTBopeHo - H36auyjy H3 Konmnue). y 
3HMy yjia3e TpyTOBH caMO y ^pyniTBHMa 6e3 Ma- 
THua hjth c HeonjioIjeHHM MaranaMa. 

y nepnojiy npnnpeMe ^pyurraBa 3a 3hmo- 
BaH>e ^einaBa ce 3HaTHO CMan>eH>e 6poja nuejia, 
uito ce jaBJba Kao nocjie^nua H>HXOBor noBe- 
haHor HcupnjbHBaita Ha caKymtaiiy BejiHKe 
KOJiHHHHe HeKTapa h H>eroBe npepajie. Ha Kpajy 
jieTa H3yMHpe bcjihkh 6poj pajniJiHua jyHCKor h 
jyjicKor noKOJbeH>a. Maraue Harjio CHHataBajy 
hhbo nojiaran>ajaja, a 3araM, c HacTynaiteM CTa- 
Ghjihhx 3axjiarjeH>a, h cacBHM npecTajy m 
nojia^cyjaja. ycTaHOBibeHO je m y npeji3HMCKOM 
nepno/iy MaTnne nojiaacy KpynHHJa h Te^ca jaja 
Hero y npojielmo-JieTiieM nepnoay, uito y 
MHoroMe o^perjyje bhiuh KBajiHTeT nnejia je- 
ceite reHepaunje. 

CeM Tora, nuejie y npeji3HMCKOM nepno/iy 
Heryjy Jierjio y ycjioBHMa oSnjiHe CHadneBe- 
hocth apyuiTBa mchom h neproM, uito ycjioB- 
jbaBa, y noperjeity c JieTH>HM nepuo^oM, noBH- 
uieHH hhbo HcxpaHe JiapBH, kojh o6e36er}yje h 
HajGojbH KBajiHTeT nuejia jeceiter H3Bor)eH>a. 

riuejie jecetbe reHepaunje pa3BHjajy ce npn 
hiokhm TeMnepaTyparvia on nuejia npojieliHO- 
jieTH>er nepno/ia, uito ce, TaKorje, Moace pa3Ma- 
TpaTH Kao H>HXOBa npen3HMCKa npHnpeMa. 

ycneuiHOM 3HMOBan>y nuejia noro/xyjy 
3HaTHe (J)H3HOJiouiKe H3MeHe Koje ce aeuiaBajy y 
h>hxobom opraHH3My (TaSejia 1). ITpBO, y nepn- 
o,iry npnnpeMe 3a 3HMOBaH>e, y /ipyiuTBy ce H3 
KpynHHJHX h TeacHxjaja parjajy n*iejie Bene Mace 
Hero nuejie npojienHO-JieTH>e reHepaunje; jjpy- 
ro, y H.HXOBOM opraHH3My Ben je ^enoHOBaH 
noBenaH ca^pacaj pe3epBHHX a30THHX MaTepnja, 
MacTH, TJiHKoreHa, a onoxeMnjcKa rparja TKHBa 
o6e36erjyje noBHureHy OTnopHOCT opraHH3Ma Ha 
xjiaflHony. Koji jeceitHX nuena npHMeTHO ce 
noBenaBa Befta KOJiH^HHa pe^ynnpaHnx Ma- 
TepHJa y noperjeH>y ca cajjp:«ajeM hcthx kojj, 
jieTH>HX nuejia. y opraHH3My rreejia paca OTnop- 
hhx npeMa 3hmh, y jeceH>eM nepno^y HaroMH- 
jiaBa ce MacTH 30%, 6ejiaHueBHHacTHX MaTepuja 
3a 20 - 25% h TJiHKoreHa 3a 40% BHUie Hero kojj, 
MaH>e OTnopHHX Ha 3HMy, uito y3poicyje H>nxoBy 
6oiby npHJiarorjeHOCT Ha npo/jyoKeHy h cypoBy 

3HMy. 

HaroMHJiaBaH>e MacTH y opraHH3My n*iejia 
Koje yjia3e y 3HMy, npejicTaBJba je/iHy on <})opMH 
HaroMHJiaBaH>a eHeprnje y nepno/jy aKTHBHe 
HcxpaHe, Koja ce 3aTHM Tpomn y crafty npHHyn- 
hot MHpoBaita. 3aTO, ochm OHe kojih^hhc 
SejiaH^eBHHa h MacTH Kojy nuejia jjoSnja y cra- 
jjnjyMy JiapBe, OHa o6aBe3HO Tpe6a rel nporje 
HonyHCKy 6ejiaHueBHHacTy HcxpaHy npefl 3HMy. 
THMe ce o6jauiH.aBa noBenan>e noTpe6a nuejia y 
aBrycTy y 6ejiaH x ieBHHacToj xpaHH. OHe Tpouie 
3HaTHy KOJiHUHHy nojieHa, uito y MHoroMe 
ojjperjyje H>nxoBy <})H3HOJiouiKy npnnpeMJbe- 
hoct 3a 3HMOBan>e. Pe3epBHy MacT nuejie 



nouHH>y na. KopncTe npaKTHUHO or caMor 
noueTKa 3HMOBaH>a, jep npeMa cpe^HHH 3hmo- 
BaH>a H>eH ca/ipacaj y opraHH3My nuejia cnrypHO 
ce cmracaBa (Ta6ejia 1). 

y nepHO/jy npnnpeMe nuejia 3a 3HM0BaH>e, y 
h>hxobom opraHH3My HacTaje npoMeHa yHy- 
TpauiH>nx opraHa: :KiipejiHHX }KJie37ia, MacHor 
Tejia n jajHHKa. y thm opraHHMa Tajio^ce ce pe3- 
epBHe xpaHJLHBe MaTepnje. Taico cy, ko^ nuejia 
jeceH>e reHepaunje, xnno<})apHHreajiHe ^cfie3fle h 
MacHO Tejio 3a 2 - 2,5 nyTaja^e pa3BnjeHn Hero 
ko;i nuejia JieTH>e reHepaunje. 

GreneH pa3BnjeHOCTn MacHor Tejia, Kao n 
atupejiHHX 2Gie3fla, o^perjyjy (J)n3nojiouiKO 
CTaite 3hmckhx nuejia. Ilo HjHxobom CTaH>y 
Moryhe je cy^HTn o npnnpeMJbeHOCTn nuejia 3a 
3HMOBaH>e n nporao3npaTH H>eH tok. H3Merjy 
ayacHHe )KHBOTa n CTeneHa pa3BnjeHOCTH MacHor 
Tejia ycTaHOBJteHa je TecHa CTaTHCTHHKa Bepo- 
jlocTOJHa ^npeKTHa Kopejiaunja. Iluejie y 
nponecy npnnpeMe 3a 3HMOBaH>e nonpnMajy 
oGejieacja (J)H3hojiouikh MJiajxwx nuejia; cnoco6- 
hoct na ce CBejie Ha MHHHMyM noTpouiH>a xpaHe; 
H3ap^caBaTH Henoro^He ycjioBe 3HMe; noBenaTH 
ayacHHy XHBOTa ca 36 Ha 180 - 200 ,n,aHa. 
OH3HOJiouiKe npoMeHe CTaita yHyTpauiH>nx op- 
raHa nuejia n noBenaH>a ay>KHHe HjHxobot ^khb- 
OTa, npoy3poicyjy ce Hapo^inTHM ycjioBHMa 
y3roja jeceH>nx nuejia (noja^aHOM h.hxobom 
ncxpaHOM nojieHOM, jiejinMHHHHM hjih noTny- 
hhm ojicycTBOM pajioBa Ha ncxpaHn JiapBH , 
H3rpaaH>n caha, caKynjbaH>y n npepajin BejiHKe 
KOJin^HHe HeKTapa). Kor n^ejia Koje uny y 3HMy, 
ca^pxaj Boae, yKynHe n cjioSo^He, y nejinjaMa 
Tejia ce CHnacaBa, npn TOMe y Behoj MepH ko^ 
ceBepHHX paca Hero ko/i jyacHHX, uito 3HaTHO 
noBenaBa H.HXOBy OTnopHOCT npeMa npexjiaan. 

CeM TOra, KaKO KOJl BHCOKOOTnOpHHX Ha 3HMy, 

TaKO n ko,ii cjia6ooTnopHHX paca nuejia, yc- 
TaHOBJteHa je BHiua jiexHapaunja (H3JiyHHBaH>e 
Bo^e) opraHH3Ma y /ipyiuTBHMa npeacHBejiHM 
3HMy y noperjeity ca yrnHyjiHMa. Cjia6a npy- 
uiTBa, npnnpeMajynH ce 3a 3HMOBaH>e, yjeceH oji- 
rajajy nnejie c BenHM caupxajeM Boae y opra- 
HH3My Hero uito je to cjiyqaj koh jaKnx 
npyuiTaBa (no 66,7 n 64,5%), ycjie/i uera cy 
miejie o^HeroBaHe y cjia6oM ^pyniTBy MaH>e CTa- 
SnjiHe npeMa HenorojiHHM (J>aKTopHMa 3hmo- 
BaH>a. 

y 3hmckom nepno/iy, ko^ nuejia ce Men>a Tnn 
jincaHja. H3MeHa Tnna flncaifca Be3aHa je c Be- 
jihkhm HaroMHJiaBaH>eM n^ejia y 36hjcho KJiy6e, 
r^eje OTeacaH cjio6o^aH aocTyn KHceoHHKa. Koa 
jieTH>HX nuejia ochobhh nponecn o6pa30Ban>a 
TonjioTe Bpme ce y3 yneuine OKcn^nuiynnx (})ep- 
MeHaTa - OKcnna3a, kojh y nejinjaMa Tejia pa3- 
jiaxy npo^yKT ncxpaHe (uienep) y3 KopnmheH.e 
KHceoHHKa H3 Ba3^yxa. Koa 3hmckhx - pacTy 
nponecn pa3MeHe MaTepnja y3 yuemhe (J)epMe- 
HaTa /iexHflporeHa3e, kojh KopncTe khccohhk 
noBe3aH c Mauihy HaroMHJiaHoj y Tejiy nuejia y 
jeceH. 3aMeHa aepo6He pa3MeHe anaepoSHOM h 
CTeneH Te 3aMeHe, y mhotomc o^perjyjy npe- 



383 



nqejiap 1998 



2CHBJLHBOCT n^ejia y 3hmckom nepno^y. n^ejie 
3HMCKor noKOJbeH.a pa3JiHKyjy ce or nnejia 
jieTH>er no aKTHBHOCTH hckhx OKCHUHinynHX 
(J)epMeHaTa. Akthbhoct nepoKCH^a3e h cyMe ^,e- 
XHnporeHa3a y 3hmckom nepncny ^ocraaty MaK- 
CHMajiHe BejiH^HHe. 

y 3a^H>eM oflejtKy npeBa koa n^ejia jeceH>e 
reHepaiiHJe 3HaTHO HapacTa aKTHBHOCT <})ep- 
MeHTa KaTajia3e, kojh nrpa Bemocy yjioryy okch- 
naunoHHM npoueciiMa opraHH3Ma n y KomepBH- 
can>y H3MeTa kojh ce HaroMHJiaBa tokom 3hmc 
Akthbhoct <J)epMeHTa 3a BpeMe 3HMOBaH>a 
pacTe ca HaroMHJiaBaH>eM H3MeTa y ^eSejioM 
UpeBy n^ejre . Kon cjia6ooTnopHHX Ha 3HMy 
jyacHHX paca nnejia, 3auiTHTHH MexaHH3aM y rq- 
6ejioM upeBy cjia6HJe je H3paxeH Hero koji 
BHineoTnopHHX Ha 3HMy - ceBepHHX. ITpH- 
6jih:>kho je jxsa nyra cjiaGnja KaTajia3Ha aKTHB- 
hoct peKTajiHHX ^kjiq3rq. koji n^ejia jyacHor 
nopeKJia. y ycjioBHMa Tonjie 3HMe, n^ejie He 
o6pa3yjy CTajiHO 36HJeHO KJiy6e. OHe HMajy 
MorytiHOCT rq. 3a BpeMe 3HMOBaH>a Bpnie 
npoHHCHe H3JieTe, ycjie^ Hera ce h>hxobo jie6ejro 
UpeBO He npeoirrepenyje H3MeTOM. 

06ojieBaH>e nnejia or H03eM03e 3a BpeMe 3H- 
MOBaH>a, H3a3HBa aereHepannjy 5K#pejiHHX 
2CJie3^,a, MacHor Tejia, a to robork ro npepaHe 
cmpth nnejia. ycTaHOBJbeHO je jia H03eM03a 
HapyinaBa <J)yHKii;HJy peKTajiHHX ^cjie3/ia, hito ce 
HcnoibaBa 6p3HM ona^aH>eM aKTHBHOCTH <})ep- 
MeHTa KaTajia3e kor o6ojiejiHX nnejia. HcxpaHa 
imejia Me^ibHKOBHM mchom y 3hmckom nepnoziy. 
TaKofje, robork ro HapymaBaH>a (J)yHKiiHJe peK- 
TajiHHX ?KJie3Ra y H>HMa, a to npoy3poKyje Harjio 
ona^aH>e aKTHBHOCTH KaTajia3e h npojiHB. 

Ca ona^aH>eM cnojbaniH>e TeMnepaType ro 
13°C h mrace, n^ejie noHwibyRa ce KOHueHTpnmy 
y 6jih3hhh JieTa, Ha ^ejioBHMa cana H3 Kojer je 
H3auiJio nocjienH^e Jierjio, h OB^e ce o6pa3yje 
"jieacHinTe" 3HMCKor KJiy6eTa. 

ycTaHOBJbeHO je Ra kor jaKHX nnejiHH>HX 
npyuiTaBa o6pa30BaH>e KJiySeTa HacTyna npn 
TeMnepaTypn cnoibaiHH>er Ba3/iyxa 7°C, ko^ 
cpenH>HX - npn 10°C, a ko^ cjia6HX - npn 13°C. 

/Jo 75% yKynHe noBpimiHe 3ay3eTe niejiaMa 
KJiy6eTa, hhhh cane ocjio6of)eHO or Me,na. Kor 
iraejia Koje ce Hajia3e Ha npa3HHM ftejiHJaMa, 
Maca Me^,HHX bojbkh je 3a 30 - 60% Bena, on- 
TepeheH>e r ne6ejior upeBa h3mctom 12 - 14%, a 
HHTeH3HBHOCT pa3MeHe 6ejiaH x ieBHHa - 3a 20,4% 
HioKa Hero ko^i, nnejia Koje ce Hajia3e Ha 
noBpuiHHH cana. 

F[pa3HO nqejiHH>e cane je ^o6ap tohjiothh 
H30JiaTop, Koe(J)HUHJeHT H^eroBe TonjioTHe npo- 
bojulhbocth je oko 0,03 W/m°C. 36orTora, aKO 
cy npn 3HMOBaH.y n^ejie "nocaljeHe Ha mqr", tj. 
KJiy6e nocTaBJbeHO HCKJtyHHBO Ha cany HcnyH>e- 
ho MenoM, to he OHe ry6HTH TonjioTy npn- 
6jih2cho TpH nyra Bnuie Hero nnejie nnje KJiy6e 
HMa Jie^HiuTe. TopH>H Reo KJiy6eTa yBeK 3ax- 
BaTa ,aoH>c #ejioBe cana c mchom, uito o6e3- 



6ef)yje nnejiaMa Ra HMajy xpaHy y rpaHHuaMa 3a- 
rpeBaHor aejia KJiy6eTa. Ca yTpouiKOM xpaHe, 
KJiy6e n^ejia ce noMepa Harope. 

Kor nnejia cje£HH>eHHX y KJiySe, ry6nHH to- 
njioTe CMaH>yjy ce 9 nyra, a noTponnta xpaHe y 
nepHony 3HMCKor MHpoBaH>a CMaH>yje ce 20 - 25 
nyra y o^Hocy Ha noTpomity xpaHe noje^HHa^He 
n^ejie 3a hcto BpeMe. Pa3MeHa MaTepnja h 
yTpomaK eHepraje y 3hmckom KJiy6eTy cy 250 - 
300 nyra hidkh Hero y aKTHBHOM nepHQuy xhb- 
OTa. IIIto je Beha cnoco6HOCT nnejia ^a ycnope 
acHBOTHe nponece, to ocTaje BHine yHyrpauiH^HX 
CHJia 3a npe/icTojene npojiene. 

CTpyKTypa 3hmckot KJiy6eTaje pa3Hopo/iHa. 
CnojbaniH>H ^eo KJiy6eTa cacTOJH ce H3 rycTO 
ce^ennx nnejia, Koje o6pa3yjy Kopy neSibHHe 2,5 
- 7,5 cm. n^ejie y Kopn CTajiHO Men>ajy MecTa ca 
OHHMa Koje cy pa3MeniTeHe yHyrap KJiy6eTa. y 
cacTaBy Kope KJiy6eTa OHe ce Hajra3e jioTJie ,ziok y 
h>hxobhm BoibKaMa HMa 3ajiHxa Me^a. FLocjie 
noTnyHor HCTpomeH>a Te 3ajiHxe, OHe "3apoHe" 
y neHTpajiHH ^eo KJiy6eTa, nen.y ce no cahy Ka 
3ajiHxaMa xpaHe h nyHe BoibKy Me/ioM. Kopa 
noy3naHO nysa TonjioTy Koja ce CTBapa or n^ejia 
y cpe^HHH KJiy6eTa. 

Flo npaBHJiy y ueHTpajiHOM jiejiy KJiy6eTa pa- 
cnope^yjy ce npBeHCTBeHO (J)H3hojiouikh MJia/ie 
n^ejie, a y KopH - CTapnje, H3HypeHe. r II,e6jbHHa 
Kope MeH>a ce y 3aBHCHOcra or TeMnepaType 
cnojbauiH.er Ba3Ayxa: npn h>chom CHH^caBaH>y, 
jie6jbHHa KJiy6eTa pacTe h KJiy6e ce ca6HJa, a npn 
noBehaBaH>y jiemaBa ce o6paTHH nponec. rTnejie 
ce pacnope^yjy Ha Taj HaHHH ^a HCKopHCTe to- 
mioTyjejiHHKH Koje ce Hajia3e y cyce/iHoj yjiHUH. 
y Be3H c thm, OHe 3ay3HMajy npa3He hejinje caha 
Koje cy ca cynpoTHe CTpaHe 3ay3eTe h 3arpeBaHe 
or ^,pyrHX n^ejia. 3axBajbyjyriH TOMe, neHTpn 
KOHueHTpaunje nnejia y cycenHHM yjinuaMa 
nTaKTHHHO ce noioianajy. 

y Kopn KJiySeTa MHHHMajma TeMnepaTypa 
o^pacaBa ce Ha HHBoy or 6,1 ro 12°C. HaJBHina h 
CTaSHJiHa TeMnepaTypa (MHHHMyM 24,5°C) 3a- 
na^ca ce y neHTpajmoM Reny 3HMCKor KJiy6eTa. 

KOJH Ha3HBaMO TOnJIOTHHM IjeHTpOM. TOKOM 

3HMe TeMnepaTypa y neHTpy KJiy6eTa Men>a ce 
He3HaTHO - 06HMHO He BHine or 1 - 2°C jihcbho. 
3arpeBaH>e TonjioTHor ueHTpa BpuiH ce y 3aBnc- 
hocth or KOJiHHHHe n^ejia y KJiy6eTy, H>HXOBor 

(]DH3HOJIOmKOr CTaH>a, HHBOa aKTHBHOCTH H 

cnojbamH>e TeMnepaType. Ca CBOje CTpaHe, aK- 
thbhoct nnejia y MHoroMe 3aBHCH on TeMnepa- 
Type h BJiaacHOCTH OKpyacaBajyher Ba3^yxa, 
6p3HHe 3aMeHe Ba3^yxa h KOHueHTpaunje 
yrjbeHjiHOKCH/ia y KJiy6eTy, or npncycTBa Jierjia 
h xpaHe y mes^y a, TaKo^e, or H>eroBor KBaji- 
HTeTa h CTaH>a nnejia h jipyuiTBa y nejiHHH. 

Kao pe3yjiTaT pa3JiaraH>a mehepa H3 Me^a, y 
opraHH3My nnejia o6pa3yje ce Bo^a h yrjbeH- 
hhokchu, kojh ce HSJiyqyjy Hanojbe Kpo3 Tpa- 

XeJHH CHCTeM. /Ihcbho H3JiyHHBaH>e Boae KBa- 

jiHTeTHor apyuiTBa Koje ce 3hmh Hajia3H y 3H- 

MOBHHKy H3HOCH npOCeHHO 46 g (MaKCHMaJIHO - 



384 



nqejiap 1998 



80 g). IIpH pejiaTHBHo cyBOM Ba3Ayxy Bo/xa jiaKo 
HcnapaBa, ocjio6arjajyhn opraHH3aM or H>eHor 

CyBHUIKa. IIpH BHCOKOj BJia)KHOCTH Ba3,z]yxa y 

nnejiHH.eM KJiy6eTy th npouecn cy OTeacaHH. 
idto £obohh no HapyiuaBaH>a ycHcaBaH>a Bo;j,e y 
,ne6ejioM upeBy h jio npojinBa. 

y noueTKy 3HMe, pejiaTHBHo BJia^HOCT 
Ba3^yxa y rHe3^HMa npyuiTaBa Koja HeMajy Jie- 
tjio KOJie6a ce y rpaHHiraMa 38 - 70%. HaJBena 
BJia^KHOCTJe y 30hh TonjioTHor nenrpa. Ca yua- 
jbaBaiteM or TonjioTHor ueHTpa Ka ^OH.eM jiejiy 
KJiy6eTa npeMa JieTy, 3anaaca ce mraca BJiaacHOCT 
Ba3jjyxa. Bjia^cHOCT Ba3#yxa nocTeneHO ce 
CHH^caBa h Ka nepncJDepnJH or TonjioTHor ueHTpa 
KJiy6eTa. 

PejiaTHBHa BJia^KHOCT Ba3/jyxa y rHe3jiy 
He3ay3eTOM n^ejiaivia KOJie6a ce y ninpoKHM 
rpaHHiiaivia, a HapoHHTO y 30hh pa3MeurraH>a 
jieTa. HecTO ce Ha tom MecTy rHe3,na BJiaacHOCT 
Ba3Ayxa Hajia3H Ha HHBoy 3acnneHOCTH h npn 
CHH2caBan>y TeMnepaType #ojia3H ro KOHneH3a- 
nuje Bo^eHe nape. Bjiara ce HaroMHJiaBa Ha,nHy h 
3a£H>eM or JieTa 3Hjjy KoniHHue a, TaKorje, Ha jj,e- 
jioBHMa cana, ycjiefl Hera Mory Ra ce pa3BHJajy 
rjbHBHue njiecHH. 06pa30Ban>e borq (KOH,aeH3a- 
nnja) yBeK ce nemaBa Ha HajxjiajiHHJeM MecTy 

KOIUHHIie. 

Tpe6a na3HTH Ha to rq. cbh jxejioBH KouiHHue, 
yKJbyHyjyhn H yToiubaBajyhH MaTepHJ aji , HMajy 
BHiny TeMnepaTypy on cnojbauiH>er Ba3,nyxa. 
Ako ycneMO Ra ncnyHHMO Taj yarcoB, to y yiry- 
TpaniH>ocTH KoiiiHHue HHKa^a Hene 6hth BJiare. 
ITocTojaifce y koiuhhuh jjHpeKrae BeHTHJiaunje, 
cnpenaBa Ra ce o6pa3yje BJiara y rHe3,ny. 3a 
ynaibaBaH>e ,nojia3ener Ba3nyxa HeonxojiHH cy 
RORarmi otboph y ropH>eM nejiy rHe3,na. ^OKa- 
3aH je no3HTHBaH yTHuaj ropH>er JieTa Ha 3hmo- 
Ban>e nuejia - y KoniHHiiaMa Hene 6hth BJiare. 

noBehaH.e BJiaacHocra Ba3,nyxa y rHe3jjy y3- 
6yrjyje nnejie, uito robork ro noBehaH>a TeM- 
nepaType h, no npaBHJiy, ro OTnoHHH>aH>a nojia- 
ran>ajaja or MaTnue, uiToje CKon^aHO ca 3HaT- 
hom nonyHCKOM 6hojioiukh HeonpaB^aHOM noT- 
pouiH)OM eHeprnje y tom nepnony. Y HopMaji- 
hhm ycjioBHMa, nojiaraH>e jaja or Marane paca 
nnejia OTnopHHX Ha 3HMy h Hera Jierjia kor 
npyuiTaBa Koja ycneniHO 3HMyjy, no^nity or 
Rpyrc nojioBHHe MapTa* (3a 10 - 15 Rana npe h>h- 
xobot H3HomeH>a H3 3HMOBHHKa h npBor 
npojielmor H3JieTaH>a n^ejia). Vkojihko nnejie 
MaH>e Heryjy Jierjio 3hmh (ica^a ce nepnon 6e3 
H3JieTaH>a nponyacaBa Ha BHine 0,3 140 ,naHa), 
yrojiHKO ce OHe Bnme nourrefjyjy n HHTeH3HB- 
HHJe ra Heryjy y npojiene. IlHejie jyaainx paca 
3HaTHO ce paHHJe aKTHBHpajy 3a BpeMe 3hmo- 
BaH.a (pa3JiHKaje npoceHHO 30 Raaa) n npnery- 
najy He3H jierjia. IlacHBaH nepnojj, kor n^ejia 
jyacHHX paca, y h>hxoboj hctophjckoj nocToj- 
6nHH,3HaTHOje Kpann Hero kor nnejia ceBepHnx 



*) Cbh BpeMeHCKH pokobh kojh ce y obom TeKCTy noMHHiy, oa- 
Hoce ce Ha pycKe (ceBepHe) ycjioBe. y ycjioBHMa CpSnje, obh pokobh 
cy apyra'iHJn: npojiefiHH "naaajy" npM6jiH)KHO 1,5-2 Meceua paHHJe, 
ajeceH,H - oko 1 Meceu KacHHJe (npHMe.n6a npeBOHHOua). 



paca h o6hhho He npejia3H 100 ziaHa. 36or Tora, 
n^ejie cnBe KaBKacxe pace, 3a BpeMe 3HMOBaH>a 
npn je/iHHM Te hcthm napaMeTpnMa TeMnepa- 
Type h BJiaacHocTH Ba3jiyxa, paHnje or cpejiH>e- 
pycKHX nnejia npejia3e y aKTHBHO CTan>e, npnc- 
Tynajy y3rojy Jierjia. MefjyTHM, jierjio HeroBaHO 
y 3hmckom nepnony, cyBnme cxyno KoniTa 
n^ejie: kor h>hx ce npnMenyje npeBpeMeHO 
(l)H3HOJiomKO HCTpomeHje opraHH3Ma. CMan>eH>e 
ziy>KHHe acHBOTa, cjia6jbeH)e n naK yrnHyne. 

y 3hmckom n^ejiniteM KJiyGeTy 3HaTHO 
onana KOJin^HHa KnceoHHKa h pacTe KOHneHTpa- 
UHJa ymbeHnHOKCHjia. Hhbo yrjbeHiiHOKCHna y 
nepnony 3HMOBaH>a, tokom hckojikko Mecenn, 
Moace Ra npeBa3nrje H>eroB nponeHTHH canpacaj y 
Ba3jiyuiHoj aTMOc^epn 3a 100 - 300 nyra. Ako ce 
y CBeaceM Ba3^yxy canpacn 0,03% yrjbeHnnoK- 
cnjia, to yHyrap KJiy6eTa cnoKOJHO 3HMyjynnx 
n^ejia KOHneHTpaunja h3hoch 3,5 - 4,5%, ro- 
CTH2cynn y o6jiacTH TonjioTHor ueHTpa 6 - 7%. 
36or orpaHH^eika pa3MeHe Ba3jiyxa ca cno- 
jbanntoM cpennHOM, KOHueHTpaunja KnceoHHKa 
ce CMaH>yje ro 3 - 4%. 

y npouecy eBOJiynnje, kor mc^ohochhx n^e- 
jia H3rparjeH je a^anTauHOHH MexaHH3aM npeMa 
bhcokhm KOHueHTpaunjaMa yrjbeHnHOKcnna h 
HenocTaTKy KnceoHHKa. HnaK, Ba3nyx kojh 
canp3CH KnceoHHKa MaH>e or 5%, a yrjbeH,n,HOK- 
cnna - Bnme or 10%, nopa3HO neJiyje Ha crafte 
n^ejia n onacaH je 3a h>hxob ^khbot. y TaKBOj 
cpe^nHH nnejie yrHH^aBajy 3a 2 - 3 Rana. ITpn 
noBehaH^y KOHueHTpaunje yrjbeHnHOKcnna y 
KJiy6eTy H3Han HHBoa or 4%, nnejie nonnH^y aK- 
thbho Ra BeHTHJinpajy rHe3^o. y hcto BpeMe, 
noBenaH>e KOHueHTpaunje yrjbeHnHOKcnna y 
KJiy6eTy robork ro CMaH>eH>a aKTHBHOCTH pa3- 
MeHe MaTepnja y opraHH3My n^ejia, npHrymyje 
noTpouiH^y xpaHe, a to ca CBOje CTpaHe bojih Ka 
CMaiteity Mace H3MeTa. n^ejie BHCOKOOTnopHe 
Ha 3HMy HMajy y 3hmckom KJiy6eTy cnrypHO Behy 
KOHueHTpaunjy yrjLeHnnoKcnna Hero cjia6ooT- 
nopHe Ha 3HMy. 

y npyroj nojioBHHH 3HMe aKTHBHOCT n^ejia 
ce noBehaBa, niToje, no npaBHJiy, Be3aHO ca no- 
jaBOM jierjia y npyuiTBy. y 3ohh pa3MeniTaja jie- 
rjia, TeMnepaTypa ce onpacaBa He Hnace or 33°C, 
uito je noBe3aHO c HarjiHM noBenaiteM no- 
TponiHje xpaHe. CTaHjj,apiiHO n*iejiHH>e npyuiTBO 
noTpomn y npBoj nojioBHHH 3HMe 20 - 25 g Me^a 
jlHeBHO, a c nojaBOM Jierjia noTpomH^a xpaHe no- 
pacTe jiBa nyTa. 

Ha BejiHHHHy yTpomeHe eHeprnje n no- 
TpouiH>y xpaHe nnejia Koje 3HMyjy, jaKO yrH^e 
TeMnepaTypa cnojbaniH>e cpeiiHHe. CMaTpa ce Ra 
je y 3hmckom nepnony onTHMajiaH OHaj nnjana- 
30H TeMnepaTypa npn KojeM ce RemaBa npejia3 
n^ejia npyniTBa H3 nacHBHor CTan>a y aKTHBHy 
nejiaTHOCT, uito robork ro Harjior nopacTa no- 
TpouiH.e xpaHe. AHajiH3a noTpouiH>e kojihhhhc 
KnceoHHKa kojh ynoTpeSn npyniTBo tokom 3h- 
Me, noKa3ajia je Ra cy TeMnepaType, Koje cthm- 
ynniuy aKTHBH3aHnjy npyuiTBa CHBe njiaHHHCKe 
KaBKacKe n cpejj;H>epycKe pace, pa3JiHHHTe. TaKO 



385 



nqejiap 1998 



cy nnejie CHBe iuiaHHHCKe KaBKacxe pace 
ynoTpe6ibaBajie HaJMaH>y KOJin^HHy KnceoHHKa 
npn TeMnepaTypn or 4 ro 6°C, a cpejntepycKe - 
or 5 - 9°C. 3aTO ce npenopynyje na. ce, no^eB or 
Rpyre nojioBHHe 3hmckot nepno,na, nocTeneHO 
OTno^He CHH^caBaH>e TeMnepaType ro 5°C Ka 
Kpajy Tor nepnona. (OBjieje, OHHrjiejiHO, pen o 
peryjiHcaity TeMnepaType y 3HMOBHHKy - npn- 
Meji6a npeBonnona). 

Pe3yjiTaTH ncnnTHBaH>a BpmeHH y Hay^HO- 
HCTpa^KHBaHKOM HHCTHTyry 3a n^ejiapcTBO , 
y6e^JLHBO noKa3yjy m. HajycneniHHJe 3HMyjy 
ZipyuiTBa, c MHHHMajiHOM noTpoiiittoM xpaHe n 
eHeprnje, npn MHHHMajiHoj TeMnepaTypn (+6 
±1°C), Koja ce onaaca y OMOTany 3HMCKor nnejin- 
H>er KJiy6eTa. FLoMeHyTa TeMnepaTypa je onra- 
Majma 3a cpe^ntepycKy n cnBy njraHHHCKy 
KaBKacKy pacy n^ejia. MerjyrnM, 36or paHnjer 
aKTHBnpaH>a n^ejia jyacHor nopeioia, no^eB ojx 
jipyre nojioBnHe 3HMOBan>a, c nnibeM cnpena- 
Ban>a MaTnna Ra paHO nojiaacy jaja, 3a h>hx je 
Heonxo/iHO nocTeneHO, Ha Bnme on 0,5°C, 
jmeBHO, CHH^caBaTH TeMnepaTypy y 3HMOBHnKy 
ro +3 - 4°C. TeMnepaTypa okojihot Ba3/iyxa 
n^ejinHier 3HMCKor KJiy6eTa Bnma or 7°C ro- 
bork ro CHH^caBaH>a pejiaTHBHe BJiaacHOCTn 
Ba3Ayxa yHyTap H>era, uito 3axTeBa noBenan>e 
BJiaacHOCTH Ba3jiyxa y 3nMOBHnKy. 



ja^nHa npyuiTaBa ce CMan>yje. J\a ce He 6n flonyc- 
thjio cjia6jbeH>e RpyunaBa, Tpe6a noMaraTH 
noBenan>e Jierjia no^eB or Rpyre nojioBHHe Me- 
zio6paH>a. 

YTBprjeHO je Ra ce MHHHMajma noTponiH>a 
xpaHe 3hmh 3anaaca kor npyuiTaBa ja^HHe or 9 
ro 12 yjinna n^ejia. OjicTynaite or tot 6h- 
ojiouiKor onTHMyMa, Kaxo Ha CTpaHy CMaH>eH>a, 
TaKO n Ha CTpaHy noBeftaH>a 6poja n^ejia y 
iipyniTBHMa, robork ro Harjior noBenaH>a no- 
TponiHje xpaHe tokom 3HMe no jcuhhhuh acHBe 
Mace nnejia. MaKcnMajiHa noTponiH>a xpaHe 
tokom 3HMe npHMefteHa je kor Hajcjia6njnx 
npyniTaBaja^HHe 4-5 yjinna nnejia. 

HaBe^eHn nonauH roBope o TOMe Ra y 3hm- 
ckom nepmoRY nocTojn 6hojiouikh onTHMyM 
ja^HHe n^ejiHH>HX npyuiTaBa npn KojeM OHa npo- 

BORQ 3HMCKH nepHO^ C MHHHMaJIHOM nOTpOUI- 

h>om xpaHe n eHeprnje. Ha Taj HannH, 3a CBaicy 
pacy n^ejia, y 3aBHCHOCTH or kohkpcthhx 
ycjioBa 3nMOBaH>a, 6nojiouiKn onTHMyM Tpe6a 
ua 6yne cboj. 

rTojiann Ta6ejre 2 noTBprjyjy npBO, Ra pa- 
^yHaTO no yjinnn, n^ejiejaKnxjipyuiTaBa Tpouie 
tokom 3HMe 50 - 90% Man>e Me#a Hero nnejie 
npyuiTaBa cpe^H>e jannHe n cjia6a (Ta6ejia 2). 

TaScjia 2: YTHIIAJ JAHHHE riHEJIHfLHX 
flPyiUTABA HA PE3YJITATE 3HMOBAH>A 



3. npuiipejvia nneJiHifcHX apynrraBa 3a 3hmo- 
Ban>e 

3a ycneuiHO 3HMOBaH>e OAJiyqyjynn 3Hanaj 
HMa 6jiaroBpeMeHa n npaBnjma npnnpeMa 
NpyuiTaBa 3a 3HMOBaH>e o kojoj ce Tpe6a nocTa- 
para join 3a BpeMe rjiaBHnx nama. npnnpeMn 
nMejiHH>nx jipyniTaBa 3a ycnenmo 3nMOBan>e 
Tpe6a ua npeTxo^n: 

- rajefte 3HMOOTnopHnx paca iraejia £o6po 
npnjiaro^eHnx Ha JioKajiHe KJinMaTCKe ycjioBe; 

- npnnpeMe jaxnx 3^paBnx apyuiTaBa c Be- 
jihkhm 6pojeM (J)H3hojiouikh MJiaanx niejia; 

- o6e36er}eH>e flpynrraBa MJia^HM bhcoko- 
npo^yKTHBHHM MaTHnaMa Koje #o6po no^Hoce 
3HMy; 

- o6e36erjeH>e nnejinH^nx npyniTaBa ^o- 
bojlhhm KOJiHHHHaMa KBajiHTeTHe xpaHe 3a 
3HMy; 

- CTBapaite 3HMyjyhnM n^ejiaMa onTHMajinnx 
ycjioBa MHKpoKJinMe (TeMnepaType n BJiax- 
Hocra). 

no3HaToje rel HHTeH3HBHO caKynibaH>e HeK- 
Tapa y JieTH>eM nepnojiy HeraTHBHO yrn^e Ha 
ayacnHy acnBOTa nnejia n Ha Kpajy rjiaBHe name 



noKA.iMEJbM 


Ja'timn dpytttuttm, 

v.rrrri.p 


4-5 


6-7 


B-9 rr 


floifipouiftoa vpatie .utMtt* Upocc* 
•tun w> yaumu ff*iejwk$ 


1.4 


U 


i.n 


Kthiti'titiui yttttiyjwx (frte&tt -i«- 


52.V 


iy.2 


M 




J8.5 


l.H 






Ztpyro, ua jaxa apyuiTBa, c bcjihrhm 6pojeM 
n^ejia, 3HaTHO 6ojbe H3apacaBajy 3HMOBaH>e, xj. 
HMajy npH6jiK>KHO 2 - 2,5 nyra Man>e yrnHyha n 
MaH>e oSojieBajy or H03eM03e. Hero nnejie 
cpeRihe jaKHX n cjiaSnx npyuiTaBa. To ce 
oSjanntaBa He tojihko bhcokom 6poJHomfty 
n^ejia, kojihko HjHxobhm KBajiHTeTOM kojh cy 
OHe CTeKJie Ha pa^yH noBOJbHnx ycjioBa ncxpaHe 
n MHKpoKJinMe npn y3rojy. OjiaB/ieje ohwtjiqrho 
Ra nnejie jaKHX^pyuiTaBa JiaKme H3jipacaBajy 3n- 
MOBaite, Man>e ce ncnpnjbyjy n o^pacaBajy cno- 
coGhoct y3roja Bene kojihhhhc Jierjia y npojiene. 
(nac rauaK y cjie^eheM 6pojy) 



386 



Elqejiap 1998 



fla rw\ cy hq nomony oixpuTia kojo Tie nomohn nwenitttoj 

3QjeAHMUM flo ce ocrio6oAM cbmx 6onecru m noseha cBOjy 

npoflynrtisHOCT Bnuue nyTO 

Ilpofp' dp CjioQodau MuAopadoeuh 



Ce^aM/ieceTMX rojiHHa, y okojihhh Bopa, 
36or 3ararjeHOCTH xhbothc cpe/iHHe otpobhhm 
racoBHMaH3 6opcKorpy;iHHKa, HHJe 6hjio nnejia. 
KacHHJe, no yrpat)HBaH>y (J)HJTTepa Ha /iMMBa- 
UHMa pynHHKa, n^ejie cy ce BpaTHJie He caMO y 
oKOJiHHy Bopa Hero wy caMrpan Bop. HacejiHJie 
cy MHore inyninjbHHe /roBena, CTeHa h MOCTOBa. 
KapTy cbhx thx npHpo/iHHX CTaHHinra nnejia 
ypajjHO je TaMonntH (JDaHaTHHHH n^ejiap 
BpHnyinnn MBaH. OHeTaMO, HaBHCHHaMa, HBaH 
tbp^h, h RaibQ oncTajy. 

A aa jih 6h Hauie nnejie y KouiHHuaMa 
nocTaBJbeHHM tmk H3Hajj, 3eMibHHor TJia Morjie 
/ja oncTaHy axo hm mh He 6h pa3HHM JieKOBHMa 
noMarajiw jja ce ocjio6o/j,e H03eMe, Kpe^Hor Jie- 
rjia, Bapoe . ..? MHoro nyra cmo ce yBepufiH jja 
6h H3yMpjie. A ko jienn nnejie ca MBaHOBe 
KapTe? Koja je to HeBH/ytHBa cmia Koja hm 
OMorynasa rsl cy CTajiHO 3/roaBe? 

O^roBopH Ha OBa nHTaita Kao jja ce Hajia3e y 
TeKCTy HcnncaHor pyKOM 24. X 1993. rojjHHe, 
kojh je ny^HOBaTHM nyreBHMa jiocneo, npe jjBa 
Meceua, jxo nncna obhx pe^oBa. hBeroB ayTopje 
BjiajjHMHp Ahckhj H3 rpajja IleHope kojh ce Ha- 
jia3H y Peny6jiHUH Komh (Pycxa (j)ejxepaHHJa) . 
fla jth je pyKonnc Herae nySjiHKOBaH HHJe mh 
no3HaTO. 

y H>eMy, H3Merjy ocTajior, BjiajjHMHp flncKHJ 
Ka^ce: "Koa JtynH THita Hajj,a r& iraejie ocjioGojje 
GojiecTH. H3BopH ^ajiexe npouuiocTH caonniTa- 
Bajy rsl iraejie yonmre HHcy 6ojioBajie. Bnuie or 
50 SojiecTH, JiaHac, Hana/iajy nnejie iuto Hera- 
thbho yrane Ha n^ejiapcTBO Kao Ba^KHor cer- 
MeHTa npHBpejxe. 

H3MHiuji>eHH cy Ha ^eceTHHe HaHHHa 6op6e c 
GojrecTHMa nnejia, ho hh jejiaH ce He MO)Ke CMa- 
TpaTH noTnyHO e(J)HKacHHM. nnejie Kaxo cy 6o- 
jioBajie TaKO h rxaibe 6ojryjy. 3a ocTBapen>e 
noMeHyTe JtyjjcKe Hajj,e KOHCTpyncaHa je 
KoiiiHHHa ca chm6ojihhkhm Ha3HBOM, no JiornnH 
CTBapH, - "CaTypH-V" (IlpeMaflpeBHOj Phmckoj 
MHTOJiorHJH Bor CaTypH je 6ho 3auiTHTHHK 3eM- 
jbopaa,H>e na caMHM thm h n^ejia, 6e3 kojhx ce He 
Mory ocTBapHBaTH bhcokh npHHOCH y nojto- 
npHBpejiH. PHMCKa nH(J>pa "V" 3aje/jHO c pe^jy 
"CaTypH" 03HanaBa paxeTy "CaTypH-V" Kojaje 
16.jyHa 1969. rojiHHe JiaHcnpajra kocmhmkh 6po.ii, 
"Anojio 11" y 3eMibHHy op6HTy, c Kora cy ce 
jtynH OTHCHyjiH h ct>tihjih npBH nyr Ha Meceu.) 

KoniHHna "CaTypH-V" KOHCTpyncaHa je Ha 
ocHOBy 6HOJiorHJe nqenHH>e 3ajezmHue. Y3eTe cy 

y o63Hp n03HTHBHe CTpaHe KOUIHHUa pa3HHX TH- 

noBa Kao h yro/iHOCTH h>hxobhx npHpojjHHX 
CTaHHUiTa (/xynjbe bcjihkhx JiHMeH3HJa - Byp3H- 



jaHCKH iuyMCKH nnejiHH>H pe3epBaT, AfiTajcKH 
Kpaj - Ky3Je/joBo). 

F[oTpe6Hoje jja ce koiuhmhc, y TOKy nejie ro- 
Jiime, Hajia3e Ha njiaT(})opMaMa Ha bhchhh Koja 
HHJe HH^ca or Tpn MeTpa or 3eMibHHorTJia. TnMe 
je H36erHyTa noTpe6a jja ce Konmnne, y TOKy 
3HMe. CMeniTajy y cneuHJajme 3HMOBHHKe. 
KoniHHHa o6e36erjyje 6HOJiouiKy paBHOTe^cy 3a 
6hjio Kojy pacy nnejia. OMorynaBa jj,a y H>oj 
nMejiHH>a 3aje/jHHna JipcTHrHe Macy or 6 kg qHMe 
ce cnpeqasa pojeH>e. FIpH HopMajiHHM BpeMeH- 
ckhm ycjioBHMa h HopManHoj nauiH KoniHHna 
OMorynasa Ra ce flo6HJe 80-100 kg Me/ia, oko 20 
kg nojieHa, nponojinca ^,o 0,2 kg. KomHHHaje 
npomjia HcnHTHBaH^a Ha je^HOM nnejiHtkaKy 

MoCKOBCKe 06jiaCTH. Pe3yJITaTH Cy n03HTHBHH 

naKO cy BpeMeHCKH ycjioBH 6hjih Heyo6H4ajeHH. 
McnHTHBaH>a y TyjicKoj o6jiacTH cy TaKorje flajia 
no3HTHBHe pe3yjiTaTe." 

fla Bene pacTojaH>e CTaHHinTa nnejiHH>e 3a- 
jejiHHue or 3eMJLHHor TJia HMa jiejioTBopaH yrH- 
uaj Ha H>eH ^chbot CBe/ioHH eKcnepnMeHT kojh je 
oSaBJbeH y KocMocy. 

HaHMe, yacypHajiy "American Bee Journal" 
J\° 7,1984. ro^HHe, oojaBJbeHoje na ce 3a BpeMe 
jieTa aMepHHKor KOCMHiKor 6pona Ha H>eroBOM 
3Hjiy Hajia3HO KOHTeJHep c nnejiaMa. FIpBH eK- 
cnepHMeHT c nnejiaMa KOJHJe H3Be^eH y anpHJiy 
1982. ro^HHe Gnoje HeycnemaH. CBe cy nnejie 
CTpajiajie. Hobh eKcnepnMeHT je noHOBJteH y 
anpHJiy 1984. rojiHHe h 6noje ycnemaH. 

Tpn XHiba^e h TpncTa n^ejia, y ycjioBHMa 
GecTe^KHHCKor CTan>a, HanpaBHJie cy caT 
ojuiHHHor KBajiHTeTac noBpniHHOM or 193,5 cm 2 . 
y TOKy cejiMO^HeBHor 6opaBKa y KocMocy no- 
TpouiHJie cy nojioBHHy or 16,38 cm 3 ^cenaTHHCKe 
xpaHe cnpaBJteHe or niehepa, Bojie h mopckhx 
pacTHH>a. YMpjioje caMO 125 nnejia. HayHHHUH 
cy npeTnocTaBHJiH rq. ne n^ejie ^a H3BJiaHe cane, 
ho KaKBO he OHO R2L o^rq y ycjioBHMa GecTeacHH- 
CKor CTaH>a, 6e3 cyHua h ycjioBa Ha Koje cy OHe 
HaBHKJie Ha 3eMibH hhko HHJe 3Hao. 

Kohtpojihh KOHTeJHep c nnejiaMa, HiieH- 
TH^aH ohom KOJHJe JiaHCHpaH y Kocmoc, 6noje 
ocTaBJbeH Ha 3eMibH. 3a to BpeMe nnejie Ha 
3eMJbH HHcy HSBJia^HJie cahe. Taj (J>aKT eK- 
cnepTH He Mory^a oojacHe. 

n^ejie npe^ eKcnepHMeHTOM 6HJie cy y3pa- 
CTa 12 naHa a yMpjie cy Ka^a cy/iocTHrjie CTapocT 
or 30 naHa. 3a BpeMe JieTa y KOHTeJHepy nnejie 
ce HHcy HcnpaxH>aBajie. llo noBpaTKy Ha 3eMJby 
OHe cy o6aBHJie neTOMHHyrHH npo^HCHH JieT h 
BpaTHJie ce y CBOjy KoniHHuy. 



387 



n^ejiap 1998 



riocjie eKcnepiiMeHxa caT h H>eroBe 4>oto- 
rpa(J)iije 6mjim cy npeaaTH HaynHiiM yciaHOBaMa 
Ha iicnMTMBairbe. J\a jiii ce /touijio ao hckmx ca3- 
Hairba Koja o6janiH>aBajy OBaj 4>enoMeH HM Je mm 
no3HaTO. 

A j\a Belie pacTOJaH>e CTaHMiiiTa n4ejiMH>e 3a- 
jeAHnne on, 3eMibMHor TJia 3aMCTa MMa ,aejiOT- 
BOpHM yTMnaj Ha H>eHO 3ApaBJte Kao Aa 
noTBprjyje m TBpAH>a MJiaAor nnejiapa MmiaHa 
MiiJiocaBJbeBiina 113 Cajiaiua (UpHo6apCKor). 
JleTOC, Ha mom nMejiMH.aKy, y pa3roBOpy o obmm 
npo6jieMMMa, MnjiaH peie, j\a Kajia je 36or Ha6y- 
jajie Jlpime CBOj'e KOuiHMue noAMTao Ha Beny bh- 
CMHy OHa ApyuiTBa Koja cy MMajia KpeHHO Jierjio, 
6e3 jiexoBa, cy 03ApaBMJia. 

Moryhe je npeinocTaBHTM j\a cy nnejie 
nonejie j\a 6ojiyjy OHor MOMeHTa Ka^a mx je 
HOBeK, y ^ceibM Aa My dajiHO 6yny Ha BMAMKy, 
cnycTMO ca BMCMHa Ha 3eMJby. 

nnejiapM kojm aP^kc n^eAe Ha je/iHOM MecTy 
MorjiM 6m m Aa npaBe njiaT^opMe bhcokc TpM Me- 
Tpa Ha Koje 6m npeMecTMJiM CBOJe nnejie. A uiTa 
na pajxe ohm kojm cejie CBOj'e nnejie? 

3a h>mx M3rjie,aa j\a he peiueH>e astm cyHue, 
6e3 Kora nopeA BOAe m Ba3Ayxa, He 6m Ha 3eMJtn 
hm nocTOj'ao 6njbHM m >kmbotmh.ckm CBeT. 

HaMMe y "IiHejiOBOACTBy" 6p. 2* 3a OBy 
roAMHy ny6jiMKOBaH je tckct noA HacjiOBOM 
"CynnaHe KOiiiHMne npMj'aTHO he M3HeHaAMTM 
CBaKora". 

Oho uito ce y H>eMyTBpAM, TeuiKOj'e noBepo- 
BaTM: "Mm cmo 3aBpniHjiM hm3 McnMTMBahba o 
yTMuaJMMa cyHneBor CBeTJia Ha me3AO nnejiMH>e 
3aje,aHMue. 

HcnMTaHe cy: BMiueKOpnycHe KOuiHMue 
(cjiMHHeJl. P.-y) "Mayrjin" m KaceTHe KomHnne 

'TTMOHMp-reJlMOC". 

"Mayrjin" MMa neTMpM ocBeTJteHa njiOAMin- 
HaTejia koa KOJMxje 3acTaKJteHa npeAtta CTpaHa 
m ^eTMpM o6MHHa HacTaBKa 3a MeA- KoiuHMna ce 
nocTaBJta Ha noroAHOM MecTy noA otkpmbchmm 
He6oM. 

"nMOHMp-TejiMOc" MO>Ke ce nocTaBMTM ycTa- 
UMOHapHOM naBMJbOHy, Tepacn, ApyroM cnpaTy 
Kyhe mjim y noxpeTHOM naBMJBOHy. OBa koih- 
Hnna Kao m KOiuHMua "MayrjiM" MMa 80 paMOBa 
(435 x 230 mm) CMeuneHMx y ocaM HacTaBaKa. 
JIoGMJeHM cy ynenaTJbMBM pe3yjiTaTM. BeoMa je 
Ba^KHO na cy ce arpecMBHa ApyuiTBa, npe- 
MeuiTeHa y ocBeTJbeHe KOiiiHMne, Kp03 Mecen, - 
Meceu m no nana Morjia nperjie^aTM 6e3 Mpe^ce m 

AMMMJIMUe. 

HOCMBOCT MaTMHe y KOHIHMUM 'TlMOHMp- 

rejiMOc" y npojiehe m y jeceH je j\sa nyTa Behe 
Hero y o6m4hmm KOiuHMuaMa. MeAHa npOAyK- 
TMBHOCTy obmm KOiuHMuaMa je 4aK 3-4 nyTa Beha 
y OAHOcy Ha ApyuiTBa y o6m4hmm KOiuHMuaMa, y 



*y ohom 6pojy "nMe^oBoacTBa" o6jaBJi>eH je tckct "CHJia3HO 
npoBeTpaBaH,e KoiuHHue noa aejeTBOM opraHH30BaHe aeHpecuje 
niejia" Hauinx ayTpa KoMHeHa TjHHOBiitia 11 Muhe M.na;ieHOBnTia. 
A y npeTxoaHOM 6pojy o6jaBJi>eH je tckct npBocjiaBa Heiunha "Mc- 
Topuja cpncKor n^ejiapeHja" 



CBeTJiMM KOiuHMuaMa nnejie nonMH^y c pa/iOM ABa 
naca paHMJe a 3aBpuiaBajy jxsa naca KacHMJe y oa- 
Hocy Ha nnejie M3 TpaAnnMOHajiHMx KouiHMua. 

y CBeTJiMM KOiuHMuaMa n^ejie 6p^ce M3BJiane 
cahe mto MCKJby4MB0 pajjMJiM4Ko; ApymTBa ce He 
poje m HMcy CKJiOHa Tpa6e>Ky. y obmm kouihm- 
uaMa, aKO ce y h>mx npecejie ApyuiTBa o6ojiejia 

KpeHHMM JieTJIOM, aMepMHKOM KyroM, BapOOM, 

HacTaje caMOM3JieneH>e Ha panyH no6ojbuiaHe 
MMKpOKJiMMe m ^cjcTBa cyHHeBMx 3paKa. 3mmo- 
BaHse je ycneuiHO 6e3 cmpthoctm nnejia m BJiare. 

Bp3M npojiehHM pa3BOj ApyuiTBa m Moryh- 
hoct CTajiHe BM3yejiHe KOHTpojie ^MHe CBeTJie 

KOlllHMHe MAeaJIHMM M 3a CTaHMOHapHO m 3a 

cenehe n4ejiapeH>e. 

yno3HaBiuM ce ca HpTe>KMMa CBeTJiMx koiu- 
HMua m TexHMKOM n4ejiapeH>a c H>MMa, bm mo- 
>KeTe npeype^MTM CBOJe BMuieKOpnycHe kouihm- 
ue /jaAaHKe m nojiouiKe y CBeTJie, 6e3 bcjimkmx 
TpouiKOBa m noBehaTM npOM3BO/jH>y ucj\a 4 nyTa 
(mqjx ca3peBa 2 nyra 6p^ce, 3aTO ra nenihe 
MOpaTe Ba^MTM). 

3a AeTajbHa o6aBeuiTeHja o6paTMTe ce Ja- 
KOBJbeBy TeHaAMJy TeHarjeBMny Ha a^pecy: 
143722, MocKOBCKa o6jiacT, IIIaxoBCKMJ peoH, 
n/o/Iop, T. Cokojiobo. 

y nncMO CTaBMTe KOBepaT ca 

BauiOM a^pecoM 

T. T. JaKOBJbeB 

Flo npBOM 4MTaH>y obot TeKCTa, a HMTao caM ra 
HMine nyra, no3Bao caM rjiaBHor ypc^HMKa na- 
connca "nnejiOBOjjCTBa" rocno^y HpeHy JypjenHy 
BepjeiuhaKy hmjom jby6a3H0inhy caM ao6mo 6poj 
Tejie4)OHa (4962962, no3MBHM 3HaK 3a MocKBy je 
997095) ayropa T. T. JaKOBJbeBa. ^o OBor Tpe- 
HyTKa, Ha>KajiocT, HMcaM ycneo CH>MMeaa ycnocra- 

BMM HMKaKaB KOHTaKT. 

Ho, m 6e3 tmx jreTajbHMx ynyrcTaBa motjio 6m ce 
eKcncpMMeHTMcaTM. Beh noMeHyrn Mn/iaH H3 
IJ,pHo6apCKor Cajiaiua, o/xymeBJbeH obmm iuto Y. Y. 
JaKOBJbeB TBpjiM, BMnaH CTOJiapCKOM 3aHaTy, 
cnpeMa ce j\a na npojiehe npeMecTM je^HO /xpymTBO 
M3 o6MHHe y CBeTJiy Konuinuy. 

A, m hm ApyrM, aKO nonyr MnjiaHa 6yzieTe 
y4MHM/iM mcto, Bauia MCKycTBa CTaBMTC Ha nannp m 
noiuajbMTe ra naconncy kojm he mx o6paAMTM m 
o6aBecTMTM o CBeMy TOMe m ocTane 4MTaoue Hamer 
Haconnca "IiHejiap". 

3MMyc, yjaHyapy, BpahajyhM ce M3 CHeroM m Jie- 
AOM OKOBaHor Bopa, r,ne cmo npncycTBOBajiM ot- 
BapaH^y M3Jio>K6e ^OTorpa^MJa M3 >KMBOTa n^ejia, 
ayropa HBaHa BpHAymnha, Kojyjc jienMM pe4MMa 
otbopmo npBOCJiaH Heuinh, TeKCTonMcau je y je,a- 
hom TpeHyTKy ynMTao npotjjecopa JoBaHa Ky- 
jiMH4eBMha: "Kojimko 6m y Hamoj 3eMJbM, npeMa 

KJIMMaTCKMM M npMpOAHMM yCJIOBMMa, MOTJIO H&. 

>kmbm nnejiMHsMx 3aje,THMna?" 

H>eroB o^roBOpje 6mo 2 MMJiMOHa. HaKneT nyra 
BMine Hero IIITO mx cana MMaMO. J\a jim he HaA Cp6n- 
jom m lipHOM TopOM 6pyjaTM nnejie M3 2 MMJiMOHa 
KouiHMua He MOiKeMO j\a 3HaMO. Ako ce noKa>KC n,a 
cy TBpAH>e OB^e M3peneHe TanHe, npo(J>ecopOBa 
npoueHa MO^aa he ce m ocTBapMTM. OcTaje HaM n,a 
ce Ha^aMO jxa he TaKO m 6mtm. 



388 



n^ejiap 1998 



npece/baeatbe nne/ia M3 epwicape 



HjiaHaK nnejiapa MHJIYHA MAH/JHTiA, 
flHnji. HH3C. o6jaBJbeH y obom naconncy 6p. 9 Ha 
CTp. 357, no6ymio Me je Jia HanumeM hckojihko 
penn o obom npo6jieMy, qhhocho na onnmeM moj 
HauHH npecejteH>a nuejia H3 BpuiKape y 

KOIHHHUy. 

HaJTeacH neo npecejLetta je HCTepHBatte 
nnejia H3 BpniKape. HeKH, KyuaH>eM no BpuiKapn 
HCTepyjy nuejie, HeKH to pajje ,aHMJi>eH>eM HeKH 
majiHTpoM onnjajy nuejie htji,. CBe je to My- 
KOTpnaH nocao h ca MorynHM nocjiejjHuaMa no 
nHejiHH>a apyuiTBa. MaHJjirii Kaace y HJiaHKy ^a 
ce "jaKHM Tp3ajeM BpuiKape n^ejie HCTpecy Ha 
njiaTHO H3 BpuiKape". He3HaM kojihko je to 
Moryne (Hene jih ce cane OTKHHyra or 
BpuiKape). 

Moj HauHH npecejteita He Tpaacn mhoto 
aHra3COBaH>a nnejiapa. Ha MecTO "TpMKe" 
nocTaBHM /JE KouiHHuy y3 ycjioB aa JieTO 6yn;e Ha 
hctoj bhchhh. CTaBJtaM 8-10 paMOBa pa3Hor 
ca^pacaja. PaMOBH ca Me^oM, ca JierjiHMa, je^aH 
ca nponojiucoM htjj. 

llpeKO paMOBa CTaBJLaM TpMKy a 3aTHM oho- 
jihko nojiyHacTaBaKa kojihko je noTpe6HO jia. 



noKpujy TpMKy. 3aTHM CTaBJbaM noicionHy 
aacicy h noKJionau. TTouito je o6hhho npocTop 
CKyneH y tpmhh Maraua 3a hckojihko jxaHa 
nperje y KouiHHuy. Kajj, BH3yejiHO ycTaHOBHM jia. 
je MaTHua npeuuia y KouiHHuy CTaBJtaM MaraHHy 
peiueTKy a Ha H>y TpMKy. 3a 20 %o 30 jxaHa H3 
cbhx Jierjia y tpmuh nnejie ce H3Jiery h BHiue 
HeMa y h>oj HOBorjierjia 36or MaTHHHe peiueTKe. 

Ka/i MJia^e nnejie H3 TpMKe OTnoHHy 
onurreifce ca npnpo/ioM a Toje OTnpHJiHKe oko 35 
aana or nocTaBJtaika MaTHHHe pemeTKe , y3 
ycjioB Jiaje nepnojj Mejio6paH>a, CKJiaH>aM TpMKy 
n 3a jjaH jjBa CBe nuejie H3ahn lie H3 TpMKe h yfru y 
kouihhuh (#o rpaSexn Hefre aonnjepje nepno/i 
Mejjo6paH>a). 

Ako je npecejieite Kajj HeMa Mejjo6paH>a, 
hjih HeMa npHHOca HeKTapa, TpMKy He CKJiaitaM 
ca KouiHHue CBe jjo jeceHH. HecTO nyra nnejie 
caMe npeHecy Mejj H3 TpMKe y KouiHHuy. 

Kojj obot HauHHa npeceji>eH>a nnejia H36era- 
BaM onacHOCT jja MaTHuy noBpejjHM, jja nceneHO 
cane ca JierjiHMa CTaBJbaM y OKBHpe htji,, htji,. 

CTaMeHKOBHn AreKcaHJiap, eKOH. 

18206 JejiauiHHua kojj HnuiKe Eaite 



389 



Xlnejiap 1998 



,H,H3ajiJma HacTaBaKa Konimme 



Cmeeau IJeemKoeuh, duna. unoic. Mam. 
JIa3apeeau i , men. 011-816-46-28 



Ha VI CaBeTOBan>y n^ejiapa o^pxaHOM Ha 
rTojLonpHBpeaHOM (J)aKyjiTeTy y 3eMyHy y Bpe- 
MeHy 14. h 15. (J)e6pyapa H3BpmeHaje npoMoinija 
HOBor naieHTa ",H,H3ajiHHa HacTaBaKa 
KoniHHue", Koja y 6ynynHOCTH Tpe6a Ra nocTaHe 
ochobho noMarano CBaKor nnejiapa. Y obom 

BpeMeHy H Ca OBaKBHM KOHCTpyKHHOHHM 

peuieiteM ncnyiteH je or mhothx n^ejiapa 
3axTeB jxa, 6e3 o63Hpa jia jih cy MJiajni hjih 
CTapHJH, 3flpaBH hjih cjia6HJer 3/ipaBJba, caMH 
hjih 6e3 capanHHKa, a noceSHO nnejiapn jxaMe, 
Mory y cbom nnejiHikaKy caMH 6e3 Hanopa h 
y3HeMHpaBan.a nnejiHiter jjpyiHTBa, jja piracy h 
3aoKpeny HacTaBKe kojj cbhx pa^oBa: 

- HHiuneH>e hjih 3aMena no/utane; 

- nperjienH h cbh pa^oBH oko MaTHua h 
apyuiTaBa; 

- 3aoKpeTan>e HacTaBaKa 3a 180°; 

- #eMapHpaH>e, ySauHBaite npHnpeMJbeHor 
HacTaBKa H3MeI)y njio/unirra; 

- jjHCJioKauHJa, poKa^a HacTaBaKa njiojjHiHTa, 
hjih MejjHiHTa; 

- y6auHBaH>e h Barjeite HacTaBaKa, MaTHHHe 
peuieTKe, 6exajiHue h ocTajinx cpo^HHX pa£H>H. 

Ha cjihuh je npHKa3aH HaHHH 3aMeHe hjih 
^HUineHia nojjH.aMe jjH3aH>eM /jBa HacTaBKa Ha 
noTpe6Hy BHCHHy. 

npn H36opy noroHa /iH3aH>a: 3ynHacTH npe- 
hoc, JiaH^aHHUH hjih yxeTPfca^e, a o63HpoM Ha 
TexHOJioniKH 3axTeB /JH3aH>a h 3aoKpeTaH>a Hac- 
TaBaKa njio£HiHTa h ueHe KouiTaH>a H3pa/ie, yc- 
BojeH je CHCTeM y3ceTH>ane. H cjia6 H36op Me- 
TajiHHX npo({)HJia yrauao je Ha KOHCTpyKHHOHO 
jje(J)HHHcaH>e jjH3ajiHHe HacTaBaKa. Je/iHOCTaB- 
hoct OBe ^H3ajiHue ocTBapeHaje h y H>eHoj cne- 
hh<J)hhhocth, jja cyjoj ocjioHe TaHKe Ha rpejjaMa 
Ha Koje Jieate h caMe KoniHHue, a to je tcxhhmkh 
h HaJHcnpaBHHJe, h uito HacTaBKe jjHace h 
3ajjpxaBa Ha xejbeHoj bhchhh 10-50 cm 
3aBHCHO o bpcth pa/iOBa. Ca jjpyre CTpaHe ocjio- 
hh paM ca cbojhm BHJbyuiKaMa yBJiann ce H3Merjy 
KouiHHua (bhjjh cjiHKy) TaKO jja nnejiap HMa nyH 
yBim h npncTyn koihhhhh, jep My jjH3ajiHua He 
CMeTa. ^ajbe, ojihoc KpaKOBa pyme nojiyre h 
yaceTftane o6e36et)yje Ra ca pyHHOM chjiom ojj 5 
kg n^ejiap ;iH3ajiHHpM jjnace TepeT or 50 kg. 

J3H3ajiHua HacTaBaKa cacTojn ce H3 jjBa 
no^cKiiona: 

- XBaTana (1) h TpaBep3e (2) noBe3aHH ca jiBe 
no/jemaBajyne cnoHe (3) h 




Cuui^a du3ajiuufi3ti ejieMemue JIP u JJE 
KouiHuufi u dpyeux HacmaejbaHa 

- Hocefrer paMa (4), yxeTH^ane (5) ca pyHHOM 
nojiyroM (6). 

XBaTan HacTaBKa y ochobh npeTCTaBJba 

MOJiH(})HKOBaHH H a({)HpMHCaHH pyHHH HOCai 

KouiHHue, a to 3HaHH Ra ce cmia CTe3an>a Hac- 
TaBKa ocTBapyje ayroMaTCKH chctcmom nojiyra 
h npHTHCKana ca ryMOM (7). 

06a CKJiona npeMa npojeicry HMajy yKyniry 
TexHHy oko 10 kg a CBe onepaunje Koje ca rw- 
3ajiHUOM nnejiap o6aBJta caM h ca H3BaHpejjHOM 
jiaKoftoM BpeMeHCKH Tpajy 3 ro 4 MHHyra. 

YnoTpe6a jjioajiHue Moryfra je Ha jjBa 
HaHHHa h to uejioBHTa KOHCTpyKHHJa nocTaBJba 
ce Ha ocjiohhm rpejjaMa KoiHHHua hjih, pajjH 
jiaKuier MaHHnyjiHcatfca, npBO XBaTan nacajjHMO 
Ha KouiHHuy a noTOM Hocenn paM ;jH3ajiHHe Ha 
ocjioHe rpejje. BpeMe MaHHnyjiHcaita y o6a 
cjiyiaja je npH6jiH3CHO hcto. H TaKO ojj, 
KouiHHue ro KouiHHue. npojeKTOM njiaHHpaHO 
je h BapnjaHTHO pemetbe 3a RORarne 3axTeBe 
TpaHcnopTa, yrpa#H>OM jejjHor hjih BHUie 

TOMKOBa, Te Ha Taj Ha^IHH JJpSHJaMO JiHSaJIHHKO 

TpaHcnopTHO CpejJCTBO. 

npHpo^HO je oneKHBaTH ro. hhbchthbhh 
TexHHHKH-KOHCTpyKHHOHH Ka^ap y cjie^ena Bpe- 
MeHa npeflJio^cHTH no6ojbmaH>a OBe hjih HOBe 
KOHCTpyKUHJe jjH3ajiHHKHX noMarajia 3a pa^oBe 
n^ejiapa y nnejiHifcaKy. 



390 



nqejiap 1998 



Iluuie: Ceemo3ap BejbKoeuh 
HympimuoHucma 



JenaH on Hajno3HaTHJHX no3HaBanan,a nene- 
H>a nnejiHitHM npoH3BonHMaje 6e3 cyMH>e 6y- 
rapcKH Jiexap np Ctojhmhp MnaneHOB, kojh je 
neo CBOJ 501BOT Kao Jiexap h HayHHHK nocBeTHO 
anHTepannjn, TojecT nenetby n*ienHH>HM npon3- 
BoziHMa; Merjy KoJHMa je h npononnc. Obom 
npHJiHKOM npeHOCHMO H>eroBa nparoneHa nc- 
KycTBa y npnnpeMaH>y h ynoTpe6n jickobhthx 
cpe^cTaBa on nponojinca. 



Ajikoxojihh eKCTpaKT nponojinca (Tinctura 
propoli) 

llpHnpeMa ce TaKO iiito ce y3Me tojihko 
rpaMa nponojinca kojihkh nponeHaT ajiKoxoji- 
Hor eKCTpaKTa nponojinca ^cejinMO. Hajnpe ra 
Tpe6acTaBHTH y xnann>aK na ctojh 12 nacoBanPK 
He OHBpcHe, a 3aTHM ra chthhth na 6n ce no6no 
npax, kojh Tpe6a cnnaTn y onroBapajyhy Terjiy 
TaMHe 6oje, nonaTH My 100 g mhctot ajiKoxojia, 
xepMeTn^KH 3aTBopnTn n ocTaBnTn na ctojh Ha 
co6hoj TeMnepaTypn 5 jjaHa. y TOKy crajaita 
CBaKora naHa OBaxo npnnpeMJbeH ca^pxaj Tpe- 
6a HeKOJiHKO nyra npoMynKaTH. IIIecTor naHa 
neo canp^Kaj npo^njiTpnpara Kpo3 CTepnjiHy 
BHinecTpyicy ra3y hjih (J>njiTep nannp. /Jo6njeHa 
(J)HJiTpHpaHa Te^HOCT je Tinctura propoli, tj. 
ajiKoxojiHH eKCTpaKT nponojinca. HyBa ce y 
onroBapajyheM cTaicneHOM cyny (Terjinna. 6oHn- 
na) TaMHnje 6oje, xepMera^KH 3aTBopeHOM, Ha 
cyBOM, xjianHOM n TaMHnjeM MecTy, 3auiTnrieHOM 

OJJ, CBeTJIOCTH. 

KoHneHTpannja ajiKoxojiHor eKCTpaKTa npo- 
nojinca 3aBHcn on HaMeHe. IipHMeH.yje ce opan- 
ho (npeKO ycTa) n cnojba. y CTOMaTOJiornjn ce 
KopncTH yrjiaBHOM 2 n 4 nocTOTHn, a 3a opajmy 
ynoTpe6y n Ma3an>e cnojba 10,15, 20, 30 n Bnuie 
nocTOTHn ajiKoxojiHH eKCTpaKT nponojinca. 



jinca, OHJjaje noTpe6HO 10 ml 10% ajiKoxojiHor 
eKCTpaKTa nponojinca n 90 ml necranncaHe hjih 
npoKyBaHe Bone. Ha OBaj HaHHH he y 100 ml 
eMyji3nje 6hth 1 g nponojinca, iuto 3HaHH na he 
ce jjoShth 1% BO/xeHO-ajiKoxojma eMyji3nja npo- 
nojinca. OBaKO jjo6njeHa BOJjeHO-ajiKoxojiHa 
eMyji3nja nponojinca nyBa ce y ojjroBapajyheM 
CTaKJieHOM cyny (Tenrnny, SoHHiry) TaMHnje 
6oje, xepMeTHHKH 3aTBopeHOM Ha cyBOM, xnan- 

HOM H TaMHHJeM MeCTy 3aUITHheHOM OJX CBeT- 
JIOCTH. 

ynoTpe6jtaBa ce opajiHO (Ha ycTa) , 3a 
rprjtaHje, aepocojme HHxanaHHJe, o6jiore n 
iipyro. 3a opajmy ynoTpe6y n rprji>aH>e y3HMa ce 
jejj,Ha KauinKa 3 no 4 nyra jthcbho. 



Bo/ieiin pacTBop nponojinca 

npnnpeMa ce TaKO iuto ce y3Me 20 g npono- 
jinca, ycHTH>eHor y {J)hhh npax, npejinje ca 100 g 
Bone n y TOKy jeimor naca Meuia y cyzry kojh je 
CTaBJbeH y npyrn cyn ca BonoM Ha TeMnepaTypn 
hiokoj ojj TaHKe KJbyHaH>a. ITocjie Tora ce 
TeHHOCT nponejiH Kpo3 CTepnjiHy BHinecjioJHy 
ra3y hjih (})HJiTep nannp n cnna y ojjroBapajyhn 
cTaKJieHH cyn (Ternnny, 6o i iHuy) TaMHe 6oje h 
xepMeTHHKn 3aTBopn, a 3aTHM nyBa Ha xnanHOM, 
cyBOM n TaMHnjeM MecTy 3auiTnheHOM on cbct- 

JIOCTH. 

BoneHH pacTBop nponojinca Moace ce jjo6hth 
on hhctot npononnca, ann n on ocTanca nocne 
no6njaH.a anKoxonHor eKCTpaKTa npononnca 
(Tinctura propoli), 3aTO iuto ce nocne anKO- 
xonHe eKCTpaKunje neo npononnca Kojnje pacT- 
Bopn>HB y Bonn canyBa. 

ynoTpe6jbaBa ce opanHO (Ha ycTa), rpnta- 
H>e, aepoconHe HHxanaiiHJe, Kanjtnue 3a ohh n 
npyro. 



Boj^eHO-ajiKoxojiHa eMyn3nja nponojinca 

npnnpeMa ce on anKoxonHor eKCTpaKTa 
npononnca (tinctura propoli) nonaBan>eM nec- 
THnncaHe nnn npoicyBaHe o6n i iHe nnn MHHe- 
panHe Bone. 3aBHCHO on ^KejteHe KOHneHTpa- 
nnje BoneHO-anKoxonHe eMyn3nje npononnca, 
Koja Mo^ce 6hth 0,25%, 0,5%, 1%, 2% nnn 
Bnuie, Konn^iHHa necTnnncaHe nnn npoKyBaHe 
Bone onperjyje ce onroBapajyhnM npopanyHOM. 
Ha npnMep, aKO ce xenn npnnpeMHTH 1% 
BoneHO-anKoxonHa eMyn3nja npononnca, a 
KopncTH ce 10% anKoxonHH eKCTpaKT npono- 



YjbaHO-ajiKoxojiHe eiviyji3HJe nponojinca 

npnnpeMa ce on 30 % anKoxonHor eK- 
CTpaKTa npononnca TaKO uito ce Meina ca 
Ph6jlhm yjbeM, pHHHHycoBHM yn>eM, 3aTHM ca 
yjbeM on ceMeHa cyHHpKpeTa nnn yn>eM on Kyicy- 
py3HHx Knnna y onHocy 1:1,1:2 hjih 1 : 3, tj. je- 
naH neo anKoxonHor eKCTpaKTa npononnca ca 
jenHHM, nBa nnn Tpn nena yn>a, y3 nonaTaK 
onperjeHe Konn^HHe BHTaMHHa A. ynoTpeS- 
jbaBa ce y OTopnHonapHHronornJH, Kon one- 
KOTHHa, eKueMa, Tpnxo(})HTHJe n npyrnx 060- 
jbeH>a. 



391 



nqejiap 1998 



FlponojiHCOBa MacT 

ripHnpeMa ce Taxo uito ce 80 g Ba3ejiHHa h 
20 g JiaHOJiHHa CTaBH y cyn kojh ce CTaBH y Jjpyrn 
Behn cyn ca BpyftoM bojjom. Kajia ce Ba3ejiHH h 
jiaHOJiHH HCTone, OHna ce nocTeneHO jjojiaje 10, 
15,20 hjih 30 g nponojiHca y npaxy h MemayTOKy 
10 ro 20 MHHyTa, jiok ce He ,no6HJe xoMoreHa 
Maca. Ha OBaj HauHH ce ;xp6HJa 10%-Ha, 15%-Ha, 
20%-Ha hjih 30%-Ha nponojiHCOBa MacT. OiiMax 
no jjo6HJaH>y nponojincoBe MacTH, join jj,ok je 
Bpyha Tpe6aje npouejiHTH Kpo3 ra3y h cnnaTH y 
npeTxojjHO npHnpeMJbeHe UHCTe TeniHHe Koje ce 
xepMeTHHKH 3aTBapajy. ynoTpe6jtaBa ce 3a 
jie*ieH>e paHa, oneKOTHHa, xeMopoHJia, eiaieMa, 
TpHxo(J)HTHJe h Jipyrax o6ojbeH>a. Ako je npo- 
nojiHCOBa MacT HaMeH>eHa 3a Jie*ieH>e eKneMa h 
TpHxo<})HTHJe, Mo^ce joj ce jaojaaTH 2 ro 3 g carni- 
UHjme KHcejiHHe pami noBenan>a pecopnTHBHe 
cnoco6HOCTH nponojincoBe MacTH. 



Macjiau ca nponojiHCOM 

npnnpeMa ce Taxo uito ce 10 hjih 20 g npo- 
nojiHca y npaxy h 100 g Macjiaua CTaBH y cyn kojh 
ce CTaBH y flpyrn Benn cyn ca BpyftoM bottom h 
Mema 10 jto 12 MHHyTa, jtok ce He no6HJe xo- 
MoreHa Maca, a OHJia ce ojjMax nponejiH JipKJe 
join Bpyna h cnna y npenxojjHO npnnpeMJbeHe 
UHere Terjinne Koje ce xepMera^KH 3aTBapajy. 
HyBa ce Ha xjiajjHOM, cyBOM, TaMHOM h npo- 
MaJHOM MecTy. npenopyuyje ce 3a JieueH>e Ty- 
6epKyjio3e, aHTHHe, nnpa Ha xejiyny h JTBaHaec- 
TonajianHOM iipeBy h to 3 nyTa jjhcbho no 1 
KauiHKa Macjiaua ca nponojiHCOM, pacTBopeHa y 
MJieKy, Ha 1 nac npejejia. 



Mejj ca nponojiHCOM 

ITpHnpeMa ce TaKO uito ce 20 g nponojiHca 
CTaBH y xjiajjH>aK ((J)pH3CHiiep) jia ctojh 24 naca, 
nocjie Hera ce BarjH H3 xjia;i,H>aKa h oiiMax chthh y 
npax, a 3aTHM ce npocejaBa Kpo3 HejjHJbKy, 
CTaBJba y onroBapajynn cyn, RORa 200 g ymene- 
peHor Mejja h Bpjio CHaaoio Mema jtok ce He jto- 
6HJe yjeflHaneHa Maca. HyBa ce y jro6po 3aTBope- 
hom cyjiy (Terjin) Ha xjiajjHOM MecTy. 

ynoTpe6jtaBa ce opajiHO 3a Jie*ieH>e CTOMa- 

THTHCa, THHTHBHTHCa, aHTHHe, JiapHHTHTHCa H 

npyrnx o6ojteH>a h to no 1 Kamnnnna Ha cBaxa 3 



naca. JloKajino ce npHMeibyje kojt pHHHTnca, 

CHHy3HTHCa, (fapHHTHTHCa, TpHXOMOHaJIHHX KO- 

jiHTHca, thojhhx paHa, (J)ypyHKyjia (nnpeBa). 

IIocToje h npyre BpcTe hjih 6ojbe penn BapH- 
jaHTe JieKOBHTHX cpe^cTaBa ojt nponojiHca, Koje 
npenopynyjy jjpyrH ayropn (AjieKcaHjrap JaH- 
kobhIi h flpyrn). MefjyTHM, ocHOBe h npHHUHnn 
H>HXOBe H3pajre h HaMeHe, ojthocho npHMeHe cy 
Man>e hjih BHine cjnniHe, 3aBHCHO or jihhhot 
HCKycTBa Jiexapa kojh je nponojinc kophctho y 
o6jiHKy 3a kojh je CMaTpao jraje HajnojjecHHJn h 
Haje(J)HKacHHJH 3a Jienen>e ojrperjeHe 6ojiecTH. 



UmiiKanuje h KOHTpaHHJjiiKauMJe 3a Jieneifce 
nponojiHca 

nponojinc ce npHMeityje 3a JieneH>e: 

- aKyTHHX H XpOHHUHHX 060JteH>a JTHCaJHHX 

opraHa, Kao uito cy: phhhthc, CHHy3HTHC, 

TOH3HJIHTHC, JiapHHTHTHC, TpaxeTHTHC, 6pOHXH- 
THC, aCMaTHHHH SpOHXHTHC, JiaKH 0&JIHK 6pOH- 

xneKTa3Hja h Ty6epKyji03a njiyna; 

- ko^chhx o6oji>eH>a, Kao uito cy: Heypojrep- 

MaTHTHC CTa(J)HJIO - H CTpenTOJjepMaTHTHC, 

MHKOTHUHa o6oji>eH>a, 3aTHM 3a JieneHje 
acyjbeBa, mhkpo6hhx eKneMa, oniTeneita Koace, 
thojhhx paHa h paHa Koje TeuiKO 3auejLyjy, Mac- 
THTHca, (J)ypyHKyjia (nnpa), oneKOTHHa, ajione- 
KHJa, TpHxo(J)HTHJe, npypHra h up; 

- o6oji>eH>a opraHa 3a Bapeite, Kao uito cy: 
a(J)Te, cTOMaTHTHc, racTpHTHc, unp Haacejiyny h 
JTBaHaecTonajiaHHOM upeBy, kojihthc, jjHcnen- 
cHJa h npyro; 

- rHHeKOJioniKHXo6ojbeH>a, kao uito cy: koji- 
nHTHC TpnxoMOHac BarHHajiHC, epo3HJe rpjinna 
MaTepnne, porajre h npyro; 

- CTOMaTOJioniKHX o6oji>eH>a, Kao uito cy: 
3y6o6oji>a, nyjinHTHC, napajjeHTonaTHJa, rHHTH- 
bhthc h Jjpyro H 

- oniTeheHja HacTajia 3paueH.eM. 

KoHTpaHHJiHKanHJa 3a JieneH.e nponojiHCOM 
je ajieprnja Ha nponojinc. LUnpoKa npHMeHa 
nponojiHca y mcjj,hli;hhckoj npaKcn 36or H>eroBe 
BejiHKe TepannjcKe e<})eKTHBHOCTH, JipBejio je y 
nocjiejjn>e BpeMe jio nojaBe ajieprnje Ha 
nponojinc, Majxa y Bpjio peTKHM cjiynajeBHMa. 
Ho He3aBHCHO ojj, Tora, HeonxojiHO je npe 
noueTKajieueH>a nponojiHCOM H3BpniHTH kojkhc 
npo6e. 



392 



nqejiap 1998 




PeHBHUieo AllMTO/iy 

Joeo H. Kaumap, Eeoepad 



Ha caBeTOBaH>y nnejiapa Eeorpa/ia o 6onec- 
THMa nuejia h jieneity nnejiHH>HX /jpyuiTaBa, 
o/jpxaHor y HOBeM6py 1997. ro/jHHe, npHJaTHO 
Me H3HeHajiHJia nojaBa JieKa "AnHTOJl" Ha 
inraH/jy <})HpMe " BAPOTOM". y KpaheM 3arjie- 
jjaH>y xepMeTHHKH 3anaKOBaHor JieKa, npounTax 
Ha BpennnH, CHnyiiiHHM cnoBHMa HcnHcaH, Ha3HB 
(J)HpMe H3 PyMe, uito rapaHTyje jj,a HMa JiHuemry 
or KOHuepHa CIBA GEIGY LTD. 

Join aaBHe 1985. ro/jHHe, Ha 30. KoHrpecy 
AnMMOHAMJE, up B. IIImht (Schmit) H3Bec- 
tho je Jia CIBA GEIGY pajjn Ben neT ro/jHHa Ha 

HOBOM CHCTeMHKy, JieKy nO^ Ha3HBOM "API- 

TOL"". 3a noneTaK cy ona6pajin 12 aicraBHHX 
MaTepHJa ca H3y3eTHHM aKapnnH/iHHM cbojctbh- 
Ma, or KOJHXje canio je/iHa HcnyHHJia oqeKHBaita 
- /jajia HajSoibe pe3yjrraTe, naje npocjierjeHa Ha 
jjajba HcnHTHBan>a. y ocaM pa3JiHHHTHX o6jiHKa 
cneHHC^H^He (J)opMyjraHHJe 3a npHMeHy kojj, 
niejia, ojia6paHa cyncraHna JiaTaje, naatibHBHM 
o/ja6upaH>eM, Hajnpe Ha HcnuTHBaite y Croiap- 
ckh XMrHJeHCKH HHCTHTyT y <l>paj6epry, CP 
HeMa^Ka, a HeuiTO KacHHJe h Ha yHHBep3HTeT- 
CKe HHCTHTyTe y 06epypcejiy, Bojihh>h h Ath- 
hh 2) . OnceacHa HCTpa)KHBaH>a cy o6yxBaTHJia He 
caMO nnejie (oko 500 nnejiHHjHX 3aje/iHHTia), Ben 
h apyre ^CHBOTHH>e . Taxo cy, y uniby hc- 
Tpa>KHBaH.a tokchhhocth (aKyrae, xpoHHUHe h 
cy6xpoHHHHe) H3BpmeHa ucnHTHBaika Ha nauo- 
BHMa, MHiueBHMa h ncHMa. Y jjBoro/iHiuH>eM 
xpaH>eH>y )KHBOTHH»a cyncTaHUOM AnHTOJia, 
HHJe yTBprjeHO KaHueporeHO, TepaToreHO h 

eM6pHOTOKCHHHO jxcjctbo, Kao HH HeraTHBHO 

nejcTBO Ha penpc\nyKTHBHy cnoco6Hocr 3 '. 

IIpouiHpyjyliH HCTpaxHBaita, (J)HpMa 
CIBA GEIGY, 1985. ro/iHHe je y3opice CBor 
jiexa ycTynnjia 3aBOJiy 3a GHOJiornjy h naTOJio- 
mjy pu6a h nnejia BeTepHHapcKor (J>aKyjiTeTa 
CBeyun- JiHuiTa y 3arpe6y. XUueMSpa 1985. ro- 
jjHHe, no/j, pyKOBO^CTBOM npo(J)ecopa jjp "B. Cy- 
jiHMaHOBHfta, OTno^ejia cy HCTpa:>KHBaH>a Koja cy 
Tpajana nejry 3HMy 1985/1986. ro/jHHe. Oiihto- 
Baita cy cnpoBe/jeHa Ha xjianHonn or +3°C jj,o + 
10°C. Ilpn anjiHKauHJH HaTeMnepaTypn or +3°C 
HMajiH cy HeuiTO BeRe ry6HTKe, uito npHnHcyjy 
"BepoBaTHO toj HHH>eHHiiH" 41 , a TpeTHpan^e 
nnejiHHjHX 3aje/iHHua Ha TeMnepaTypn or oko + 
10°C cy hx yBepHJia Ra je Aiihtoji Ha toj, h 
HeuiTO bhuioj TeMnepaTypu Rao HajGoite pe3yji- 
TaTe. 5) H jjp MaKCUMOBwn yKa3yje Ha MorynHOCT 
TpeTHpaH^a nuejiHH>Hx /jpyurraBa h npu xjian- 



1) "nMejiap" 6/86, CTp. 179 

2) Ibid 

3) "n«iejiap" 10/90. CTp. 298 

4) "n^ejia" 1/89. CTp. 6 

5) "nqejia" 4/87. CTp. 116 



HoriH or + 5°C. 6 ) TeKCTonHcau obhx pe/joBa, 
AnuTOJi y nuejiuita jjpyuiTBa Ben Buuie ojj, 10 ro- 
jjHHa anjiHKyje npn TeMnepaTypn M3Mer)y 6 y 
10°C, y nepnony HOBeM6ap - /ieneM6ap, Kajja y 
THe3^y HeMa Jierjia (y jaHyapy, MaTnna Ben 
nountte ca nonaraH>eM jaja), h Kana cy nuejie 
ubpcto 36wjeHe y KJiySeTy, na couHJajiHa pa3- 
MeHa H3Mer)y h>hx jjona3H HaJBHUie jjo H3pa^Kaja, 
a h HCKJtyueHaje MoryhHOCT ^a nnejie JieK CKJia- 
^Hpajy y Me/j. 

CHiypHOCT H HeUIKOJJJbHBOCT obot JieKa 

npoBejjeHa je no HajcTpo^KHM MerjyHapo^HO 
npu3HaTHM nponwcHMa, KaKBH ce ziaHac Tpa^ce y 
CBeTy, npe Hero uito ce JieK nycra y npo,ziajy, na 
je CIBA GEIGY yjeceH 1985. ro^HHe no/iHejia 
3axTeB 3a perHCTpan,HJy y HeManKoj h IllBajuap- 
ckoj , jjpxaBaMa ca HajcTpo^cwM E KO - B M O 
ME^MUHHCKMM nponncwMa, Ra 6h y oboj 
noTOH>oj ^o6ho ao3BOJiy 3a npoMeT 1987. rojjw- 
He 71 . M WHO (CBeTCKa 3^paBCTBeHa opraHH3a- 
uuja) je o;io6pHJia ynoTpe6Hy jjo3BOJiy 3a Anu- 
toji, ORpQRKBum My ADI Bpe,n;HOCT 8) on 0,01 
mg/kg/nan, "uito ce npaKTHHHo HHKaiia He Mo^Ke 
ocTBapHTu", HCTHHe jjp IIImht, m nojauiH>aBa /xa 
cyTO noKa3ajia CBecTpaHa HCTpa^KHBaH>a 9) . Aiih- 
toji ce ojjJiHKyje BeoMa no6poM TonnBomny y 
bojjh h BOJjeHoj OTonuHH uiehepa. A, h HHane, 
uienepje ochobhh Hocau obot JieKa, Kora n^ejie, 
no cbojoj npupo^H, pa/jo KOHsyMupajy, a ca 
H>HMe h JieK. OnHTH ca noranaMa, y Koje je 
cTaBJbaH AnHTOJi, HHcy sanoBOJBHJin, h 36or 
Tora cy o6ycTaBJi>eHH, h 3aTO HHJe npe- 
nopyHJtHBO JieneHje n^ena nocTynKOM nora^a 
ca JipJiaTKOM obot JieKa, noTeHunpao je Ralph 
Billo, npejjcTaBHHK GIBE GEIGY, Maja 1990. 
rojjHHe Ha BeTepnHapcKOM (J)aKyjiTeTy y 3arpe- 
6y 10> , h npnnHKOM npe/icTaBJi>aH>a JieKa y xoTejiy 
"Beorpajj-HHTepKOHTMHeHTaji". 

AKTHBHa MaTepnja je noTnyHO HOBa h npBH 
nyr npHMeH>eHa 3a cy36HJaH>e Bapo3e , 3a 
pa3JiHKy ojj, aMHTpa3a, nnjaje ocHOBHa HaMaHa 
3a cy36HJaH>e HHceKaTa y BohapcTBy, BHHorpa- 
iiapcTBy h noBpTapcTBy, Kao h 3a cy36HJaH>e 
pa3JinuHTHX napa3HTCKHX 6onecTH jjoMahnx 
XHBOTHH>a Kao uito cy KpneibH h uiyra kor 
npe^cuBapa, CBHH>a h Meco^KJjepa" 1 . 

Ca^a, Kajja Bapoa nocToje pe3HCTeHTHa Ha 
aMHTpa3 h (JwiyBajiHHaT, Kajja joj pe3HCTeHUHJa 
nocraje CTajiHO cbojctbo, ojjhocho yporjeHa 

6) "n-iejia" 9/90, CTp. 233 

7) "n<iejia" 11-12/88, CTp. 323 

8) AJJH Bpe^HOCT (accetable daily intake) je KOJiHMHHa cyn- 
CTaHue Kojy qoBBK 6e3 pH3HKa CBaKO/iHeBHO Tpooji-i uejior acHBOTa. 

9) "nie^ap"6/86,CTp.l79 

10) "niejia" 6/90, CTp. 178 

11) "n^ejiap" 5/85. CTp. 142-144 



393 



nqejiap 1998 

oco6iiHa wraBe nonyjiauHJe, na "Ha H>y He hq- uiko^h nnejiapy, hh nnejiaMa, hhth Ha penpo- 

jiyje naK hh #03a 5.000 nyra Bena o^ noneine jiyKTHBHy ciioco6hoct MaTHue h TpyTOBa. 131 H 

H03e Koja Hxje yHHiirraBajia" (Heragsim, 1980, rocnonHH BeT. cneu. fl. TiHpKOBHn hcthhc 3Hanaj 

npeMa %p JX. ToflopoBHny) 121 , <})HpMa H3 PyMe - cTporor nouiTOBaH>a npenopyKe npoH3Bof)aHa o 

"BAPOTOM" je y kphthhhom TpeHyTKy no- npHMeHH npenapaTa, noce6HO 3axTeB o TeM- 

ByKJiaje^HHO npaBH noTe3, noHy^HJiaje n^ejia- nepaTypn h BpeMeHy amiHicauHJe JieKa' 4) . Ka^a 

pHMajieKcnaca - AnHTOJi. IlpHMeH>eH y nponn- ce AnHTOJi npeuH3HO h O/JTOBOPHO npn- 

caHHM ^03aMa yHHiirraBa Bapoy 95-99%, He mchh - shmh, Ka^a HeMa Jierjia, HCKibyqeHa je 

MorynHOCT pe3H,nya UHMHa30JixjiopH^a y Mejxy. 

n v ., n „ „ M ™ 131 "n^ejia" 9/90, cip. 253 

12) n^ejiap 11/88, cxp. 335 14) "IlHejiap" 3-4/36 crp. 58 



394 



nqejiap 1998 



IIpHjior iioimmpiijauiijii ^auejinje 




Ca6oEea, dunji. UHMC.3awmume6ujba 
Tumeji,meA. 021/861-319 



Oanejinja je nopeioioM H3 AMepHKe. y Ka- 
jih{})ophhjh ce join yBeK Hajia3H y jjHBJteM 06- 
jiHKy, ajiH ce rajn h Kao Me/joHOCHa 6HibKa. 

y Hamoj 3eMibH je TaKofje npncyraa, ho HHJe 
joj nocBeneHO jjobojbho naacite h aKO ce 3Ha na je 
OHaje/jtia on HaJBaacHHJHX MejjpHOCHnx 6HJbaKa. 

OHa npnna/ja (j)aMHJiHJH Hydrophilaceae. 
HMa BejiHKH 6poj ranoBa, kojj Hac je Hajpac- 
npocTpaiteHHJa Phacelija tanacetifolija. To je 
je/JHoro/jniniBa 3eji>acTa 6nji>Ka, xopTHKyjiTypHe 
jienoTe, bhchhc 80 - 100 cm. U,ejia SnibKa je 
rycTO noKpHBeHa KpaTKHM, omrpHM, jjJiaHnna- 
Ma. JIhctobh cy nepacTO yceneHH. IIbctobh cy 
njiaBHHaera hjih mojjph, caicynjbeHH Ha Bpxy 
CTa6jtHKe h rpaHa. Flo cbojhm HBacTHMa kojh 
HMajy o6jihk yBOJKa, OHa Hac nojrceha Ha raBe3 
(Borraginace). 

OanejiHJa ;jaje o6Hibe Heicrapa h UBeTHor 
npaxa. Ca jjyranKnx npauiHHKa HBacTH (kojh 
nojj,cenajy Ha ryceHHny), nnejie join y jieTy 
caicynibajy nojieH jbyGHiacTO-ruiaBe 6oje, hhm ce 
ynySe y hbct, to je 3HaK m. Tpa^ce Heicrap. 
Herapn HeKTapHe 2CJie3/je, Koje cy KpyacHO pa- 
cnoperjeHe oko HBeTHe Jio^ce, Bpjio o6hjiho Jiyne 
HeKTap npeKO HHTaBor jiaHa. Be3 o63Hpa Ha to 
Koje npyre 6iiibKe HBeTajy y okojihhh, nnejie je 
jiaKO npoHarjy h 6p30 ce HaBHKHy Ha H>y. CaMO 
6h Hexa Jjpyra BeoMa HeKTapHa naina (Ha 
npiiMep 6arpeM) Morjia npHeicjie CMaiBHTH 6poj 
nnejia Ha (})aiiejiHJH. CaMO Kajja je BpeMe 
khidobhto h xjiajj,HO n*iejie ce He Mory bhjjcth Ha 
H>oj, anil ce OHe Ta;ja HeMory BimeTH hh Ha npy- 
niM 6HJLKaMa. PerncTpoBaHO je. Taxorje, jia 3a 
BpeMe HBeTaita JieTH>a BpyftnHa on 33 - 35 
CTeneHH h xjrajjHe Honn CMan>yjy Jiyneike HeK- 
TapHe acjie3,zje. A necre KHine pa3pene HeKTap 
jep ce HBacT noHauia Kao cyHrjep, cicyniba BOJjy. 

Oaiiejiiija ce npBeHCTBeHO kophcth Kao: 

- Me^oHOCHa 6HJLKa, 

- KpMHa 6njbKa 3a 3ejieHy Macy y CTonapcTBy, 

- 3a cHJia^cy, 

- 3a 3ejieHHniHO r)y6peH>e nojejTHHnx napne- 
jia, 

- 36or Jienor HBeTa Kao iiBeraa BpcTa y hbct- 
hhm apaH^KMaHHMa h JiejaMa. 

JIaKO je nojjecnTH ceTBy, Jia nnejie Ha H>oj 
Harjy nauiy Kana je jjoranHa JioKamija ch- 
poManma yjjpyrnM MenoHocHHM 6HJBKaMa. Kana 
cy n^ejie ynyneHe Ha na6npHeH>e no okojihhh. 
Obo HaponiiTO Baxii 3a KpajeBe me HeMa name 
011 Sejior 6ocnjLKa. yrapen>eM CTpiBnnrra y Me- 
ceny jyjiy n aBrycry HecTaje GocnjbKOBa nama, 
na ce 6am 3aTO h npenopynyje ceTBa (J)anejiHJe 
Ha H>HBaMa r;je je 6ho rpamaK n je^aM. CeTBa. 



npn pejjoBHOj ceTBH ce o6aBJta schthhm cejarcn- 
naMa Ha MefjypejjHO pacTojaH>e ojj 25 cm (cBaKa 
iipyra Jiyjia). ,ZJy6HHa ceTBe TpeSa jj,a je 2 - 3 cm. 
06aBe3Ha Mepa Her/xe je Bajtatfee 36or 
yjejTHa^eHor HHnaita. MpinaBnja, cjia6o ruiQzma 
3eMJbHuiTa H3HCKyjy Beny KOJiHHHHy ceMeHa oko 
12-13 kg no xeKTapy, a 3a ruionHy upHHuy y hhc- 
toj KyjiTypn jjpbojlho je caMO oko 6 kg no xeK- 
Tapy. Ako je ceTBa y MapTy Oanejinja useTa 3a 
1 1 Hejjejta, aKO je ceTBa y anpmiy UBeTa 3a 7 
He^ejba, a aKO je ceTBa y Majy hjih jyHy 3a 6 
Hejjeiba. IIoctojh MorytiHOCT h jeceite ceTBe 1 * 
a.111 oiuia ce uBeraite iiokjioiui ca 6ai peivioivi, to 
jecT y npBoj nojioBHHH Maja. HaKOH npBe fleicaiie 
jyjia He Tpe6a cejara jep je nnejie He Mory hck- 

OpHCTHTH. 

HeKHX noce6HHX 3axTeBa npeMa Tnny 
3eMJbnuiTa HeMa. IlpHMeneHO je jja Haj6oibe 
Me/iH HajiaKHM, xyMycHO 6oraTHM 3eMJtninTHMa 
Tnna: Kap6oHaTHH nepH03eM, ajryBHJyM h JiaKa 
pnTCKa upHnna, HapoHHTO aKO je OHa npaBHJiHO 
npnxpaH>eHa MHHepajiHHM rjy6pHBHMa. BeoMaje 
3axBajma Ha (J>oc(})opHa n KajinjyMOBa rjy6pnBa, 
uito ce MaHH(J)ecTyje noBenaH>eM xaSnTyca 
SnjbKe Kao BejiHHHHe h 6poja UBeTOBa. 
IlpocenHa KOJiHHHHa rjy6pnBa Koja ce yHocn nojj, 
ocHOBHy oSpajjy (KOJin^HHa MHHepajiHnx 
5y6pnBa 3aBHcn ojj JioKajmnx ycjioBa: npe- 
jjyceBa, imojihocth 3eMJbHuiTa, HT^,.)je 300 - 400 
kg/ha rjy6pHBa N:P:K 15:26:12. 

rTocTojn MoryriHOCT ceTBe n 3Jj,pyaceHor 
yceBa: 

- Oauejinje n BHKe (5-9 kg ceMe (fanejinje ce 
H3Mema ca 80-90 kg ceMeHa BHKe). TaKBa CMema 
ce ceje y pe/ipBe ca pa3MaKOM 30 cm. 

- Ako ce (J>anejinja ceje ca yjbaHOM pennnoM, 
Tana ce ojj, CBaKe y3HMa no 7 kg/ha. Pa3MaKj'e 30 
cm pe/j, ojj pejja. 

- Mory ce y3HMa™ n npyre TpoJHe KOM6nHa- 
UHJe Kao: 

Oanejinja 8 kg/ha + BHKa 120 kg/ha + 306 25 - 
30 kg/ha, 

Oanejinja 5 kg/ha + cto^hh rpamaK 160 kg/ha 
+ 306 25-30 kg/ha. 

- y HeMaHKOj, npHJiHKOM 3arpTaH>a KpoM- 
nnpa, (J)anejiHJy cejy H3Merjy pejjpBa, npn neMy 
ce y3HMa 1-2 kg ceMeHa no xeKTapy h TaKO 
nnejiaMa CTBope ^o6py namy 3a Mecen aBiycT. 

Hera yceBa, y 6op6n npoTHB 3aKopoBJbe- 
hocth kophcthmo xepSnuH^e 3a HHKopnopa- 

IIHJy, Ca aKTHBHOM MaTepHJOM TpH(J)JiypaJIHH, 

THna: Agrotref EC, Herbitref EC-48, Trefgal 
(480 g/1), Triflurex 48 EC,... 1,5-2 lit/ha. Moryha 



396 



n^ejiap 1998 



je h KopeKTHBHa npHMeHa xep6nmma npoTHB 
ycKOJiHCHHX KopoBa, HapoHHTO ^HBJber cupxa, 
THna: Focus ultra, Fusilade super, Agil 100 EC, 
Puma super, Pantra 40, EC . . . EnjLKa je npn- 
ponHO OTnopHa npeMa 6ojiecTHMa h uiTeTO- 
^HHaMa. 

FbeHOM TeuiKOM uiHpeH>y Kao kpmho 6HJte 
HonpHHOCH npncycTBO ciuiHnHJyMa, MaKpoejie- 
MeHTa y 6hjlhhm /yiaHHiiaMa, uito nejioj 6hji>ith 
jiaje rpy6ocT, oiiitpoct. EnjbKa Kaxo UBeTa, 
TaKO Tepa 6oHHe H3^aHKe h noBenaBa xaSHTyc. 
FbeHO CTa6jio je y noneTKy 3eibacTO ajiH jaKO 
6p30 orpy6n - cupBeHH. Ben y ^pyroj He/ieibH 
iiBeTaH>a no^Hite (})a3a onpBeH>aBaH>a. Ha KBa- 
jiHTeTHHM 3eMJLHinTHMa UBeTa 6-7 He^eiba, ^ok 
Ha CHpoManiHHjHM THnoBHMa 1-6 He^eiba. 

Or cbhx KaTeropHJa CTOKe, 4>anejiHJy Hajpa- 
,HHJe Tpouie OBiie h KpaBe, Kao 3ejieHy Macy 
(kophcth ce or 2 - 3 He^ejbe no UBeTaH>y) hjih 
Kao CHJia^cy (cHJinpa ce neTBpTe HeaejLe no HBe- 
Tan>y). OHaje HapoHHTO OMHJbeHa y MemaBHHH 
ca #pyrHM KpMHBHMa jep y tom cjryqajy HMa 
Taite, HexHHJe CTa6jio. IIo3HaTH cy ncnann; jia 
Kao 3ejieHa Maca y ncxpaHH, noBeriaBa KOJiHHHHy 
h MacHony MjieKa ko^ KpaBa n OBana, a Kao 
cnjia^ca noBeriaBa caMO MacHohy. HHTepecaHTaH 
je n no^aTaK Ra ocyuieHy 6njbKy (ceHo) He 



kophcth hh jenHa KaTeropHJa CTOKe, uito 36or 
H>eHe ouiTpocTH, uito 36orTeniKe CBapjbHBOCTH. 
Ka#a ce y jiojfceM ,nejiy nBacra BH^e ceMeHKe 
(oTBopeHH cy) yceB ce Tperapa ca ^ecHKaHTOM 
paaH yjeflHaneHor ca3peBaH>a. ITpenapaTH H3 Te 
rpyne cy: Basta, Gramokson, Reglone wtr. 2,5-4 
lit/ha. HaKOH hckojihko flaHa, Kajia je yceB cyB, 
KOM6aJHnpa ce ^khthhm KOM6aJHOM kojh je 
no/ieineH 3a TaKBy aceTBy (cnra 3a JiyuepKy - 
chtho ceMe). npHHOc ceMeHa 4)airejinje or 100- 
700 kg/ha. ITpHHOc Me,na ca 1 haje or 150-300 kg 

TLOR nOBOJLHHM yCJIOBHMa. 

no3Hara pycicn arpoHOM n n^ejiap y. H. 
BaprnH nnme : "Oairejinja ce CMaTpa HaJMe- 
Hohochhj'om Shjbkom. Ca jenHor xeKTapa ^aje 
npHHoc y Me,ny o,n oko 300-600 kg. Me,n, je cbctjio 
6paoH, CBeTJio acyre CKopo 6ejie 6oje, npnjaTHor 
MHpHca n yKyca, oflJiH^mor KBajiHTeTa." /Ipyra 
no3HaTH pycKH n^ejiap A. O. KyHaMOBnfi, kojh 
je 10 rojiHHa ncnHTHBao OBy 6njbKy H3JaBnoje na 
ca je/nror xeKTapa Moace Ra ce CKHHe npHHoc 
Me^,a or 600 kg. TIpeMa JleBeH/ipBCKOM, npnHoc y 
Me^ry ca jenHor xeKTapa Moace Ra 6yne 1000 kg?! 
Ben H3 obhx nojiaTaKa Moace ce bhttcth kojihko 
je pasjiH^nra mchohochoct c^auejinje, uito CBa- 
KaKO 3aBHCH o,n, rjy6peH>a 3eMJLnuiTa, BJiaac- 
hocth n TeMnepaType Ba3jiyxa Kao h or .npyrax 

KJIHMaTCKHX H MHKpOKJIHMaTCKHX yCJIOBa. 



397 



nnejiap 1998 



MCTOPMJA nHEJIAPCTBA 



KAMHJI flAflAH (1851-1938) 
(noBO^OM 60 romiHa qzi cmpth) 

Ilpupeduo: Mujioiu Anmonuh, ceeiumenuK, Kou,ejbeea 



OBe ro^MHe HaBpiunjio ce inecT jjeneHnja o/j, 
CMpTM KaMMJia flaflaHa, n^ejiapcicor BeTepaHa, 
(J)a6pMKaHTa rmejiapCKor ajiaia m npn6opa m 
ypenmiKa no6po no3HaTor nnejiapCKor ^aco- 
mica "American Bee Journal". 

MMe KaMMJia ^ajjaHa je no3Haio He caMO 
aMepMHKMM n^ejiapMMa, Hero m n^ejiapMMa ne- 
jioracBeTa. PorjeHJe yJlaHrpecy (OpaHiiycKa) 6. 
anpMJia 1851. ro/niHe. Ka#a Myje Smjio jjBaHaecT 
ro/uma H>eroBM ponnTejbM ce npecejie y 
AjviepMKy n HacTaHe Ha jejjHOJ HanyinreHOJ 
(J)apMH y 6jim3mhm rpajja XaMMJiTOHa y jjpxaBM 
Mjimhomc me je npOBeo HaJBenw jxeo xiiBOTa. 
OxeHMO ce 1. H0Beivi6pa 1875. rojjMHe ca MepM 
MapMHejiM n HMao cejjMOpo Rtixe. 

CaB cboj ^cmbot nocBeTMO je a)a6pMUM "^(a- 
^aH m cmhobm" m npOM3BO^H>M Mejja Ha bctimko, 
Ha KOMepHMJajiHOj ochobm. To je npe/jy3ehe 
CTajiHO Hanpe^OBajio, a CBe rojjMHe H>eroBor 
xMBOTa cy 6MJie McnyH>eHe HeBepOBaTHMM 
pa3BnneM n^ejiapCTBa. 



y capaartw ca cbojmm oiieM, UlapjiOM ^a- 
naHOM, npepajjno je JlaHrcTpOTOBO aejio "Kom- 
HHna m n^ejie", Koje je uiTajvinaHO y orpOMHOM 
6pojy npMMepaica, m ca mcthm ycnexoM npeBe- 
aeHO Ha BMine je3MKa. CeM Tora, H>eroBa /jejia 
"IlpBe jieKHHJe H3 n^ejiapCTBa";" Cmctcm ,D,anaH 
y nnejiapCTBy", Kao m apyra He Matte Ba^KHa, 
npoujHpnjia cy H>eroBy creepy yranaja. PBeroBO 
nocjie/ute jinrepapHO jjejio je eHrjiecKM npeBO/i, 
"HoBa OTKpMha koji nnejia" on MSepa (Huber). 

Tojxime 1912. je OTKynno naconnc "American 
Bee Journal", npeHeo ra y XaMMJiTOH, npey3eo 
H>eroBO yperjMBaH>e n yperjnBao ra Bpjio 
ycneuiHO CBe jjo cmptm. 

O^JiMKOBaHJe MHoraM nonacTHMan bmcokmm 
op^eHOM BejirncKe KpyHe y 3HaK npM3HaH>a 3a 
ycjiyre Koje je ynnHMO 6ejirncKMM n^ejiapMMa y 
npe^ejiMMa onycTomeHMM y I Cbctckom paTy. 

Ojx 1904. rojjMHe HacTaHno ce y rpajjy XaMMJi- 
TOHy, rjje je m yMpo y 87. rojjMHM >KMBOTa, 25. 
(J)e6pyapa 1938. rojjMHe. 



398 



n^ejiap 1998 



BMLuecTpyKM 3Hanaj nojuna Ha nne/iMi-baKy 

Joeo H. Kawnap, Beoepad 



ITpBH nocjioBH Koje nnejiap oSaBJba y 
npojiefte, nope# HHHineH>a h jxe3HH<})eKnHJe 
no^H>aHe, jecTe nocTaBJbaite nojnjia. SHa^aj no- 
JHJia Ha nnejiHitaKy nponcTHHe H3 HaJMan>e mecT 
pa3Jiora: 

ripBO, 6e3 Boae n*iejiHH>a 3aje/iHHna HHJe y 
CTaH>y y3rajaTH Jierjio. Mqr, nojieH h Bo/ja 
noMeinaHH, yMemami or KyhHHX niejia, HHHe 
CMeiny kojom n^ejie xpaHe pajjnjiHHKe JiapBe or 
^eTBpTor jxo mecTor JxaHa CTapocra. IIlToje hh- 
TeH3HBHHJH pa3Boj Jierjia to cy h noTpe6e 3a bo- 
jjom Bene. Ako miejia-caKynjbaHHHa Heicrapa 
jlHeBHO H3JieRe or 10 - 15 nyra, a OHa Koja 
caKynjba nojieH or 3 - 5 nyTa, n^ejia BOJioHonia 
jjhcbho H3Jiehe h ro 100 nyTa'). Ykojimko HeMa 
noJHJia Ha n*iejiHH>aKy npBHX Jiennx jjaHa y (j)e6- 
pyapy, hjih aico nnejiap 3aicacHH y aKTHBHpan>y 
H3Bopa XHrnjeHCKe Bojxe, hjih TOMe He npiwje 
naacH>y na nnejiaMa npenycTH jja ce caMe "cHa- 
Jia3e" 3a bojiom, namne Ha 6apnue, KaHajie, no- 
JHJia 3a KOKOuiKe h nnjinne y JioMannHCKHM 
HBopniHTHMa. ^aKJie, y3HMane HexHrHJeHCKy 
Bo/jy, Haj^euihe 3apaxeHy MHKpoopraHH3MHMa 
uiTeTHHM no 3JjpaBibe nnejiHite 3ajenHnne. 
"HncTona BOJje HeMa 6HTHor 3Ha^aja 3a nnejie", 
Kaxe axajjeMHK E. K. JecKOB, h nojamitaBa jja 
"mhphch HenpnjaTHH 3a ^OBeica Hncy Henpn- 
jaTHH h 3a nnejie". 2 ' n^ejie y He/iocTaTKy BOJje 
najjHy y KaHaji ca ocokom h HanyHe CBOje Me/iHe 
BOJbKe h ca 2 - 5 nponeHTHHM pacTBopoM 
MOKpahe h CKJiajiHiHTe je y kouihhhh", hcthhc 
ueiteHH HayHHHK. H Kanaje nocTaBJteHO noJHJio 
ca mhctom bojjom h Kajja HMajy MorynHocra #a ra 
nocenyjy, 36or HejipcTaTica cojih y bojjh, nnejie 
he y "Tparaity 3a MHHepajiHHM MaTepnjaMa 
nocehHBaTH HyacHHKe h CTO^Ha f)y6pHiHTa, hito 
HMa 3a nocjie^Huy yH0iueH>e y KoniHHiry naTO- 
reHHX MHKpoopraHH3aMa, Kao ihto cy Ha 
npHMep: cajiMOHejia /nsasHBa 1 ! napaTH<})yca kqzi, 
nnejia) eHTeponaToreHHX cojeBa npeBHHX 6a- 
HHJia, CTpenTOKOKe, CTa(j)HJioKOKe, H3a3HBaHH 



Ty6epKyjio3e h up; HCTH^e Cmhphob 3 '. 3aTO npe- 
nopy*iyje jja ce Ha nHejiHH>auHMa, "nope/i no- 
JHJiHua ca nHTKOM bojiom nocTaBe h noJHJiHne ca 
3acojbeHOM bojiom", a jjo3a Mopcxe cojih na He 

H3HOCH BHHie OR 0,01%, OJIHOCHO 1 TpaM Ha 10 

jiHTapa Bojxe. ,H,03e cojih Bene or HaBejjeHHX 
CKpanyjy ^khbot niejiaMa. Pa3He KOHHeHTpauHJe 
KyxHHjCKe cojih Bene or 0,01% CKpanHBajie cy 
3chbothh BeK n*iejia, y o/iHocy Ha nnejie Koje cy 
xpan>eHe nieftepHHM cnpynoM 6e3 JiojjaTKa cojih, 
iuto ce bhjjh H3 Ta6ejie Koja cjiqrw. 

Cmhphob HaBOJjH jja je aHajiorHe pe3yjiTaTe 
Ho6HJia h AHa Maypnuno (1946), npeMa KOJHMa 
cy rnHyjiH BejiHKH n^ejiHHiaHH npexo 3HMe 36or 
npHcycTBa y Me/iy cojih: yjejiHOM cjry^ajy 0,66%, 
ayapyroM 0,46%. 

AyTop OBor Hannca, Ha noJHJiy CBor iraejiH- 
H>aKa HyjxH n^ejiaMa Bo/iy H3 4 nojiuiHue 3a 
nnjinhe, ajianrapaHe ca njioBHHMa or njiyre Ha 
Koje n^ejie najjajy h no H36opy, BOJioHonie y3H- 
Majy BOJiy: hjih 6e3 cojih hjih ca cojty. 3acojteHa 
BOJja y jejiHoj noJHJiHUH jj03HpaHa je ca 0,01% 
Mopcxe cojih, hjih 1 rpaM Ha 10 1 Bojxe, y apyroj je 
borq. nocojbeHa ca 0,1 % Mopcxe cojih hjih 1 rpaM 
Ha JiHTap Bojxe, a y Tpehoj nojnjiHnn BOJjaje Jip3H- 
paHa ca 0,5% hjih 5 rpaMa Mopcxe cojih Ha JiHTap 

BORQ. OBaKBHM KOHHenTOM nOJHJia, OJIBpaTHO 

caM n^ejie or Bone ca KaHajia y HenocpejjHoj 
6jih3hhh n*iejiHH>aKa, y kojh ce cjiHBajy 4>eKa- 
jiHje "caHHTapHHx" oSjeKaTa h ocoxe H3 uiTajia h 
CBHH>aua, /joMahHHCTaBa HacejteHHX nopejj Ka- 
Hajia, Kaon Rpyrmx "oTnajjaKa" nnjeje MecTO, no 
npaBHJiy, Ka<})HJiepHJa. 

Jtpyro, Ka^a y JieTH>eM nepnony HacTyne Be- 
jiHKe BpynHHe, a nHejiHH>aK H3JioxeH jjhpckthhm 
cyH^eBHM 3panHMa HeMa 3auiTHTe, Ka^a je 
cnojtHa TeMnepaTypa Ba3Jjyxa eHopMHO BHCOKa 
na y3poKyje noBehaHje TeMnepaType y koiuhhuh 
H3Hajj, 35,5°C y pejoHy rHe3Jia a nnejie 
jiene3aH>eM He Mory ojipxaTH TonjioTy y rpaHH- 
uaMa or 34° ro 35,5°C,Tajja no xhthom nocTynKy 



YTHIIAJ KOJIHHHHE KyXHH>CKE COJIH y CHPYnY HA ^y^CHHy 3CHBOTA 
nHEJIA (npeMa CMHpHOBy 4 ') 



flpsa 


casm 


Kojut^flna kvxhh>cku conn ua 1 1 cupyna 




0,1 -0,2% 
(1-2 vA) 


0,5% 

(5 zA) 


1.0 % 

no m 


5,0% 
(50 nfl) 


10.0 % 
UK) pf\ 


AyMcmra 

>KHBOTa 

RHt'Jia % 


25^33 


15-17 
50 


10-11 
10-1 1 


9ulfl 


3 


2 



l)"niejiap"8/85 

2) "llMejiap" 5/96 



3) 'TlMejiap" 

4) MhWR 



354 



nqejiap 1998 



npHMeH>yjy "npHHnnn HcnapaBatta Bojje". Tajja 
HaJBehH 6poj - 80% jjo 90% nnejia 51 
caKymta^Hua Heicrapa h nojieHa nocTajy bo- 
jjoHoine. yje^HOM eKcnepHMeHTy, y kouihhhh 
H3Jio)KeHoj cyHiiy npH TeMnepaTypH ojj +70°C, y 
THe3Jjy je ojjp:*taBaHa KOHCTaHTHa TonjioTa ojj 
35°C tojihko Jjyro, kojihko je jjyro 6hjio 
o6e36er)eHa Bojja H3 noJHjnnje y 6jih3hhh 
KoinHHiie 61 (Lindaer). CBe BpeMe jjoKTpaje npe- 
rpejaHOCT KoniHHire, caKymbannne Koje jjojia3e 
ca bojjom y Konmnny, 6HBajy pacTepeneHe cbo- 
jhx TepeTa yacypSaHomny ojj CTpaHe KynHHX 
iraejia - "pacnpcKHBaHHua": h>hx tph hjih neTH- 
pn ojjjejjHOM HaBajie Ha BojjoHomy, h y acypSn 
cHiny H3 H>e HCTHCHyry Kan Bojje. Bojjy yHeineHy 
y KouiHHuy "pacnpcKHBaHHue" jjHCTpn6ynpajy y 
nejinje y MajiHM KOJimnmaMa, y BHJjy Kamtnua. 
OBe ocTaBibajy (KanjtHne) noTaHKO Ha yjia3 y 
OTBOpeHe hejiHJe Jierjia, a HcnapaBaiteM Bojje, 
TeMnepaTypa y rae3Jjy ce ojjpacaBa y HopMajiH. 

y 3aBHCHOCTH ojj TeMnepaType cnojBH>er 
Ba3jjyxa n^ejie BOJjoHome jjoHoce Bene hjih 
MaH.e KOJiHHHHe Bojje, nenine hjih perje nojieny 
Ha noJHJio, Jjyace hjih Kpafte ce 3ajjp)KaBajy y 
KoniHHUH , Benn hjih Man>H 6poj nnejia 
caKynjtaHHna HeKTapa h nojieHa npey3HMajy 
yjiory BOJjoHoina, BenoM hjih MaBOM 6p3HHOM 
nyHe mcjjhh Mexyp bojjom. 

H3 npeniejja kojh cjiejje bhjjh ce aKTHBHOCT 
iraejia BOJjoHoma, 3acHOBaHHX Ha HayHHO yre- 
MejteHHM HHH.eHHnaMa Koje HaMJe npe3eHTOBao 
aKajjeMHK E. K. JecKOB y "IlHejioBOJjcTBy" 6p. 
4/94, y npeBOJjy JT. KojiapeBHna, "nnejiap" 5/96, 
CTp. 135. 



hocho y acyp6H, iuto HJiycTpyje Ta6ejia Koja 
cjiejjn: 



I a C 



HtfgjL" VHCTJ 

\ K- . 'IIM'JIIiV 

IIKCJlll &o- 

,i[<iFiomn 



ttcfta 

xyp;. 




H.UU 



n^ejie npn TeMnepaTypn ojj 6°C nyHe bojjom 
mcjjhh Mexyp ca npoce^HO 4,7 mg 6p3HHOM ojj, 0,5 
mg/sec, a npn noBHineity TeMnepaType Ha 23-24° 
C, 6p3HHa ce noBenaBa jjo 1,4 mg/sec. 

y 3aBHCHOCTH ojj cnojtHe TeMnepaType, 
iraejia BOJjoHoma Moace mcjjhh Mexyp HanyHHTH 
bojjom 6pace hjih cnopnje, npn neMy "npn- 
Meityje" MeTOJjy y "jejjHOM jjaxy" hjih y3HMaH>e 
Bojje "ca npeKHjjHMa". C noBenaH>eM cnojtHe 
TeMnepaType yBeftaBa ce h nponeHaT yqecTa- 
jiocth BOJjoHoma y y3HMaH>y Bojje no Mera/jy "y 
jejjHOM nyry", ojjhocho y acyp6n, y ^eMy yneinne 
BOJjoHoma Ha TeMnepaTypn cnojtH>er Ba3Jjyxa ojj 
13°C h3hoch 23%, a npn noBenaity TeMnepa- 
Type 3a 10 CTeneHH 76% BOJjoHoma (hjih 3a 3,5 
nyra BHine) y3HMa BOJjy y "jejjHOM nyry", ojj- 

5) "n^ejiap" 8/85 

6) "Uqejiap" 2/89 




yawMa yneuthe: 



23% mc;ia lumoHuma 
■ r .. u'tc/ia BoaoHoiua 
IW/u ine/ia HujioHuum 



riHejie-BOJjoHoine Mory nyHHTH mcjjhh Mexyp 
bojjom h "MeTOJjoM" ca npeKHjjHMa. y TOM 
cjrynajy, y rope HaBejjeHOM pacnoHy cnojtH>a 
TeMnepaTypa yBehaBa BpeMe 3a nyH>eu>e MejjHor 
Mexypa 3a 19,5 nyra. Hcto Taxo, BpeMe 
yTpomeHO 3a nyH>eH>e MejjHor Mexypa "y jejjHOM 
ijyry" ce CMatbyje 3a 1,7 nyra. 

Kojihko ce nnejiaMa - BojjoHoinaMa acypH 3a 
bojjom, noKa3yje HaM TepMOMeTap Ha nnejiH- 
H>aicy, a Mepen>a Koja je H3Beo JecKOB noKa3yjy 
3aBHCHOCT BeMeHa 3ajjp3caBan>a BOJjoHoma y 
kohihhhh ojj cnojbH>e TeMnepaType, uito HJiyc- 
Tpyje nperjiejj kojh cjiejjn: 



np»i 
TC 



L3 

],S 

23 

29 



BpcMc janp^^BaH^a lit^oHouia y 
Kommmu 



375 sec. h^h h min, h 12 sec; 
268 sec. ir^n 4 min. h 24 sec. 
234 sec. hjih 3 min. h 54 sec, 
1 7(1 sec, h/ih 2 min. h 40 sec. 



A Kajj TeMnepaTypa y rHe3Jjy nHejiHH>er 
jjpyniTBa, ycjiejj eHopMHor noBehaHja TonjioTe 
cnojBH>er Ba3Jjyxa, nperje BpejjHOCT ojj 35,5°C, 
BOJjoHome Tajja h He yjia3e y KouiHHny, Hero hx 
KyhHe n^ejie - "pacnpcKHBa^Hue" caneKyjy y 
npejjBopjy KouiHHue h uihx tph jjo neTHpn yacyp- 
6aHO npey3HMajy BOJjy ojjjejjHe BOJjoHome, TaKO 
jjaceoBaHHe3ajjp^caBayKouiHHnH 7) (Lindaer). 

Tpene, JieTH, 6e3 Bojje Ha nHejiHH>aKy h Kajja 
HeMa name, n^ejie cy Jtyre, Hanajjajy h He Mo^ce 
hm ce npnnn 6e3 3auiTHTHe onpeMe. Kao HJiyc- 
Tpannjy OBaKBor "pacnojio3ceH>a" nnejia, Ham 
"IlHejiap", jom jjaBHe 1949. tojjhhc y jjBo6pojy 
3a OKTo6ap h HOBeM6ap, oojaBHO je HCKycTBO 
jejjHor mBajijapcKor nnejiapa, Koje y o6pajjn 
npeHOCHMo: "MnpHe h 6jiaropojjHe n^ejie, ko- 
JHMaje nnejiap 6e3 6oja3HH npnjia3HO, ojjjejjHOM 
cy nocTajie jaKO JtyTe h Hanajjajie jjajte ojj 
KomHHije. y3poKJe otkpho Kajjaje 1911. tojjhhc 
yjejjHOM naconncy nponnTao jia cy nnejie jaTO- 
MHLie nojypHJie Ha BOJjy y nocTaBJteHOM noJHJiy. 
XejjaH MOBeK o6hhho je 3Jie Bojte, na h kojj 
miejia Moace 6hth cjihhho , 3aKJbyHyje 
Heno3HaTH nnejiap. H Kajjaje o6e36er)HBao pe- 
jjobho BOJjy Ha nnejiHH>aKy, npHMeTHOje "jja ce 
h>hxobo pacnojioaceH>e jacHO npoMeHHJio: 
nocTajie cy MHpHe h npecTajie ca HanajjaiteM 8 '. 

7) "nqejiap" 2/89 

8) "nqejiap" 10-11/49, cip, 210 



355 



riHejiap 1998 



HeTBpTO, noJHJio Ha nnejiHitaKyje ojuiwian 
HH,nHKaTop, KOJH noKa3yje CTatte name 
aoTHHHor Ra.ua.. Ako Ha noJHJiy HeMa nnejia, hjih 
Hxje BeoMa Majio, namaje oGnjma, a ykojihko cy 
n^ejie npeKpHJie noJHJinne n yTponinjie noBeny 
KOJiHHHHy BO#e, 3HaKj'e aa UBeTHnne He Me#e h 
Ziaje TeMnepaTypa cnojbH>er Ba3#yxa y3poK He- 
Mcneity. 

rieTO, CHMyjiHpaite npnpo/iHor yHoca HeK- 
Tapa 3hmh y nepnojiy cyH^aHnx flaHa, ica^a je 
TeMnepaTypa cnojbH>er Ba3,nyxa Bnma or +6°C, 
Ta^a y nojnjinne, nopea borq, HacneM menepHH 
cnpyn 3:1, onjieMeiteH ca 1,5% nojieHa n 50 ml 
KAS-a-81/jiHTap. Jaica nnejiHH.a apymTBa 6p30 
ocyme noJHJinne, MaTnne HHTeH3HBHnje nona^cy 
jaja 6e3 onacHOCTH jxa he Jierjio ycjie# saxjiarjetta 
ocTaTH HenoKpnBeHO. TaKBHX nepno^a 
OTonjLeH>a, Koje nnejie KopncTe 3a npomicHH 
jieT 6njioje Ha npnMep or 10 - 22. (})e6pyapa, n or 
18. rq 22. n 25. ro 29. MapTa 1987. romme, Kao h y 
BpeMeHyo/i ll.jio 19. h25./io29. (J)e6pyapa 1997. 
ro^HHe, Kao h y pa3,no6jby nsMefjy OBa rbzl noc- 
MaTpan.a 9) . Jep, n^ejie H3 n^ejiHH>HX 3ajeaHnna, 
Koje 3HMOBaH>e npoBO,ne ca mnpoM OTBopeHHM 
npe^H>HM n 3a#H.HM JieTOM, 3aTBopeHHM Henube- 
BHMa npoTHB MHineBa, ojihocho hcjihhhom 
MpexoM 3x3 mm, meje npHJiHB CBexer Ba3^yxa 
HeorpaHHHeH, n^ejie MacoBHO H3Jiehy n npn 
cnojbHoj TeivinepaTypH or +6°C h Bnmoj, a bo- 
HOHome n HHane npn TaKBOj TeMnepaTypn 



HOHOce Bony y KomHnny. IT^ejie H3JieateHe y 
MapTy H3 jaja nojioxeHnx y (})e6pyapy, HeroBahe 
jierjio H3 Kora he ce H3BecTH nnejie 3a 6arpeM. 

IIIecTO, nojnjinne Hanyn>eHe omieMeH>eHHM 
CHpynoM oaiiHHHO cjiyace Kao "nyTOKa3" 
n^ejiaMa 3a 6p30 npoHajia^ceH>e MecTa nojnjia Ha 
nnejiHitaKy npnjiHKOM npBHX nponncHnx JieTOBa 
n^ejia y (})e6pyapy. Ka/ia ce nojnjinne Kopncre 
3a CHMyjinpaite npnpo/iHor yHoca HeKTapa h Kao 
"nyTOKas" n^ejiaMa Ra 6pso Harjy nojnjio, 
noTpeSHO je npeTxojiHO 3aMpexaTH otbop 6a- 
jioHa nojnjinne ca iuiacTHHHOM MpexnnoM, KaKo 
nnejie, Kajj nonnjy cnpyn, He 6h ymjie Kpo3 ot- 
Bop n ocTajie y nojnjinnn. 

H3 npeTxojjHO H3Jio3ceHor, HaMehe ce 
3aKJbyHaK: 1. /Ja je nojnjio Ha miejiHH>aKy to- 
jiHKa Heonxo/iHOCT kojihko h KoniHHiia 3a 
CMemraj nnejinifce 3ajejjHnne; 2. HyxHO je JieTH 
nHejiHH>aK flpacara y "mapeHoj xjianoBHHn", 
KaKo n^ejie caKymbannne HeKTapa He 6h 
nocTajie BojipHome 3a pacxjiarjHBaH>e rHe3/ia, h 
3. ripe CBaKor nyH>en>a nojnjinna bottom, 6ajioH 
nojnjinne, BajioB n nnyTaHe njioBKe onpaTH 
MemaBHHOM bojxc, n 10% JlyrojioBor pacTBopa 
(5% ejieMeHTapHor jojia n 10% KajinjyM Jo- 
anna), 10 ' Bojiehn pa^yHa Ra Bojxy y nojnjinnaMa 
He 3axBaTe ajire n jra nojnjio He npecymn. 

AyTopje OBaKBHM ojjhocom npeMa nnejiaMa 
3amTHTHO nHejinH>e 3ajejTHnne ojt, Sojiecra, a 
ce6n 06e36ejr.no noBehaH npHHOc Mejra. 



9) BejieiiJKe ayTopa 



10) D. C. Yervis, TaJHe 3ejieHHX pn3Hiiua npiipoae, Beorpaj, 
1983. roa. 



n^ejiap 1998 



YTMuaj KO^MHMHe xpaHe Ha jani/my 3a3i/iM/bei-ior ApyiuTBa 

nemapIIaHmeAuh, YMuapu 
meA. 011/895-387 



rio3HaTO je Ra ojx jaKor jipyniTBa HMaMO 
HaJBHiue KopncTH ca HaJMaite yjioxeHor nocjia. 
Jla Sn n*iejiHH>e jjpyniTBO Shjio jaico y TOKy ce- 
30He, noroTOBO 3a paHe name - TpeSa Ra je 3a- 
3HMJbeHO jaKO. HaMehe ce nHTaite KaKO 
nocranH Ra 3a3HMHMO jaxa jjpymTBa? IITra 
Tpe6a na o6e3SejjHMO n^ejiaMa Ra Sh y 3HMy 
ynuie j axe ? Jla jih freMO no/icTHuaJHHM 
npHxpaH>HBaH>eM nocranH ^cejbeHH pe3yjrraT? 
Jla jih je Sojba OBorojjHiuH>a hjih npom.no- 
TORmuiha MaTHiia? Mo^c/ia KOJiHHHHa xpaHe HMa 
HaJBetiH yranaj? CBe cy to 3aroHeTKe or hhjhx 
pemeH>a 3aBncn nocTHrHyrH ycnex y nnejiapeity. 
rioKyuiahy neniTO or OBora Ra oSjacHHM 
npHMepHMa ca concTBeHor n*iejiHH>aKa. 



Herjje noneTKOM jyna npouiJie romiHe (J)op- 
MHpao caM jjeceT jjpyuiTaBa y JIB KoniHHuaMa ca 
HBa paMa 3aTBOpeHor Jierjia h ca 3aTBopeHHM 
MaTHHH>aKOM. Ochm OBa iiBa paMa ca JierjioM jjo- 
iiao caM join no neT, uiecT paMOBa ca n^ejiaMa Ha 
KojiiMaje Shjio Majio UBeTHor npaxa, Mejja cKopo 
HHinTa. Tpn MaTHue ce HHcy BpaTHJie ca 
omiojjH>e na caM Ta jjpymTBa pac(J)opMHpao. 
SHann ocTano je ce^aM. Or neTHaecTor jyjia 
noneo caM pejipBHO Ra hx npHxpaityjeM menep- 
hhm cnpynoM, jenHOM TerjioM 3anpeMHHe 750 ml. 
CBaKO Tpene *ieTBpTO Bene. Jlerjioje nonejiojia 
ce iHHpn a TaKorje , h MejiHe Kane Ra ce 
noBenaBajy. ITpHxpany caM npeKHHyo jxeceTor 
cenreM6pa Kajia caM OBa JjpymTBa RQiaibno npe- 
rjiejiao. Cbhx cenaM apyurraBa HMajio je Jierjia 
Ha neTJip cejraM paMOBa. Jlerjioje Shjio y cbhm 
CTa/iHJyMHMa. Ha hckom paMy oko nojioBHHe a 
HeKH paMOBH HMajiH cy Tpn neTBpTHHe 
noBpniHHe Jierjia. XpaHe je HMajio y cbhm 
apyuiTBHMa jjBaHaecT jio HeTpHaecT KHJiorpaMa. 
Bnine hx HHcaM npnxpaifcHBao. 



11 



HcTor Rana nperjiejjao caM h jejiHO Rpyro 
HpyniTBO ca crapoM MaTHHOM. 3ana3HO caM jxa 
Ben ziyace BpeMe cjiaSo H3Jiene, cjiaSo jiohoch 
nojieH. Ebo una caM Haiuao. njiojiHinTe je Shjio 
nyHO Mejxa. Ca JieBe h jxecne CTpaHe no nerapn 
3aTBOpeHa paMa. YKynHO ocaM. OcTajia ^erapn 
paMa HMajia cy jierjia 3a maicy c jejiHe h Jjpyre 
CTpaHe h to caMO CTapnje 3aTBOpeHO. H Ha obhm 
paMOBHMa je Shjio Mcua oko Jierjia h Man>e 
nojiena. Y MejjHimy cy ce Hajia3HJiajom nerapn 
paMa ca MejxpM, He Sam TaKO iryHirx Kao ohh H3 
njiojiHiHTa. H3Merjy MeminiTa h imoRmina je 
pemeTKa TaKO Ra MaTHna HHJe Morjia Ra nperje y 



Me/inrnTe h aKoje HMajio npa3HHX paMOBa Kojeje 
Morjia Ra 3ajie:»ce (paMOBH cy kojj, mojhx J\B 
KoniHHua h y MejiHniTy hcth Kao rniomiinHH). 
YKynHa KOJiHHHHa Mejxa, Koje je obo jipyniTBO 
HMajio, H3HOCHJiaje oko neTpjxeceT KHJiorpaMa, 
or Tora y njiojjnniTy npeKO TpnjxeceT. JipyniTBO 
je Shjio Hecpa3MepHojaKO, ca kojihmhhom Jierjia 
nonyH>aBajio je uejio njiojjHnrre h JioSap rco 
Mejinmra. IIlTa caM Morao nocjie nperjiejja 
Hpyro na 3aKJbyHHM, Hero Ra obo npymTBO aKO h 
iipneKa 3HMy Snne tojihko cjiaSo Ra ne Mopara 
Ra ce nojanaBa. IlpeTnocTaBHO caM Ra to ihto je 
jom jaKOJja cyTO JieTH>e miejie, a obo Jierjio Kajja 
ce H3Beae Hefre 3aMeHHTH hh neTHHy cajjamH>HX 
miejia. y OBy Mojy nporH03y caM Sho jom BHine 
yBepeH Kajia caM jipyniTBO nperjienao 20. 09. jep 
h oho Majio Jierjia mro je HMajio H3Bejio ce h 
BHine HHJe Shjio Jierjia. ITpeBapHO caM ce y 
panyHy. Ilocjie jxeceTaK jjaHa npymTBO je h jjajte 
Shjio jaKO na caM cnajaite ojijioxho. JleceraK 
naHa KacHHJe hcto. NpymTBO je Shjio h Raibe 
jaKO. HncaM ra hh cnojno. 3a3HMHJio je Ha jjeceT 
yjiHua. 

Or ohhx ce/iaM pojeBa hh jejjaH HHJe HMao 
BHine ojj mecT yjinua, nopejj Tora mTO cy HMann 
BHine Jierjia, a nocjie/iH>e Jierjio kor h.hx je 
H3anuio npen Kpaj OKToSpa, BHine or MecenjjaHa 
KacHHJe. 



Ill 



Ha cyHnpKpeTOBOj naniH npomjie ro^HHe 
H3poJHJio mh ce jejjHO npymTBO y "OapapoBoj" 
KomHHUH. JIpymTBO caM Ha cyHUOKpeT aoTepao 
ca neTHpn nyHa HacraBKa nnejia. MaTHna ce Hnje 
BpaTHjia ca onjio^Hje h Kajja caM to yrepjiHO 
CKopo Jjaje ocTajio Se3 n^ejia. Or neTHpn Hac- 
TaBKa ca nnejiaMa ocTaoje caMO jenaH a h H>era 
n^ejie roicy nonyHjaBajie. Mejjaje Shjio jjBa nyHa 
ropH>a HacTaBKa, oko TpnjjeceT kg. LUra caM 
Morao na pajjHM Hero jja obo npymTBO BpaTHM 
KytiH h JiojjaM MJiajjy MaTnny H3 pe3epBe ca RBa 
paMa Jierjia. HncaM ra BHUie Jiiipao jio 15. 09. 
Kajja caM ra otbopho jja Shx BHJjeo Ra jih je 3a 
cnajaH>e hjih Moxe caMOCTajiHO Ra npe3HMH. Or 
RBa nyHa HacTaBKa cyHHOKpeTOBor MQRa ocTao 
je caMojejjaH. OjjjejiHor HacTaBKa ca nnejiaMa 
cana cynnejie nonyH>aBajie RBa nyHa h Tpenn oko 
nojia. 



IV 



KaKBaje Snjia cyHnoKpeTOBa nauia npomjie 
roaHHe to 3HaMO. Knma je CBe noKBapnjia. 
MerjyTHM, khihho BpeMe je norojjpBajio 
Sochjbkoboj namnjepje OMejio paTape jja o^Max 



358 



Ilqejiap 1998 



yrape ctph>hkc Taxo %a. cy OHa flpyuiTBa Koja 
HHcy npeBHine ocjia6njia Ha cyHUOKpeiy, flOHejia 
HeuiTO Me/ia or 6ejior 6ocnjbKa. Je^HO apyuiTBO 
caM BpaTHO KyfiH ca nyHHM Me^HuiTeM (rqcqt 
pa3MaKHyTHX h 36or Tora niHpnx h Teacnx pa- 
MOBa). H y njicuHiiiTyje 6hjio oko 22-24 kg cyH- 
UOKpeTOBor Me,na. To 6n yxynHO 6hjio oko 60 kg. 
MaTHuaje 6njia npoinjioro,u i HniH>a. ITo ^ojiacicy 
Kyhn CBe paMOBe H3 Me^Hinra caM pa3^ejiHO 
HpyniTBHMa ca Matte Mejra. Ta^aje 6no noneTaK 
OKTo6pa. Ha kojihko he obo apyuiTBO ^a 3a3HMH 
HHcaM Morao na KexeM. Tonjioje BpeMe 6hjio h 
nnejie HHcy Snjie y KJiy6eTy. Morao caM caMO na 
KaxeM oho iuto caM BH^eo. rinejia je 6hjio rycTO 
HacejbeHHX y uejioM mioflHiiny. HcnyiuaBajiH cy 
h uejio Me/iHiHTe, HCTHHa pef)e. IIpeMajaHHHH 
HpyuiTBa npe 6h ce peKJio na je 6ho Kpaj anpHJia 
a He Ben ,u,Ba,n;eceTaK ^aHajeceHH. Y npojiene obo 
je jipyuiTBO 6hjio, HapaBHO, H3BaHpe^HO. 

IIlTace H3 CBera pe^eHor Mo:>Ke saKJby^HTH? 
Cjio6o^iho ce Moace pehn jxa KOJinnnHa xpane 
HMa HaJBenn yranaj Ha 6poj 3a3HMJbeHHX nnejia. 
HaapaataJHO npHxpaH>HBaH>e Ty Hehe MHoro 
noMohn, na ^aK hh MJia^ia MaTHua. H apyniTBa ca 



jioiuhjhm MaranaMa ca bcjihkom kojihhhhom 
xpaHe yhn he y 3HMyjaica. ,H,pyroje nHTaH>e Kaxo 
he ce 36or nouie Marane pa3BHJaTH y npojiehe. 
J\a 6h 3a3HMHJiH jaKa apyuiTBa HaJKacHHJe na 
3a/iH>oj naiiiH Tpe6a #a o6e36e/iHMO 3HMCKe pe- 
3epBe. Hehy ^a noMHH>eM kojihko je to y khjio- 
rpaMHMa. Xieo 6h caMO jj,a no/j,ceTHM Ha OHy 
H3pexy "Jia. jjok He ocra He SH/jocTa". IToroTOBy 
uito Beh HeKOJiHKO 3a/j,H>nx rojiHHa 3HMa Tpaje 
jxo Maja Meceua. 

Ako yTBpuHMO jj,a HeKO apyuiTBO HeMa 
Hobojlho xpaHe Haj6ojbe he 6hth #a ra uito npe 
o6e36e^HMO. Haj6ojbe paMOBHMa ca Me/joM H3 
HpyniTaBa Koja HMajy hobojbho xpaHe. Moxe h 
npnxpaHOM ajin y BejiHKHM o6pon,HMa jj,a 6n iuto 
npe nonyHHJin 3ajiHxe. Y Majy n jyHy motjio je y 
njio^nuiTy na HMa Maite xpaHe, Beh y jyjry 
HaJKacHHJe npejj, Kpaj jyjia y mro/ninny TpeSa na. 
cy Beh o6e36ef)eHe 3HMCKe pe3epBe. CBaKO 
KacHnje o6e36ef)eH>e 3hmckhx pe3epBH He- 
raTHBHO he ce ojjpa3HTH Ha ja^HHy 3a3HMJbeHor 
HpyniTBa. Ako He o6e36e#HMO BejiHKe pe3epBe 
xpaHe neMy jja ce Ha/jaMO? Ra jih Tpe6a ca 
crpenibOM jja neKaMO nponehe? 



M l/l C JIM l/ICTAKHYTI/IX I1HEJ1APA 



rinejiap CBar.ua HMa ^eiviy ce ymvm. 

ABpaM MaKCHMOBHft 

nnejiapeite je aoacHBOTHa niKOJia Koja ce CBpuiaBa 
ca jkhbotom nnejiapa. 

"Bopfie KojiapeBHft 



Moace nocrahH ,a:o6pe h AOBOJbHe ycnexe. Hcto TaKO He 
Moace hocthhh noSpe h joBOJbHe ycnexe hh OHaj, kojh 
HMa HajnoroflHHJc KoiuHHue, ajin HeMa aobojlho 
nqejiapcKora 3HaH>a h yMen>a. FIpaBora h noTnyHora 
ycnexa mcgkc 6hth caMO onaa, Kan cy o6a OBa ycjioBa 
cnojeHa, T.j. Kaa n^ejiap HMa h aobojlho nnejiapcKora 
3HaH>a h norozwy KoiHHHHy. 

JoBaH n.JoBaHOBiih 



JIhhho HCKycTBO y nnejiapcTBy je Haj6ojba niKOJia, 
to je HCTHHa, ajin je HCTHHa h to, jia cc y oboj ihkojih 
njiaha HaJBeha uiKOJiapHHa. 3aTO je ,no6po h y nnejiap- 

CTBy KOpHCTHTH Ce nOHeKail TyfjHM HCKyCTBOM. 

CnMa )KnrHn 



BaBJbeHje nqejiapcTBOM He caMO na HOBeKy 
npHHHH>aBa 3aaoBOJLCTBO, Beh oho no3HTHBHO aejiyje 
Ha 3,npaBJbe MOBeKa. riqejiapn pchobhto nyKe atHBe 
ihto cy noKa3a;ie MHore aHKeTe npoBe^eHe y CBeTy. 

Jocnn Bejiinh 



MaTHua je ziyma n^ejiHHiera apyuiTBa. Ofl HseHe 
bpchhocth 3aBHCH h BpeflHocT nqejiHH>era npyiHTBa. 
3aTO, aKO ce xohe na HMajy no6pa nnejiHHja apyuiTBa, 
Mopajy ce HMa™ h ^o6pe Maraue, a to ce Taxo^e Moace 
nocTH3aBaTH pa3yMHHM n^ejiapcKHM yrHuajeM. 

JoBaH n.JoBaHOBHh 



Mh He npxHMO nqejie pann h>hx caMHX, T.j. 3aTO n,a 
3CHBe 3a itHXOBe HaroHe, Beh hx apacHMO paiin Hame 
kophcth, jia ofl HjHX ^o6HJeMO hito je Moryhe BHiue 
Mejia h BOCKa. 

JoBaH "Bep30H 



Ako ce name, paan nnejia h Haj6oraTHJe HaM noKa- 
3yjy, oneT HHcy TaKBe na hx no6ojbinaTH He 6hcmo mo- 
tjih. 

ABpaM MaKCHMOBHft 



BeiHTaqKH pojeBH Mory 6hth He caMO hcto TaKO 
noGpn Kao h npHpo,HHH pojeBH, ho h 6ojbh on npHpofl- 
hhx pojeBa, caMO aKO ce BeniTaMKO pojefte ^oopo H3- 

BO/IH. 

JOBaH II . JOBaHOBKh 



riocjie qeTpaeceT ro^HHa jomao caM no 3aiai>yqKa: 
ziaje npBO nania, h oneT naina, na TeK onua KoniHHua . . . 
HeMa Te noroziHe KoniHHue Koja he jiaTH Mena Kaaa 
HeMa name, hhth HenorojiHC, Koja Hehe nam Mena, aKO 
HMa name. 

Mhjihboj ByrapcKH 



Ako je^aH nnejiap HMa jiobojbho nqejiapcKora 
3HaHja h yMeaa, ajin HeMa noro^He KomHHue, oh He 



BjiH3y jioMa nnejie jipacaTH, BejiHKaje kophct, mTO 
noMa CBar^a Ha MeTH ^ejtan roTOBy HMaMO, h iuto 
mhoto h>hx Haje,naHnyT n^ejiapcKOM 3aHaTy o6yiaBajy 

ce. 

ABpaM MaKCHMOBHh 

IIPHPE^HO: Mhjioui AhtohiA, 
CBeuiTeiiHK, Kouejbeea 



359 



nnejiap 1998 



MoAM0MKOBaHMHOcaHpaMOBaHPB1 



BuAycMupKO, TpcmenuK 

meA.037/712-177 



y HaJBeheM 6pojy cjiy^ajeBa nnejiapH cy 
npHHy^eHH %a nperjien KoiimHua o6aBe caMH. 
CBaKH fleTaibHHJH nperjiefl nojipa3yMeBa h npe- 
iuiejj paMOBa. Jla 6h ce to npaBHJiHO oSaBHJio 
HeonxojiHO je jx& ce nocjie CKJiaH>aH>a noicionHe 
jiacice H3 KouiHHiie H3Ba^H 1 ro 2 paMa h npHBpe- 
MeHO czmoace BaH koidhhuc Tajxa HacTajy npo6- 
jieMH! 

CannyK 3a paMOBe neeroje 3ay3eT paMOBHMa 
3a 3aMeHy, nocTOJta 3a KoniHHne HHcy yBeK no- 
jxecHa 3a ojuiaraite paMOBa, TepeH je noHeKa£ 
HarHyr, tjio BJiaxHO (6jiaTH>aBo) wtr. Pacnnajy 
ce MJia^e nnejie, riteHH cane, npeTH rpa6ex wtr. 
Cbq to yKa3yje Ha HHH>eHHiry jja je 3a imejiapa 
HaJKopHCHHJe, HajcHrypHHJe h HajjejjHOCTaBHHJe 
aa H3Ba^eH paM h ^ajte ocTaHe Ha MaranHoj 

KOIHHHHH. O/IHOCHO J13. Ca H.OM MHHH 

je^HHCTBeHy nejiHHy, Kojyje no noTpeSn Moryne 
JieJIHMHMHO 3aUITHTHTH njiaTHOM 3a noKpHBaH>e 
OTBopeHe KouiHHue. 36or Tora CMaTpaM jia 6h 
CBaKH nnejiap Tpe6ajio jia noce/xyje Hoca^ pa- 
MOBa Kao HeonxojjaH npnSop. IrberoBa ocHOBHa 
npaKTHHHa BpejiHOCT je Ben BHUiecTpyKO JipKa- 
3aHa a (J)yHKUHJa onncaHa y JiHTepaTypn. Objic 
ce MerjyTHM pajin o MojjH(j)HKOBaHOM Hocany h Ty 
npoMeHy acejiHM HeuiTO jxeTajbHHJe oojacmrrH. 

MojiH(J)HKaHHJa ce cacTOJH y TOMe hito cy 
HocefiH Kpann npo/ryateHH h cneuHJajiHO o6jih- 



KOBaHH. Ha H>HMa cy yrpatjeHH ocjiohhh h 
rpaHH^HHHH, ihto CBe 3ajejiHO OMoryftaBa jj,a 
nopejj ocHOBHe (J)yHKHHJe (no3HHHJa 3 Ha 
UpTexy) noys/iaHO cjiyaai h 3a flpyre HaMeHe, 
npe CBera 3a pa# ca MaTHHH>an,HMa h JierjioM 
(no3HHHJe 4 h 5), a necTO 3a ocHOBHy h noceSHy 
HCTOBpeMeHO. PaM ce cacBHM jejiHOCTaBHO 
nocTaBJba y noTpe6an nojioxaj , vjxt hbpcto 
jie^cH (HeMa KJiHMaH>a hjih Jtyji>aH>a) na ce 
imaHHpaHe TexHOJiouiKe pa/irae Mory cnrypHO h 
jiaKO H3BecTH. YrjioBH no,ii KOJHMa ce ycatjyje Ha 
Hocan cy norojjHH 3a paji, jep HeMa caBHJaH>a 
jierja. 

nopea npHMeHe Ha nnejiHH>aKy Hocai 
nocTaBJteH Ha npa3aH HacTaBaK, H3BpHyr KpoB h 
cji. nnejiapy Moxe nocjryacHTH y 3aTBopeHoj 
npocTopnJH 3a noy3£aHO npH^pacaBaH>e paMOBa 
koji pa/ia ca JierjioM (npecaf)HBaH>e JiapBH) hjih 
MaTHMH>auHMa. Taicolje je Moryhe KopHiHTeH>e 
Hocana 3a npHflpacaBaH.e paMOBa kojj CKHjiaH>a 
BouiTaHHX noKJion^nha hxh. 

HajnorojjHHJe MecTO 3a HaMemraH>e Hoca^a 
HaTejio KouiHHue cy 6oHHe CTpaHHne. Ykojihko 
to HHJe Moryne, 36or Majior pa3Maxa Merjy 
KouiHHuaMa, Hocan ce 6e3 HKaKBHX npoSjieMa 
CTaBJta Ha npe/JH>y hjih 3aji,H>y CTpaHHiry hjih 
npeBpHyT KpoB. 




JlereHJja: 

llo3. 1. Hocan paMOBa no- 
CTaBJteH Ha 6oHHy CTpaHHiry 

KOIUHHHe. 

llo3. 2. Tejio KouiHHue. 
llo3. 3. ITojioxaj ojjJioaceHor 
paMa. 

llo3. 4. llojioxaj paMa Ha 
Hocany npn y3HMaH>y hjih 
yMeTaity spejinx MaTHHH>aKa, 
HceuaH^y TpyroBCKor Jierjia ca 
paMOBa rpa5eBH>aKa, nce- 
uan>a MJianor pa^HJiHHKorjie- 
rjia panH y3roja MaTH^ntaKa 

HTJI, 

llo3. 5. ITojio^caj paMa no- 
CTaBibeHor Ha Hoca 1 ! pajjH 
y3HMan>a MaTH^Hor MJiena, 
kojj H3pc3HBaH>a cana, npn- 
*!BpmnHBaH>a hcchchhx Tpaxa 
cafia ca MJianHM pajjHJia^KHM 
jiapBaMa pajjH y3roja Ma- 

THHH>aKaHflp. 



361 



nqejiap 1998 



mea 

y neiviy je iteroea epeAHOCT 



Or aaBHHHa je ^OBeicy no3HaTO m nnene 
CKynibajy h npaBe BeoMa yKycHy nocnacrany ko- 
joj cy MHorn npiinHCHBajiH nynoTBopHa nejcTBa. 
Men je y npeBHOj MenHHHHH 6ho oho iiito je 
naHac acnnpnH - Hajnenine KopumheHH JieK. Join 
cy ra CTapH ErnnfiaHH kophcthjih 3a ne*ieH>e 
paHa, a y Hh^hjh 3a nyBaite Tejra on crapeika. 
rioMHH>e ce necTO y CTapHM nannpycHMa H3 
2600. ro 2200. ro^HHe npe Haine epe. KopHinfteH 
je h Kao yHHBep3ajiHO cpencTBO 3a 3aHen>HBaH>e 
paHa, unpeBa h 3anan>eH>a Ha Koaoi. y BpeMe 
paTOBa kor CTapnx PHMJbaHa, Tpxa, Acnpaua, 
ErnnnaHa h KnHe3a, KopninneH je Kao aHTHcen- 
thk, ajiH h KacHHJe, koh HeMana, y npBOM CBeT- 
ckom paTy. 

XnnoKpaT je caBeTOBao MemaBHHy Mena, 
Bone h MJieica 3ajieneH.e rpo3HHne. 

IHraje Men 

Men je cnpynacTa MaTepHJa Kojy CTBapa rw- 
recTHBHH cok H3 xe-jryija nnejie ycncaBaH>eM 
HeKTapa MenoHOCHHX 6HJbaica, kojh nnene 
CKyrutajy, nonajyfrn cneuHCJDHUHe MaTepnje, 
TpaHC(})opMHniy h o/uia^cy y nennje cafta Ra 
ca3pH. Mqr ce y CTBapn cacTOJH on oko 75% 
(J)pyKT03e h rjiyK03e h oko 18% Bone. OcTaTaK 
cy aeKCTpHH, GejiaHHeBHHe, HeniTO BHTaMHHa B 
rpyne (B l2 h Hnaipm), Kao h Fe h Ca. HeMa 
MacTH h xojiecTepojia. Menje cnaljH or menepa 
36or canpacaja (J)pyKT03e, ajiH HMa HeniTO HiDKy 
eHepreTCKy BpenHOCT 36or canpacaja Bone. 
OpraHH3aM ra JiaKO acHMHJiyje, 6pxe Hero 
menep. 100 rpaMa Mena naje 288 cal. 

y o/iHocy Ha menep, noTpoimta Mena y Hacje 
15 nyra Man>a - CBera 1,1 kg no CTaHOBHHKy 
TORKUiibe. CBe BpcTe npnponHor Mena cy CKopo 
6e3 ocTaTaKa necTnuiina jep cy nnene BeoMa 
oceTJLHBe Ha necTHiinne h H36eraBajy UBeTOBe 
npcKaHHX 6njbaKa. Men HHaue nojauaBa neno- 
Baite nojcuHHHX JieKOBa. 

BpojHH caBpeMeHH HCTpaacHBann cy 
noTBpflHJiH Ra mqr y6HJa 6aKTepHje h Ra HMa aH- 

THCenTHHKO H ne3HH(j)eKnHJCKO CBOJCTBO. 

Men kojh ce CTaBJba y npoMeT Mopa na ncny- 
H>aBa cnenene ycjioBe: 

Ra caRpyKH HaJMaitc 65% penyKOBaHiix uienepa 
panyHaTO Kao HHBeprHH menep, ochm 3a 
Me^JtHKOBau kojh Mopa Ra canp^KH HajMaH^e 
60% peAyKOBaHHx menepa 



"AyTopn paae y 3aBo.ny 3a 3auiTHTy 3.npaBJba 
Gnyx6a xiirHJeHe h 3aiiiTHTe JKHBOTHe cpenHHe 



Cy6oTHua 



ffp ffpaeana Ecuiah, * 
Jfp Cofha ToHKoeuh 

ffunA. UHDfe, JIaypa Xa3u 

• Ra He cajip^KH BHine or 5% caxapo3e, MeR or 
Bpeca, THJioBHHe h npana Moxe na canp^cn no 
8% caxapo3e, hbcthh mqr ro 5,5 % caxap03e, 
mqr or Kaoyjbe h py3MapHHano 8% caxapo3e, a 
Men or 6arpeMa, naBaHne h Menn-HKOBau, ro 
10% caxapo3e 

• Ra He caRpnoi BHiue or 21% Bone 

• Ra He canp)KH BHine on 0,5% MHHepanHHx Ma- 
TepHJa, ochm Me^n>HKOBHa, kojh Mo^ce na 
canp^KH HaJBHme 1 % MHHepanHHx MaTepHJa 

na yKynHa KHcenocT He 6yne Bena on 40 mmola 
KHcenHHe Ha lOOOg 

na He canp^H BHHie on 0,1% MaTepHJa Hepaer- 
Bopn>HBHX y Bonn, ochm MyibaHor h TomteHor 
Mena, kojh Mory na canp^ce thx MaTepnja no 
0,5% 

• na npnnHKOM Tonn>eH>a HCKpHCTariHcaHor Mena 
mje 3arpeBaH Ha TeMnepaiypH bhuioj on 40°C 

• na je ca3peo y koihhhhh 

• na HMa yKyc h mhphc (apoMy) cBojcTBeHy Meny 
na HHJe 3anoHeo npouec Bpeita, na roije y CTaH>y 
Bpen>a hjih na je npeBpeo 

• na HeMa CTpaHH yKyc h mhphc (apoMy) 

na My HHJe nonaBaH me hep (caxapo3a) mm 
npyrn npoH3Bonn kojh cy no KOH3HCTeHUHJH h 
cacTaBy cnHHHH Meny 

na HHJe no6njeH xpaH>eH>eM n^ena uiehepoM 
hjih npoH3BonnMa uienepa hhth je noMeuiaH ca 
MenoM no6HJeHHM Ha Taj Ha^HH 

• na He noTHne H3 caha y KOMe je nemo 

• na HHJe 3ararjeH CTpaHHM opraHCKHM h MHHe- 
panHHM MaTepHJaMa, HHceKTHMa nnn h>hxobhm 
nenoBHMa, nernoM, H3MeTOM, nnecHHMa h np. 

na HHJe 6ojeH 6nno kojhm SojaMa 

• na HHcy nonaBaHa cpencTBa 3a KOH3epBHcaH>e h 
apoMaTH30BaH>e 

• na KHcenocT HHJe BcuiTa^KH cMan>eHa 

3a npoH3Bone kojh He ncnyitaBajy HaBeneHe 
ycnoBe (Men nnn Menn>HKOBau) HHJe no3Bon>eHo 
ynoTpe6n>aBaTH Ha3HB "Men" hjih cnn^iaH Ha3HB, 
kojh HaBonn Ha to na ce npoH3Bon CMaTpa Me- 
noM. 

3a HHnycTpHJcicy npepany Moxe ce cTaBn>aTH 
y npoMeT h npoH3Bon non Ha3HBOM "Men 3a npe- 
pany". 

Men 3a npepany je npoH3Bon MenoHocHHx 
nuena, kojh HMa onniTe ocoGhhc Mena h ncny- 
H>aBa ycnoBe KBanHTeTa Mena ochm y norneny: 
canp^caja caxapo3e, canpacaja Bone, nHJacTa3e h 
3arpeBaH>a Ha TeMnepaTypn bhiuoj on 40°C. 

y TaKBOM Meny ce BpenHocT caxopo3e Moace 
noBenaTH caMo 3a nBe SpojnaHe jenHHHite on 
BpenHocTH nponncaHe 3a onpefjeHy BpcTy Mena. 



362 



n^ejiap 1998 



Canp:acaj Bone Kon TaKBor npoH3Bona Moace 

H3HOCHTH no 25%. 

Men h Me/iJLHKOBau ce CTaBJbajy y npoMeT y 
oprHHajiHOM naKOBaiby y nocyne on pa3Hor Ma- 
TepHJajia (cTaioieHKe, JiHMeHKe, iuiacTHHHe no- 
cyne Hnp.) 

Ha opHrHHajiHOM naKOBatty Mena onH. 
Me^JtHKOBiia Mopajy 6hth 03HaneHH cnenefrn 
nonann: 

Ha3Hn npon3Bona h TproBaHKO HMe, axo ra npo- 

H3HOfl HMa 

(})HpMa, OJIH. Ha3HH h cennniTe npoH3Bo^aHa, 
onH. opraHH3annja Koja je Men naKOBajia 

naiyM npoH3Bonifce, onH. naKOBaita h pox Tpa- 
jan>a hjih TeKCT "ynoTpoSjtHB no" 

HeTO KOJiHHHHa (Maca hjih 3anpeMHHa) npon3- 
Bona 

3a Men - 03Haica npeMa nopeiaiy MenoHOCHe 
6HJLKe, onn. np. Me^oHOCHHX aejioBa GiutaKa 
(Hnp. "uBeTHH Men" hjih "jihiiob Men") h 03HaKy 
npeMa Ha^HHy no6njaH>a (Hnp. "BpuaHH" hjih 
"Men y cany" h en.) 

sa npenapaTe Ha 6a3H Mena Kao h Men ca nona- 

UHMa: OCHOBHH CaCTOJUH npOH3BOna H KOJIHHHHa 

thx cacTojaKa y npouenraMa. 

JleKJiapauHJa 3a yB03HH Men nopen HaBe- 
neHHX nonaTaKa Mopa canp^cara h tckct 
"yB03HH Men", Kao h Ha3HB 3eMJi>e H3 Koje je Men 
yBe3eH h (J)HpMy, onH. Ha3HB h cennniTe 

yB03HHKa. 

XtoMann Men, kojh ce Meuia ca yB03HHM Me- 
noM, Mopa 6hth neKJiapncaH Kao "MeuiaHH 
noMahn Men h yB03HH Men" ca Ha3HaKOM H3 Koje 
3eMJbe je yBe3eH Men y cacTaBy MeiuaBHHe. 

JleKnapaijHJa 3a "Men 3a npepany" Mopa 
canpxaTH TeKCT "Men 3a npepany" h nonaTKe o 
oncTynan^y BpennocTH y no3Bon>eHHM eneMeH- 
THMa KBanHTeTa, pann ycMepaBan>a Te npepane. 
On neKnapncaHHX HeTO-KonnHHHa npoH3- 
Bona no3BOJbaBajy ce cnenefra oncTynaita 3a no- 
jennHaHHa opnniHanHa naKOBan.a h to: 
3a naKOBaite no 50 g - no 6% 
3a naKOBan.e npexo 50 g no 100 g - 3,5 % 
3a naKOBaite npexo lOOg no 500g -no2,5% 
3a naKOBaite npexo 500 g - no 1,5 % 
llpoceHHa HeTO KonnnnHa cnynaJHO H3a6pa- 
hhx nojenHHaHHHX opnrnHanHHX naKOBaita 
Mopa onroBapaTH neKnapncaHoj Macn npon3- 
Bona, ca rpaHH^HOM BpenHoniny + 2 % . 

Menje, h nopen BennKor canpxaja menepa, 
nonno^caH npoMeHaMa h KBapen>y yKonnKO ce He 
^yBa non onroBapajynnM ycnoBHMa. Meny non- 
jenHaKO uiTeTe h TonnoTa h Bnaxeike, jep Ha 
noBHineHoj TeMnepaTypn Men ry6n 6ojy h 
Mnpnc, a y Meny ca nocTa Bone HMa KBacna n npy- 
rnx H3a3HBaHa Bpen>a. Hapo^HTO ce 6p30 KBapn 
Men aico HMa Bone BHUie Hero niToje no3BOJteHO 
h axo ctojh y oTBopeHOM cyny y BnaxHoj npoc- 
TopHJH. KonTaKBor Mena Hajnpe nonnite Bpen>e, 
a 3aTHM h TOTanno KBapeite. 

J\a 6h o^yBao KBannTeT h CBOjcTBa Men Tpe6a 
npxaTH y 3aTBopeHHM cynoBHMa h to y npocTO- 



pnjaMa Koje cy cyBe (oko 60% penaTHBHe 
BnaxHOCTH Ba3nyxa), TaMHe h npoBeTpeHe h Ha 
TeMnepaTypn oko + 10°C, ann He ncnon +4,5°C, 
jep ce Men CMp3aBa, onHOCHO Haciyna KpncTann- 
3annja y KpaTKOM poxy. 

HcKpHCTanncann Men Tpe6a np^ara Ha TeM- 
nepaTypn ncnon 10°C, jep je oh nonno^cHHJH 
KBapeH>y non yranajeM MHKpoopraHH3aMa. 3peo 
Men Moxe ce nyBara h Ha bhiuhm TeMnepaTy- 
paMa, ann axo canp^cn npeKO 21 % Bone Moxe 
naKO na OTnoHHe Bpen>e h na ce yKHcenn. Tom 
npnnnKOM HeKe ntHBHue (KBacnn) Koje nocne- 
Bajy y Men HeKTapoM, nnn y TOKy ne!)eH>a, npo- 
nnpy y Men h Hajnpe npeTBapajy nienepe H3 Mena 
y anxoxon, a cnpneTHe 6aKTepnje 3aTHM anKO- 
xon npeTBapajy y cnpneTHy KHcennHy. 

Men kojh ce HCKpncTanncao He CMaTpa ce 
noKBapeHHM, ann je oh nonno^cHHJH KBapeity 
Hero Men ca HopManHOM K03HCTaHnHJ0M. Orora 
TaKaB Men TpeSa noBpaTHTH y npBoSnTHO 
CTaite, iuto ce nocraace 3arpeBaH>eM Ha TeM- 
nepaTypn no 40°C n onMax HaKOH Tora Men 
Tpe6a pa3nHTH y nocyne Koje ce noSpo 3aT- 
Bapajy. MeljyTHM, TaKaB Men je nocTa H3ry6no 
CBOjcTBa, a HapoHHTo axo je 3arpeBaH>e nyace 
Tpajano h aKoje 6nno Ha bhiuoj TeMnepaTypn on 
40°C. 

Men ca noneHOM, 36or cbot BHTaMHHCKor 
cacTaBa h canpacaja Baaainx aMHHOKHcennHa, 
Kao hito cy apiiiiinii. uhcthh, mcthohhh, 
TpHnTO(J)aH, JieyuHH, (|)ciiii. in. lannii, H3y3eTHO 

noBOJBHo nenyje Ha pan xopMOHanHnx xne3na. 
lloce6aH e^eKaT HMa Ha onpacaBaite 
enacTHHHOCTH kpbhhx cynoBa h Baacn 3a npn- 
ponHH neK npoTHB aTepocKnepo3e. IToMaace npn 
BapeH>y xpaHe. 

MaTHmni MJieq canp^KH nyno naHTOTeHCKe 
KHcenHHe Koja yrane Ha 3npaBJLe h 
nonMnarjHBaH>e Koace, pacT Koce, hemijcKH Me- 
Ta6ojiH3aM h pacT neue. Haj6on>a MemaBHHa 
Mena ca Mne^oM je OHa y Kojoj HMa HaJMaH>e 5% 
Mnena. 

Morylia JiexoBHTa CBOjcrea 

* janaifee HMyHHTeTa opraHH3Ma npoTHB 6onecTH, 
na n paKa (aHTHKaHueporHe MaTepnje - xonHHH) 

* yHHUiTaBaH.e 6aKTepnja h BHpyca (3auiTHTa on 

HH({)eKUHJa) 

* ne3HH(J)eKiiHJa paHa h noBpena 

* noBenaite (})H3HHKe n MeHTariHe CHare 

* y6na3caBaH.e 6onoBa 

* y6p3aBan>e onopaBKa nocne SonecTH n BenHKnx 

Hanopa 

* y6na2caBaH>e acTMaTHHHnx Hanana 

* yMHpHBaH>c rymo6oji>e 

* CMHpHBaitc HepaBa h OMoryhaBaH>e HHTeH3HB- 

Hor cnaBan>a 

* y6naacaBaH>e nnjapeje 

Men ce y HaponHoj MenHijHHH npenopynyje 
Kao cpencTBO npoTHB KaniJba, oneKOTHHa, 
3anenjteH>a Hoca, 3anan>eH>a CHHyca, bhcokc 



363 



nqejiap 1998 



JIHOOB MEA 
JlHnOB-JIMBAACKM MEfl 


tSTAPH. AUREUS 


iSALM. GALL, 


t STAPH. AUREUS 


4SALM. GALL. 


CYHLJOKPETOB MEfl 


TSTAPH. AUREUS 


4e. coli 


PEOHUA-EArEMOB MEfl 


tPSEUD. AERUG. 


4STR. FAECALIS 


JIHBAJXCKH MEJJ 


tSTAPH. AUREUS 


4-E. COLI 


EAFPEMOBMEA 


TPSEUD, AERUG, 


+STR. FAECALIS 


*AUEJIMJA 


Te. coli 


iPSEUD. AERUG. 


QiyMCKMMEfl 


T PROTEUS SPEC. 


4STR. FAECALIS 



TeMnepaType, Jioiner MOKpeita h HecaHHue. 
JleKapn cy y MHoruM 3eMJtaMa y pa3Bojy pyraH- 
ckh Ma3ajiH paHe h noBpeljeHa Mecra Me,noM, Kao 
jie3HH(J)HiiHJeHCOM. Men, Ka/ia ce je#e, .nejiyje 
npoTHB uiTeTHHX 6aKTepHJa y opraHHMa 3a 
Bapeite h noMaxe cy36HJaH>y ,o,HJapeje, iiito, 
TaKo^e, jioKa3yje m Men HMa aHTH6noTCKo 
jiejcTBO. HaJBHine aHTH6HOTCKHX MaTepHJa HMa 
y JinnoBOM Meny, a HaJMaite y uiyMCKOM. Men 
kojh ca^pacH Benn npoueHaT rjiyK03e y o/iHocy 
Ha (J)pyKT03y HMa jane H3pa^ceHO aHTHMHK- 

poSHO flejCTBO. HaJBHHie BJiaCTHTHX (J)HHTOHHJia 

(6hjlhh aHTHSHOTHHH) y Me^y HMa y nepnoziy 
Meno6paH>a, Ka^a je h HaJBefta TeMnepaTypa h 
Hajayaca cbctjioct. Ahthmhkpo6ho ^ejcTBO 
Me^,aje pe3yjiTaT ceKpeTopHor paaa n^ejia h 3a- 



bhch on KOM6HHaHHJe (J)epMeHaTa h menepa. 
OepMeHT rjiyKOOKCH/ia3a, kojh ce Hajia3H y 
Mejiy, OKCHjiHine rjiyK03y y bohohhk nepoKCHfl 
y3 HCTOBpeMeHO CTBapaH>e h nrcyKOHCKe 

KHCeJIHHe KOJa HMa aHTHMHKpoSHO nejcTBO. 

Meji noKa3yje noBoibHO ^ejcTBO npoTHB rac- 
TpHTHca, ropyuiHue, ^npa Ha xejiyuy h jip. 

ripeMa ynyrcTBy Jiexapa, Men He Tpe6a 
jiaBaTH neuH Hcno/i je^He roaHHe CTapocTH, jep 
ce ca nojieHOM, kojh ce y H>eMy Hajra3H, y neHJH 
opraHH3aM Mory yHeTH cnope 6oTyjiH3Ma Koje ce 
y upeBHMa MHO^ce h CTBapajy, noHeicafl, 
cmptohochh OTpoB. Majja je nojaBa TpoBan>a 
6e6a Me^oM peTKa, nnaK ra MHorn JieKapn 
CMaTpajy ph3hhhhm 3a noMeHyrH y3pacT. 



364 



nnejiap 1998 



nponojinc (IV) - jieK 3a MHore 6onecTn 



FlponojiHC ii riiHeKOJiouiKa oSo.beiba 



IIume:Ceetno3apBejbKoeuh 9 Hyinpuu^uoHucfna 



MacT npHnpeMibeHa ca nponojiHCOM noKa- 
3ajia ce jjpcTa e<{)HKacHOM y Jieneity ra- 
HeKOJiouiKHX o6ojbeH>a. Y tom CMHCJiy cy Bpjio 
3HanaJHH pe3yjiTaTH Koje je Ha aKymepcKO- 

THHeKOJIOUIKOJ KJIHHHUH KpHMCKOr MeJTHnHH- 

CKor HHCTHTyTa ho6ho J. A. BpycHJioBCKHJ, noc- 
MaTpajyhii ziejcTBO nponojiHCHe Macra y JieneH>y 
120 6ojiecHHiia, ojj KOJHXje 56 6hjio ca epo3HJOM 
Ha rpjnifty MaTepnue, a ocTajie ca kojiiihthcom, 

UepBHHHTHCOM^H^OUepBHTHCOM H JjpyTHM. 

JIeHeH>e ce cacTojajio y TOMe hito je nocjie 
H3BpmeHor BarHHajiHor nperjie^a h OTKJiaH>aH>e 
cexpeTa, Ha oSojiejio MecTO CTaBibao TaMnoH ca 
nponojiHCOBOM Maniny. OBa nponejjypa ce 
noHaBJLajia CBaKOJiHeBHO y TOKy 10 ro 12 JxaHa. 
Tpener hjih neTBpTor jjaHa JieHeita noBpuiHHa 
paHe nocTaje 6jiejjpHpBeHa, npecTaje JiyHeike 
cexpeTa h nojaajbyjy ce oa3e enHTejia. EmrrejiH- 
3auHJa ce o6hhho BpuiH or nepn^epnje npeMa 
yHyTpauiH.ocTH paHe. lloTnyHO 03jipaBJi>eH>e ca 
HecTaHKOM paHHue h 3anajtHBHX npoMeHa noc- 
THrHyTO je kor 79 6ojrecHHna hjih y 65,8% 
cnyHajeBa. /JejiHMnnHO 03jipaBJi>eH>e ca 3HaTHHM 
CMaH>eH.eM noBpuiHHe paHe h 3anajbeH>a 
yTBprjeHoje kojj 28 hjih 23,3% 6ojrecHnna, flOKJe 
kor ocTajiHX 13 6ojiecHHiia CTaH>e ocTajio He- 
npoMeiteHO. ITpH kohtpojihom npeniejjy nocjie 
6 no 8 MeceuH noKa3ajio ce aa cy CBera 3 Sojie- 
CHHii,e ocTajie Hen3JieHeHe or yxynHO 120 ko- 
jihko Hxje Shjio Ha noneTKy Jienetta. 

Ha ocHOBy Jxo6HJeHHX pe3yjiTaTa Jia npo- 
nojiHCOBa MacT Bpjio 6p30 hobojjh jjo ennTajinsa- 
nnje h 3apaniheH>a paHa, a Kaxo HHJe TOKcnnaH h 
jjejiyje Sjiaro tj. He Hajjpaacyje, ayTop npe- 
nopynyje nponojincoBy MacT 3a CTannoHapHO h 
aM6yjiaHTHO JieHeita noMeHyTHX 6ojiecTH. 

AHecTeTiPfflo jjcjctbo nponojinca 

Join 1957. rojiHHe H. H. npoKonoBHnje eK- 
cnepHMeHTajiHO JipKa3ao aHecTeTHHKO ziejcTBO 
nponojinca. IrberoBa ncnnTHBaH>a cy noKa3ajia 
jja aHecTeTH^KO jjejcTBO 0,25% pacTBopa npeBa- 
3HJia3H jjejcTBO KOKaHHa h HOBOKaHHa. n.oce6- 
hhm HCTpa3CHBaH>eM je yTBprjeHO jia aHecie3H- 
pajyna CBOjcTBa HMajy ycreapn eTepnHHa yjta 
Koja ce Hajia3e y nponojincy, Kao h to ;xa 0,25% 
pacTBop nponojinca H3a3HBa noTnyny aHec- 
Te3HJy y TOKy or 12,5 MHHyra. ,H,a cy eTepnHHa 
yjta nponojinca hochouh iteroBor aHec- 
TeTH^Hor ziejcTBa jjpKas je hito pacTBop npono- 
jinca ncTe KOHueHTpauHJe (0,25%) H3 Kora cy or- 
CTpaH>eHa eTepnHHa yjta, HeMa HHKaKBO aHec- 
Te3npajyne jxejcTBO. 

Obo cbojctbo nponojinca yrepjiHO je h <t>. T. 
PaMOHOB Ha KnjeBCKOM CTOMaTOJioniKOM (})a- 



KyjiTeTy. Oh je JipKa3ao, jj,a ce 2-4% ajiKoxojiHn 
pacTBop nponojinca Moace c ycnexoM ynoTpe- 
6hth Kao cpejjcTBO 3a aHecTe3njy npn Jienetty 
a(J)TH, ep03HJa n jjpyrnx noBpejja y ycHoj /ryiubn. 

IIponojiHC y CTOMaTOJiomJH 

JXo6pu pe3yjiTaTH ca nponojincoM jjo6njeHH 
cy y JieHeH>y napajxeHT03e h Kapnjeca 3y6a. 
JIeHeH>e ce cacTojn y ncnnpaifcy ycTa, Taxo uito 
ce 20 Kami 15% hjih 20% ajiKoxojiHor eKCTpaKTa 
BHCOKOKBajiHTeTHor nponojinca CTaBH y naniy 
npoKyBaHe Bojxe, nnja je TeMnepaTypa jeflHaxa 
co6hoj TeMnepaTypn. Hcnnpaite ce o6aBJba JiBa 
nyra jjhcbho y TOKyjejiHor ro rbsl Mecena. 

Ha ocHOBy o6hmhhx ncTpaxnBaH>a Ha Cto- 
MaTOJiouiKoj KJIHHHUH y Jby6ji>aHH nponojinc je 
ycneniHO KopnuineH y Tepannjn HeKOJiHKO BpcTa 
o6ojteH>a 3y6a n ycTa. npo(J)ecop rp MnjiaH 
nepymeK, y capajJH>n ca npo(J)ecopoM jjp JejiKOM 
Po6ap-IIlMHJT, ca Onejbeita 3a 4>apManHJy <{)a- 
KyjiTeTa 3a npnpojjHe HayKe n TexHOJiornjy y 
Jby6jbaHH, 6aBno ce yHanperjeH>eM npenapaTa 
nponojinca kojh 6n ce Morao kophcthth 3a jio- 
KajiHO JieneH>e 6ojiecTH cjiy30Koxe ycTa. 

no3HTHBHH pe3yjiTaTH OBHX HayHHHKa nojj- 
CTaKJin cy MJiarjer CTOMaTOJiora rp MaTJaxa Po- 
jxea jja OTnoHHe ca ncnHTHBaH>eM JiejioBaH>a npo- 
nojinca Ha napajjeHT03Ha o6ojteH>a, hhjh cy 
rjiaBHn y3poK 6aKTepnje kojhx y ycHoj JxyniLn 
yBeK HMa. Pe3yjiTaTH H>eroBor ncnHTHBaH>a no- 
Ka3ajin cy rq. nponojinc Bpmn paBHOMepHy, ajin 
CHaacHy pejjyKunjy 6aKTepnja y ycTHMa, y6p3a- 
BajynH ncTOBpeMeHO 3apaniriHBaH>e paHHua Ha 
cjiy30K0^cn ycTa. 

CjiHHHa HCTpaxHBaH>a ca npoBepeHHM jxcjio- 
BaH>eM nponojinca y CTOMaTOJiornJH BpmeHa cy 
Ha CTOMaTOJioniKOM (J)aKyjiTeTy y 3arpe6y. 
npoc})ecop rp M. /],o6peHHn Kaxe: "Mh cto- 
MaTOJI03H cmo Bpjio 3aHHTepecoBaHH 3a JieKOBe 
kojh 6n 6hjih aejioTBopHH y ycTHMa, na cmo 3aTO 
npoBepnjin n nponojinc. Y nHTaH>yje, 3anpaBO, 
jejiaH npo6jieM kojh mhjoui hhcmo pemnjin, a to 
je Aa npeKO ycHe mynjtHHe, Koja je HHane 
3ararjeHa 6aKTepnjaMa, noKymaMO jja jiennMO 
noBeKa, kojh je o6ojieo or hckhx apyrnx 6aK- 
TepHJa Koje je yHeo H3 cnojLH>er CBeTa. 

nnejie n h>hxobh npoH3BOJjn cy ojiaBHO 

n03HaTH y HCTOpnJH no CBOJOJ JieKOBHTOCTH . 

TaKO cy y HOBnje BpeMe n 3a nponojinc noKa3aHa 

CBOJCTBa KOJa 6HCMO MH CTOMaTOJI03H MOTJIH JJO- 

6po Ra kophcthmo 3a 3JjpaBJbe cjiy30Koxe ycTa. 
no3HaTO je, Ha npnMep, jia ce y ycTHMa 
jaBJtajy MHore paHe Koje jjyro Tpajy, naK n tojjh- 
HaMa. AhthShothuh h Jjpyra cpejjcTBa, KOJHMa 
yHnniTaBaMO 6aKTepnje, HHcy flOBOJLHa 3a TaKBa 



365 



nqejiap 1998 



jie^eita. H3rjie^a, Jia HaM je noTpe6Ha Hexa kom- 
noHeHTa Koja 6h nojjcTaicrca ycHy cjry3HHny kojj, 
o6ojiejior HOBeKa Ha 03,npaBJbeH>e. Mo^a npo- 
nojiHC HMa to HeuiTO y ce6H 3aTO cmo Ha Cto- 
MaTOJiouiKOM (J)aKyjiTeTy y 3arpe6y eKcnepn- 
MeHTajiHO KopncTHJiH pacTBOp nponojiHca 3a 
npHMeHy Ha o6ojiejiy cjry3Hnny ycTa, ca HHJteM 
na Hay^HHM MemuaMa yTBpjjHMO m jih npono- 
jihc ^ejiyje no3HTHBHO hjih HeraTHBHO Ha 
cjiy3HHiiy ycTa...". 

JJp 3jipaBKO Pajnn, KOJH je Ha Cto- 
MaTOJioniKOM (J>aKyjiTeTy y 3arpe6y, Bpnino hc- 
Tpa^HBaH>a ca nponojincoM Kaate /ja cy npo- 
BepaBan>a 6HJia ycMepeHa y jiBa npaBna: "Je/iaH 
npaBauje 6ho y o/jHocy Ha MyMH(j)HHnpajyne jje- 
jioBaH>e nponojiHca, jep 3HaMO ;ja cy ra joui 
CTapn ErnnhaHH ynoTpe6jbaBajin 3a CBC-je My- 
MHJe, a Hac HHTepecyje jia jih h KaKO nponojinc 
jxejryje MyMH(j)Hnnpajyne h Ha 3y6e, ojjhocho Ha 
3y6Hy nyrcny, jep 6hcmo Ha Taj Ha^HH ho6hjih 
HaJHjieajiHHJe cpeacTBO 3a *ryBaH>e 3y6a, a Jjpyrn 
npaBauje /ja ycTaHOBHMO jja jih nponojinc ^ejiyje 
cejieKTHBHO Ha nojeflHHe MHKpoopraHH3Me kojh 
cy naToreHH h kojh ce Hajia3e y ycHoj mynjLHHH", 
Ka^ce ^p Pajnn. 

IIponojiHC y HeKMM cjryHajeBHMa Moxe 6hth h 
uiTeTaH no 34paii.be 

FTpeMa up CTOJHMHpy MjiajieHOBnny npono- 
jinc je "ancojryrao HeniKOHJLHBO cpe/icTBo". 
OBaKBO MHinjbeH>e TeniKO je npHXBaTHTH. To 



hcto Ka:ace h je/jaH ojj HaJBehnx no3HaBajiana 
n^ejiapcTBa h nnejinitHX npoH3Bojia Cobjctckh 
axajieMHK HayM TleTpoBH 1 ! JojpHin, h to 
cjie^iehHM peHHMa: "tcuiko je carjiacnTH ce ca 
TBpf)eH>eM jip C. Mjia^eHOBa, 36or bhcokot 
canp^caja CMOJie y nponojincy (Bnuie or 50%). 
riopejj Tora aKajxeMHK Jojpnui Kaace: "flaHac je 
onyuieBJbeH>e nponojincoM jjocthtjio BpxyHan. 
Mhoth Jiexapn, ycTOJinnaBajy nponojinc Kao JieK 
3a CBe, npenopynyjynn ra nax h kojj, 6poHxn- 
jajme acTMe, a npn TOMe 3a6opaBJbajy hjih 
He3Hajy /ja je nponojinc ajiepreH 3a MHore 
jbyjje". 

^obojbho je noMeHyTH h orjie/ie KOJHMa cy 
AnejiepnHa/IepeBH 1 !, A. FIonecKyH H. ITonecKy 
jjoKa3ajin tokch^hoct nponojiHca. 

TaKO Ha npHMep, axo ce n^ejiaivia jxaje mhct 
Mejj, ca 20 nocTOTHHM pacTBOpoM nponojinca, 
OHja OHe 6p30 yrairy 0,3 napajin3e. To 3Ha*iH /xa 
yHomeite nponojinca y o/ipeljeHHM 
KOJiHHHHaMa, Kpo3 ycTa, Mo^ce jia HMa uiTeTaH 
yranaj He caMO Ha acejryna^HonpeBHH TpaKT, Ben 
h Ha jeTpy n ,iipyre opraHe. 

riope/i Tora, He Tpe6a HHKa^a H3ry6HTH H3 
BHJj,a jj,a nponojinc Moace 6hth ajiepreH 3a MHore 
ibyjxe. 3aT0 6n cbh ohh kojh no npBH nyr y3HMajy 
nponojinc, y 6hjio kom o6jiHKy n y 6hjio Koje 
CBpxe, Tpe6ajio jxa npe no^eTKa H>eroBe 
ynoTpe6e o6aBe ojiroBapajyna HCTpa:>KHBaH>a y 
CMHCJiy Moryfte ajieprnjcKe occtji>hbocth Ha 
nponojinc. 



nqejiap 1998 



A/ieprnja Ha nHejini-bn otpob 



UpeR HaMa nnejiapcica 
ce30Ha h CBaKOflHeBHH ax- 
THBHH nOCJIOBH Ha n*iejiHH>a- 
UHMa h CTajiHH KOHTaKTH ca 
n^ejiaMa, na caMHM thm h 

H3JIO^eHH OnaCHOCTHMa OJJ, 

y6oua n^ejia. Jla 6h H36erjra 
CBe Te HenpHJaTHOCTH or 
y6o,na nnejia CBaKH nnejiap 
6h Mopao h Tpe6a ro. HMa 
o/iroBapajyhy onpeMy kojom 
6h 3auiTHTHO Tejio or y6cma 
h or OTpoBa nnejia. 

HcKycTBO HaM roBopn Ra 
He Tpe6a HHKana pH3HKO- 
BaTH na nnn 6e3 
o^roBapajyne onpeMe Ha 
iraejiHttaK. 

He 3Ha^H axo Bac je 
y6ojia irqejia je^HOM, rqcqt 
hjih cto nyra na HHcre 

HMaJIH HHKaKBHXKOMnJIHKa- 

UHJa, to He 3HaHH rq. axo Bac 
yje/je cto npBH nyT opraHH3aM He pearyje 
jipyrannje y CMncny ajieprnje, na naK ro nojaBe 
aHacJDHJiaTHHKor moKa. 

OnacHOCT je 3anpaBO y TOMe iuto jenaH 
orpaHH^eHH 6poj Jbynn jjpyraHHJe pearyje Ha 
otpob h nojaBy ajieprnje. 

no Te^KHHH KJiHHH^Ke cjiHKe, peaKUHJa Ha 
yftoR iraejia jjejie ce Ha Tpn CTeneHa: JiaKinn, 
cpe/jH>H n Te^KH. LUto je Kpann HHTepBaji H3Merjy 
y6o/xa n pa3Boja kjihhhhkc cjiHKe, to je o6hhho 
Teaca ajieprnjcKa peaKunja. Ha npnMep, peaK- 




BecejiunJoeaHoeuh 



nnja Tpener CTeneHa pa3Bnja 
ce Harjio, CBera 2-3 MHHyra no- 
cjie y6o,na. Ochm Tora KacHHJa 
peaKunja yBeK npora^e Te^ce 
or npe/rxo/iHe. 

KjiHHHHKa cjiHKa: Boji Ha 
MecTy y6o/j,a, JioKajiHH CBpa6, 
aKO je ocoSa ajieprHHHa Ha 
n^ejiHH)H otpob CBpa6 ce 
mnpn n nojaBJbyje no nejioM 
Tejiy, otokom, JiynaH^eM cpna 
3HojeH>eM, 3yjan>eM y yniHMa, 
rynieH>eM, na ^aK ro nojaBe 
aHa(J)HJiaTHHKor moKa (ry6- 
jbeH>e CBecTH). 

noTpe6Ho je /ja CBaKH 
nnejiap HMa npn pynn or 
MacTH 3a Ma3aH>e Ha MecTO 
y6o/ia: 

Phenergan, Synopen hjih 
Esperson h cji. Or Ta6jieTa: 
Phenergan, Synopen, Aste- 
misan, Bronal, Calcium san- 
dosten h cji. 

Kor Teacnx cjiynajeBa h HHJeKnnje: Synopen, 
Calcihept, Urbason or 20-hjih 40 mg. hjth 
Lemod. 

Ykojihko oco6a HeMa HHUiTa ojj, obhx npena- 
paTa y6ojj MecTO MacnpaTH KyxHH>CKOM cojby, h 
CTaBHTH xjiajjHe oGjiore h noTpa:aaiTH noMoh 
jiexapa y Haj6jiH>Koj 3npaBCTBeHoj ycTaHOBn: 

JoBaHOBHh BecejiHH 

b. mqrku. TexHH^ap h 

npe/jc. nn. JxpyniTBa KpHBejb 



367 



Flqejiap 1998 



Ba3Aywm/i oACTpahbHBan nwe/ia 




Odcmpatbuean nueAa nocMauipan cnojba y 

noAOJtcajy nped yKAtynewe 3a pad (&omo:j(. 

EyeapcKu) 

KpyHa pana ca iraejiaMa jecTe Bpnaite Me/xa. 
ripHJiHKOM Bpnaita Me/xa noTpeSHO je npeT- 

XOJJHO paMOBe H3Ba#HTH H3 KOUIHHlie H QZJCTpaH- 

hth nnejie ca h>hx. Taj nocao 3axTeBa /jocTa pa^a 
h yMeuiHOCTH nnejiapa /ja 6h ce y uito KpafteM 
poxy ocjioSojihjih paMOBH ojx nuejia. 

Ha pacnojiararay cy HaM HH3 Ben no3HaTHX 
peinetta: 

1. XeMHJCKO - 6eH3aji/jexHJj, 

2. MexaHHHKO - H3flyBaBaH>e ireejia H3 HacTa- 
Baxa; 

- CTpecaH>e nnejia h *iHinneH>e neTKOM; 

- nocTaBJLaite 6e)KajiHira. 

Ho, mh cmo 3a^,pacajiH KJiacHHaH Ha^HH pa/ja 
ca neTKOM, ajiH Tpa^cehn h REUbQ /xa Taj nocao no- 
je/iHOCTaBHMO, ojiaKinaMO h y6p3aMO HanpaBHjra 
cmo Ba3/iyuiHH ojicTpaHjHBaH niejia. 

OjjcTpaibHBa 1 ! nnejia noMohy noKpeTHor 
ycMepeHor MJia3a Ba3Ayxa yuajbaBa nuejie ca 
paivra y MpeacacTy Bpefty. Trq one iron npHTHCKOM 
Ba3/jyxa mhpho CTOje y /joiteM ^ejry Bpene. PaM ce 
je^HOCTaBHO cnycTH 3aje/jHO ca nnajiaMa y ojj,- 
cTpaibHBa 1 ! h omviax H3Ba/iH 6e3 nuejia h paM je 
cnpeMaH 3a /laity oGpa^y. CBe nnejie cy y Bpeftw. 
HeMa HHKaKBe iy>KBe, Ha n*iejiHH>aKy je mhp 



Majxa mm, TaKopetiH, nejio jjpyuiTBO CKHHeMO ca 
paMOBa. 3aTHM xo/jaMO y KoniHHixyxpyre paMOBe 
h H3pyHHMO nnejie H3 Bpene y KoniHHiry. Paxefrn 
OBaKO He MopaMO bo/ihth panyHa o Maraun, OHa 
je hjih y Bpeftw hjim y koiuhhuh Taxo /ja HeMaMO 
ry6nTKa MaTHna npHXHKOM Bpuaiba. 

nopex Tora OBaj oxcTpaitHBaH nnexa je 
nxeaxaH: 

- 3a npaBJbette naxeTHHX pojeBa; 

- 3a pax kox naBHibOHCKor n^exapeita; 

- 3a OHe nnexape kojh paxe caMH, a HMajy 
MoryhHOCT KopHinneH>a exeicrpHHHe eHeprnje H3 
Mpe^ce hjih arperaTa, h 

- jep ce He Mopajy XM3aTH nyHH HacTaBHH ca 
MexoM, Ben ce y3HMa paM no paM. 

npnjiHKOM paxa ca oxcTpattHBaneM He xo- 
jia3H xo oniTeheH>a nnejia nouiTO hx CTpyjaH>e 
Ba3xyxa oxcTpaityje ca paMa. 

3a oflCTpaHjHBatfce n*iexa ca jexHor paMa 
noTpe6Hoje 8 ceicyHXH, oxhocho 3ajexaH HacTa- 

BaK MHHyT H 20 CeKyHJJH, UITO 3Ha4H xa freMO 3a 

jexaH caT npnnpeMHTH 45 HacTaBaica 3a Bpnan>e. 
OflCTpaHiHBa 1 ! nuejia ca paMOBa HMa y ce6n 
TpH ejieKTpoMOTopa. ^Ba exeicrpoMOTopa cy ox 
ycHCHBanajauHHe 500 BaTH njejjaH exeicrpoMO- 
Top 3a noKpeTajte ycMepHBana MJia3a Ba3xyxa ox 
1300 o6pTaja y MHHyTH. Man>a peMeHHua Ha 
ocobhhh ejieKTpoMOTopa nyreM KJiHHacTor 
Kanma noKpefte Beny peMeHHuy, ca Koje nyreM 
eKcueHTpa Kpyaoio KpeTafte npeTBapaMO y npa- 
bojihhhjcko KpeTan.e ycMepHBana MJia3a 
Ba3xyxa. MMaMO XBa ycMepHBana MJia3a Ba3xyxa 
kojh paxe y cynpoTHHM CMepoBHMa paxn CTa6nx- 
hocth yperjaja. 




OdcutpathueoH uneAa CHUMJbea odo3eo (u3 

nmuHuje nepcneicmuee) ca noeAedoM Ha ytiy- 

mpaume ypefyaje (<X>omo: ff, Eyzapcuu) 

OBaj yperjaj ^oSHTHHKJe "3jiaTHornyna" Ha 
h3jiox6h Ha TauiMaj^aHy -"nnejiapcTBO '97". 

I IiiKOJia n Upai ociaii ByrapcKH 

EaHKo ITeTpoBo Cejio 

TeJi. 021/ 803-597 



328 



nqejiap 1998 



UBeTHnnpax(nojieH)lll 
HdHMH Ao6njai-ba 

Tlume: Ceemo3ap BejbKoeuh, Hympuu.uoHucma 



y npHpojiH HMa mhjihoh nyTa BHiue UBeTHor 
npaxa (nojreHa) Hero uito je noTpe6HO 3a 
onpaniHBaH>e GnjtaKa, Taxo jia je KOJiHHHHa 
UBeTHor npaxa Kojy nnejie caKyne caMO He3HaTaH 
jxeo OHora uito SnjbKe jjajy. Haj6ojbH npHMepje 
Kyxypy3 unja MeTJiiiua cajjpjKH oko 20 MHJiHOHa 
nojieHOBHX 3pHaua, a 3a onpauiHBaH>e KJinna je 
noTpe6HO caMO 800 ro 1000 naiieHOBHX 3pHana. 
J\& 6h ce hbcthh npax kojihko-tojihko caKynno, 
nopeji, nnejia Koje ra caKymtajy, oh ce Moxe 
caKynjtaTH HenocpejiHO, tj. pyHHO, Taxo na 
npaKTHHHO nocToje jjBe MorylmocTH hjih jjBa 
HaHHHa caKynjLaH>a HBeTHor npaxa: Henocpe/mo, 
tj. pyHHO h noMony XBaTana kojh ce nocTaBJta Ha 
yjiasy nuejia y KouiHHny. 

HenocpeflHO (pyHHo) caityiubaibe useTHor 

lipaxa(no.iena) 

HenocpejiHO tj. pyuHO caKymbaite UBeTHor 
npaxa (nojieHa)je HajjejjHOCTaBHHJH m HaJ3axBaji- 
HHJH HaHHH, kojh OMorynyje caKynjtatfce Bennx 
KOJiHHHHa HBeTHor npaxa h to ca o/jpeljeHHX 
BpcTa 6njtaKa. CaKynjtaH>e ce Bpmn TaKO uito ce 
y BpeMe nyHor nBeTan>a 6HibaKa (jiecxe, Bp6e, 
jinne, CMpexe, upHor6opa, 6pe3e, xpacTa, 6pecTa 
n Jipyror jxpBeha, a npe CBera 3HM3ejreHor Kao 
uito cy: 6op, OMopwKa h Kejiap, kojh jjajy 
HapouHTO MHoro UBeTHor npaxa), no TonjioM h 
cyHHaHOM BpeMeHy, 6e3 BeTpa, TpemeH>eM hbct- 
hhx rpaHa, UBeTHH npax (nojieH) najra Ha hcko 
pauinpeHO njiaTHO hjth y no^MeTHyry KapTOHCKy 
Kyrajy, hjih y o/iroBapajyny Befty nannpHy Kecy h 
cjihhho. HajjiaKine ce caKyiuta nojieH Kyicypy3a, 
Taxo uito caKymtan yjejjHoj pyun Rpyan KapTOH- 
CKy Kyrajy, a JipyroM pyKOM Tpece MeTJinny ca 
nojieHOM. Ha OBaj HaHHH ce, c o63HpoM Ha 6oraT- 
ctbo MeTJiHue Kyicypy3a nojieHOM, Mo^ce caKy- 
nHTH 5 jjo 10 KHJiorpaMa nojieHa jjhcbho. OjiMax 
no caKynjbaH>y nojieH ce ceje Kpo3 chto #a 6h ce 
ojjcTpaHHJie CTpaHe npHMece. 

CaKynjtaHje ubcthot npaxa (nojieHa) Henoc- 
pejiHO, tj. pyuHO jj,o6HJa ce moho(J)jiophh nojieH, 
tj. nojieH ojjjejjHe 6njbHe BpcTe, uito je or H3y- 
3eTHor Me^HUHHCKor 3Hauaja, jep ce 3a pa3He 
GojiecTH npenopyuyjy pa3He BpcTe nojieHa, tj. 
nojieH ojj o;jpel)eHe 6iui>He BpcTe, TaKO Jiaje 3a 
npeBeHUHJy h Jieuette ojjperjeHHX 6ojiecTH Heo- 
nxojjHa h a^eKBaTHa BpcTa nojieHa, uito HHJe 
cjiyuaj ca hbcthhm npaxoM (nojieHOM), kojh ce 
caicynjLa noMony XBaTaua, Kojnje nojiH(J)JiopaH, 
tj. noTHHe or pa3HHx 6njbaKa, TaKO jja npeji- 
CTaBJba MeuiaBHHy HBeTHor npaxa (nojieHa) or 
BHUie pa3HHX 6njbaKa, kojh ce He Moxe ca cnr- 
ypHoiufty HaMeHCKH ynoTpeGHTH y npo(})HJiaKCH 
h Jieneiky ojjpeljeHHX 6ojiecTH. 

CMaTpaM jraje npaBa uiTeTa uito HaM CBaKe 
rojjHHe nponajjHy BejiHKe kojihuhhc jjparoueHor 




UBeTHor npaxa, Te 6h c Tora BpeMeHOM TpeSajio 
pa3BHTH MacoBHH noKpeT 3a Henocpejj,HO, tj. 
pyiHO caKynjbaH>e UBeTHor npaxa (nojieHa) kojh 
6h ce kophctho y MejiHUHHCKe CBpxe, 6hjio y 
cbom npnpo/iHOM o6jiHKy hjih o6jiHKy npena- 
paTa, kojh cy y CBeTy He caMO onuiTe no3HaTH, 
Ben h MHoroGpoJHH. 

CaKynibaH>e in*eTHor npaxa (HOJieHa) noMotiy 
xsaTana 

CaKynjbaH>e nojieHa noMonyxBaTana, npeivia 
peHHMa jjp AjieKcanapa JaHKOBHna, Hauler 
no3HaTor 6poMamjiora h ayropa BHUie H3JiaH>a 
KH>Hra o nnejiHH>HM npoH3Bo;iHMa n h>hxoboj 
ynoTpeGn y Jie^eity pa3HHX 6ojiecTH, HMa jiboc- 
TpyKH 3Hauaj : IlpBH , uito ce nuejie 6pxe 
ocjioSarjajy TOBapa h Ha Taj HaHHH CKpaftyjy 
BpeMe 3a;i,p^caBaH.a y kouihhhh, h Jjpyrn, uito ce 
obhm HauHHOM OMorynyje caKynjtaH>e nojieHa y 
BenHM KOJiHHHHaMa h to 6e3 HeKor HapouHTor 
yHeuiha h Tpyzja nuejiapa. 

TTpeMa nHcaH^y no3HaTor no3HaBaoua 
nuejiapcTBa pycKor aKajjeMHKa HayMa 
rieTpoBHua Jojpnuia, Me^y npBHMa kojh je Ha- 
npaBHO XBaTau nojieHa 6noje O.C. 3a6HpHHKHJ 
1940. rojjjme. hberoB XBaTai nojieHa 6noje je/i- 
HOCTaBaH, TaKO Jia je 6ho ^ocTynaH CBaKOM 
nnejiapy. CacTojao ce or jjauiHHne ca BepTH- 
KajiHO nocTaBJteHHM (3a6ojjeHHM) unojjaMa, a 
nocTaBJtao Ha JieTO kouihhhc . XsaTau je 
nponyurrao nuejie y KouiHHny, a 3aji,p)KaBao je, 
hjih 6ojte peueHO, CKHJiao nojieH H3 Kouiapnua ca 
Hory nnejia. 

Ha ocHOBy HCKycTBa nuejiapa, BpeMeHOM cy 
HacTaiiH pa3HH MOJxejiH XBaTaua nojieHa. TaKoje 
npe BHUie ojj, leTHpn /jeueHHJe, dr Bottcher H3 Er- 
lagena y HeMaiKoj, KOHCTpyncao XBaTau nojieHa, 
kojh ce cacTojao H3 tph jjejia: ypefjaja 3a CKH/iaH>e 
nojieHa, caHJjyunna 3a CKynjtaite h acnuaHe 
Mpe^Ke Koja noKpHBa caHJjyuHh h Kpo3 Kojy npo- 
Jia3e, ojjh. nanajy rpyjjBHue, tj. 3pHua nojieHa ca 
Tejia nuejia. TauHHJe, OBaj XBaTau ce cacTojao or 



329 



nqejiap 1998 



jiHMeHe Tpaxe nocTaBJbeHe npeico nene 
noBpniHHe JieTa. IIlHpHHa JieTa je ca 30 OTBOpa 
npoMepa 4,7 mm. Kpo3 OBe OTBope nnene ce 
npoBJiane ca nocTa Hanopa. ,H,OH>a nojioBHHa ot- 
Bopa HMa 3ape3e innpHHe 1,3 mm h ny>KHHe 2,8 
mm h TaKO je nonemeHa 3a CKHnaH>e nojieHa. 
Kana ce rpynBHiie, tj. 3pHiia nojieHa ckhhy ca 
nnejia, OHa nanajy Kpo3 xHHaHy Mpexy rycTHHe 
oko 3,5 mm y caHnyHHh 3a CKynn>aH>e noneHa. 

y OpamrycKoj, naK, nnenapH KopHCTe h 
yperjaj ca jenHocraBHHM 3Be3nacTHM OTBopHMa 
imipHHe 5 mm. 

llpeMa nHcan>y ayTopa KH>nre "MeneHa ano- 
TeKa" Hiija3a AGannna, pan Ha caKynn>aH>y 
noneHa noMony XBaTa^a ce 3HaTHO nojen- 
HOCTaBJbyje h 6on>er je KBajiHTeTa. XBaTan o 
KOMe oh nnme, hhhh jenHa KyTHJa Koja HeMa 
npen,H>y h 3anH>y CTpaHy. Kpo3 nse OTBopeHe 
CTpaHHue yKJLyneHaje koco nnacTHHHa pemeTKa 
y MeTHpn pena, ca OTBopHMa npoMepa 4,5 mm. 
XopH30HTajiHO ncnon OBe pemeTKe Hajia3H ce 
ryniha xnnana Mpeata, Kpo3 Kojy ynanajy rpyn- 
BHne (3pHua) nojieHa CKHHyTa ca Hory nnena. Hc- 
non xopH30HTajiHO nocTaBJteHe Mpexe 
napanejiHO ce Hajia3H Majia (J)HJOKa Koja cnyatH 
3a caKynji>aH>e nojieHa. 

H3Jia3 nnejia H3 KouiHHiie OMoryheH je Ha 
CTpaHaivia KyTHJe Kpo3 npony^KeHe aoiHaHe ot- 
Bope jiyacHHe oko 10 cm. Kpo3 OBe npocTpaHe 
OTBope n^ejie cjioSo^ho H3Jia3e H3 KouiHHLte, a 
OHe Koje yjia3e He Hana3e KaMy^HpaHe H3Jia3e, 
Hero cy npncHJbeHe na ce npoBJia^e Kpo3 
nocTaBibeH>e peineTKe h Tana hm ce ca Hory ckh- 
najy rpynBHue, on,H. 3pnna nojieHa. 

ripHJiHKOM CTaBJbaH>a OBaKBor XBaTana hc- 
npen JieTa KouiHHue, npeMa nncaH>y nnenapa 
noK. CTeBe JIoHHapeBHha. Mopa ce yKJioHHTH 
nojieTejtKa, jep caM XBaTan nojieHa nona3H Ha 
H>eno MecTO, a oh Beh HMa CBOjy nojieTajbKy. j\& 
6h ce nnene Haynnne na yjia3e Kp03 nocTaBJteHe 
XBaTane nojieHa, noTpe6Hoje HaJMan>e Tpn naHa 
yKJioHHTH koco nocTaBibeHy peineTKy, na Kana ce 
miene Hayne Ha hob o6jihk yjia3a, OHna ce 
noivieHyTa pemeTKa yByqe. yTBprjeHO je na ce 
miene JiaKO npoBJiane Kpo3 nocTaBJteHy 
peineTKy ca ^erapn pena npojia3a h na HeMa Be- 
jiHKe ryacBe Merjy nnenaMa. Hcto TaKO , 
njiacTHHHe pemeTKe cy ce noKa3ajie mhoto 6oibe 
Hero JiHMeHe cajenHHM hjih nsa pena. 

nnejie Koje H3Jia3e H3 KoniHHue, BHnehn jja 
hm je H3Jia3 Kpo3 peineTKy mhoto Teacn, y6p30 
npoHarjy npojia3e Ha CTpaHHiiaMa h Ha Taj Ha^HH 
HacTaBe na ce h nan>e noHamajy. Hcto TaKO, mije 
3anaaceHO na nnene yjia3e Kpo3 H3Jia3He OTBope. 
Pa3JiHKy on ayropa np AneKcaHnpa JaHKOBHha, 
kojh HaBO/iH no^aTaK na ce ca XBaTaneM caicynH 
oko 60% on yicynHe kojihhhhc nojieHa Koje cy 
nnene caKynHJie, ayTop Hnja3 A6aiiHn HaBO/jH na 
je Taj nponeHaT Benn h na h3hoch naK 80%, TaKO 
na miene ycneBajy na y KomHHuy yHecy CBera 
20% h CMecTe ra y hejiHJe caha. C o63HpoM na je 
noneH HeonxonaH nnenaMa, npaKcaje noKa3ajia 
jxa ynoTpe6a XBaTana HaroHH nnene Ha HHTeH- 
3HBHHJe caKynjbaH>e nojieHa. H join Henno. 
ITpaKcaje TaKorje noKa3ajia na je HaJBenn yHoc 
noneHa y KoniHHuy no 10 nacoBa npe noniie. 



XeaTane iio.ieiia Tpe6a noupeMeiio 
npeMeiirraTH 

H nopen Tora iuto ynoTpe6a XBaTa^a noneHa 
He HaHOCH nnejiaMa mTeTy, HapoHHTO y Kpaje- 
BHMa nie HMa jjoboji>ho imeimihe name, npe- 
nopyqyje ce ^a ce XBaTann HajenHoj koiuhhuh He 
jjpace Jjyace o^ 5 jjo 6 jjaHa, Beh #a ce noc^e tot 
BpeMeHa npeMecTe Ha apyry KomHHuy Ha kojoj 
npeTxo^HO HHJe 6ho nocTaBJteH XBaTan. Bpe- 
MeHCKH pa3MaK H3Mer}y #Ba y3acTonna 
nocTaBJbaH>a XBaTa^a noneHa Ha jejiHoj 
KomHHUH Tpe6a,ziaje oko 10 /xaHa. Ha OBaj Ha^iHH 
CHa6#eBaH>e nnejiHH>er npyuiTBa noneHOM Hehe 
6HTHOKpH.eHO, a nnejiap Moxe, aKO cy noBOJbHH 
KJiHMaTCKH ycjioBH h aKO cy nHejiHH>a jipymTBa 
jaKa, or^e^HMa kojh cy BpmeHH y JyxHoj Bpn- 
TaHHJH ycTaHOBJbeHO je ^a KoniHHue ca 
XBaTaHHMa nojieHa HHcy noKa3ajie CMan>eH>e y 
npoH3BO/iH.H Jierjia, Koje 6h 6hjio oceTHHJe Hero 
y KouiHHuaMa Ha KOJHMa HHJe nocTaBJbeH XBaTan. 
Ho, h na noMony XBaTa^ia caicynH h no 3 kg 
nojieHa. 

I. R. D. Gudmen yqaconncy "The Australa- 
sin Bekkeper" HaBonn na h nopen Tora Tpe6a 
HMaTH y BHny h pe3y^TaTe (J>paHuycKor hc- 
TpaacHBana dr Pjer Lavi-a, kojh je yTBpnno na 
caKynibaHje noneHa noMony XBaTana Ha 
KoniHHiiH yBeK noBonn no CMaH>eH.a npnHoca 
Mena. Kana cy XBaTann nojieHa 6hjih Ha koiuhhuh 
40 naHa npHHOce Mena 6noje CMan>eH 3a 24,1%. 
HcTOBpeMeHO je dr Pjer Lavi yTBpnno na 
CTaBJbaH>e XBaTana nojieHa Ha KomHHuy CMaH>yje 
h noBpniHHy Jierjia 3a oko 4,4%. Obo TpeSa 
HMaTH y BHny h y3eTH y o63Hp Kon caKynjbaH.a 
noneHa nocTaBJbaH>eM XBaTana Ha Koinminy. 
3aTO cy y npaBy ohh kojh cy MHUiJbeBa na XBaTa 1 ! 
noneHa Ha jenHoj kohihhiih He Tpe6a naje nyace 
on 5 no 6 naHa, h na ra nocjie tot BpeMeHa Tpe6a 
npeMemTaTH Ha npyry KoniHHLty, Ha kojoj npe 
Tora HHJe 6ho nocTaBJbeH XBaTan h TeK nocjie 10 
naHa XBaTan noneHa Moace ce nocTaBHTH Ha 
kohihhiih Ha kojoj je npe Tora 6ho. TaKO ne 
noneHa 6hth h 3a nnejie h 3a HOBeKa, 6e3 
HKaKBHX nocjienHiia no nnejiHH>e npyuiTBO. 

TpeSa mhcjihth n Ha lio.ieii o rpoBiuix 6mbaKa 

Kana je pen o caKynjbaH>y noneHa noMohy 
XBaTana, HeonxonHO je HanoMeHyTH na nnene 
^ecTO noHoce y KomHHuy h ubcthh npax, onH. 
noneH kojh je OTpoBaH, Kao mToje to na npHMep 
HBeTHH npax KyKypeKa , nHBn>er py3MapHHa , 
jennria, raBe3a, nHBn.er inHMinnpa h npyrnx 
otpobhhx 6Hn>aKa, iuto HHJe cnynaj Kon pyHHor, 
oflH. HenocpenHor caKynn>aH>a n,BeTHor npaxa, 
jep caKymtaMH Bone panyHa na UBeTHH npax 
caKynn^ajy caMO ca 6nn>aKa Koje HHcy otpobhc 
MerjyTHM, y HaniHM ycnoBHMa noneH ce CKynn>a y 
BpeMe noneHan,HJe no3HaTHX 6nn>aKa (MacnanaK, 
nponenHO n,Bene, noneH pa3Hor Boha, HTn.) na 
aKO HeKO "3pHue" on HaBeneHHX otpobhhx 
6nn>aKa nocne y BeriHHCKy Macy noneHOBHX 
3pHan,a HeoTpoBHHX - sa 3npaBn>e HOBeKa Hehe 
HMaTH niTeTHHX nocnenHiia. J\o cana HHcy 6nnH 
npHMehemi nojaBHH o6nHii,H TpoBaH>a 6nno Kon 
Kora kojh cy KopncTHnn noneH CKymteH y 6nno 
KojeM no6y ronHHe. 



330 



nnejiap 1998 



"IIHEJIAP" nPE 48 TO^HHA 

MaTnua ja/ioeyuja v\ iviaTMua nucTau, 



y 1948. r. 6ho caM ocraBHO jenHO Maite 
nnejraite npyuiTBO 3a pe3epBHy MaTHiiy. 
riouiTO je rjiaBHa 3HMa nponuia, noneTKOM 
MapTa OBe ronHHe 6hjio je hckojihko totijihx 
naHa Te caM Morao lOBpniirra nperjien 
KoniHHiia. Haniao caM 3an;oBOJbaBajyne 
craH>e. CBaKO npyniTBO HMano je no 2-3 
OKBHpa Jierna. ITotom caM noMeHyro Mano 
npyniTBO noneo npHxpaitHBaTH, na 6hx ra 
ojanao. Ha jian 10. anpurca oneT caM nperjie- 
nao to npyniTBO, ajiH Jierna mije 6hjio. Ha naH 
15. anpnjia iiohobo caM npernenao, ann Jierna, 
a HHJaja HHJe oneT 6hjio. 3aKJbynHO caM^a Ma- 
rana Mopa 6hth "jajioByma". Haniao caMJe h 
Btmeo caM^aje MJiana, ajra cpe,zm>e BeniiHHHe, 
H3 nera ce, TaKorje, Morno BHnera na HeMa y 
ce6n jaja. Mairnry caM npocTO yicioHHO h 
o6e3MaTHHeHO npyniTBO cnojuo cajenmiM cyc- 
e/iHHM ^pyniTBOM , noniTO caM npeTxo^HO 
je^HO h npyro nonpcxao 3aMeftJbeHOM bo^om, 
h THMe otkjiohho MerjycoGHO KJiaite. 

Mojihm 6pany nnejiape na oGjaBe, na jih cy 
ce join HeKOM OBaKBH cnynajeBH nemaBajiH. 
("nnejiap" 5/1949, CTp. 126). 

C 6paTCKHM nnenapcKHM no3npaBOM 

raMH30BHh C. Xaioija-Xotia 
CejbauiHHua - IlpHJenojbe 

y hctom 6pojy "ri i iejiap"-a, Ha CTpaHH 125, 
Bhtomhp JoBaHOBHh nHine: "HMa cjrynajeBa, 
kojh cy Bpjio peTKH na MaTHLta He hoch HHKaKBa 
jaja (hh omioljeHa hh HeomioljeHa). TaKBy Ma- 
THuy Ha3HBaMO janoBOM. Thm HMeHOM He Tpe6a 
Ha3HBaTH h OHy MaTHuy, Koja ce y jicth>hm 
jjaHHMa HeKO KpaTKO BpeMe onMapa y HomeH>y, 
a/in OBaKBy MaTnnyTpe6a BonHTH y eBnneHHHJH 



. . . Join je perja nojaBa na Marana hoch MpTBa 
(depHJiHa) jaja, H3 kojhx ce HHUiTa He Jieace. 
TaKBa ce Mainna Ha3nBa "HHCTan" ...". 



Tioptje KojiapeBHti, upe 70 i omnia 

HE ME^JBATH nHEJIE KAJl CE ME^JfcA 
HECHHDA 

llpHxpaHjHBaHje y 3HMy?! He Tpe6a o TOMe 
hh na roBopHM. Ajih aKO kojh nnejiap, 3axBa- 
jbyjyftn CBOjeM HeMapy, y3Mopa na y obhm Mece- 
UHMa xpaHH CBOje nnejie H3 HeBOJbe, a Ha nnejin- 
n>aicyjejaKa 3HMa, TaKO na ce He CMejy KomHHue 
OTBapaTH, Mopa hx yHeTH y Tonjiy CTajy, KyxHH>y 
hjih co6y, na hm nara noKJiombeHor Mena y cany, 
kojh ce Mopa nonaTH y3 caMO nnejiHite KJiynne, 
jep aKO 6h ra MeTHyjiH naneKO on nnejia, na ra on 
n*iejia pa3nBaja npa3no cane, npyniTBO 6h Ha 
jaKoj 3hmh yMpjio Kpaj Mena y kouihhuh. 

Ko HeMa caqyBaHor Mena y HencTpeceHOM 
cany, HeKa HannHH TecTO on Mena h chtho 
H3MJieBeHor h npocejaHor HHCTor meftepa. To ce 
TecTO ncKH/ia Ha nap^an n nopeTja Ha OKBnpe Han 
nnejiaMa, hjih HeKa Hajinje y cane HHcra Mena 6e3 
HMajio Bone, jep y obo no6a He Bajta naBara 
nnejiaMa Men noMemaH ca BonoM. y 3HMy ce, aKO 
HHJe npyK^nje, Mopa Men Hajinra y cane na ra jxo- 
nara y3 caMO nnejiHite KJiyn^eJep Kan 6HCMona- 
Bajin ono3no Men y cynoBHMa, nnejie 36or 3HMe He 
6n Morjie chhh Ha Men. 

KaKBaje to Ky6ypa xpaHHTH nnejie y neueM- 
6py 3Ha caMO OHaj KOJHJe to panno. na 3aTO Kan 
ce Mopa npnxpaitHBaTH to panHTH y aBiycTy, a 
Hajnaibe y cenTeM6py, a He Men-tara nnejie Kan 
ce Mejiiba necHnaa". (Bhtomhp JoBaHOBHh, 
"nnejiap" 1-3/49:10). 

IlpHpe^HO Jobo H. Kan rap 



341 



n^ejiap 1998 



nne/iapei-be v\ aHacJ)miaKTi/iHKi/i luok, koji/i Haciaje Kao 
noc^eflMua y6ofla nne/ia 

ITpocf). dp Joean Kyjiunneeuh 



y6o^H rraena 3a nnejiape cy HeiiiTO iuto ce npnx- 
BaTa Kao cacraBHH ,neo h>hxobot pana ca rraejiaMa. 
3a MHore /xpyre, 6hjto Ra cy H3 nnejiapeBe noponnne 
hjth ce cjryqaJHO rarjy Ha nHejiHH>aKy, to He Mopa 
6hth TaKO. Hcto to Baaoi h 3a panHHKe hjeh 
KOMiHHJe KOJH ce aHraacyjy kqh yTOBapa hjeh hcto- 
Bapa KoniHHua ca nnejiaMa. Ca nnejiaMa ce ziojia3H y 
nonnp y BpTy, Ha nojby hjih Ha MecTy rite OHe y3HMajy 
Bo/jy. 

Ha cbhm obhm, na h Ha /xpyraM MecTHMa, 3a 
oco6e occTJbHBe Ha nnejiHitH otpob, y6o,n, obot hh- 
ceKTa y hckhm cjryqajeBHMa Mo^ce 6hth, naKO 
peTKO, onacaH no 2chbot. PeaKunje JtyncKor opraH- 
H3Ma Mory 6hth pa3JiHHHTe h CBpcTaBajy ce y Tpn 
KaTeropHJe or cacBHM 6jiarHX no BeoMa TeniKHx: 

1. JIoKajiHa peaKnnja y BH/xy OTOKa h CBpa6a hjth 
BeoMa jaK otok oaco MecTa y6oma yKJbyqyjynn y 
HHTaBe nejioBe Tejia. 

2. AjieprHHHe peaKunje Koje He yrpoacaBajy 
2chbot ajiH H3a3HBajy CBpa6 h upBeHHJio Raibe or 
MecTa y6qzja, Kao h MyiHHHy y CTOMaKy, cjra6ocT h 
ocenatte crpaxa. 

3. AjieprHHHe peaKUHJe Koje yrpoacaBajy )khb- 
OTHe (})yHKHHJe h Koje H3a3HBajy ihok, ry6jbeH>e 
CBecTH,iiHcaJHe noTeniKone h OTnuaite y rpjry. 

MHore oco6e cy iio^oiBejie HopMajiHe jioKajme 
peaKUHJe y6o,na nnejia, ajiH caMO cy ajieprHHHe 
peaKUHJe Te Koje H3a3HBajy CTpax h nnraiBe je KaKO 
ce noHaiuaTH y tom MOMeHTy qhhocho uiTa npe/xy- 
3eTH m ce Ta onacHOCT otkjiohh? Kao ihto je Beh 
HanoMeHyro aneprHHHa peaKHHJa npeBa3HJia3H jio- 
KajiHH otok, yKJbyryjyhn ueo TenecHH HMyHH 
chctcm HHMe ce noBOfle y onacHOCT BHTajiHe <J)yHK- 
UHJe. 

Kor oco6e oceTJbHBe Ha rreejiHikH otpob caMO 
je/j,aH y6oR Mo^ce noKpeHyra ajieprnjcKH npouec. 
HoBeKOB opraHH3aM npeno3Haje npoTeHHe H3 
irqejiHiter OTpoBa Kao CTpaHH npoTeHH h CTBapa 
npoTHBTena Ra 6h ra oncTpaHno. Ahthtcjio Kpje 
H3a3HBa ajieprHJy je HMyHorjio6yjiHH E (IgE). OBaj 
IgE ce Jienn Ha je/iHy JXpyry BpcTy nejiHJa (MAST 
hejiHJe) Ra 6h nocneumo cy36njaH>e CTpaHor npoTe- 
HHa (irqejiHH>H otpob). Ha OBaj Ha^HH neo HMyHH 
CHCTeMj'e cnpeMaH OHeKyjyhn cjie/jefrn y6on, kojh 
Moxe jronn h mhoto KacHHJe ihto noKpene o6hhho 
hjth 6ypH0 pearoBaite Koje ce npocrape Ha kpbotok 
y jjneaJHe opraHe. 

Cspxa HMyHOTepanHJe 

Uhjb HMyHOTepannje je iia yKJioHH npcTepaHy 

OCeTJbHBOCT KO/J JbyHH, TaKO Ra HjHXOB HMyHH 

chctcm Mo^ce jxa H36erHe 6ypHy peaKunjy Ha 



nHejiHH>H otpob. Hay^HHHH h JieKapn ca Majo 
(Mayo) KJiHHHKe h Po^ecTepa (Rochester) Minne- 
sota oil 1974-1975. ro/xHHe non pyKOBoncTBOM zip 
JyHTHHrepa (Yunginger) pa3BHJiH cy chctcm HMy- 
HOTepannje Kojy ycneniHO KopncTe ajieprojio3H y 
CAfl. 

OBaj chctcm ce cacTojn y TOMe uito ce naunjeHT 
npBO noiiBprHe KJiacHHHOM ko^chom hjih kpbhom 
(pacT) TecTy. Ko:>khh TecT cc CMaTpa noy3JjaHHJHM, 
iiok ce kpbhh TecT npnMeityje kojj ohhx ocoSa Koje 
He Moryjja nonHecy ko:>kho TecTHpan>e. 

Ko^chh TecT ce h3bqhh nHJeunpaiBeM BeoMa 
Mane KOJiHHHHe n*iejiHH>er OTpoBa non Ko:acy n 
ca^eKa Ha peaKunjy, na ce ouna Ta mjiHHHHa Henrro 
noBena h TaKO npo/xy^oi jom neT-mecT nyra. y obo 
TecTHpan>e jj,o6po je yKJby^HTH h OTpoBe /jpyrnx hh- 
ceKaTa. To cc y npBOM pe/xy qhhoch Ha oce h 
CTpnubeHe a y TponcKHM npejjejiHMa h Ha HeKe 
BpcTe MpaBa. Kana ce yrBp/jH, Ha nrra je naunjeHT 
ajieprn^aH, TpeTHpaH>e yKJiatfeaita oceTJbHBOCTH 
Mo^ce Ra no^He. Oohhho ce to pa/in ca KOM6nHauH- 
jom nHejiHH>er OTpoBa h OTpoBa /jpyrnx HHceKaTa y 
hcto BpeMe. 

TpeTHpaH>e ce cacTojn or y6pn3raBan>a Majinx 
KOJiHHHHa OTpoBa y pyicy y TOKy 30 ce/jMnua. Obo ce 
pajiH ca HaJMaHjHM nrjiaMa mhjh y6on MaH>e Sojih or 
irqejiHH>e acaoKe. CBaKe cejiMnne KOJin^HHa OTpoBa 
ce noBehaBa. Ha OBaj Ha^HH ce OMoryhaBa opraH- 
H3My naunjeHTa jja nocTeneHO pa3Bnja HMyHH 
CHCTeM H36craBajynn 6ypHy peaKunjy ajrepraHHiix 
oco6a. HaKOH 3aBpmeTKa OBaKBe HMyHH3aunje aji- 
eprn^Ha oco6a TpeSa Ra 6yne y cran>y ^a no/jjiecee 
y5ojj,e nnejia 6e3 Behnx peaKunja. J\a 6h ce TaKBO 
eraifce 3a/jpacajio naunjeHT Tpe6a na je/jHOM 
Mece^HO y TOKy Tpn jj,o neT ro/^HHa npnMa HCTe jj,03e 
OTpoBa Kao n y BpeMe HMyHOTepannje. CaMa HMy- 
HOTepannja Hnje y noTnyHOCTH 6e3 pn3HKa. Moace 
ce^,orojj,HTH, naKO BeoMa peTKO, Ra norje ro aHa(J)H- 
jiaKTHHKor moKa nocjie y6pH3raBaH>a h HaJMaH^e 
KOJiHHHHe nHejiHH>er OTpoBa. 36or Tora ce OBaKBa 
Tepannja Mopa yseK h3bqhhth HCKJbyHHBO nojj koh- 
tpojiom JieKapa. 

TeuiKO ce Ra npe/jBHJj,eTH, hhjh ^chbot Moace 
6hth yrpoaceH aneprnjoM Ha y6ojj, Me/joHOCHHX 
miejia. Cmpthh cjryiajeBH Kao nocjie/jnua nqejin- 
H>er y6ojj,a cy 3ancTa peTKOCT. CacBHMJc npnpojj,HO 
Ra cy nnejiapn h ^uiaHOBH h>hxobhx noponnua 
jiajieKO BHine H3JioaceHH y5o/jHMa nnejia Hero oc- 
Tajio CTaHOBHHUiTBO. HcTpa>KHBaH)a cy noKa3ajiana 
je Bpjio Majio aKTHBHHX nnejiapa, oko 1 % , 
nojijio:>KeHO ajieprnjcKoj peaKUHJn or y6ona n^ejia, 
rok jc 14% t uiaHOBa noponnua 6hjio bhcok- 

OOCeTJLHBO. On OHHX KOJH HHCy HMaJIH RORWp Ca 



256 



nqejiap 1998 



iraejiaMa y Toxy ro/jHHe, Moacjja cy npHMiuiH 1-2 
y6ojj,a, Taj nponeHaT 6ho join bhiiih (89%). Obo cy 
pe3yjiTaTH aMepn^iKHX HCTpaatHBaita, kojh yKa3yjy 
jja je h>hxob CTpax or y6o/j,a nnejia h yoniirxe hh- 
ceKaTa onpaB/jaH. Taj CTpax noHeicaji, npejia3H y 
napaHojy. Y to ce necTO Morao yBepHTH h nHcaii, 
obot HJiaHKa. 

IIIto ce TH^e nnejiapa H3rjie/ja m 6poj npuM- 
jbeHHX y6ojj;a y TOKy ce30He HMa Be3e ca Bepo- 
BaTHohoM nojaBe arceprHJCKe peaKUHJe. Ako ce 
npHMH npeico 50 yoo/ja He ^ojia3H jj,o 6ypHor pea- 
roBan>a opraHH3Ma, hok axo je y nuraiby MaitH 6poj 
jjojia3H rq noBehaita pH3HKa or peaKinrje. 

EBponcKa HCTpaaoiBaita cy jjajia /jpyraHHJe pe- 
3yjrraTH). Or 250 HcnHTHBaHiix nnejiapa, 43% cy 
aoxHBJbaBajiH cjra6y ajieprHJCKy peaKUHJy nocjie 
yoo/ja n^ejia, aiiH cy 7,5% oco6a HMaiub KapaKTep 
aHac^HJiaKTH^Kor inoxa h to BehnHOM cjia6or hh- 
TeH3HTCTa,^OKJecaMol,2% 6iuioonacHO. HaJBehy 
ckjiohoct 3a ajieprajcKe peaKUHJe oko 45% HMarcaje 
rpyna Koja je y TOKy ro/jHHe npHMiwa ro 25 y6o/j,a 
nnejia. 

Merjy nnejiapHMa, Ka/ja ce pa#H o yoo/jHMa 
n^ejia, HMa hckhx Heo6HHHHX 3anaacaH>a. Oko 2% 
or h>hx ^o^KHBJbaBajio je HaKHa^He ajieprnjcKe 
peaKUHJe (24-48 nacoBa nocne ySo/xa), Kajja je jjo- 
jia3HJio ro ynane 3rjio6oBa, a hckojihko cjiyqajera 
jjecHJio ce Ra cy nnejiapn kojh HHKa/xa HHcy noKa- 
3HBajiH ajieprnjcKy peaKUHJy, HaKOH XHpypniKor 
3axsaTa h Me/jHiiHHCKor Jienctba nocTajin aji- 
eprHHHH Ha y6oR n^ejia. ^a jih je OBaKBa peaKUHJa 
6njia cjryqaJHa hjih je to 6hjio nocjiennna Me/jHTTHH- 
ckot CTpeca HHJe ce Morjio yrBp/jHTH. 

JIoKajiHe peaKUHJe kor ohhx kojh ce no*iHH>y 
6aBHTH n*iejiapeH>eM oShhho ce jaBibajy y npBoj 
tojjhhh pajja ca nnejiaMa. Kacmijit ro Majio Bene 
peaKHHJH> Moxe Rdim nocjie npBor y6o/j,a y nporcehe, 
npe Hero uito Jjorje ro noBehatfea IgG 6jioKaTopa 
(aHTHTejia y kpbh). IIIto ce iraejiap Jjy>Ke 6aBH 
n^ejiaMa h pe/xoBHO ^o^KHBibaBa y6o/j,e, to he CBe 
Man.e flo^KHBJbaBaTH Shjio KaKBy peaKUHJy opraH- 
H3Ma. Kor n^ejiapa kojh npeKHHy Ra. ce 6aBe 
n*iejiapeH>eM 3a nyxH nepHO/i, BpeMeHa hjth ce neH- 
3HOHHiuy or OBor nocjia Moryha je nojaBa ajrep- 
mjcKe peaKUHJe. 

noone/jita HcrpaacHBaita y CAfl H3TJiejja Ra yica- 
3yjy Ra ce CKopo cbh cmpthh cjryqajeBH y3poKOBaHH 
y6o,n;oM HHceKaTa jjorarjajy kor crapHJHX oco6a a He 
kor /jene. 

OnniTe CTan.e 3/xpaBJba h npeTxo/jHO y3HMan>e 
HeKHXJicKOBa h noHaniaH>e oco6a Koje cy npHMHJia 
y6o/je rraejia, hjih /jpyrax HHceKaTa, motjio 6h 
HMaTH Be3e ca yrpo^ceHouihy ^CHBOTa. 

y CBaKOM cjryqajy caBeTJe JieKapa, Ra aKO npn- 
MeTHTe Ra /jeTe nocne y6o/j,a HMa npo6jieMa ca jjh- 
can>eM Tpe6a ra CMecTa OTnpeMHTH y ,H,om 3/jpaBJba 
hjih 6ojiHHiry. To hcto Baaai 3a n^ejiapa hjth /xpyry 
oco6y h He Tpe6a uejiy CTBap ojiaKO cxBaTHTH h 
OTe3aTH ca ORjiacKOM JieKapy, jep HeMa CMHCJia 
npey3HMaTH pH3HK, Ma kojihko jja H3rjiejjao mhhh- 
MajiaH. CBe ihto yKa3yje Ha BHHie Hero JioKajiHO 



OTHuaH>e h jihhh Ha aHa^HJiaKTHHKy peaKUHJy mhjh 
cy CHMnTOMH npeTxo/jHO onncaHH, Mo^ce npe/i- 
CTaaitaTH onacHOCT 3a 2chbot. 

IIpeMa jj,p JyHrHHrepy ycneuiHOCT HMyHOTepa- 
mije ca ManHM jio3aMa nnejiHiter OTpoBa je H3y- 
3eTHO BHCOKa. JeRHy ro Tpn ronHHe nocjie 
npecTaHKa Tepannje, CBera 5% npeTxo/jHO bhcoko 
ajieprHHHHX oco6a HMajio je H3BecHHX npo6jieMa 
nocjie y6o^a n*iejia. 

3a H3y3eTHO ajieprn^He oco6e, ojjMax no y6o/xy, 
npenopy^je ce caMOHHHnnjaTHBHa HHTepBeHunja 
noMohy HHJeKHHJe Epi Pen, Koja cajjp^KH aRpQna- 
jihh. OBy BpcTy HHJeKHHJe yrpo^ceHa oco6a MOiKe 
caMa ce6n jjaTH y 6yraHy. OBaKBe HHJeKnHJe 3a/ieny 
h oupacjie no6aBJbHBe cy y CAH, Ben /xyra HH3 ro- 
jIHHa. 

CmvinTOMH h Tpernpaibe anact»uiaKi M4KOi 
moKa 

- TeuiKohe jjHcaH>a h ry6jbeH>e jjaxa 

- CTe3an>e h OTHuaH>e y rpjiy 

- IIajj,aH>c y HecBecT 

- Eojiobh y rpynjiMa h CTOMaicy 

- Ocehaj 6jiHCKe cmpth 

HeMa Ha^HHa Ra ce yHanpe/i, 3Ha KaKO peaKunja 
Moxe nocTaTHJaKa. Epinephrine (Epi Pen) HHJeK- 
HHJa aKO ce onMax y6pH3ra Mo^ce cnacHTH 2chbot. 
Kor npBHX 3HaKOBa ^HcaJHHX noTeniKoha hjbi jjpy- 
thx TeuiKHX CHMnTOMa yrpoaceHy oco6y CMeera npe- 
BecTH y 6ojiHHuy. OHa Mopa npnjiHKOM TpaHcnopTa 
jieacaTH ca noflHrHyniM HoraMa h HHKaKO He HeKara 
Ha XHTHy noMoh. Ako /iprje jjo npecTaHKa pana uh- 
caJHHX opraHa, npHMeHHTH BeniTa^KO jjHcaite. 

TpeTHpaH>e y6o^a 6e3 Bene peaKuiije 

1. IIpaTHTH peaKUHJy jjajbe or MecTa y6o^,a. 
IIpoBcpHTH^a jih HeMa 3HaKOBa/JHcaJHHXTeiiiKoha, 
UPBeHHJia Ha ko^ch h CBpa6a y ycTHMa h rpjiy. Ako 
or CBera Tora HeMa HHinra npeAy3eTH JioKajiHy hh- 
TepBeHHHJy. 

2. Ykjiohhth ^caoKy 6p3HM cacTpyrHBaH>eM hok- 
tom najiua y CTpaHy. HnKaKO He noKymaBaTH ^a ce 
xcaoKa H3Ba/jH CTe3aH>eM H3Merjy npcTHJy, jep he ce 
TaKO y6pH3raTH join BHine OTpoBa. 

3. CTaBHTH Ha MecTO y5ona Jiejj hjih xjia/jHy 06- 
jiory. Xjia/jHoha noMaace y CMaH>eH>y xeMHJCKe aK- 
thbhocth OTpoBa h ycnopaBa H^eroBy ancopnnHJy y 
kpbotok. Ha paHHuy ojj y6ojj,a jjo6po je CTaBHTH 
Majio Mejja hjth concTBeHe njbyBa^iKe. 

4. AHTHXHCTaMHHCKe Ta6jieTe y3eTe npeKO ycTa 
noMohn he yiciaH>aH.y OTOKa h CMaH.en>y CBpa6e2CH. 

noMoh 3a ajieprHHHe oco6e 

y 3anajiHHM 3eMJbaMa, noce6HO y CA^I, Beh noc- 
Toje ajieprojio3H h HMyHOJio3H kojh pajje ca iraejiH- 

H>HM OTpOBOM Jja 6h Ce OTKJIOHHJia npeoceTJbHBOCT 

Ha ySo/je n^iejia h apynrx HHceKaTa. Hnje HaM 
nosHaTo^a jih y Eeorpany hjih HauiHM BehHM rpajjo- 
BHMa nocToje TaKBe cneuHJanHOCTH. Ao6po 6h 



257 



Ilqejiap 1998 



6hjio Ra o TOMe 6yiiy HH(})opMHcaHH nnejiapn h cbh 
ocTajiH, KOJH 6h modih HMaTH npoSjieMa ca npeo- 

CeTJBHBOUlhy Ha mJMHH>H OTpOB. 

rpaiiHHiiM opoj y ooaa 3a sapaise 11 
HenpeoceTJbMBe oco6e 

3,npaBa oupacjia oco6a cpejiH>er pacTa Tpe6a Ra 
npexHBH y no^oBHHH cjiy^ajeBa 1.140 y6ona. ,EJena h 
ofloJHaji he ce Hahn y 036hjbhoj ^khbothoj onac- 
hocth ca 100-400 y6o^a nnejia. HaJBehn 6poj y6o,aa 
nnejia Ra je Hexo npexHBeo 6ho je 2.243. OHaKO bh- 
coKe J103Q OTpoBa ^HpeKTHO Tpyjy uejioicynaH 



opraHH3aM HOBeica h TaicaB e(J)eKaT jjojia3H or 
KOJiHHHHe OTpoBa caivior no ce6n, npe Hero or peaK- 
HHJe HMyHor cncTeMa. Ka/iaje y nHTaity BHine or 50 
ySona nnejia, Mopajy ce CTporo npaTHTH CBemy- 
ajiHO 3aKa3HBaH>e <J)yHKnHJe 6y6pera (kpb y 
MOKpahH h Beoivia OTeacaHO MOKpeH>e). 3a Hey- 
TpajiHcaH>c OTpoBa y opraHH3My noeroJH cpe/icTBO 
aHTHBeHHH (aHiwioT) anH npeMa aMepn^KHM HaBO- 
flHMa ro H>era ce TeuiKO ,n,ojia3H. 

JIHTEPATYPA 

1. Guffin, R., (1997) Beekeeping and anaphy- 
lactic shock. American Bee Journal, 137, 795-798. 



258 



nnejiap 1998 



ttfgaSSs 



LLlTa ce to AeiuaBa y noK/ion/bei-ioj fie/inji/i 

me/ini-ber jierjia y kojoj ce Ha/ia3i/i xeHKa 

Varroa jacobsoni 




Ybojx 

Ckopo CBaKOM niejiapy je no3Haio ,ua ce 
n4ejiMH»M napa3MT Varroa jacobsoni pa3MHOxa- 
Ba y noKJionjteHOM pa^MJinuKOM, a jom BMiue y 
TpyTOBCKOM Jierjiy. riouiTOJe Taj npouec orpaHM- 
qeH Ha 3aTBOpeHy nejiMJy calia, £0 ca#a hh OHMMa 
kojm ce 6aBe HayuHMM MCTpaxMBai-bMMa OBornue- 
jiHiter napa3MTa Hwcy Smjim no3HaTM CBM,n,eTajbM. 

He,aaBHO ce rpyna uiBajqapCKMx HayuHMKa 
nocTapajia, npMMeH>yjyhM noceSHy TexHMKy, 4a 
HaM no npBM nyT npnKa^ce KOHTMHynpaHO CBe 
oho uito ce ^orarja y TOKy 12 ^aHa (y noK- 
jionjbeHOJ pa/iMJiMMKOJ nejiMJn Jierjia), o^ yjiacxa 
xeHKe Bapoe y nejuijy ca jiapBOM npe,n noKJia- 
nan>eM. 

M3BaH hejinja ca jierjiOM, xeHKe Bapoe xnBe 
Ha capacjiMM nnejiaivia n yrjiaBHOM ce Mory Hahn 
ca Tp6yniHe CTpaHe M3Mel)y npBnx cerMeHaia. 
me noMohy CBOj'e cncajbKe y TaHKOJ xhtmho3hoj 
onHH CTBapajy otbop np e ko Kora ce xpaHe 
xeMOJiMM(J)OM. Ca apyre CTpaHe, Kao uiTOJe Ben 
HanoivieHyTO, pa3MH0xaBaH>e ce o^Buja MCKJby- 
4mbo y noKJionjbeHOJ hejiHJn ca JierjiOM. Henoc- 
pe/n-10 npen noKJianaH>e Jierjia, )tceHKa Bapoe 
yjia3n y hejinjy ca JiapBOM m no4HJia3M yior i-by Ha 
HHy tiejinje. me ce CMemra y pe3epBM MemaBMHe 
MJiena n inena. OBaKO ce xeHKa Bapoe Haj6ojbe 
niTMTM or OApacjiHx nuejia y BpeMe noKJianai-ba 
nejiMJe. 



llpoBiiziiie he.inje 3a npalieibe npoueca 
paiMHO>KaBaiba 

riomTO Hwje Moryhe npa™™ una ce ^orarja y 
noKJionjbeHOJ nejinjn, uiBajuapcxu HaynHHUH cy 
aouiJiM Ha M/iejy 4a HanpaBe npOBM,n,He n noic- 
peTHe hejinje. y Ty CBpxy nocjiyxnjie cy ueBuwije 
on; nojincTMpojia npoiviepa pajmiumKe nejinje, c 
tmm uiTOje nocjie ceuetba ueB4nuaje/iHa CTpaHa 
3aTBapaHa m 40,aaTH0 jiembeHa HeKa BpCTa 
Hocaua. j\& 6n ce o6e36e r aMJio npMXBaTaH>e 
OBaKBMx hejinja 04 CTpaHe nuejia, ueBHHije cy 
npeivta3aHe mchom m yrpafjeHe y npa3aH M3rpal)eH 
okbmp ca M3rpaf)eHMM caTOM (cjinxa 1). noMohy 
noKJionua or MaTnuHe peuieTKe Mainua je 
npMHyrjeHa jia. nojioxn jaja y npOBM/iHe nojincTM- 
poji nejiMJe. y TOKy Hape^HMx aaHa nuejie 
paaMJinne cy oflrajmie M3BeciaH 6poj jiapBM m 
npe/i noKJianaH>e nejinja y HeKe cy yuuie xeHKe 
Bapoe, jep je nuejiMH>e apyuiTBO, y KOMe je 
M3BorjeH eKcnepMMeHT, 6njiojaK0 3apaxeHO. rio- 
tom cy npOBiiaHe neB^nue, y Kojuivia cy ce Bnnejie 
xeHKe Bapoe, yKJiOH>eHe n3 caTa n CTaBJbaHe y 
MHKySaTOp y KOMeje o6e36erjeHa TeivinepaTypa m 
BJiara Kao m y koihhmuh. CeM Tora, y MHKySaTopy 
je HHCTajiupaHa 6wH0KyjiapHa Jiyna ca Bwieo 
xaiviepOM 3a HenpeKM^HO CHMMaite m npaheH>e 
CBera uito ce 36nBa y npOBnnHOJ ueBHHUH y TOKy 
12 jiana. 




TIpoeudneu i eeHuu i eod 
noAiicmupojia 

paduAUHKeu 

mpymoecKeeejiuHune 

yMemHymeynnejiuHyU 

cam 



160 



nqejiap 1998 



K 


I 













UIeMamcKunpuKa3jedne eeuiman/ce fienuje 

rwe/iuhbOM napeoM y cmadujyMy npedjiymKe 

K = Mecmo 3a u3Mem (f}y6puiame) 

E - Ilpeojaje eapoe 




llleMamcKU npwca3 noAo^tcaja Jiyuace no 

cmpanu u Kopumhewa npocmopa y npoeudnoj 

fieAuju 

K = Mecmo 3a u3Mem eapoe 

S = Mecmo xpawewa na jiymKU 

H = Mecmo 3adpMcaeawa MJiadux eapoa 3a 

epeMe npecejianewa Jiymice nnejie 

Bapoa inoeraua kokoh Jiapse iwene 

KpaTKO BpeMe HaKOH noKJianaH>a 3aBpmaBa 
ce y hejiHJH craflHJyM cjia6o noKpeTHe nojiojKeHe 
jiapBe h noHHH>e hhtch3hbho noxpeTHa (J)a3a hc- 
npeflaraa KOKOHa, y kojoj ce JiapBa wcnpyaca h 
TpouiM nocjieuite pe3epBe xpaHe. XeHKa Bapoa 
KopHCTH OBy npujiHKy aa ce ocjio6o^,h H3 MJiena 
(cjiHKa 4) Ha #Hy ftejiHJe. OHa ce neH>e h hbpcto 





nneAUH>a napea y cmadujyMy ucupedan>a ko- 

Koua. Bapoa (Majita) ce y mo epeme nana3u 

na sadxy jiapee u na3u da ue docne nod 

naynunacmy macy KOKona 

npHJaH>a Ha JiapBy (cjiHKa 5). Y obom MOMeHTy 
no^HH^e npouec pa3MHO)KaBaH>a Bapoe. Y TOKy 
HeKHX 33 naca (ko£ TpyTOBCKe JiapBe 48 nacoBa) 
jiapsa nnejie wcnpejia kokoh. To ce o^BHJa Kpo3 
HenpeKH^HO KpeTaH>e rjiaBOM npn neMy JiapBa 
npecBJia^H yHyTpaiinte 3HflOBe ftejiwje jejiHOM 
bpctom JiyneBHHe H3 Koje HacTaje (Jdhho 
nayHHHacTO tkhbo. 3a to BpeMe, ^ceHKa Bapoe ce 
yrjiaBHOM Hajra3H Ha JiapBH iraejie. Ha OBaj Ha^HH 
OHa H36eraBa aa ce Harje Ha 3H#y ftejiHJe, me 6h 



Flo noKJianafhy fienuje ca jiapeoM nnejie na 

duy y M/ieny ce otcewca eapoe newe ua 3adaK 

jiapee odMax nouimo MJiena necmane 




3apa3tcena noKJioyuhena Tiejnija c JiapeoM 

nnejie y uHKy6amopy nod 6unoKyjiapHOM Ay- 

noM u eudeo MonumopOM 



161 



nqejiap 1998 




HeAuja ca dee xceHice eapoe. UneAaje y cmadujyMy npedAymice. Lieut qbAetca y 3adtbeM deAyje 

HazoMUAanu u3Mem (fyydpuuime) . Jaja eapoe cy noAOMcena y npedweM deAy. Jedna eapoa Majua 

Mupyje na 3udy heAuje don ce dpyea Kpehe Ha meAy npedAymice 



jiaKO Morjia 6htm GjioKHpaHa y HOBOHacTajyfreM 
KOKOHy, iuto 6h 3a H>y Shjio (})aTajiHO. 



11 pouec xpaibeiba 11 liOBaiuaiba i lapa sura y 
lie.i iiiju ca JierjioM 

3a aceHKy (MaJKy) Bapoe BeoMa je Ba^cHa 
HcxpaHa ua 6h ce Morjia <J)opMHpaTH jaja Koja he 
y MefjyBpeMeHy nojio)KHTH. OcicynHO BpeMe OHa 
Mopa onTHMajiHO hckophctmth, jep Kan,a ce 
3aBpuiH pa3BHlie nnejie, h OHa ce H3Jie:>Ke, HeMa 
BHine pa3MHoacaBaH>a Bapoe y toj "hejiHJH. 

HaKOH HcnpejiaHja KOKOHa, JiapBa iraejie ce 
HcnpaBiba Taxo ,zja je JierjHa cTpaHa nojio^KeHa Ha 
j!OH>eM 3H#y hejiHJe. rpyzm h maBa cy oicpeHyra 



y npaBiry noKJionua h ropiter 3H,na. y obom He- 
noKpeTHOM pa3B0JH0M cTanHJyMy (npcujiynca), 
JiapBa iraejie 3ay3HMa caMO 2/3 BonyMeHa ftejiHJe, 
Taxo ^,a ^ceHKa Bapoe pacnojia^ce ca ropH>HM jie- 
jiom hejiHJe npeMa noKJiomry. OHa ocTaBiba cboj 
H3MeT (feces) Ha ropH>H #eo 3vma ftejiHJe 6jiHxe 
aHajiHoj 30HH npczuiyr-Ke. Taj H3MeT KOHTHHyH- 
paHO, Ha hctom MecTy, uejio BpeMe 6aBJbeH>a y 
hejiHJH ozuiaxy, KaKO MaJKa, Taxo h H>eHO noTOM- 
ctbo (cjiHKa 10). Ako ce 3apaxeHa ftejiHJa npe 
H3BoljeH>a nnene otbopm, to ce JiaKO Moxe 
BH/ieTH Ha Ha3HaneHOM MecTy. 

iIoiuto je 3aBpmeHO wcnpeflaHse KOKOHa 
npe/uiynce , nocTeneHO ce MeH>a noHamaH>e 
^KeHKe Bapoe. OHa CMarayje CBOjy aKTMBHOCT h 
ocTaje CBe ^y>Ke Ha jujry riejiHJe, ca oko 90% 




Jedna eapoa Majua u dee 
hepice npomoHUM(j)e 



162 



nqejiap 1998 




Uneaa paduAuu i a nped 
u3eotfetbeM ca otceHKOM 
eapoe u fyydpuiumeM y 
3adtt>eju deAy npoeudne 
heAuje 



BpeMeHa, Ha Mecry pe3epBwcaH0M 3a H3MeT, #ok 
jojje rjiaBa OKpeHyTa Ha^ojie. Ha OBaj Ha^HH OHa 
uiTe/iM eHeprwjy - CBOje h /lOMahHHOBe TejiecHe 
pe3epBe. To MecTO HanyuiTa caMO OH^a xa/ia 
oceTM noTpe6y 3a xpaHOM jia 6h ce nonejia Ha 
jiapBy, ohhocho npe,ziJryTKy imejie. Flocjie CBaxor 
xpaiteita, o^Max ce Bpaha Ha CTapo MecTO me h 
aajte MHpyje. BeoMa je MHTepecaHTHO, m y tom 
KpeTan.y HHKajia HHJe ^ocerjra rpy/iHH u rjiaBeHH 
^eo JiyTKe n^ejie, Beh caMo^eo cjia6wHe. llojia3H 




Omeopeue heAuje nocAe yKAawawa nneAutbux 

AyntKU. Ha eopweM deAy npu buy heAuje 

noMohy Ayne auko ce MOMce eudemu Atecmo 3a 

u3Mem eapoe 



ce ojx Tora m OBaKBHM noHamaiteM ^ceHKa Bapoe 
H36eraBa #a ouiTeTH ycHe /jejioBe, nnnKe (aH- 
TeHe) KpHJia h Hore 6y#yhe n^ejie. Obo je 3a 
Bapoy o,n, ^CHBOTHor 3Hanaja, jep n^ejia Ha Kpajy 
CBora pa3Bwha Mopa 6hth cnocoSHa rq. npocene 
noKJionau hejiuje. y cynpoTHOM, Majxa h hepKa 
6h ocTajie 3aTBopeHe m y KpajiteM h H3ry6ibeHe. 

EpicKJbHB moop MecTa 3a nojiaraibe npeor 
jajeTa 

npH6jiH^CHO 60 jxo 70 nacoBa HaKOH noicia- 
naita hejiuje ca JiapBOM n^ejre, aceHKa Bapoe 
HanyuiTa MecTO o,zuiaraH>a H3MeTa y noTpa3H 3a 
jioKauHJoM me he hojto^khth npBojaje. Kao uito 
je to h ca MecTOM 3a H3MeT, hh H36op MecTa 3a 
npBO jaje Hwje npenyurreHO cjrynajy. IlpBO uito 
he ^ceHKa Bapoe yHHHHTH, to je ^a ce npeMecra y 
npe;iH>H Kpaj ropn>er ^,ejia hejiuje, na he ce oima 
KpeTaTH no noKJionuy ca yHyrpaiuH>e CTpaHe ca 
jejiHor Kpaja Ha Jipyru CBe jiok ce He 3aycTaBH n 
CMupu. Obo MecTO ce Hajia3H y npe#H>eM flejiy 
hejiuje h CKopo yBex y jejiHOM o,n Tpn yrna 
uiecToyraoHor npocTopa. Ako ce hejinje ca 
jierjioM y CTa^HJyMy npejuiyTKe naxibHBO OTBope 
h ocBeTJie, npBO jaje Bapoe he ce CKopo yBeK Harm 
Ha tom MecTy. Ilpe Hero nojioxn jaje, )KeHKa 
Bapoe caBHJe npBa flBa napa Hory Ka yHyrpauiH>oj 
CTpaHH npeMa OTBopy, kojh ce Hajia3H npe\ia 
cpe^HHH TpSyxa, Taxo %a ce jaje hcthchc h 3a 
noBpuiHHy hejiuje npMJienu. 36or CBOje 3HaTHe 
BejinuHHe, H3rjie^a %a nojiaraH>e jajeTa HHJe Jiaxo 
h rq. Tpa^cu H3y3eTaH Hanop. y obom MOMeHTy 
MO)Ke ce 3ana3HTH nczipxTaBatte Hory Bapoe. 
riomTO je nojio>KMJiajaje OHa ocraje MupHa 20 no 
30 MHHyTa ca HoraMa hbpcto ocjioiteHHM Ha 3H# 
hejiuje. HaKOH Tora, Bapoa 0£Jia3H ca Tor MecTa, 
He KOHTpojiuuiyhn jia jih je jaje 3ajienjbeHO 3a 
ropHsH aeo hejiuje. HeKHX 30 *iacoBa KacHuje H3 
jajeTa ce H3Jie^ce npoTOHHMcJ)a Bapoe, Taxo uito 
ce HoraMa .npxH 3a 3wr hejiuje, ioBJiaHehH ce H3 
ibyuiType jajeTa. 

BehHHa 3apa^ceHux hejiuja Ha Kpajy cTaanjyMa 
npczmynce cajipy^e jejiHO MecTO 3a H3MeT 
(1jy6pHuiTe) Ha 3anH>eM /jejiy ropn>er 3H#a 



163 



nqejiap 1998 



pajiHJiHHKe hejiHJe h jejiHO jaje hjih y TpyTOBKOj 
nejiHJH JXBajajeTa. riocTaBJLa ce nnraike, KaKO ce, 
acHBenn y Mpa^HOM npocTopy, aceHKa Bapoe 6e3 
OHHJy opHJeHTHine h 6npa rope HaBejjeHa MecTa y 
nejiHJH n y Kojy CBpxy? IIoihto ce H3MeT a HHJaje 
HHKazia He Mory BnneTH Ha npejjjryrKH, Moace ce 
npeTnocTaBHTH ;ia aceHKa Bapoe npaBH pa3JiHKy 
H3Me^y MHpHca KOKOHa h KyrHKyjie jjoManHHa 
(npe/uiyTKe n^ejie) . EKcnepHMeHTHMa je 
H0Ka3aH0 m ce aceHKa Bapoe y nejinjn opn- 
jeHTHine y3 noMoft rpaBHTauHJe h BepoBaTHO 
xeMHJcKHx Hanpaacaja aHajiHor jjejia jjoMannna. 

HaJBeha ciirypiiocr 3a npuo jaje 

HHH>eHHiia jja MaJKa Bapoa H3MeT h npBO jaje 
yBeK Jionnpa Ha HaBejjeHHM MecTHMa, Moace ce 
CMaTpaTH Kao CTpaTeraja ycMepeHa Ha MaKcn- 
MajiHO ocHrypaH>e ycnexa pa3MHoacaBaH>a . 
noiiiTO ce MaJKa 3ajipacaBa Ha Merry 3a H3MeT y 
3a#H>eM Jjejiy ftejinje h npejjH>n jjeo nocenyje 
BeoMa peTKO, MorynHocr /xa jaje 6yne HaraaceHO 
h onrreneHO nocTaje BeoMa Majia. Obo je 
H3y3eTHO BaacHO, jep jaje y ce6n cajjpacn npo- 
TOHHM(})y, HHJe Hore Mopajy 6hth ynpaBJteHe 
npeMa 3HJjy ftejinje. y cjiyqajy jja ce jaje noMepn 
y CTpaHy hjih Ha Jiefja, npoTOHHM(})a Hene 6hth y 
CTan>y, ocjiaH>ajynH ce Ha Hore, jja ce H3ByHe H3 
jbyiirrype. Hcto TaKO, MeTaMopcJ)03a rwejie H3 
npe^JiyTKe y Jiyncy Moace jioriH y onacHOCT. 
Pa3BHne ycHHX opraHa h Hory Syjjyne rwejie Mo- 
nro 6h noMepHTH jaje Bapoe h 3aTO je BaacHO jja 
je oho 3ajienjbeHO y yrjiy noKJionna hejinje, rue je 

H3JI0aceH0 HaJMan>eM pH3HKy. 



Ilpejia3 mejie H3 CTanHJyivia npejxnyrKe y JiyrKy 

ripejia3 H3 npejjjryTKe y JiyrKy kqh, rwejie 
Tpaje ojj 30 no 40 MHHyra. To je H3HeHarjyjyne 
KpaTKO BpeMe, axo ce y3Me jxa. ce nocTojenn 
OMOTa^ npejuiyTKe yKJiaita h CKHJxa ca Tejia Kao 
KoniyjbHua a y hcto BpeMe Hacraje hobo o6jih- 
KOBaHa KyTHKyjia. y tom nponecy napajiejiHO ce 
(J)opMHpajy ycHH anapaT, nnnun h KpHJia h no 
npBH nyT JiyTKa jjo6HJa o6jihk cjinnaH nnejra. 
TaKorje, y hcto BpeMe, no npBH nyr ce jaBJtajy 
npoMeHe y 3chbothom npocTopy napa3HTa. y 
TOKy obhx npoMeHa necTO Jiojia3H jio cmcth>h 3a 
Bapoy Koje Haerajy Kao pe3yjiTaT noKpeTa jryr- 
Ke -rwejie y nejiHJH. Ha OBaj Ha^HH Moace j^onn no 
noKpeTaita Bapoe ca H>eHor OMHJbeHor MecTa 
(f)y6pHinTe) ajiH ce OHa 6p30 Bpafta Ha to MecTO. 

Bapoa MaJKa lipomiipvje cboj iipoc r rop m 
iipiinpeMa MecTO 3a xpaibeibe Ba JiyxKH 

Henocpe/iHO nocjie npejia3a rwejie y CTajjnjyM 
npe/iJiyTKe, Bapoa MaJKa cyzjapa ce ca TpennM 
napoM Hory JiyTKe npomnpyjynH cjio6ojiaH npoc- 
Top oko rjyGpHuiTa . Cjieaenn 3ajjaTaK MajKe 
napa3HTa cacTojn ce y TOMe jja Ha KyrHKyjiH 
(Koacn) JiyTKe HanpaBH otbop 3a y3HMaH>e xpaHe. 
ripBO xpaH.eH>e Tpaje oko ,nBa naca, /xpKJe to Ha 
npejuiyTKH Tpajajio y npoceKy caMO oko 2,7 mh- 
Hyra. 



Bapoa-MaJKa ojjpacaBa MecTO 3a y3HMan>e 
xpaHe Ha JiyrKH n^ejie ca nyHO eHepraje. To je 
je^HHO MecTO Ha KOMe ne ce xpaHHTH OHa h H>eHO 
noTOMCTBO Kao h npyra nopo/inna aKO ce Hajia3H 
y hctoj nejinjn. Obo ncTpaacHBaibe je noKa3ajio 
na npoTOHHM(J)e (MJiajje Bapoe) HHcy y CTan>y m 
HanpaBe cbojom cncaibKOM otbop Ha KyrHKyjiH 
JiyTKe. npeMa TOMe, OHe cy ynyneHe jja ce 
npHKiby^e Ha hcth otbop 3a y3HMan>e 
xeMOJiHM(J)e H3 opraHH3Ma JiyTKe nnejie ca 
ocTajiHM npHnajjHHHHMa napa3HTCKe rpyne y 
hejiHJH. Ako ce naacjtHBO OTBopn nejraja ca 
erapHJHM JierjroM Moace ce bhjj,cth m. ce CBe je- 
jjHHKe rjiaBaMa OKpeHyrHM Ha jjojie Hajia3e y 
6jih3hhh HjHxobot rjy6pHuiTa . Kajia orjiajjHe , 
nonHy ce Ha JiyrKy jj,a 6h noTpaacnjie otbop 3a 
CHcaH^e xeMOJiHM(})e (kpb nnejie), jja 6h ce ojjMax 
HaKOH Tora BpaTHJie Ha npBo6HTHO MecTO. 

OBaKBO CTporo peryjincaHO rpynHO noHama- 
ib& flOHOCH napa3HTHMa Bnme npejjHOCTH: ca 
je^He CTpaHe, JiyTKa je cpa3MepHO Majio ouiTe- 
fteHa, caMO jejjaH otbop Ha 3ajj,H>eM RQiry Tejia, 
TaKO jj,a je H>eHa acHBOTHa cnoco6HOCT o^yBaHa 3a 
H3Jia3aK H3 hejiHJe Kao onpacjie n^ejie, a ca jjpyre 
CTpaHe npnjia3 OTBOpy ce He OMeTa npncycTBOM 
BHine napa3HTa Ha tom Mecry. 3a BpeMe npec- 
BJiaHeH>a JiyTKe, napa3HTH ce Hajia3e HeniTO no 
CTpaHH ajiH yBeK y 6jih3hhh H)HXOBorr)y6pHniTa. 
HapaBHO jja OBaKBa CTpaTeraja Moace 6hth OMe- 
TeHa npncycTBOM BHine MaJKH ca BenHM 6pojeM 
noTOMaKa xajia H3BoheH)e n^ejie Moace 6hth 
yrpoaceHO (npHM. J. K.) 



Uiiji>: Mnajj,e onjio^eHe >KeiiKe 

JacHO, HajsHa^ajHHJH uhjb rpynHorn npocTop- 
hot noHamaH>a napa3HTa je bhcok creneH 
ycneniHOCTH onno^Hie nepKH, ojjhocho MJiajinx 
aceHKH. He nojj,pa3yMeBa ce caMO no ce6n, ^a ce 
jejjaH jejj,HHH MyagaK y CBaKoj Bapoa (JDaMHJiHJH 
BHine nyra cnapn ca CBaKOM aceHKOM (hepKOM). 
CMeTH>e npn obom nponecy ^ihhh Tpenn nap Hory 
JiyTKe nnejie, jep jxcjih npocTop hejinje. Ako ce 
noTOMCTBO pa3^,ejin , h>hxob noHOBHn cycpeT 
nocTaje OTeacaH. Obo Moace 6hth <J)aTajiHO, jep 
OHe aceHKe napa3HTa Koje HanycTe nejinjy 
HecnapeHe, ocrajy HenjiojjHe. 

Tpajaibe noKJioiubeBor Jierjia oi pai ni'iait;i 
pa3MHO%aBaH>e 

Bapoa (MaJKa) nojiaace npBO jaje oko 70 
^acoBa no noKiianaH>y nejinje ca nnejiHHjOM Jiap- 
bom n ^ajte CBaioix 30 ^acoBa cjie^ehe jaje. H3 
npBorjajeTa ce H3Jieace MyacjaK, kojh je 3peo 3a 
cnapHBaite, Ka/iaje npBa MJia^a aceHKa o^pacjia. 
MyacjaK Bapoe ce c h>om cnapn Bnme nyTa ,ziok 
jipyra nepKa He o^pacTe h nocTaHe cnpeMHa 3a 
onjioflH.y. Epoj MJia^nx cnapeHHX nepKH 
orpaHHHeH je TpajaiteM noKJionjteHor Jierjia, 
TaKO jja ce Hehe CBe o^pacjie aceHKe cnapnTH a hh 
CBe nepKe Bapoe ca3peTH 3a onjio/iH>y. 

rioje/jHoj Bapoa-Majnn, y pa/iHJiHHKOM Jierjiy, 
y npoceicy ce jio6HJa 1 ro 1,5 nepKa cnoco6Ha 3a 



164 



nnejiap 1998 



pa3MH0^caBaH>e mjim y tpytobckom Jierjiy 1,5 ao 2 
hepKe. TpyTOBCKO Jierjioje y obom norjie^y no- 
BOJbHMJe m 36or Tora ra napa3MT pa^MJe kopiictm. 

3aKJi>yHaK 

riHejiapM cy (J>acuMHMpaHM m non yriiCKOM je^- 
MHCTBeHor HamiHa >KMBOTa rmejia, a/iM je mcto 
TaKO MHTepecaHTaH H>eH oahoc y acMBOTy ca 
BapooM xao napa3MTOM. 

Bapoa, rpMH>e mjim KpnejbM y nepMOny 
pa3MHo;>KaBaH>a y noKJionibeHOM Jierjiy noKa3yjy 
M3y3eTHO BMCOKy cnoco6HOCT npMJiaro^aBajrba Ha 
HOManiiHa - Haiuy MeAOHOCHy nnejiy. Obo ce ne- 

MOHCTpMpa Kp03 HaHMH Ha KOJM napa3HT KOpMCTM 

npocTOp y hejiHJM, nnejiMH^y jiapBy m jiyrKy 3a 
MCxpaHy y npouecy pa3MHo;>KaBaH)a. Cbojhm 
noHaiuaH>ejvi, napa3HT M3TJie£a M3BJiaHH onTHMyM 
Kana je y nMTan>y npOAy^teTbe BpCTe. To ce y 
npBOM pe^y o/mtocm Ha M36eraBaH>e na ce 
AOMahMHy, oupacjioj nnejiM, HaHecy npeTepaHe 
uiTeTe. 

Ka/ja bh nnejiapKe h nnejiapM cjieAenn nyr 
pTBOpHTe KOiuHMuy, yTpouiMTe Majio BpeMeHa 
xaKO 6m OTKJionMJiM HeKOJiMKO hejiMj'a ca 
3aTBOpeHHM jierjiOM m norjie^ajiM yHyTpa. 3a Taj 
nocao 6Mne BaM oa kopmctm Jiyna. Ca Majio cpene 
MManeie npMJiMKe &a 6auMTe norjie/i, y bmcokoop- 
raHM30BaH ^kmbot y BeoMa MajiOM npocTOpy. 



KoivieHTap iipoiso iisoua 

npHpo^HO j\a je BenMHa nnejiapa BMiue 3aMHTe- 
pecoBaHa na bmam MpTBe Bapoe Ha nomtami Hero j\a 
ce 6aBM AeTaibMMa TbnxoBor >oiBOTa h crpaTernjoM 
pa3MHO^caBaH)a, nnax ne obo npBO OBaKO tcxhmhkm 
AOTepaHO MCTpa>KHBaH>e HiBaJHapCKMx KOJiera 6mtm 
on, MHTepeca 3a HMTaone "IiHejiapa". OoTorpa4)MJe 
y 6ojm, kojmm ce MJiycTpyje OBaj npeBOA 6nne, 
TaKOrje, or kopmctm aok ce je/nrora AaHa He nol)e ao 

4)MJlMa KOJMM Cy HOKyMeHTOBaHM OBM neTa/tM M3 

cy>KMBOTa nnejie m Bapoe, kojh MO^ce a/iM He MOpa 
6mtm c|)aTajiaH 3a nnejiMHje npyniTBO. 

y npMpOAHJe no3HaTO npaBMJio j\a hmjb napa3MTa 
HMJe noTnyHO yHMuiTeH>e aojvianMHa, Ben CTBapatte 
je/n-ie SnojiOMiKe paBHOTe^ce kojom ce ocMrypaBa 
3ajeAHMHKM oncTaHax. Kao imto je no3HaTO, Taxo 
HeuiTO Ben nocTOJM Ka/ia je y nnTaity MCTOHHa Me- 
AOHOCHa n^ejia (Apis cerana) m CMaTpaMO #a HMJe 
Taxo aajieKO BpeMe Ka^a tie ce ao MCTor uMJta aoItm 
BeniTaHKOM, na m npnponHOM, cejieioiMJOM Hanie 
3anaaHe MeAOHOCHe nnejie (Apis mellifera L.)- 

Obo non ycjiOBOM &a nopeji Bapoe m tbeHor 
napa3MTMpaH>a y OBaKO KOMnjieKCHe o^HOce He 6yay 
yicrtyHeHM m apyrM (J)aKTOpM Kao uito cy BMpyc 
aKyrHe napajiM3e, Jionia nauia h up., Kao imto ce to 
y HeMaHKOJ aotoamjio npomjie ro/ume, meie Ben y 
OKToSpy nponanaH>e apyniTBa aoctmtjio 50%. 

ITpeeeo u npupeduo U3 ADIZ-a, janyap 1998. 
ITpo(p. dp Joean Kyjiutmeeuh 



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HOBAnA30BA 13.02. 1998. 





165 



nqejiap 1998 

IIpeBeaeHO H3 Apiacta, 65-71 (1997) 

YcneniHO yKjiaH>aH>e Varroa jacobsoni ca tpytobckhm 
jierjioM H3 nnejiHH>HX ApynrraBa Apis mellifera 6e3 Jierjia 

/. N. M. CALIS 1 , J. SCHMIDT-BAILEV, J. BEETSMA 1 

W. J. BOOT, J. H. P. M. VANDENEIJNDE 1 , S. FUCHS 2 

A. DE RUUTER 1 , J. J. M. VAN DER STEEN* 

THE NETHERLAMDS ", GERM ANT 

XoAanduja , HeMOHKaz 



ybo/1 

Ka^a Bapoa yfje y hejinje ca JierjioM, ona je Ty 
"3apo6jbeHa" noiirro cy nnejie noKJionmie Jierjio 
h Ha Taj HaHHH Moace 6hth JiaKO yKJioH>eHa ca 

OKBHpOM H3 KOHIHHHe. OBaj npHHHHn Ce KOpHCTH 

Kao MeTOJia 6HOTexHHHKor cy36HJaH>a Bapoe. 
riapa3HTH cy H30JioBaHH y OKBHpHMa ca JierjioM 
kojh ce yHnuiTaBajy hjih TpeTHpajy jja 6h ce Bapoe 
y6HJie (Rittern capajj., 1987; Rosen Krauz, 1987; 
Maul h capan,., 1988; Fries, 1991; Calis h capajj,., 
1993; Fries h Hansen, 1993; Engels 1994). Ako 6h 
ce 3a yKJiaH.aH.e Bapoe kophcthjih okbhph ca 
pan,HJiHHKHM JierjioM OBa MeTOJia 6h 3axTeBajia 
MHoro pajja h BejiHKy KOJiHHHHy pajiHJiHHKor 
jierjia jja 6h ce ycneniHO cy36njia Bapoa (Calis h 
capaa, y npinipeMH). OBaj HenocTaTaK MeTo/je 
yKJiaH>aH>a Bapoe y3 noMon OKBHpa ca noK- 
jionjLeHHM JierjioM H36eraBa ce y bcjihkoj Mepn 
axo ce y Ty CBpxy kophcth TpyTOBCKO Jierjio. 
yonniTe y3eBinn, MHoro BHine napa3HTa ce 
Hajia3H y hejinjaMa ca TpyroBCKHM Hero 
pa^HJiHHKHM JiapBaMa (CyjiHMaHOBHh h capajj,., 
1982; Schulz, 1984; Fuchs, 1990). O^hoc 
3apa:acaBaH>a napasnroM y hejinjaMa Jierjia ctojh 
y nponopuHJH ca 6pojeM hejinja Koje ce noioia- 
najy y o^perjeHOM BpeMeHCKOM HHTepBajiy. 
MerjyTHM, OBaj 6poj je JiBaHaecT nyra Behn Kajja 
je y nHTan>y TpyTOBCKO Hero pajjHJiHHKO Jierjio 
(Boot h capajj., 1993, 1994a, 19946, 1995). 06hhho 
ce yKJiaraaite Bapoe ca TpyroBCKHM JierjioM 
npHMetbyje y nnejiHikeM THe3Jjy (Schuls h capajj,., 
1983; Engels. 1994). noniTO cy flpyrn okbhph ca 
JierjioM npHcyTHH, e(J)HKacHOCT yKJian>aH>a 
napa3HTa je CMaH»eHa H3 jjBa pa3Jiora. FLpBO, 
BenHHa aceHKH Bapoe he 6hth y noKJiombeHOM 
pa/iHJiHHKOM Jierjiy h OHe He Mory 6hth yx- 
jioH>eHe npe Hero iiito ce nnejie H3Jiery. /Jpyro, 
jierjio y n^ejiHH.eM raesay he npHByhn jjeo napa- 
3HTa kojh 6h Tpe6ajio jja Syne yxBaheH y 
TpyroBCKOM Jierjiy. Okbhph ca TpyroBCKHM 
nejinjaMa 3a Jierjio 6hjih 6h MHoro e<})HKacHHJH 
axo 6h ce JipjjaBajiH y n*iejiHH>a jjpyuiTBa 6e3 
jierjia. OBaj npHHunn je KopHinheH 0,3 CTpaHe 
nnejiapa (Jenter, 1986; Dung h capajr., y inraMnH) 
kojh cy Hac HHcnnpncajiH m. Sjinace npocryjjH- 
paMO MeTO/jy ca TpyTOBCKHM JierjioM. 3a BpeMe 
cy36HJaH>a pojen>a hjih BenrraHKor yMHO)KaBaH>a, 
nMejiHH>a jjpyinTBa necTO ocTajy 6e3 Jierjia, TaKO 
na Ha Taj HaHHH npyacajy npnjiHicy 3a yicrcaH>aH>e 
Bapoe. y flpyiHTBHMa 6e3 Jierjia, noTpe6aH je 



caMO MajiH 6poj hejinja ca TpyroBCKHM JierjioM jja 
6h ce yKJioHHO HaJBenn jxeo Bapoe (Boot h capan. 
19956) h OBOje hhhh Haje<})HKacHHJOM HexeMnj- 
ckom MeTojioM 3a cy36HJaH>e Bapoe. y obom pajxy 
mh onHcyjeMO HajycneuiHHJe MeTojje 3a cjihmhhh- 
can>e Bapoe noMohy TpyTOBCKor Jierjia (Calis h 
capajj;., 1996; Schmidt- Bailey h capajj,., 1996). 

MATEPHJAJI H METOPE 
Omirra pa iMUTpan>a 

3a npHMeHy obhx MeTOJja cy36njaH>aje;jHHOje 
Heonxo/jHO cahe ca TpyTOBCKHM hejinjaMa. Oho 
ce Moxe o6e36e r nHTH axo ce n*iejiHH>HM 
jipyuiTBHMa jjajy okbhph ca TpyroBCKHM caTHHM 
ocHOBaMa. Ca Jjpyre CTpaHe to hcto ce Moace 
nocTHhn ca OKBHpHMa rparjeBHH>aHHMa. Okbhph 
ca TpyroBCKHM JierjioM ce Mopajy yicioHHTH H3 
KouiHHite npe Hero ce H3Jiery TpyroBH, cynpoTHO 
TOMe flohn he jio noBehaH>a Spoja Bapoa y nnejiH- 
H>eM ^pyuiTBy. 36or Tora, BeoMaje BaacHO HMaTH 
y BHay BpeMe noTpe6HO 3a pa3BHhe TpyTOBCKor 
jierjia (jaje 3 aaHa, JiapBe 7 ^aHa, noKJionjteHO 
jierjio 14 jiaaa). JJa 6h to ynpocrajiH, mh to 
pa^HMO no ce^MHHHOM pejiocjiejiy. TeHepajiHO 
y3eBiHH, okbhp ca TpyTOBCKHM hejinjaMa nocjie 
je/tHe ce/tMHue cajipacahe JiapBe a nocjie apyre cbo 
jierjio he 6hth noKJionjbeHO, Ka^a ce Moace yicio- 
HHTH H3 KoiHHHHe. OBaKBO TpyTOBCKO cahe ca 
JierjioM Moace ce npeTonHTH a okbhph, nocjie 
HHinheHja, noHOBO ynoTpe6HTH. Cahe Moace 6hth 
OHHiuheHO o,zi 3apaaceHor Jierjia CKH^aH.eM noK- 
jion^Hha h HCTpecaH^eM JiapBH ca BapooM. 
OcTaitH JiapBH ce, TaKofje, Mory ncnpaTH noMohy 
Bo^eHor MJia3a a noTOM ocyuiHTH m He florje ro 
6yrjeH>a. TaKBO cahe ce Moace canyBaTH h noHOBO 
ynoTpe6HTH. 

y paHO npojiehe okbhph ca TpyroBCKHM caT- 
HHM ocHOBaMa hjih npa3HH H3rparjeHH TpyroBCKH 
okbhph CTaBJtajy ce ca CTpaHe Beh 3ajieaceHHX 
OKBHpa. HaKOH noKJianaH>a, Bane ce h noHOBO 

3aMeH>yjy Ca HOBHM TpyTOBCKHM OKBHpHMa h Ha 

Taj HaHHH TpyTOBCKe hejinje 3a Jierjio cy CTajiHO 
npHcyrHe y kouihhhh. Obo HMa hckojikko npe/i- 
hocth. Ha OBaj HaHHH ce yKJian>a BHine 0,3 50% 
Bapoe H3 KouiHHue (Calis h capa^., y npnnpeMH) 



1 TpyTOBCKe carae ocHOBe Mory ce KynHTH y CBaKoj 
nnejiapcKoj npoziaBHHUH y CP HeManKoj 



166 



nqejiap 1998 



h KOJiHHHHa TpyTOBCKHX hejraja, Koje nnejie 
rpajie Ha pa/jHJiHHKHM caTHHM ocHOBaMa, 
jipacTHHHO ce CMaityje (Allen, 1965). 

YKJIAH>AH>E BAPOE IIOCJIE nO^EJIE 
nHEJIHH>HX /tPYUITABA 

MeTO/ja KOpMiuheibajeiiuor iipyuiTBa 
(U,pTe»ai 1. h 2.) 

CTBapHO XBaTaibe (ejiHMHHHcaite) Bapoe 
noHHH>e ca no/jejioM (BemraHKHM pojeiteM) jj,a 6h 
ce H36erjio npnpo/iHO pojeH>e. Y cpe/jHiry irqejin- 
H>er rHe3^,a ca JierjioM CTaBJba ce npa3aH okbhp 
ca TpyTOBCKHM nejiHJaMa. Kajja ce y OBaKBOM 
OKBHpy, o6hhho je^Hy He/jejby KacHHJe, Hafjy 
TpyTOBCKe JiapBe, nnejiHite /jpyniTBO ce rqjik Ha 
jjeo 6e3 Jierjia ca MaTHUOM h 6e3MaTHHHH jxeo ca 
cbhm JierjioM. ^a 6h ce MaTHua npoHauiJiayjaKOM 
npyuiTBy Mo^ce 3axTeBaTH MHoro BpeMeHa. Obo 
je Moryhe H36ehn aKO ce kophcth MaTHHHa 
peuieTKa Taxo m ce MaTHua Halje y je/iHOM Tejiy 
KoniHHHe ca JierjioM. llocjie He/jejby /xaHa, 
BeniTaHKH poj ce Mo^ce HanpaBHTH 6e3 Tpa^ceH>a 
MaTHue, y3HMaH>eM cbhx n^ejia h OKBHpa ca ja- 
JHMa, MJia^HM JiapBaMa, yKJby^jyhH h MaTHiry. 

BeuiTaHKH poj 

BemTaHKH pojeBH Mory 6hth npeMemreHH Ha 
JipyrH yuajbeHHJH nHejiHH>aK Ra ce n^ejie H3JieT- 
HHue He 6h Bpahajie y SesMaTH^HH jj,eo ca JierjioM , 
KOJH ce Ha;ia3H Ha npBo6HTHOM MecTy. CynpoTHO 
or Tora, BeiHTa^KH poj 6e3 noKJionjbeHor Jierjia 
ca MaTHUOM Mo^ce ocTaTH Ha CTapoM MecTy h 
npHMHTH CBe nnejie H3JieTHHue, jjok ce 
6e3MaTHHHH /jeo H3MeniTa hckojihko MeTapa 
jjajbe yHyrap hctot nnejiHH>aKa. Ba^cHO je Ra 
BeuiTaHKH poj canp^KH HaJMan^e 1,5 kg nnejia, 
jep he KacHHJe nocjryacHTH 3a ejiHMHHHcaite 
Bapoe noMohy TpyTOBCKor Jierjia, a to je H3- 
bojjjbhbo caMO OHJja aKO je poj jjpbojlho jaK. 
Bapoe Hene yhn y hejinje Koje caapxe TpyTOBCKe 
JiapBe MJiarje or ce/xaM j^aHa (Infantilis, 1988; 
Boot h cap., 1992). Taxo 3a BpeMe npBe ce/jMHue 
nocjie no/jejie /jpyniTaBa, napa3HTH Mory 
ycneuiHO 6hth npHBy^eHH y TpyTOBCKO Jierjio. 
OBaj okbhp ca BapooM y TpyTOBCKOM Jierjiy Moace 
ce yKJioHHTH o6hhho He/jejby /jaHa KacHHJe. 



v=- 




JL,.,.-.. 



^==L 



JXan 0: y CBaKH or /jBa HacTaBKa ca JierjioM 
CTaBJta ce no je/jaH npa3aH okbhp ca TpyTOBCKHM 
hejiHJaMa. MaTHHHa peuieTKa H30Jiyje MaTHiry y 
je/iaH or RBa HacTaBKa ca JierjioM. ^aH 7: CBe 
nnejie H3 HacTaBKa ca JierjioM y KOMe ce Hana3H 
MaTHua, a to ce yTBprjyje npncycTBOM JiapBH h 
jaja, ce crpecajy y hobh HacTaBaK 3a jierjio ca 
npa3HHM OKBHpHMa. y Bemra^KOM pojy ce 
Hajia3H TpyroBCKH okbhp ca JiapBaMa (DTC) jja 
6h npHByKao Bapoe ca nnejia, a caM poj ce o/jhoch 
Ha /jpyrn y/jajbeHHJH n^ejiHitaK /ja 6h ce 
cnpeHHJio BpanaH.e nnejia y o6e3MaTHHeHH /jeo 
jipyniTBa ca JierjioM. TpyTOBCKH okbhp ca BapooM 
ce BajjH HaKOH noKJianaita, o6h x iho nocjie Je/jHe 
ce/jMHue. y o6e3MaTHHeHOM Jjejiy nnejiHiter 
npyuiTBa, o/jraja ce HOBa MaTHua. JJaH 28: Okbhp 
ca TpyTOBCKHM JierjioM ce CTaBJba y CTapKy, cajxa 
6e3 Jierjia. OBaj TpyTOBCKH okbhp je npn- 
npeMJbeH nouiTO je ce/xaM jjaHa CTaBJbeH y 
BemraHKH poj Ra 6y/j,e 3ajieaceH. Hhm OBaj 
TpyroBCKH okbhp 6y/j,e noKJionjbeH Jjo/jaje ce 
HpyrH TpyroBCKH okbhp cajierjioM (DTC). 

OSesMaTHHeHH jjeo 

y o6e3MaTHHeHOM jjejry (erapirH) nnene he 
H3rpa/jHTH npHHynjie MaTHHH>aKe. Ohh ce Mory 
ocTaBHTH Ra ce pa3BHjy Kao hito ce to ^ecTO npaK- 
THKyje y XojiaHnHJH. PynieifceM MaTH*iH>aKa Tpn- 
HaecTor ^aHa cnpe^nhe ce H3Jia3aK poja ca MJiajjoM 
MaTHHOM. Bojteje HOKHuaTH npHHynHe MaTH^itaKe 
h RORaTW o^rajeHe MaTHHH>aKe. yKynHO BpeMe 3a 
pa3BHhe MJiajje MaTHue (jaje 3 aaHa; JiapBa: 5 aaHa; 
3aTBopeH MaTHHH>aK 7 Rana) TaKO Ra he npohn oko 
5 Hejiejba npe Hero pajjHJiH^KO Jierjio or HOBe 
MaTHue nocTaHe norojjHO 3a yjia3aK aceHKH Bapoe. 
riocjie Tpn ce^MHue CBe nnejie he ce H3Jiehn H3 
npBo6HTHor Jierjia (TpyroBHMa he 6hth noTpe6HO 
HeKOJiHKO Raua BHUie, h Ha Taj Ha^HH he nHejiHH>e 
npyuiTBO ocTaTH 6e3 Jierjia, a Jierjio MJiajje MaTHue 
Hehe 6hth 3apa>KeH0 3a HaJMaH>e rbq He^ejbe. CBe 
Bapoe ce Hajia3e Ha rraejiaMa h TaKO Mory 6hth 
yxBaheHe noMohy TpyroBCKor OKBHpa ca JiapBaMa. 
OBaj TpyroBCKH okbhp je npnnpeMJheH jj,Be Hejjejbe 
nocjie no/iejie nnejiHifcer apyuiTBa, CTaBJbaH>eM y 
BeuiTa^iKH poj. ITpenopytryje ce h Rpyrw TpyroBCKH 
okbhp, ojjhocho noHaBibaHje npoueca, Ra 6h ce 
ycneuiHHJe ohhcthjih napa3HTH. To je HajSojbe 
whhhth OAMax nocjie yKJiaH>aH>a npBor OKBHpa, jep 
ne ce Ha Taj HaHHH ejiHMHHHcaTH Bapoe y ojjcycTBy 
jipyror Jierjia y koiuhhuh. 




Cjiukci L UleMamcKu npwcas memode cys6u- 
jawa eapoe yjedhOM dpyiumey 



CjiuKa 2. IIIeMamcKU npuxa3 uemoda cysdu- 
jawa eapoe yjeduom rmeAuweM dpyiumey 



167 



nqejiap 1998 



flaH 0: y CBaKH or HacTaBaxa ca JierjroM 
CTaBJba ce no je^aH npa3aH TpyroBCKH okbhp. 
rioMohy MaTH^He peineTKe H30Jiyje ce Marana y 
jejiHOM ojj, HacTaBaKa ca JierjioM. Ran 7: CBe 
iraejie h MaTHua H3 HacTaBKa y KOMe ce Hajia3HJia 
MaTHua CTpecajy ce y hobo miojiHinTe ca npa3HHM 
caheM. y BeniTaHKOM pojy Hajia3H ce TpyTOBCKH 
okbhp ca JiapBaMa jj,a npHByqe Bapoe ca nnejia h 
ocTaje Ha npBo6HTHOM MecTy jj,a 6h npHMHO CBe 
iraejie H3JieTHHue. TpyTOBCKH okbhp ce yiaiajba 
nocjre noKJianaH>a oGh^ho nocjieje/iHe cchmhiic 
06e3MaTHHeHH /jeo nnejiniberflpyiuTBa, jjBa Hac- 
TaBKa ca JierjioM y KOJHMa ce Hajia3H cbo Jierjio ce 
noMepn HeKOJiHKO MeTapa jjajbe Ha hctom nnejiH- 
H>aKy. y obom Jjejiy ce o/jjajn HOBa MaTHua. Ran 
28: TpyTOBCKH okbhp ca JiapBaMa (DTC) ce 
npeHOCH y neo cajja 6e3 Jierjia (npBo6HTHO 6e3 
MaTHue). OBaj TpyroBCKH okbhp je npnnpeMJbeH 
CTaBJbaH>eM npa3Hor TpyroBCKor caTa y 

BeiHTaHKH poj KOJH je npHMHO H3JieTHHHe 

(Flugling) jenny cejjMHiry paHHJe. HaKOH OBor 
TpyTOBCKor OKBHpa 3a JioBJbeH>e Bapoe Jipjia3H 
jipyrn TaKaB okbhp. 



XBATAH>E BAPOE y REJIY BE3 JIErjIA 
^BA IIHEJiHH>A ^PyUITBA 

MeTO^ ca JTBa nqejiiuta apyniTBa 

Ilocjie nojjejie jipyuiTBa (pa3pojaBaiba) 
BeniTaHKH poj He MopayBeK6HTHnoBOJbHojaKjia 
o6e36e/iH npoH3Bojjiby OKBHpa ca TpyroBCKHM 
JiapBaMa 3a XBaTatbe Bapoe. Moace ce jjecHTH jxa 
opnrHHajiHa iraejiHita JipyniTBa 6yny cjia6a h ^a 
ce nnejie H3 BenrraHKor poja pacType no nnejiH- 
H>aKy. Ka;ia ce OBa onepaunja h3bo,hh y napoBHMa 
(no jjBa JipyniTBa) Kopnmnetbe nojejjHHa^iHHX 
jipyniTaBa ocnrypaBa npoH3BOHH>y OKBHpa ca 
TpyTOBCKHM JierjioM. 



tiflt-d 



naH? 




fla>*l4 




flan 35 




Cjiuko 3. IIIeMamcKu npwca.3 cy36ujcm>a eapoe 
no Memodu napoea (dea dpymmea) 

flaH 0: y njionHuiTe (Bl) n*iejiHH>er JipyniTBa 
6p. 1 CTaBJba ce npa3aH TpyTOBCKH okbhp. ,3,aH 7: 
y iuiojjnmTe (B2) nnejiHtter jjpyniTBa 6p. 2 
TaKo^e ce CTaBJba npa3aH TpyTOBCKH okbhp. 
Jierjio H3 KoniHHHe 6p. I (BI) ce CTaBJba noBpx 
MaTH^He peiueTKe wm&jx Jierjia (B2) KoumHue 
6p. 2 (3aKpHBJbeHa CTpejinua). y koihhhhh 6p. 1 
y Kojy je paHHJe CTaBJbeH TpyTOBCKH okbhp 3a 
XBaTaite Bapoe Ty h ocTaje jja XBaTa napa3HTe, h 



Ba#H ce HaKOH noioianaiba TpyTOBCKor Jierjia. y 

CTBapHOCTH, KOHIHHHa 6p. 1 je CJlHHHa BeJIHKOM 

BeniTaHKOM pojy. ,H,aH 14: KoniHHixa 6p. 2 ce Tpe- 
THpa Ha Ha^HH cjinnaH mctojih caje^HHM nnejiH- 

H>HM JJpyUITBOM y CJIHHH 1. TpyTOBCKH OKBHp 3a 

XBaTan^e Bapoe npnnpeMJbeH paHHJe ce CTaBJba y 
BeniTa^KH poj KoniHHne 6p. 2 Jia XBaTa Bapoe. 
HoBa MaTHua ce h3bohh y o6e3MaTH , ieHOM Jjejiy 
KouiHHue 6p. 2. ,U,aH 35: TpyroBCKH okbhp 3a 
XBaTan>e Bapoe ca TpyroBCKHM JiapBaMa (DTC) 
ce npeHOCH y cajra 6e3 Jierjia (npBo6HTHo) 
o6e3MaTHHeHy KOHmnuy 6p. 2. OBaj TpyTOBCKH 
okbhp je npnnpeMJbeH craBJbaibeM npa3Hor 
TpyTOBCKor OKBHpa y KouiHHny 6p. 1 a He y 
BeuiTa^iKH poj, He;xejby jjaHa paHHJe. ITocjie OBor 
TpyTOBCKor OKBHpa ca JiapBaMa /jojia3H TaKaB 

HCTH TpyTOBCKH OKBHp. 

IlHejiHH>ejj;pyuiTBo6p. 1 

TpyTOBCKH okbhp je CTaBJbeH y cpejjHHy Jierjia 
KouiHHue 6p. 1. Kajja ce y TpyTOBCKOM OKBnpy 
Ben Hajia3e JiapBe, oGhhho nocjie jejiHe cejiMHue, 
H3 KouiHHue 6poj 1 ce yicioHH cbo jierno h 
npenece y KoniHHuy 6poj 2. Jcuhho y kouihhhh 
6p. 1 ocTaje paHHJe nojiar TpyTOBCKH okbhp /xa 
npHByne Bapoe Koje ce Hajia3e Ha nnenaMa. y 
CTBapHOCTH, KouiHHua 6p. 1 je cajxa ciiHHHa 

BeJIHKOM BeiHTaHKOM pojy. OBaj TpyTOBCKH 

okbhp ca JierjioM yiciaiba ce H3 KouiHHHe nocjie 
noioianaiba. nnejinibe jjpyinTBO npoH3Bemne 
hobh okbhp ca TpyTOBCKHM JierjioM 3a nnejinibe 
jjpyiiiTBO 6p. 2, HaKOH uito je nojjejioM HacTao 
o6e3MaTHHeHH jjeo kojh je Ha Kpajy 6e3 Jierjia. 

nnejiHibe apyuiTBO 6p. 2 

TTiejiHibe apyniTBO 6p. 2je jjo6hjio Jip/jaTHy 
KOJiHMHHy Jierjia ojj, n*iejiHiber JjpyniTBa 6p. 1. Ca 
obhm nnejraibHM jjpyniTBOM ce cajxa nocryna Kao 
h y cjiy^ajy ca mctojjom cy36HJaH>a Bapoe yje/jHOM 
npyuiTBy, KOJHJe paHHJe onncaH. ,H,Ba TpyTOBCKa 
OKBHpa ca JiapBaMa Koja cy npBo6HTHO ko- 
pnmneHa 3a XBaTan>e y npBo6HTHO o6e3- 
MaTH^ieHOM RQiiy nHejiHH>er /ipyuiTBa 6p. 2 cajia 
npoH3BOJjn n^ejiHfte apyuiTBO 6p . 1 a He 
BeniTaHKH poj. Ha OBaj HaHHH mcto/i nocTaje 
BHine noy3JjaH. 

Ec|)MKaciioc t cyiOwjaiba Bapoe Kopiiuiheibeivi 
TpyTOBCKor Jierjia 

TpyroBCKO cahe (okbhph) ca TpyTOBCKHM Jiap- 
BaMa je e(})HKacHa 6HOJiouiKa ajiTepHaTHBa Tpe- 
THpan>HMa aKapnuHjiHMa Kajja ce pajin o cy36n- 
jan>y Bapoe. Ha 6a3H nocMaTpaH>a noHauiaH>a y 
nponecy 3apaacaBaH>a, ycneniHO cy36HJaH>e Bapoe 
MOiKe ce npe^BHJjeTH aKO ce y nnejinibeM 
HpyuiTBy noKJiana oko 500 TpyroBCKHX nejinja Ha 
kg/nnejia y ojjcycTBy pa^HJiH^Kor Jierjia (Boot h 
capafl., 1994 6). E(J)HKacHocT TecTHpaHHx BapH- 
jaHTH (CjiHKe 1, 2 h 3) je Bena or 90% (Cahs h 
capajj,., 1996. h Schmidt- Bayleg h capaa, 1996) h 
36orTora ynopcmiBa caycnemHHM TpeTHpan^HMa 
aKapHitHJjHMa. yonuiTe y3eBuiH, KopHuiheH>e 



168 



n^ejiap 1998 



TpyTOBCKHX OKBHpa ca JierjioM 3a ejiHMHHHcatte 
Bapoe 3axTeBa BHine pa/ia Hero ica^a cy y nHTaH>y 
aKapHUH^H. IloBe3aHOCT (HHTerpainija) MeToaa 
TpyTOBCKor jierjia ca cnpeHaBaibeM pc-jetta y 
BejiHKOj Mepn OTKJiaH>a OBaj HeaocTaTaK. Y 
CTBapH, jiojiaTaa yTpoinaK panHor BpeMeHa ca- 
CTOJH ce y MaHHnyjiHcaH>y OKBHpa ca tpvtobckhm 
JierjioM ajiH Taj He^ocTaTaK ce y HaJBerioj MepH 
Ha^oKHa^yje aoGiijaiBeM irqejiHH>HX npoH3Boaa 
cjio6ohhhx oji pe3nnya aKapHinw. 

JIMTEPATYPA 



1. ALLEN, M. D. (1965) - The Effect of a Plentiful 
Supply of Drone Combs on Colonies of Honeybees. 
Journal of Apicultural Research, 4: 109-119. 

2. BOOT, W. J.; J. N. M. CALIS; J. BEETSMA 

(1992) -Differential Periods of Varroa Mite Invasion 
into Worker and Drone Cells of Honeybees. Experimen- 
tal and Applied Acarology, 16: 295-301 

3. BOOT, W. J.; J. N. M. CALIS; J. BEETSMA 

(1993) - Invasion of Varroa jacobsoni into Honeybee 
Brood Cells: A Matter of Chance or Choise? Journal 
of Apicultural Research, 32: 167-174 

4. BOOT, W. J.; J. BEETSMA; J. N. M. CALIS 
(1994a) - Behaviour of Varroa Mites Invading Honeybee 
Brood Cells, Experimental and Applied Acarology, 18: 
371-379 

5. BOOT, W. J.; D. /. A. SISSELAAR; J. N. M. 
CALIS; J. BEETSMA (1994b) - Factors Affecting Inva- 
sion of Varroa Mites into Honeybee Brood Cells. Bul- 
letin of Entomological Research, 84: 3-10 

6. BOOT, W. J., J. SCHOENMAKER; J. N. M. 
CALIS; J. BEETSMA (1995) - Invasion of Varroa 
Mites into Drone Brood Cells of the Honeybee, Api- 
dologie, 26; 109-118 

7. CALIS, J. N. M; W. J. BOOT; J. BEETSMA, J. 
H. P. M. VAN DEN EIJNDE; A. DE RUIJTER 
(1993) - Control of the Varroa Mite by Treatment of 
Sealed Honeybee with Formic Acid. Proc. Expez. and 

Appl. Entomoi, N. E. V. Amsterdam, 4: 217-222 

8. CALIS, J. N. M.; W. J. BOOT; J. BEETSMA; 
J. H. P. M. VAN DEN EIJNDE; A. DE RUIJER; J. 
J. M. VAN DER STEEN (1996) - Trapping Varroa 

jacobsoni Drone Brood Combs of Apis mellifera in 
Broodless Colonies. Apidologie, 27(4): 295 

9. CALIS, J. N. M.; W. J.; BOOT; J. BEETSMA; 

J. H. P. M. VAN DEN EIJNDE; A. DE RUIJTER; 

J. J. M. VAN DER STEEN (in prep). - Trapping 
Varroa Mites in Honeybee Worker Brood: Putting 
Knowledge on Brood Cell Invasion into Practice 

10. CALIS, J. N. M.; W. J. BOOT; J. BEETSMA; 
J. H. P. M. VAN DEN EIJNDE; A DE RUIJTER; J. 
J. M. VAN DER STEEN (in prep). - Trapping Varroa 
Mites in Honeybee Drone Brood: Putting Knowledge 
on Brood Cell Invasion into Practice 

11. DUNG, N. V; N. Q. TAN; L. V. HUAN (in 
press) - Biotechnical Mite Control Methods Applied in 
Apis mellifera Beekeeping in Vietnam. Bee World 

12. ENGELS, W.; P. ROSENKRANZ; F. HERLT; 
G. STAEMMLES. - Biologische Varroa-Kontrolle durch 
Drohnenbrutentnahme. Apidologie, 15: 246-248 

13. ENGELS, W. (1994) -Varroa Control by Hyper- 
thermia. In: Matheson, A. (ed) New Perspectives on Var- 
roa. IBRA; Cardiff, UK: pp 115-119 



14. FRIES, I. (1991) -Treatment of Sealed Honey- 
bee Brood with Formic Acid for the Control of Varroa 

jacobsoni. American Bee Journal, 131: 313-314 

15. FRIES, I.; H. HANSEN (1993) - Biotechnical 
Control of Vanoa Mites in Cold Climates. American Bee 
Journal, 133: 435-438 

16. FUCHS, S. (1990) -Preference for Drone Brood 
Cells by Varroa jacobsoni Oud, in Colonies of Apis 
mellifera camica. Apidologie, 16 (4): 343-368 

17. IFANTIDIS, M. D. (1988) -Some Aspects of the 
Process of Varroa jacobsoni Mite Entrance into Honey- 
bee (Apis mellifera) Brood Cells, Apidologie 19(4): 387- 
396 

18. JENTER, K. (1986) - Mit gezielter biologischer 
Fruhjars-Sommer-Behandlung gegen die Varroa. Allge- 
meine Deutsche Itnkcrzeitung, 20: 111-114 

19. MAUL, V.; A. KLEPSCH; U. ASS- 
MANNWERTHMULLER (1988) - Das Banmvabenver- 
fahren als Element Imkerlicher Betriebweise bei 
Starkem Befall mit Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Apidologie, 
19(2): 139-154 

20. RITTER, W.; F. PERSCHIL; A. SCHWARZ 
(1987) - Schwarmverhinderung mit Hilfe des Bannwa- 
benverfarens. Allgemeine Deutsche Imkerzeitung, 6: 184- 

185 

21. ROSENKRANZ, P. (1987) -Thermobehandlung 
verdeckelter Arbeiterinnenbrutwaben als Moglichkeit der 
Varroatose-Kontrolle. Apidologie, 18: 385-388 

22. SCHULZ, A.; N. KOENIGER; F. RUTTNER 
(1983) - Drohnenbrut als Varroafalle, Allgemeine Deut- 
sche Imkerzeitung, 17: 52-54 

23. SCHULZ, A. E. (1984) -Reproduktion und 
Populationsenhvicklung der parasitschen Milbe Varroa 

jacobsoni Oud. in Abhangigkeit vom Brutzyklus ihres 
Wirtes Apis mellifera L. Apidologie, 15: 401-420 

24. SCHMIDT-BAILEY, J.; S. FUCHS; R. BUC- 
HLER (1996) - Effectiveness of Drone Brood Trapping 
Combs in Broodless Honeybee Colonies. Apidologie, 
27(4): 294 

25. SULIMANOVIC, D.; F. RUTTNER; H. PECH- 
HACKER (1982) - Studies on the Biology of Repro- 
duction in Varroa jacobsoni (in Japanese). Honeybee Sci- 
ence, 3: 109-112 

Adpece aymopa: 

J. N. M. CALIS, 
J. BEETSMA, 
W. J. BOOT 

Department of Entomology, 
Wagenlgen Agricultural University 
THE NETHERLANDS 
J. SCHMIDT-BAILEY, 
S. FUCHS 

Institut fur Bienenkunde-Polytechnische 
Geselbchaft 

J. W. Goethe Universltat, Oberursel 
GERMANY 

J H P. M. VAN DEN EIJNDE, 
A. DE RUIJTER, 
J J M. VAN DER STEEN 
Research Centre for Insect Pollination and 
Beekeeping "Ambmsiushoeve " 
Hilvarenbeek 
THE NETHERLANDS 

npeeena ca emjieacoz 
npcxp. ffpazocnaea EpKoeuh 



169 



riHejiap 1998 



n4EJ!MtbM nP0M3B0^M 



Meg (VII) - npupo^HH KOH3epeaHC 



Ceemo3ap BejhKoeuh, Hympuu,uoHucma 



KopnnineH>e nneinnber Mena 3a K0H3epBHpaH>e 
HaMHpHHua 6HJioje no3HaTO mhothm Hapo/iHMajoni 
ojx HajcTapHJHX BpeMeHa. CoBjeTCKH axa/ieMHK H. 
JojpHiu y cbojhm panoBHMa or 1954. roanHe nnme aa 
cy ,npeBHH Hapozm (ErnrihaHH, Acnpnn, FlepcH- 
jaHnn, PHMJbaHH) KopiicrajiH Me/i 3a 6ajicaMOBaH>e 
Tejia yMpjiHX. Taxo je, Ha npnMep, y je/moj teh- 
paMimn koji Tb3Q y Emmy HarjeH flenJH Jiein 
ca^yBaH y cyny ca mqjxom. OnniTe je no3HaTO m je 
Tejio AjieKcannpa MaKenoHCKor, kojh je yMpo y 
A3HJH, npeHeceHO y Maice/ioHHJy y cam^Tcy ca 
mejiHHjHM mchom. Hera Ha^HH OHyBaH>a Tejia 
mptbhx or TpyjieH>a KopHinheH je h npn caxpaibH- 
Ban>y cnapTaHCKHX KpaiteBa Are3Hnojinca, Arecn- 
jiaja n JycTHHHJaHa. 

y to BpeMe nocTojana je h npaxca jxa ce ceMe 
iuieMeHHTHX 6hjlhhx Kyjnypa, Kao h CBeace 
HaMHpHHue nyBajy y Meny. CojinueB, y cbojoj #ok- 
TopcKoj jnicepranHjH, nnine jxa cy 3a CBenaHocra 
Phmckhx naTpnnnja, CBe^ce Meco unBiba^H h Bone H3 
aajieKHX npoBHHnnja /jocTaBJbeHH TaKO iiito cy 
TpaHcnopTOBaHH y nocyuaMa ca mchom. 

Cbojctbo Mejiajia KOH3epBHpa CBexce Meco, Bone, 
noBphe h apyre Jiaxo KBapibHBe HaMHpHHue ko- 
pncra ce h ,n;aH Ranac y hckhm aejioBHMa CBeTa. Taxo 
Ha npHMep, nocToje ruieMeHa y IJejjioHy h A<j)pnnH, 
Koja BHiuaK Meca ^HBJbaHH HaKOH 6oraTor JioBa, 
Maacy mchom, a 3aTHM ra CTaBJtajy y inynjbHHy 
apBeTa Ha bhchhh ojx je/mor MeTpa, nocne Hera 
otbop Ha apBeTy 3aTBapajy tjihhom. KacHnje, npeMa 
noTpe6n OTBapajy OBaKBa "cicioHHUiTa" h y3HMajy 
Meeo, Koje HMa norayHO onyBaHy CBe^aiHy, 6ojy, 

MHpHC H XpaHJLHBy Bpe/IHOCT. 

IlpBe HayHHe /ioKa3e o KOH3epBnpajyneM cbo- 
jcTBy MQjxa Rao je no3HaTH no3HaBarcan, nnejiapcTBa 
h nHejiHH>HX npoH3Bo^a SyrapcKH Jiexap jip Cto- 
jhmhp Mjia^eHOB. 3a CBqje ome^e Kopncraoje 6a- 

rpeMOB, JIHnOB, IIiyMCKH H JIHBa^CKH M&JX H3 pa3HHX 

KpajeBa EyrapcKe, CTapocni ro 3 ro^HHe. Kao "06- 
jeKTe" 3a TecrapaH>e kophctho je mhuihtiho tkhbo, 
6y5per h jeTpy atHBoratta 3a KJiaite, 3aTHM pe^He 
pnoe, KOKomjajaja, xa6e h BO/ieHe 3MHJe. Orjiea ce 
cacTojao y TOMe iuto cy y neTpnjeBe iuojbe ca MeaoM 
CTaBJbaHH KOMa/iH noMeHymx opram 2CHB0THH>a 3a 
KJiaite (mhiuhRho tkhbo, 6yoper, jeTpa), 3aTHM 
KOMa/iH pe^HHX pn6a, uejie iKHBoraite (aca6e h 
Bo^eHe 3MHJe) h KOKomnje jaje. Ynopejio ca orjiefl- 
hom cepHJOM yparjaHa je KOHTpojiHa cepnja Ha hcth 
HaHHH Kao h OTJiQjxna, ca pa3JiHKOM uito je yMecTO 
mejiHH.er Me,na Kopninnen BenrraHKH mqr no pe- 
nemypn coBJeTCKor aKaneMHKa H. Jojpnina (40% 
rjryK03e h 30% (})pyKT03e y (J)H3HOJioniKOM 
pacTBopy). JIo6po 3aTBopeHe neTpnjeBe mojte 
nyBaHe cy y o6hhhhm coShhm ycjioBHMa. 

ITocjie HCTeKa o,apet)eHor poKa (1, 2, 3, 4 h 5 
ro^HHa) H3BpmeHa je MaKpocKoncKa npoueHa cno- 
jLH>er H3rjieaa, saraM 6oje, MHpnca, KOH3HCTeHHHJe 
h apyro, Kao h 6aKTepHOJiouiKO HcnHTHBaH>e y 
CMHciy XHrajeHCKe HcnpaBHOcra orjie^HHX "oo- 
jeKaTa". Pe3yjiTaTH cy noKa3ajiH m cy TpeTHpaHH 
y30pHH, noToiubeHH y TOKy 4 ro/iHHe y rRejiHH>eM 
Meiy, canyBajiH CBOjy CBe^oiHy. TaKO je 6y6per h 
nocjie 4 ro^HHe canyBao HopMariHy KOH3HCTeHUHJy. 



EaKTepHOJiouiKa 3acejaBan>a xpaHJBHBHX noiuiora 
HHcy noKa3ajia HHKaKaB nopacT Spoja MHKpoop- 
raHH3aMa. MerjyniM, KOHTpojiHe npo6e ca 
BeuiTaHKHM Me^oM Beh aeceTaK jxana nocjie 
nocTaajtaHja orjie^a noKa3ajie cy 3HaKe pacnajaH>a 
y3opaKa 36or nera cy orjie/iH Shjih npeKHHyra. 

JeTpa, noTonibeHa y rraejiHH>eM Me,ny, TaKorje je 
HMana HopMaiiHy K0H3HCTeHHHJy, CTpyKrypy npe- 
ceKa, 6ojy h mhphc, 6e3 3HaKOBa pacna^aHja. EaKTe- 
Phojioihko HcnHTHBaH>e flajio je HeraTHBHe pe3yji- 
TaTe. MerjyrHM, KOHTpojiHe npo6e ca BeuiTaHKHM 
Me^oM Beh neTor jiana cy noKa3ajie 3HaKe 
pacna/iaH>a, 36or nera cy orjie^H 6hjih npeKHHyra. 

y3opn,H peHHHX pn6a, noToniteHH y mejiHH>eM 
Me/iy nocjie neTHpn rojnme HMaiiH cy cacBHM CBexy 
h canyBaHy KOH3HCTeHHHJy, KapaKrepHCTHHHy 
BJiaKHacTy CTpyKrypy npn npeceKy Mnuinha, 6e3 
HenpHJaTHor MHpnca h 3HaKOBa pacna^aH>a. EaKTe- 
pHOJioniKa HcnHraBaH>a HHcy OTKpHJia nopacT 6poja 
MHKpoopraHH3aMa. HacynpoT TOMe, kohtpojihh 
y30pnn, nyBaHH y BeuiTanKOM Me^y, Beh neTBpTor 
naHa noKa3ajiH cyjacHe 3HaKe pacnaaaH>a, 36or nera 
cy orjieflH npeKHHyra. 

06nHHe pe^He ^ca6e, Koje cy neTHpn ro^HHe 
ocTane y Me,ny, onyBajie cy cboj cbcxh Hsrjiea, h aKO 
cy Sure KOH3epBncaHe 3aje,iiHO ca yHyrpaiHH>HM op- 
raHHMa, a Jierja cy hm ocTajia H3Han noBpuiHHe Me/ia. 
Pe3yjiTaT 6aKTepHOJioniKor ncnHTHBaH>a je h koji 
h>hx 6ho HeraTHBaH. 

Bo/ieHe 3MHJe nocjie HeTBoporo,nHuiH.er noTa- 
naita y nnejiHH>eM Me^y, TaKorje ca HenoKpnBeHHM 
jierjHMa, canyBajie cy norayHO cboj MaKpocKoncKH 

H3TJie/I 6e3 HKaKBHX npOMeHa y KOH3HCTeHUHJH, 6ojh 

hth MHpncy. 

KoKouija jaja, nyBaHa y nnejiHiteM Me/iy y TOKy 
qerapn ro/iHHe, TaKorje cy ce onyBajia CBexa. ITpn 
nperjieay Ha JiaMmi HMana cy HopMajiHy npo3paHHO- 
-acyry HHJaHcy h Ba3/iyinHy KOMopy. yHyTpauntocT 
HMJe 6HJia cacBHM CBe^ca, HopMajme 6oje h MHpnca, 
ca jacHO o^perjeHOM rpaHnuoM H3Mer)y 6ejiaHna n 
xyMaHua. 3acejaBan>c xpaHJBHBHX no/yiora y unity 
OTKpHBan.a MHKpoopraHHsaMa aana cy HeraraBHe 
pe3yjiTaTe. 

Pe3yjrrara noMeHyrax ncTpaxHBan>a noKa3yjy 
aa nnejiHHjH mqjx noce/iyje KOH3epBnpajyna CBOjcTBa, 
Kam cy y nnraH>y opraHCKe cyncTaHue 6nibHor h 
xhbothhjCkot nopeKJia. 

Mhoth ayropn cy noKymajin %a obo cbojctbo 
npnpo/iHor Meaa oSjacHe bcjikkhm ca/ipacajeM 
menepa. Orjie/in ca BeuiTa^KHM Me/ioM hcto TaKO 
6oraTHM iuehepoM Kao n npHpo/iHH Mea noKa3ajin 
cy jxa ce CHaacHO KOH3epBnpajyne aejcTBO npnpo/i- 
Hor Me^a He Mo^ce oSjacHnra je/iHHO npncycTBOM 
BejiHKe KOJiHHHHe menepa. Hcto TaKO, npn orjie- 
jraMa ca nHejiHH>HM Me/ioM kojh je npeTxouHO 6no 
3arpejaH jxo TaHKe KJbyHaH>a, 3anaxeHO je H>eroBO 
6p30 KHceibeH>e n pacna/iaH>c npo/iyKaTa xhbothh>- 
ckot nopeicia, kojh cy 6hjih noTnjbeHH y H>eMy, iuto 
H0Ka3yje jia ce KOH3epBHpajyhe ^ejcTBO Me#a He 
Moace oSjacHnra hh npncycTBOM KHcejiHHa y H>eMy. 
Hjomje^aH/ioKas %a ce KncejiHHaMa Mejxa He Moace 
oojacHnra H>eroBO K0H3epnBpajyhe /jejcTBO je n to 
Jia Kana ce KHcejiHHe y npnpo^HOM Me^y Hey- 



178 



Xlnejiap 1998 



TpajiHiny cqziom 6HKap6oHOM, oh He ry6H CBOje 
KOH3epBHpajyne /lejcTBO, uito 3Ha^H aa KOHsepBH- 
pajyne jjejcrBO Mejia He nora^e on KHcejiHHa, Kao 
uito He noTHue hh caMo or BejiHKor canpacaja 
meftepa. 

Pe3yjiTaTH HCTpaacHBaita 6yrapcKor Jiexapa jip 
CTOJHMHpa Mjia^eHOBa cy noKa3ajia jxa K0H3epBH- 
pajyne aejcTBO Meaa HaJBepoBaxHHJe noTHue or <j)H- 
TOHUH/ia, tj. 6HJbHHX aHTH6HOTHKa kojh ce ca#p;Ke y 
Me/iy.To HCToje yrBp^Ho h Tokhhjoiu 1954. ro^HHe. 
ripoyHaBajyftH CBecTpaHO aejcTBO ({)HTOHHHaa 
6HJtaKa, yTBp^HO je %a nope/i H>nxoBor aHTHMHK- 
poSHor flejcTBa, 6hji>hh (J^htohuh^h HMajy h 
KOH3epBHpajyna CBOjcTBa. Tokhh je ray^HO 
o6pa3JioxHO KopninneH>e (J)HTOHUH5a bhiiihx 
6HJbaKa 3a K0H3epBHpaH>e HaMHpHHua h oojaBHO 
pe3yjiTaTe cbojhx HCTpa>oiBaH>a y Be3H ca 



KOH3epBHpaH>eM CBexer Meca, pn6e, Bona h cjihhho 
y co6hhm ycjioBHMa noMony d>HT0HUHna 6ejior 
jryKa, peHa, cjiaHHue h flpyror. HcTOBpeMeHO OBaj 
ayrop HaBQUH jxa cy cjihhhc pe3yjiTaTe jio6hjih join 
h PoBiifr - IIIep6o, J. ,H,y6paBa, A. Pora^oBa h A. 
CyxanoBa. 

Cbhm obhm pe3yjiTaTHMa o KOH3epBHpajyneM 
aejcTBy Me^a Tpe6a jkwth h 3aKJtyqaK pp C. 
Mjia^eHOBa, kojh noTirae joui H3 1962. ro^HHe y 
KOMe ce Kaxe: "Hauia npoy^aBaita ca pa3HHM 
BpcraMa SyrapcKor Mena noKa3ajia cy jx& Meji noce- 
jiyjejaKO KOH3epBHpajyne aejcTBO npeMa 6hjlhhm h 

3CHB0THH.CKHM npOH3BQUHMa KOJH Cy nO^IOXHH 

KBapeH>y h jx& ce to H>eroBO aejcTBO Moace oojacHHTH 
cjioxeHHM 6HoxeMHJCKHM cacTaBOM Me^a, a Ha 
npBOM MecTy npncycTBOM aHTH6HOTCKHX cyncraHUH 
- (Jmtohihw kojh ce Hajia3e y H>eMy". 



179 



nqejiap 1998 



UJTA JETO BMOnHEJIAPEhbE 




JlyKcm JIacjio, Eenej 



THHTep OpunMaH (Giinter Friedmann) Ben 40 
rojiHHa y OKBiipHMa ^eMeTepcKor caBe3a nnenapn. 
H>eroB n^ejiHitaK ce Hajia3H y LLhaJHaJM-y (Ste- 
ineim), me nopen npaicnwHor nnenapcTBa apxH h 
npenaBan>a. Cnenenn tckct h noTirqe on H>era. 

ZteMeTepcKH caBe3 je HajcTapHJH ckojioiukh 
caBe3 y HeMa^Koj. 06yxBaTa npoHSBofjane, npepa- 
fjHBane h TproBue , y nojtonpHBpenHoj rpaHH . 
flpeMa TOMe fleMeTepcKH caBe3Je nojbonpHBpe^HO- 

-eKOJIOHIKH caBe3. 

Ukjb ZteMeTepcKor caBe3a je m onyBa npnponHa 
CBOjcTBa 3CMJbHinTa h na onyBa cnocoSHOCT TJia 3a 
npHpomry npoH3BO^H>y. Ohh He KopncTe BeniTa^KO 
rjy6pHBO hhth 3auiTHTHa cpencTBa 3a 6iuLKe, Hero 
KopncTe cneHH(})HHHe SnononiKO-nHHaMHHKe npe- 
napaTe. npHBpefjHBaH>c Ha neMeTcpcKH HaHHH 
npencraBJbajenaH bhcok hhbo y nojbonpHBpenHOM 
ra3flOBan>y. npHCTajiHue neMeTepcicor HaHHHa 
nnenapeita ce6n cy nocTaBHJiH 3a hhjl na ocTaBe 
HHTeH3HBH0 nnenapcite 3a MaKCHMajiHO hcko- 
pHinftaBaH>e nnena, Hero MecTO Tora npHMeityjy 
yMepeHO HCKopHinnaBaH>e nnejia y npnponHHM yc- 
jioBHMa, pa/ui nocTH3aH>a CTa6HJiHor nnenapcTBa Ha 
nyropoHHOM iuiaHy. 

FfaejiapH neMeTepHCTH y TexHonoraJH nne- 
jiapeH>a ocraBJbajy na nnene CBOje ^khbothc (Jwhk- 
UHje o6aBJi>ajy Taxo, Kaxo to ^HHe y npnponn. Hnp. 
no3Bon>aBajy na ohh cahe rpane caMe, na ce 
pa3MHO^caBajy HCKiby i QiBO pojeiteM, wtr. Ho, to He 
3HaHH m H>irxoBe nnejie He JieTe caMO Ha ckojiouikh 
mhcthm TepeHHMa h na caMO hhct HeKTap h npax 
cKynjbajy. Jl eMCTe P M c y cbcchh na ohh He Mory 
ctbophth TaKBa nonpy^ja, Taxo na to h HHJe noeHTa 
y HjHxobom nnejiapeH>y. Hero pann ce o TOMe na y 
cbom pany ca rreejiaMa H36eraBajy MonepHe Te- 
KOBHHe, Kao uito cy: cnpenaBaH>c pojen>a no CBaicy 
neHy, npoH3BO/iH>a MaTHua Ha BeiirraHKH HaHHH, hth,. 
^eMeTepcKH HaHHH nnenapetta CBe BHine HMa npn- 
CTajiHua h ohh y npaKCH noKa3yjy na ce h Ha OBaj 
HaHHH Mory nocTHrm no6pn, na h 6ojbh ycnecn on 
MojjepHor h HHTeH3HBHor HaHHHa nHejiapeH>a. OBaj 
HaHHH Mo^ce na ce npHMeHH He caMO Ha ManHM 
nHejTHH>aHHMa on 5-10npynrraBa, Hero h Ha bcjihkhm 
nHejiHH>auHMa on 3^100 KoniHHna. C o63npoM na ce 
obrq CTBapajy jaica h 3npaBa npyniTBa, obh nnejiH- 
H>auH flajy noTnyHO 3anoBOJbaBa]ynH pe3yjiTaT. 

TexHOJiornja neMeTepcicor HaHHHa nnejiapeita je 
cnenefta: 

- Pa3MHO^caBaH>e nnejia ce Bpura Kaxoje peneHO, 

HCKJbyHHBO npHpOIIHHM nyTeM. Ho, TO He 3HaHH na 

nnejiap ca ckpihtchhm pyicaMa nexa na ce poj o6ecn 



Ha npBO hjih na no6erHe, Hero nnene ce penoBHO 
KOHTpojiHiiry h Kana ce yonn na Hexo npyniTBO 
noKa3yje ckjiohoct Ka pojeH>y, nnenap ony3Me CTapy 
MaTHuy ca h>chhm HaponoM h Taxo HanpaBH poj. 

- MaTHne ce no6HJajy HCKJbyHHBO H3 npnponHHX 
MaTHHH>aKa, 6hjio pojeBHHX 6hjio on THxe 3aMeHe 
MaTHue, jep cy caMO OHe HaJKBajiHTeTHHj'e. CaMO y 
H3y3eTHHM cnyHajeBHMa oncTynajy on obot Hanejia. 
npHCTajiHue obot HaHHHa nnejiapeH>a THMe ihto 
KopncTe caMO npnponHe MaTHHH>aKe, HHcy ce 
onpeiciH h cejieKHHJe MaTHna. HaHMe, 3a pa3- 
MH02caBan>e nnejia (noBenaH>e 6poja npyniTaBa) y3- 
HMajy ce MaTHHH>auH caMO oji H3a6paHHx npyurraBa. 
Taxo na THMe nyBajy omiHHHa eBojerea nnejia 6e3 
MeuiaH>a ca nnejiaMa ca npynrx KOHTHHeHaTa , 
npyrax np^caBa, jipymx paca, Hero nyBajy 
ozioMaheHe h npHJiaror)eHe copTe ca Haj6oibHM oco- 
6HHaMa. 

- Ca caneM ce, Taxorje, pyxyje Ha noce6aH HaHHH. 
npe CBera He craBJbajy HHKaKBy cairry ocHOBy, Hero 
npa3He OKBHpe, a H3rpaiiH>a cana je HCKJbyHHBO 
3a^aTaK nnejia. nnejie he cpejiH>e OKBHpe H3rpa- 
jihth ojiMax CKpo3, a ocTane y 3aBHCHOcra onjaHHHe 
npyniTBa. Obo hhhh KOMnpoMHC H3Mer)y eKOHOMHJe 
h eKOJioraje: Ha Taj HaHHH nnejiap jxo6m& 3HaTHe 
KOJiHHHHe BOCKa oflJiHHHor KBanHTeTa. BeiHTaHKe 
caTHe ocHOBe nojia3e y o63Hp caMO y cjiynajy npoH3- 
BOAH>e Mena y cahy. 

- Menje npHpoiiHa xpaHa nnejia, h He caMO nnejia. 
CTora Meny ce noiciaH>a BejiHKa na>KH>a. C o63HpoM 
na Men ryoH npnponHa CBOjcTBa aKO ce rpeje npeico 
40°C obo hx CTaBJba Ha bcjihko HCKyuien>e . 
MerjyTHM, ohh npHJiHKOM naKOBaH>a Mena Ha 
eTHKeTH Ha3Hanyjy h BpeMe BpuaH>a Mena h Ha Taj 
HaHHH 3aiHTHhyjy CBOJ HMH1J. 

- y 6op6n nponiB Bapoe obhm nnenapHMa ctojh 
Ha pacnonaraH>e MpaBJba hth MneHHa KHcenHHa. 

- Ko xenn na 6yne nnaH OBora caBe3a, npe Tora 
Mopa 3 ronHHe na hhtch3hbho h noTnyHO npn- 
Meityje neMeTepcKy TexHonorajy. HaKOH Tora mo- 
ace TeK nocTaTH nyHonpaBHH mian OBor caBe3a. 
npeMa pe^HMa TnHTepa, npecTpyKTynpaH>a nnenH- 
H>axa Ha OBaKBy TexHonorajy Tpa^cn Tpyn h Mo^cna 
3HanaJHa cpencTBa, ann ce KacHHie CBe to Ha- 
noKHarjyje h ncnnaTH. (nnaHax H3 "Meheszuisae"-a 
6p. 2/97). 

(HanoMeHa: cnnqaH Ha^HH nnenapeH>a npn- 
MeH>yje XyH>anH Bnana H3 neTpoBapanHHa h ja. 
BepoBaTHO HMajom TaKBHX nncnapa, na He 6h 6nno 
nome Kana 6h ce h THJaBHnH, na na ce h mh npy^HMo, 
Kao obh neMeTepnn y h>hxobom caBe3y). 



180 



nnejiap 1998 

MCTOPMJA HAIUEE n4EJ!APCTBA 

llpea KH>nra o nnenapCTey Ha cpncKOM je3MKy 

Muaoiu AnmoHuft, ceeiumemiK, Koi^ejbeea 



roBOpenn o MCTOpMJM Hamer nnejiapCTBa mhotm 
MCTOpMnapM nnejiapCTBa, c npaBOM Ha npBO MecTO 
CTaBJtajy npo(|)ccopa JoBaHa vKnBaHOBMna - ona pa- 
UMOHajiHor nnejiapCTBa y Cp6a. MerjyraM, Bpjio 
peTKO ce noMMite Aaje npBy KHdiry o nnejiapCTBy Ha 
cpncKOM ("cjiaBeHO-cpncKOM") je3MKy HanMcao 

CBeiUTeHMK ABpaM MaKCMMOBMn. 

Oh je 6mo napox y CoM6opy tj\q je Kynno 14 
jyTapa 3eMJi>e, orpaaiio m 3acaAMO BontbaK. Ty je 
MMao m BejiMKM, Jieno yperjeH, nHejiMH>aK Ha KOMe je 
Taj, y CBOJe BpeMe, HaJBenn npaKTMHHM nnejiap 
noynaBao HapOA y nnejiapCTBy. 

Bmo je BeoMa aspobmt m o6pa30BaH. FIopeA 
pycKor, HMTao je Ha HejviamcoM h (J)paHnycKOM je- 
3MKy. npeBeo je acjio je^Hor CTpaHor nnejiapa m Taj 
npeBOA noAHeo Ha oueHy m MMiiubehbe MMTponojiMTy 
CTe4)aHy CrpaTMMMpOBMny, HHane, bcjimkom 
nponaraTOpy nnejiapCTBa. MnTponojiMT My je M3 
CBOJe 6M6jiMOTeKe Aao BMine CTpaHMx nHejiapCKiix 
KTbMra m nocaBeTOBao ra m M3 tmx KH>Mra npeBe^e 
oho iiiTOJe HajSojte 3a npaKTMHHO n4ejiapeH>e. 

TaKO je ABpaM MaKCMMOBMn, napox com6opckm, 
cacTaBMO "HOBH rTCEJTAP" Kojnje iirraMnaH y 
EyAMMy 1810. toamhc no oSnnajy OHora BpeMeHa 
KTbMra je niTaMnaHa noMony "npeHyMepaHaTa" - 
npeTnjiaTHMKa. ABpaM MaKCMMOBMn je 3a CBOJy 
KH>Hiy ycnco Aa OKynM 369 npeTnjiaTHMKa, Merjy 

KOJHMa Cy 6hJ1M: MMTpOnOJIMT CrpaTMMMpOBMn; 

JIocMTej OSpaaoBHn; JoaKHM ByJMh; JTyKMJaH 
MyuiMHKJi; ABpaM Mpa30Bnh m Apyrn. 

"Hobm nHejiap" je nncaH OHAanihbMM, Taico- 

3BaHHM KTfalDKeBHHMJe3MKOM, "CJiaBeHO-Cep6CKMM". 

Kana je cpeAMHOM npoiiuior Bexa npMXBaheHa ByK- 
OBa pe(J>opMa npaBonnca h y khidkcbhoct yBe^eH 
Hapo^HH roBOp, join Ayro BpeMeHa, HMTaonH cy 

pa3yMeJIM M HeKaiaUlH>M KH>M)KeBHM je3HK. 

MefjyniM, noneTKOM OBor Bexa M3yMpjia je m 
nocjieAH>a reHepannja no3HaBajiana "cjiaBeHO-cpn- 



ckot m OBa 3HanajHa Ki-bMTa je 3anocraBJbeHa, na 
4ax m peTKO noMMH>aHa. 

MMao caM cpeny Aa mm ao pyxe Aofje obo Bpjio 
3Ha4aJHO nnejiapCKO AeJio m bcjimko 3aAOBOJBCTBO Aa 
ra npeBe/ieM Ha AaHanihbM roBOpHH je3MK. "Hobm 
nnejiap" je noAejteH Ha ABa ACJia, ACBeTHaecT 
OAeibaKa (rjiaBa) m 150 HacjiOBa, imto hmhm npeKO 
220 CTpaHMua. Ha Kpajy je nopeA KpaTKor onnca 
ona>KaH>a m pa^OBa Ha nHejiMtbaKy no MeceuMMa 
ynncaHO cbmx 369 npeTnjiaTHMKa, on kojmx cy 168 
CBeuiTeHa jiHua a ocTano rpaljaHCKa Jinna. 

no3HaTy M3peKy "MeA Ha ocobmhm poam", HaniM 
nnejiapCKM nncuM m npeAaBann npMnMcyjy npo- 
(|)ecopy JoBaHy ^KnBaHOBMhy, a eBO uiTa nnme 
ABpaM MaKCMMOBMn Aa/ieKO npe porjetba JoBaHa 
yKMBaHOBMha: " Kao uiTOJe BMCOKoyneHM E MyuiKa- 
TMpOBMfl y CBOJMM AOCTa KOpMCHMM nocjiOBnnaMa, 
npeABMAeBuiM kopmct npeHomen>a KOiuHnna cjeA- 
hot MecTa Ha Apyro, obom peieHMnpM nponncao: 
MeA Ha OCOBMHM pOAM (CTp. 92)". 

y obo BpeMe join yBeK bcjimkm 6poj nnejiapa HMJe 
tojimko o6pa30BaH Aa jiaKO pacno3Haje 6ojiecTM 
nnejia, MHTepecaHTHO je noMeHyrn, uiTa ABpaM 
MaKCMMOBMn, npe CKOpo 200 roAMHa, nMme o 
Tpyjie>KM Jierjia: "Y Tpyjioj 6ojiecTM nnejie He caMO 
niTO cy HeBecejie, Maite AOHOce, m ohcbmaho 
ocjia6jbaBajy; ho aKO Ayro Tpaje, mjim c mptbom 
MaTMnoM m OHe noMpy, mjim c MaTMHOM Kao poj M3 
KomHMne no6erHy. Tpyjio Jierjio oa 3ApaBora 
pacno3HaTM mojkcmo; jep noKJionnn nejinja Hncy 
nynnacTM, ho y nejinjy cnyuiTeHM Jie^ce, m Kao Aa cy 

MDIOM M360AeHM . .. (CTp. 100)". 

npeBOA OBe Kj-bMre ce Ha/ia3M y pyKonncy m ja caM 
cnpeMaH n,a ra ycTynMM CaBe3y nnejiapCKMx opTaHM- 
3annja CpSnje, y kojimko nocTOJM MHTepec a& ce 
KH>nra uiTaMna, jep CMaTpaM Aa 6m OBa 3Ha4aJHa 
Kj-bnra Tpe6ajia Aa Kpacn nnejiapCKe SmSjimotckc 
caAauiH>Mx m 6ynyhnx nnejiapa. 



MATMI4E 

Tokom jyHa, jyjna, aBrycia m cenTeMSpa Teicyne roAUHe MMany 3a ncnopyKy M3 CBOJe MacoBHe 
ceneKUMJe oa Be/inKor M36opa Haj6oA)Mx MaTnu,a: 

1. OrmoTjeiHe MaTnu,e no ueHu oa 10 DM yflUHapCKOJ npOTMBBpeflHOCTn 

2. HeormofjeHe MaTnue no u,env\ oa 3 DM y AninapCKOJ npOTMBBpeAHOCTn 

3. 3peTin MaTMHhbaLin, 14AaHa CTapocTM no u,env\ oa 2 DM yAnnapCKOJ npOTMBBpeAHOCTM. 
McnopyKa Ha nneAMi-baKy hah nyTeM noiiJTe, no M36opy Kynira. MaTMHi-bauH ce npey3MMajy amhho 

Ha nHe/im-baKy y KynHHOBy. OAMax koa npMXBaheHe Hapyg6nHe AoroBapaM m rapaHTyjeM AaH 
McnopyKe. BAaroBpeMeHa yn^aia amhho mam noiuTOM o6e36ef^yje BaM m npyxa lumpm M36op 
MoryfiHOCTM TanHe McnopyKe. 

UeHMTe KBaAMTeT, npOLieHaT npMjeivia iviaTMua, BpeMe m TanHOCT Mcnopyice. 

rineAapCKa 4>apivia "BEHEF' l/leaH BeHep 

22419 KynMHOBO 
TeA. 022/88-294 
oa 06-22 naca 



181 



nnejiap 1998 



npo/iefiHO npMxpai-bMBai-be nne/ia 




JJp Munan Tiupoeuh, Kpazyjeeau, 



1. 3HaHaj 3ajiMxa xpaHe m nonyH>aBaH>e 

KpajeM <})e6pyapa w noneTKOM MapTa rmejie 
nocTajy aKTMBHMJe Hero y npeTxo/iHOM - npaBOM 
3mmckom nepMO^y. jjonyme join cy y KJiy6eTy, ajin 
MaTMua CBe BennM TeivinoM nojiaxe jaja, jierjio ce 
noBehaBa , a y Be3M c tmm pacTe noTpomita xpaHe . 
Hanf)e m no hckm TonjinJM naH, ujto nnejie je/nsa 
404eKajy jxa M3arjy Ha npo^ncHM H3JieT, na noHecy 
Majio Bone, a noHeKa jxonece m no Koje 3pHne 
UBeTHor npaxa. ,11,0 npaBor nejionHeBHor 
H3JieTajba n^ejia Tpe6ane jxa npofje join aocTa 
BpeMeHa, a noTJie nocjiy^cnhe mm jeceite 3ajinxe 
xpaHe . 

ri4ejiMH.a ^pyuiTBa 3a3MMJteHa ca Mano xpaHe 
(iviaH>e ojx 6 - 8 kg) Beh cy, Ha >KajiocT, yrnHyjia hjim 
ce 6ope na oncTaHy TyMapajyhn no KoniHMnM (Kan, 
Bpeivie 403bojim) He 6n jim npOHanuie jom Kojy Kan 
Me^a. 

flpyuiTBa 3a3MMJbeHa ca 10 - 12 kg ivie^a MMajy 
y obo BpeMe Henuo Bene 3annxe on npeTxo^HMx, 
TpeHyTHO HMcy y onacHOCTM. ajin pa3B0J mm je npM 




IToeana - np&a npojiehnaxpana (0omo: B. 
YMejbuh) 



MajiMM 3ajinxaivia ycnopeH. flajm he n34p>KaTM no 
npBe name. Kojajejom najieKO? 

CBeTJia 6ynyhHOCT ^exa caivio OHa npyniTBa 
KOJMMajejeceHac ocTaBJbeHO BMine ojx 16 - 18 kg 
Mtj\a w HaJMaH>e 2-3 paMa nepre. H>nx MOxeMO 
caMO CTMMyjiaTMBHO npnxpaH>MBaTn. 

Hay^HO je #OKa3aHO j\a ca MajiMM 3ajinxaMa 
xpaHe y koiuhmhii (ncnon 8 - 10 kg) KpajeM 3MMe n 
noneTKOM npojieha - HeMa MHTeH3MBHor pa3BOJa 
nnejiMH>er npyniTBa. J\a. ce noBehaH>e jeceite 
3ajinxe xpaHe ncnjiaTe y HapenHOj ce30Hn Kp03 
yBehaH npMHOC, y6ejuhRBO noKa3yje cjie^ehM 
onnT. NpyniTBa 3a3HMJbeHa ca 15 kg xpaHe 
caxynnjia cy 14.4 kg Me^a, a npyniTBa KOJMMaje 
ocTaBJbeHO 30 kg noHejia cy 36.2 kg. Pa3JinKa y 
3ajiMxaMa Siuiaje 15 kg, a pa3JiMKa y npnxo^y - 
21.8 kg. flaKJie, npyuiTBa ca BehnM 3ajinxaMa 
ocTBapnjia cy BMmaK, a OHa ca MaiwiM - noHejia 
ryftwTaK. 

npeMa TOMe, nnejiwi-biiM ^pyuiTBMMa 4MJe cy 
3ajinxe xpaHe KpajeM (J>e6pyapa m noneTKOM 
MapTa Majie, TpeSa xpaHy jxonmw. 3a nqejiapa to 
je MynaH noeao. Pe3epBHMx OKBMpa ca MenoM 
HeMaJepna MxiiMa oh 6m iixjoiujeceHacy6amio 
y KoniHMue. ,D,aBa™ cwpyn npeKO xpaHMJiiiue y 
obo BpeMe je HeMoryne - imejie ra, 36or 
xjianHohe, He Mory y3MMaTM. UlehepHO-MenHO 
TecTO (36or Kpaher niicai-ba ycBOJMheMO ko^ Hac 
o/iOMaheH Ha3MB nora^a) imejie cnopo y3MMajy, 
caMO jxa 3anoBOJbe CBOje TeKyhe noTpeSe; y 
hejiiije caha HMiirra He o/yi&acy. JenMHM M3Jia3 je 
#a ce Te^aH Men mjim ryuihM CMpyn (2 : 1), y 
MJiaKOM CTan.y, HanMJy y npa3HO M3rparjeHO cahe, 
a obo ySauw y KomHMuy ca je^He w npyre CTpaHe 
KJiySeTa. npimonaTa xpaHa jaKO y36yrjyje n^ejie, 
koa h>hx ce CTBapa MJiy3MJa o no^eTKy name, 
M3Jiehy M3 KOiiiHwue, oxjiane ce n yraH>aBajy. 
OTBapaH>eM KomHnne pacxjia^yje ce imejnii-be 
rHe3^o n peMeTM MMp imejia. J\o obmx iutcthmx 
nojaBa He 6m nouino jxa cyjeceH>e 3ajinxe xpaHe 
6MJie o6e36erjeHe. 



2. llora^a - npBa npojiehHa xpaHa 

YrpoxeHMM n4ejiMH>MM npymTBMMa MO>Ke ce 
noMohM nonaBaH.eM norane. OHa y CBaKOM Tpe- 
HyrKy Tpe6a na 6yjxe nocTynHa niejiaMa. lloraqa 
ce MO>Ke naTM m ohmm npyuiTBMMa iMJe cy 3ajiMxe 
xpaHe cojimahc y o6a cjiynaja norana ctmm- 



87 



riHejiap 1998 



yjinme pa3B0j Jierjia h y tom CMHCJiy Moxe ce 
naBara CBe no noneTKa H3naniHHJe name. 

rioacejbHoje jja nnejiap caM HanpaBH nora^e. 
TaKBe norane cy CHiypHO jec^THHHJe on 
KynjbeHHX, a Mory 6hth h 3HaTHO KBajiHTeTHnje. 

Illenep je ochobhh cacTojaK 3a npaBJbeite 
nora^e. Tpe6a na 6yne (J)hho caMJieBeH, ca 
3pHiiHMa He BehHM on 0,2 mm Taico na ce 
TpibaiteM H3Merjy jraa npcTa 3pHna He ocefrajy. 
KpynHHJa 3pHna nnejie ne H36auHBaTH H3 
KouiHHiie, jep He Mory jja hx pacTBope. 

Kao Be3HBHa MaTepnja cjiyaoi men (y tchhom 
CTan>y) hjih, axo Mena HeMa. HHBepTOBaH cnpyn. 

Ilopen noMenyTHX ochobhhx MaTepHJa 
(inenepa y npaxy h Mena), norann ce Mory ro- 
naBara o6e3MamheHO cojhho Spanmo , HHaK- 
THBHpaH KBacau, o6paHO CBeace KpaBJhe MJiexo 
hjih MJieKO y npaxy (cBe Kao 3aMeHa 3a nepry tj. 
3a 6ejiaHHeBHHe). Jom ce nonajy cnpfreTHa 
KHcejiHHa, BHTaMHHH, MHHepajiH, a no noTpe6n h 

JieKOBH. 

KoM6HHanHJOM noMeHyrnx cacTojaKa no6n- 
jaMO o6HHHy norany, o6orafteHy norany hjih JieK- 
OBHTy norany. 

KBacau ce HHaKTHBHpa KpaTKOTpaJHHM Ky- 
BaH>eM ca Majio Bone hjih MJiexa Taxo na ce y6njy 
KBacHe rjbHBHne. npenopyqyje ce KOJimniHa oko 
5%. Ilopen SejiaHHeBHHa, oh HMa h BHTaMHHa B. 

Kan je pen o MJieicy Kao nonaTKy nnejiHH>oj 
xpaHH, Tpe6a HMaTH y BHJjy /ja oho cajjp^cn 
MJieHHH menep (jiaKT03y) kojh je OTpoBaH 3a 
irqejie. Ifejiena na cy kojih^hhc OBe mTeTHe Ma- 
Tepnje y o6paHOM MJieicy Majie, na ce, 36or 
canp^caja nocTa SejiameBHHa, ynoTpe6a MJieKa 
npenopynyje. IToraHe HanpaBJbeHe ca nonaTKOM 
MJiexa 6p30 ce crBpnttaBajy, na HXTpeSa npaBHTH 
HenocpenHO npen npnxpaH>HBaH>e nnejia. 

KacHHJe (Kan Syne penn o cnpyny) 6nfre 
HaBeneHe HeKe cnenH^HHHOCTH KBacua h MJieKa 
y miejiHH>oj xpaHH. 

CHpneraa KHcejiHHa ce nonaje H3 nBa pa3Jiora: 
1) Ra norana noSnje HaKHceo yicyc, jep Tana 
noncena Ha Men na je nnejie Sojte y3HMajy; 2) 
pann noTnoMaraita HHBepTOBan>a cjio^ceHHX 
menepa. ripo<{). TapanoB ("TT^ejioBoncTBo" 8, 
1978) npenopynyje nonaBaite cnpyny 4 ml koh- 
ueHTpoBaHe cnpneTHe KHcejiHHe (70%) Ha 10 kg 
menepa. 11ph6jih3cho ce OBa KOJiHHHHa KHcejiHHe 
Moxe ynoTpe6HTH h npn cnpaBJhaity norane. 
YMecTO cnpneTHe KHcejiHHe hckh nnejiapn no- 
najy noramj cok ojj jiHMyHa, jep oh caupxai uocra 

BHTaMHHa C. 

KopncTaH BHTaMHHCKH nonaTaKJe 6eBHnneKC 
(KOMnjieKC BHTaMHHa B). Kynyje ce y anoTenn. 



3. PeucnType 3a ciipaBJbaibe noraqa h 
miisepTOBaiior oipyiia 

riocTOJH BejiHKH 6poj pa3HHX penenrypa 3a 
cnpaBJban>e norana. CBe OHe npenBnljajy npn- 
Meny Ben Ha6pojaHHX MaTepnja, pa3JiHKe cy caMO 
y KOJiH^HHaMa h nonanHMa. 3a Hanie n^ejiape 
6nfte HHTepecaHTHO Ra 3Hajy hckojihko penen- 
Typa HayHHO npoBepeHHX y pycKOM HHCTHTyry 3a 
nnejiapcTBO, a Koje ce Mory HanpaBHTH jen- 
HOCTaBHO h on MaTepnjajia kojh cy hm jjocrynHH. 

1 . OraHaapnHa norana ca MeaoM. IlpaBH ce or: 

- inenepa y npaxy 73.8%, 
-Mena 26.0%, 

- Bone 3a mine 0,18%, 

- cnpneTHe KHcejiHHe (KOHneHTpoBaHe) 0,02%. 

2. CTannap r HHa norana ca miBCp TOBamiM cnpy- 

noM canpxn: 

- menep y npaxy 70%, 

- HHBepTOBaHH cnpyn 29.8%, 

- Bony 3a nnhe 0,1 %, 

- CHpneray KHcejiHHy (KOHueHTpoBaHy) 0.03%. 

3. HHBepTOBaHH cnpyn. CnpaBJba ce ojj, 
cjienennx cacTojaKa: 

- menepa (no Macn) 74%, 

- Mejja 7,5%, 
-Bone 18.5%, 

- cnpneTHe KHcejiHHe 0,03%. 

(3 ml Ha 10 kg menepa). 

ripouec HHBepTOBaH.a Tpaje 7-8 nam na TeM- 
nepaTypn 34 -36°C, y3 noBpeMeHO Meman>e. 
OBaKO mTepTOBaH cnpyn He canp^KH xhjjpok- 
CHMeTHJi(})yp(l)ypoji -MaTepnjy OTpoBHy 3a nnejie. 
Cnpyn ce ynoTpe6jbaBa 3a cnpaBJbaH>e nora^e 
6p. 2. yMecTO Mejja, a Moace ce kophcthth h 3a 
nnpeKTHy npnxpairy n^ejia. 

HHBepTOBaH.e je y CTBapn pa3JiaraH>e 
cjioaceHHX menepa Ha npocTe. CjioaceHH menepn 
TeniKO ce ycBajajy y opraHHMa 3a BapeH^e niejia, 
a npocTH ce ycBajajy ojjjihhho. IHehepy KpncTany 
(hjih npaxy) je cjioxchh mehep (caxapo3a), a 
HHBepTOBaiteM oh ce pa3Jiaace Ha npocre 
mehepe: rpoacrjaHH (rjiyKosy) h bohhh ((J)pyK- 
T03y). HHBepTOBaH>e ce Bpinn noMony(J)epMeHTa 
HHBepTa3e kojh HSJiyqyjy ampejiHe (<tap- 
HHreajiHe) aoie3ne nnejia pa/THJinua (HaJHHTe3- 
HBHHJe y y3pacTy ojj 18 naHa kojj; jaKHX jjpymTaBa 
h 25 - 30 jjaHa kojj, cjia6nx). Obot (J)epMeHTa HMa 
y Me/jy h 36or Tora je Mejj HaJBaaamJH cacTojaK 
HHBepTOBaHor cnpyna. 

ripHpona je yjjecHJia na onraMajma TeMnepa- 
Typa HHBepTOBaH>a Syne 6jmcKa TeMnepaTypn y 



nqejiap 1998 



iraejiHH>eM Jierjiy. YnpaBO 36or Tora nuene hobo- 
jloHeceHH Heierap H3 npnpone hjih HenHBep- 
TOBaHH (o6HHaH) cnpyn, kojh canp^Ke caxapo3y. 
npBO onnaacyy 6jih3hhh Jierjia. TeK Kan, ce HHBep- 
TOBaH>e 3aBpniH h HanpaBH Men, Ty xpaHy 
npeHoce y nennje ynan>eHHJe on Jierjia me je TeM- 
nepaTypa HHxa. HHBepTOBaH>e noTnoMaace h 
CHpfteTHa Kncennna. 

4. OGoraheHa norana 

CacTaB OBe noraue HHHe: 

- nieftep y npaxy 4 kg, 
-Men 1 kg, 

- cyBH neicapcKH KBacau (npeTxonHO 
HHaKTHBHpaH y Bonn npn 100°C y 

TOKy 20 mhh.) 0,5 kg, 

- MJieKO y npaxy 0.25 kg, 

- Bona 0,2 1 . 

06oraneHa norana cnpaBJbeHa no penenTypn 
6p. 4 cjiyacnjia je C. MaxMamapnHOBy 3a HayHHy 
npoBepy H>eHe npeimocTH Han npyroM xpaHOM 
Kao uito je: CTaHnapnna nora^a ca MenoM 
(npn6jiK>KHO no penenTypn 6p. 1), eraHnapnHa 
nora^a ca HHBepTOBaHHM cnpynoM (npn6nn:>KHO 
no peuenTypaMa 6p. 2 h 3), mehepHH cnpyn (2:1) 
h Men; ("IiHenoBoncTBo" 11, 1978). IloMeHyTa 
xpaHa naBaHaje n^ejiaivia CBe no maBHe name. 

^Boronninike ncTpaacnBaiBe noKa3ajio je na 
oSoraheHa noraua naje Haj6on>e pe3yjiTaTe on 
cbhx npyrnx HcnnraBaHnx xpaHHBa, nax je 
HanMamnjia n Men. Ebo hckhx KBaHTnTaTHBHnx 
noKa3aTen>a: 

1 ) TonnHe 1977. npyuiTBa npnxpan>HBaHa 
oSoraheHOM norauoM onrajnna cy Bnme nerna 3a 
29,9% on npyuiTaBa xpan>eHnx MenoM. a 23,3% 
Bnme on npyuiTaBa npnxpaitHBaHHX cnpynoM. 

2) 3a o6e ronnHe (1976. n 1977.) o6orafteHa 
norana nana je: Bnme nerna 3a 21.2%, Bnme 
H3rpaf)eHor cafta 3a 29.2%, Beftn npnHoc Mena 3a 
26.3% on cnpyna. 

3) noTponiH.a xpaHe no 1 kg onrajeHnx n^ena 
6nna je Kon npyuiTaBa npnxpaH>HBaHHX 
oSoraneHOM norauoM Man>a 3a 38,9% on 
npyuiTaBa npnxpaitHBaHHx MenoM, n 3a 45% 
Man^a on npyuiTaBa npnxpaH>HBaHnx cnpynoM. 
ITora^a ca HHBepTOBaHHM cnpynoM Manoje y tom 
norneny 3aocTajana 3a oSoraneHOM noraHOM. 

4) JJpyniTBa npnxpaitHBaHa o6orafteHOM 
noranoM 6nna cy npen rnaBHy namy jana 3a 
21,2% on npyuiTaBa npnxpaHniBaHnx MenoM h 3a 

17,6% jaua on npyuiTaBa npHxpan>HBaHHX cnpy- 
noM. 

5) Men Kao xpaHa 6ho je Haj6on>n y cnenefrnM 
noKa3aTen>HMa: nnene cy 6nne HaJKpynHHJe, 
acnpenHe acne3ne h MacHO Teno - Hajpa3BHJeHHJH. 
Cnpyn je y norneny obhx noKa3aTen>a 6no Ha- 
jnoinnJH. 



6) FIpHHoc Mena 6ho je hcth npn ynoTpe6n 
o6oraheHe norane n ynoTpe6n Mena. 

3anaacaM0 na je y obom ncTpaacnBaity 
(BepoBaTHO eranajeM OKonHOCTn) 3a pa3Boj 
nerna h jauHHy npyuiTBa npen rnaBHy namy 
o6nHaH cnpyn 6no noBon>HHJn on Mena. KaKBa 6n 
TeK pa3nnKa 6nna na je ynoTpe6n>eH o6oraneH 
cnpyn? 

AyTop obot TeKCTa, 3a noTpe6e cbot nnenn- 
H>aKa. npBe nponelme noranc npaBH y Bnny 
oGoraheHe noraue, y3 ynoTpe6y: mehepa y npaxy, 
Mena, CBeacer KBacna npoKyBaHor y o6paHOM 
MneKy nnn Bonn, cnpfteTa nnn coKa on nHMyHa n 
6eBnnneKca (BHTaMHHa B) . KaTKan, yMecTO 
KBacna n MneKa, TecTy nonaje cBeace ycnpeHo 
MneKo (rpyny) cnpaBn>eHo noMony Man>e 
Konn^HHe jaKO yKncen>eHor MneKa (no penen- 
Typn Jby6eHa PanoeBa, yMecTO npoBape Koja ce 
npoH3BonH y ByrapcKoj) . Pe3ynTaTH naBan>a 
oBaKBe noraue cy onnnnHH. 

4. norana n cnpyn ca nonaTKOM neKa 

ripn nponehHoj ncxpaHH, nnenniBHM 
npyuiTBHMa ce, no noTpeGn, najy n neKOBH, y 
npBOM peny <t)yMarnnnH npoTHB H03eM03e Koja ce 
y to BpeMe n jaBn>a y H3paateHHJoj <})opMH. 
KonnKO je ayropy no3HaTO, BennHa Hauinx 
nuenapa to hhhh nyreM cnpyna. Y pycKOM Hh- 
CTHTyry 3a nnenapcTBO ("nuenoBoncTBo" 3, 
1979) MeibHHK je yrBpnno na ce y nponefte 
naneKo Sojlh pe3ynTaTH nocTiraty naBaH>eM (j)y- 
MarnnHHa Kpo3 menepHO-MenHO TecTO nnn Kpo3 
mehepHO-Mne^HO TecTO, Hero nyreM cnpyna. Y 
jeceH, 3a neHeite H03eM03e n npeBeHTHBy mhoto 
je e<})HKacHHJe neK naBaTH noMony menepHO- 
-Mne^Hor cnpyna. Pa3nor je onnrnenaH: neK- 
OBHTa xpaHa naTa yjeceH npeKO cnpyna onnaace 
ce y nennje cafta n cnyacn Kao pe3epBa 3a 3HMCKy 
n paHonponeliHy ynoTpe6y, a neKOBHTy norauy 
nnene He onnaacy y cane, Ben nnpeKTHO ynoTpe- 
6n>aBajy 3a ncxpaHy, uito je n noacen>HO y 
nponehe. 

Men>HHK naje h penenType 3a cnpaBn>aH>e 
noMeHyrnx xpaHHBa - Hocana neKa (4)yMarHn- 
HHa). 

1) IIIehepHO-MenHO TecTO. lloMeina ce 40 kg 
meftepa y npaxy ca 20 (juiauiHija (J)yMarnnHHa (10 
g aKTHBHe MaTepnje). ToMe ce nona 10 kg Mena 
3arpejaHor Ha 50°C n 0,5 1 Bone npoKyBaHe na 
oxnarjeHe Ha 37°C. TecTO ce Moace HanpaBHTH 1 - 
3 Henen>e no npnMeHe. ^aje ce Ha caTOHome y 
jenHOKpaTHOj nopnnjn Benn^HHe 100 - 150 g no 
jenHoj ynnn,H. 

2) IIIehepHO-MJieHHO TecTO. Y3Me ce 45 kg 
mehepa y npaxy, 4.5 1 Heo6paHor KpaBJter MneKa 
h 20 <})namHHa c^yMarnnHHa (10 g aKTHBHe Ma- 
Tepnje). CBe to ce no6po H3Mema h naje no 50 - 
75 g no nyHoj ynHirn nuena, nBOKpaTHO y HHTep- 



89 



nqejiap 1998 



Bany 8 -10 jiana. Obo ce TecTO, 36or He^ocTaTKa 
(J)pyKT03e n 36or canp^caja MJieica, 6p30 
CTBp^H>aBa, na ra Tpe6a npaBHTH Ha caM Ran 
ZiaBaH>a n^ejiaivia. 

3) IIIehepHo-Me^HM ciipyn. flpoBpn ce 17 1 
BOJje h flo/ja 30 kg mehepa. Kan ce mehep 
pacTBopn h cnpyn oxjiajim Ha 35 - 40°C. ,nojj,aje ce 
3-6 1 Heo6paHor KpaBJber MJiexa y KOMe je npe- 
txo^ho pacTBOpeHO 1,5-2 (JDJianinne (J)yMarnji- 
HHa. y aBrycTy, npH CTBapaH>y 3hmckhx 3ajiHxa, 
aaje ce 1 - 1,6 1 cnpyna no yjiHHH H^ejia. OBa 
KOJiH^HHa ce He ^aje onje/jHOM, Beh ohojihko 
kojihko n^ejie Mory Jia o/j,Hecy H3 xpaHHJinne 3a 
jenHy Hon. Cjicneha nopnnja jiaje ce cyrpa^aH, 
hcto yBeue. Ako 6h ce OBaxaB cnpyn #aBao y 
npojiehe, Tpe6ajio 6n ra ^ara no 0,5-1 1 CBaKOM 
HpyuiTBy h to 4 - 5 nyTa ca HHTepBajioM 4-5 ,naHa. 

HanoMeHHMO OBne jxa y nocjienH>e BpeMe npe- 
OBJiajiaBa MHinjbeH>e CTpynitaKa jxa je ecJDHKac- 
HHJe JieK naBaTH yjeceH Heroy npojiehe. Ebo niTa 
je o TOMe Hanncaoje/jaH on Bojxehnx nnejiapcKnx 
CTpynmaKa npo(J). TapaHOB ("IlHejioBojicTBo" 9, 
1980): "PaHHje cy 3ancTa yKa3HBajin jja (})y- 
MarnjiHH Tpe6a n^ejiaMa TjaBaTH y npojiehe. 
MerjyTHM, no He/xaBHHM HCTpaacHBajkHMaHHCTH- 
Tyra 3a nnejiapcTBO h ^HTaBor HH3a HHOCTpaHnx 
HayHHHX ycTaHOBa, jeceH>e JiaBaH>e (J>yMarnjiHHa 
iraejiaMa (npn npnxpaHH 3a 3HMy) je e(J)HKacHHJe. 
XpaHehn ce tokom 3HMe xpaHOM ca thm npena- 
paTOM nnejie 6oibe 3HMyjy, MaH>e ce 3apa»caBajy 
ro npojiena h 6ojbe ce pa3Bnjajy. npn/jaBaity naK 
(J)yMarHJiHHa y npojiene, Ka#je BehnHa nnejia Beh 
3apa:»ceHa h HeMoryne hx je H3JieHHTH, ecj)eKaT 
jie^eHja 3HaTHO ce cHHacaBa". 

Ayropy je no3HaTO jja jeceH>e Jieueite nnejia 
(J)yMarHJiHHOM npenopynyjy h hckh Hauin 
CTpyHH>ann, Kao Hnp. jjp Bjia^o MjiafjeH. 

5. Ciipyn - cupaii. i>an>o h 3Hanaj 

Cnpyn ce y npojiene (Kao h y jeceH) Moxe 
naBaTH n^ejiHJtHM npyniTBHMa: pajm nony- 
H>aBan>a 3ajinxa (uito ca noranoM HHJe Moryne 
ocTBapHTn), pann CTHMyjincaH>a pa3Boja a, npeina 
noTpe6n, h 3a Jie^eite n^ejia. llpo6jieM je caMO y 
TOMe uito ra no xjianHOM BpeMeHy n^ejie He Mory 
y3HMaTH H3 xpaHHJiHna. Ca H>eroBHM naBaiteM 
nouHH>e ce Tex KpajeM MapTa, kslr Majio OTonjiH. 
Kan ce y to BpeMe jjaje, cnpyn TpeSa jxa 6yn,e 
HeuiTO ryuinn (2:1 hjih 1,5:1) a KacHnje Moace 
6hth HopMajme rycTHHe (1:1). 

n^ejie Hajjiaxnie npeparjyjy cnpyn KOHneH- 
Tpannje 1,5:1 (1,5 kg mehepa : 1 1 Bone). ITpn 
npepa^n TaKBor cnpyna OHe yTpouie 20 % 
mehepa, a ocTaTaK oiuiaacy y hejinje Kao pe3epBy. 
Ha Taj Ha^HH ojj, 1 kg mehepa noSnje ce TaHHO 1 
kg mehepHor Mena. 

JJpyre KOHneHTpannje BHine ncnpnjtyjy 
nnejie. 3a npepajjy ryinher cnpyna (Hnp. 2:1) 



nuejie Tpe6a jja /jonajy Bo/jy, a nocjie Tora jxa jjeo 
Bone o/jcTpaHe. Kojj, pefjer cnpyna (Hnp. 1:1) naK 
OHe Tponie mhoto eHepraje 3a o/jcTpaH>HBaH>e 
BejinKe KOJinHHHe BO#e. y cbhm cjiyHajeBHMa 
KOJin^nHa bojxq y mehepHOM Me/xy Tpe6a /ja ce 
CBe^e Ha oko 20%. 

LUehep, Kao n 3a norauy, Tpe6a jxa 6ya,e hhct 
-KOH3yMHn; cnpoB (acyTn) mehep Hnje 3a to no- 
roaaH. Bona Tpe6a jxa 6yjj,e MeKa (Hnp. KHnmnna 
hjih pe^Ha Bo#a), jep TBpna Bona caapacn MHHep- 
ajie Kojn cy mreTHH 3a nnejie. 

Cnpyn ce cnpaBJta TaKo mTo ce Bona npBo 
npoKyBa, na ce ckjiohh ca BaTpe n o^Maxjoj ce 
.nojiaje ojiMepeHa KOJinnnHa mehepa y3 CTajiHO 
Meman>e. ITocjie cnnaH>a mehepa, pacTBop He 
Tpe6a KyBaTn.jep cnpyn mo^co ^a KapaMejiH3npa 
(3aropn), a to je otpobho 3a n^ejie. 

Ka,a ce cnpyn oxna^n Ha oko 35 - 40°C, ^aje ce 
nnejiaMa yBene jxa 6n ce n36erjia rpa6eac. Ako ce 
acejin zionyHjaBame 3ajinxa xpaHe, cnpyn ce ,n,aje 
CBaKO Be^e y bcjihkhm nopnnjaMa o^ no HeK- 
ojihko JiHTapa (3aBHCHO ojx BejinHHHe xpa- 
HHJinue), CBe flOK ce 3ajinxe He nonyHe. Ako ce 
naK jiaje pan,H CTHMyjincaiba pa3Boja, jiaje ce y 
Man>HM nopnnjaMa (0.2 - 0,3 1) n to CBaKnx 2-3 
,naHa. 

rioneTKOM npojieha Moace ce ^ecnra jxa y 
KomHnun HecTaHe pe3epBH nepre, na aKO HeMa hh 
cnojbamH.er yHoca nojieHa, Ta^a 3a ncxpaHy 
jierjia n^ejie KopncTe pe3epBHe 6ejiaHHeBHHe n 
jlpyre xpaHJLHBe MaTepnje n3CBoropraHH3Ma. Ha 
panyH thx 3ajinxa, OHe Mory HeroBaTH Jierjio Ha- 
JBnme 15 jxaua. llocjie Tora, Hera Jierjia npecTaje, 
na ce TaKBHM npymTBHMa Mopa xhtho noMohn 
jiaBaH.eM 3aMeHa 3a nepry. Kao 3aMeHa KopncTn 
ce HHaKTHBnpaH KBacan, (5%), o6paHO mjicko (y 
kojihhhhh Koja 3aMeH>yje 20% Bone noTpe6He 3a 
npaBJbeH>e cnpyna aceibeHe KOHueHTpannje), jaje 
(1 KOMaji Ha JinTap cnpyna), npoBapa hjih n3Bapa 
(100 g Ha 1 JinTap cnpyna) n jip. Moace ce jxojxa™ 
cnpheTHa KncejinHa (0.03 - 0,04%), hjih cok ojj, 
jiHMyMa, MHHepajiHe cojih n BHTaMHHn 
(6eBnnjieKc). 

BejiaHHeBHHe H3 nepre, ojjhocho UBeTHor 
npaxa, CKopo nojye^HaKO ce pacno/jejbyjy Ha 
ncxpaHy JiapBH n 3a o/iJiaraH>e y Tena n^ejia, Kao 
pe3epBa. 3aMeHe nepre noHamajy ce flpyra^nje: 
SejiaHHeBHHe H3 MJieKa ^npeKTHO ce Tpome Ha 
ncxpaHy JiapBH, a SejiaHHeBHHe H3 KBacua CKopo 
noTnyHO ce HaroMHJiaBajy Kao pe3epBa y Tejiy 
n^ejia. 36or Tora je 3a y6p3aH npojiehHn pa3Boj 
jierjia 6ojbe naBaTH mjicko, a y jeceH - KBacau. 
OnnTH BpmeHH CBOjeBpeMeHO y HeMa^Koj 
noKa3ajin cy ,zia ce jiojiaBaH>eM MJieKa npojiehHO 
jierjio yBehaBa 3a 60 -70% (A. JIa3apoB: nnejiap- 
ctbo. Co<J)HJa. 1964). ^pyrn onnTH yTBprjyjy: aKO 
KOJinHHHa jierjia npn ncxpaHH n^ejia neproM 
h3hoch 100%, to npn ncxpaHH y3 ^o^aTaK MJieKa 
h3hochoko65%, a npn TOTajmoj 6ejiaH x ieBHHac- 



nqejiap 1998 



toj HHJeTH (KopHinReH>eM caMO pe3epBH y Tejiy 
iraejia) -CBera7%. 

ripeTnocTaBJLaMO Jia HCTe TaKBe e<})eKTe 
MJieKO h KBacau HMajy h y noraHH. 

llo3HTHBaH yTHiiaj Ha pa3Boj nnejiHitHX 
npyuiTaBa y npojiehe HMa h jjojjaBajfce cnpyna 
Heioix MHHepajia: Marae3HJyMa, KajinjyMa, ko- 
SaiiTa h jip. ITpeMa no^annMa pycKor HHCTHTyra 
3a nnejiapcTBO (JIe6ejxeB B. 14.. Enjiain H. T. : 
"KopMa h onTHMH3aiiHJa KopMJbeHHJa n^ejiHHnx 
ceMej b Te^eHHe rojia". Pn6Hoe, 1994) noSpn 
pe3yjiTaTH nocTiocy ce jjojjaBaiteM Ha 1 1 cnpyna 
0,7 g MarHe3HJyMcyji(J)aTa (MgS0 4 ) h 0,5 g KanH- 
jyM(J)oc(l)aTa (K 2 HP0 4 ) hjih 0,5 r Mopcxe cojih. 
ZI,OKa3aHO je jxa ,nojjaBaH>eM MarHe3HJyMcyji(})aTa 
y kojihhhhh on 0,25 Ha 1 1 cnpyna (1:1), noBenaBa 
ce npHHOc Me^a 3a 20-25% h npoH3Bejje BOCKa 
BHine 3a 1,5 - 1,6 nyTa. 

TaKofje, no3HTHBaH SHa^aj HMa Ko6ajiT kojh 
ce cnpyny aojxaje npeico KoGajiTXJiopnjja (CoCl 2 ). 
OnTHMajiHa Jip3a OBor MHKpoejieMeHTaje 8 mg Ha 
1 1 cnpyna hjih 24 mg Ko6ajiTXJiopnjia. FTpH TOMe 
ce JierjionoBenaBa: y npojiehe 3a 28,3%, ayjecen 
3a 12,5%, jjok ce npHHOc Mejja noBenaBa 3a 21 %. 
Ko6ajiTa HMa y (J)opcanHHy kojh ce h kojj Hac 
Moace Ha6aBHTH. 

Cbh HaBe^eHH Aojjann cnpyny HMajy Benn 
3Hanaj y npBOM flejiy npojiena, jjok join HeMa 
HHTeH3HBHor yHoca nojieHa. Ben or Kpaja MapTa, 
a Hapo^HTO y anpHJiy, noja^aBa ce yHoc nojieHa, 
na noMHH>aHH jjonann ry6e Ha 3Hanajy ann cy h 
najte KopHCHH. Tpe6a HMaTH y Bnjxy h to jia n^ejre 
npn HHTeH3HBHOM yHocy nojieHa Hepa/io y3HMajy 
CHpyn. CjiHHHa CHTyannjaje h ca noranoM. 



6. CyBH inenep 

CyBH inenep ce Moace kophcthth Kao 
nnejiHita xpaHa tokom nejie aKTHBHe rojjHHe, na 
ny npojiehe. YcjioBJe ;xa nnejie H3Jiehy H/xa cyy 
eraifcy m jjoHecy Heonxo^Hy Bo/xy. MefjyTHM, 
Tpe6a HMaTH y Biiny HHiteHHHy m nnejie 
pacTBapajy inenep He bo^om JXOHeceHOM cnojLa, 
Beh cbojhm ceKpeTOM, niTO nx H3Hypyje h ^chbot 
hm ce THMe CKpahyje. 3aToje ynoTpe6a menepa 
npnjeceH>eM npHxpaH.HBaH>y uiTeTHa. Y npojiehe 
n y JieTO nienepje kophcho CTHMyjiaTHBHO cpe^- 
ctbo. Y3 H>eroBy npnMeHyjierjio ce noBena 3a oko 
3%, a THMe h KOJiH^HHa ojjrajeHHX nnejia. 

OnceacHa Herpa:>KHBaifca BpuieHa y HeniKoj 
noKa3ajia cy jxa cyBH inenep y HcxpaHH nnejia 
HeMa 6nTHHJe HeraTHBHO AejcTBO. ripocj). TayH- 
3eHJj (KaHajja) npenopynyje KopHinneite cyBor 
menepa 3a npojielmy CTHMyjiTHBHy npnxpaHy 
nnejia ("KopMJieHHe nneji", AnnMOHJjnja, 
ByxypemT, 1984). To hcto hhhh h npo<}). Tapa- 

HOB. 

CyBH inenep ce n^ejiaMa jejjHOCTaBHHJe jjaje 
ojx 6hjio Koje Jjpyre xpaHe. Moace ce jwh npexo 
T3B. paM-xpaHHJinua. 3aTHM npeKO TKaHHHe Koja 
ce nocTaBH npexo caTOHoma htjx J\a 6h nnejie 
no^ejie 6pace jj,a ra y3HMajy, Tpe6a y npBe 
KOJiHHHHe menepa HaxanaTH Majio Mejja hjih- 
Bo/ie. Boibe je kophcthth inenep y npaxy. 

HnaK, e(})eKaT kojh ce nocraace ncxpaHOM 
nnejia cyBHM incftepoM je Maibn ojx e(})eKTa ko- 
JHMa HMa cnpyn hjih nora^a, na ra miejiapH, 36or 
Tora, Maite Kopncre. 



Ilqejiap 1998 



Mo/ieKyjiapiia peeo/iyuMJa, Eiio/iornja m 

nne/iapcTBO 



JJo npe HeKOJiHKO /leuemija CMaTpajio ce na ce 
Maraua cnapyje caMO ca je^HHM TpyTOM h rsl cy 
CBe nnejie pamuiHue y koiuhhuh cecTpe. ITojiobh- 
hom neTp^eceTHX rojxKna. OBora Beica, fle<|)HHH- 
THBHOje yTBprjeHO jxa ce MaTHua 3a BpeMe je^Hor 
iuih BHine H3JieTa cnapn ca hckojimko TpyTOBa. 
Tpe6ajio je jxa npolje nocTa BpeMeHa jya OBa 
^HH>eHHiia 6yiie npnxBaneHa ojx CTpatm n^ejiapa. 
HeKH on HaniHX niejiapa cy ce no CKopa /ip^cajiH 
CTapor cxBaTaH>a h 3a h>hx cy HOBa ca3HaH>a o oboj 
npo6jieMaTHiin 6iuia HeySeflJbHBa. 

Je^aH HeMa^KH HCTpa^KHBan y o6jiacra 
MOJieKyjiapHe reHeraice (Peter Neumann) ca Yhh- 
Bep3HTeTa y EepjiHHy, no3a6aBHO ce obhm 
npo6jieMOM npHMeH>yjynn y aHajiH3H cpojihocth 
nnejia pa^HJiima je/iHe Maraue MeTo^y ceKBeH- 
UHOHnpaH>a reHa DNK (DNA- Finger- Printing 
Methode). Ha OBaj Kanim je Hajnoy3jiaHHJe 
noKa3ao jxa je y cBan6eHOM jieTy je£He MaTHue 
yHecTBOBajio 39 TpyTOBa, uiToje TpocTpyKO BHme 
Hero uito ce jxo cana npeTnocTaBJbajio. 

MeTcuioM ce ^,OKa3yje omhhctbo 3a CBaicy no- 
jejiHHaHHy nnejiy pa/iHJTHiiy, Koja noTime on hctc 
MaTHue. AHajiH30M reHeTCKor MaTepujajia ojx 



CBaxe rraejie panHJiHiie, npHMeHOM OBe MeTo^e, 
HOKa3aHO je h^chthhho nopeKJio no MajiiH - 
MaTHUH a pa3JiHKe cy Morcre 6hth caMO y3po- 
KOBaHe apyniM po^HTejbeM o^hocho TpyTOBHMa. 
OBaj HayHHHK je ^omao jxo obhx OTKpnna 
aHajiH3HpajyhH pa^HJiH^KO noTOMCTBO £Be 
MaTHue Koje cy ce cnapHJie Ha je^HOM 
H30JioBaHOM ocTpBy Ha ceBepy HeManice Ha KojeM 
HHJe 6hjio nnejia, na hh TpyTOBa. Octpbo je 
y^aibeHO 0,3 KonHa h jxo cajja ce noy3,naHO mhc- 
jihjio jxa no H>era TpyTOBH ca KojnMa 6h ce MaTHue 
cjiapHJie He Mory^ocenn. AHajiH3a ceKBeHHHOHH- 
pan>a reHa noKa3ajia je m cy 72 TpyTa, hjih 
MaTHU^ycnejiH^a caBJiaoajy h OBe Bo^eHe 6apn- 
jepe. IIlTeTa uito ce y npHKa3y pe<})epaTa He Ha- 
bojxk Kojaje to pa3^ajbHHa 6HJia. Ka^ce ce %a]e y 
nuTaH>y octpbo BajiTpyM. Dr HoJMaH (Neumann) 
npeTnocTaBJba na 6h HecnapeHe MaTHue 6HJie Te, 
Koje cy npeBajiHJie H3y3eTH0 BejiHKy pa3najbHHy 
na 6h cpejic TpyTOBe, ajin jxa ce non HopMajiHHM 
ycjioBHMa TaKO HeuiTO He .zjorafja. 

Iz Dcutsches Bienen Journal 

N=3,1997.npHpeaHo 

IlpocJ). ,ap JosaH KyJIHHHeBHfi 



n^ejiap 1998 



Me£ (VI) - 3a £o6po 3£paBJLe h flyaai xhbot 



Ilume: Ceemo3ap BejbKoeuh, Beoepad 

nympumiOHUcma 



Ha ocHOBy pe3yjiTaTa MHornx HcnHTHBajba h 
aHKeTa ca jtynnMa kojh penoBHO y3HMajy Men, 
caBpeMeHH Hay^HHUH H3 Strainer CoBJeTCKor 
CaBe3a, HeManice, OpatmycKe, CjenHH>eHHX 
aMepHHKHX np^caBa h npyrnx 3eMajta, CMaTpajy 
na penoBHO y3HMan>e Mena noBenaBa OTnopHOCT 
opraHH3Ma h npony>KaBa xhbothh Bex. 

Joiu 1933. ronnHe, np Xp. IiaTpHHeBJe, Ha 
ocHOBy pe3yjiTaTa aHKeTe Kojyje cnpoBejia LfeH- 
TpajiHa CTaTHCTHHKa ynpaBa Meljy 6yrapcKHM 
cToronnmtfcanHMa, nncao na y h>hxoboj cBaKon- 
HeBHOj HcxpaHH HHJe HenocTajao nnejiHikH Men. 

Mhcjihouh h JiexapH on HajcTapnjnx BpeMeHa 
npnnaBajin cy BerniKH 3Hanaj nnejiHJber Mena 3a 
npony>KeH>e JbyncKor xHBOTa. 

BejiHKH (J)hjio30(}) h MaTeMaTnnap IlHTaropa, 
KOJHJe 3CHBeo on 580. no 5(X). ronnne npe h. e.. 
nncao je na je CTapocT on 80 ronnHa noxHBeo 
3axBajbyjynH penoBHOj ynoTpeSn Mena y 
HcxpaHH, nonajyhn n to: "na HHcaM jeo Men yMpo 
6h 40 ronnHa paHHJe". 

Hcth cjiynaj je h ca phmckhm ceHaiopoM 
ITojiom PyMejiHJaHOM, kojh je noxHBeo h 
npocjiaBHO 100-th porjeHnaH. JyjiHJe L[e3ap, kojh 




Bpnaibe Meda 



je npncycTBOBao tom cjiaBiby ynHTao raje KaKBO 
je cpe^cTBO KopncTHO naje noxnBeo TaKO ny6oKy 
CTapocT h canyBao 6onpo h CHaatHO Tejio. Onro- 
Bopje 6ho - "Men"! 

y ca^yBaHOM hctophjckom noKyMeHTy "Ajdur- 
Veda" (KitHra acnBOTa), Kao h y no3HaTHM 3aK- 
OHHMa Manua roBopn ce o BeuiTHHH npo- 
nyacaBaita HOBennjer aaiBOTa noMony jickobhthx 
HanHTaKa (ejniKcnpa) y hhjh cacTaB yjia3H h Men. 
lloce6Ho ce ncrane HannraK on Mena h MJieKa. 

H Ha no^cyrejiHM CTpannuaMa MHoroBeKOB- 
hhx KHHecKHX pyKonHca Mory ce Hann Mynpe 

H3peKe O 3npaBJby H Ba)KHHM npeBeHTHBHHM CBO- 

jcTBHMa Mena. y kh>h3h "Onnc 6njbaKa h TpaBa 
6ora njionHOCTH" o Meny ce, nopen ocTajior, Kaxe 
"na CHaxH BOJby, nonpHHOCH JiaKonn Tejia, nyBa 
MJianocT h nponyacyje xhbothh bck". 

y BynncTH^KOJ <J)apMaKonejn "Sin-no-Honzo- 
-Kijo" Meny ce npHnncyje cbojctbo na npony>Kyje 
xhbot. CTapn HHnHJaHUH cMaTpajiH cy na Men 
HeMa caMO JieKOBHTa h OKpenibyjyna CBOjcTBa, 
Ben h cnoco6HocT na canyBa MJianocT. 

Pe3yjiTaTH npHMeHe nnejinitHX npoH3Bona 
Kao xpaHe h JieKa 6hjih cy pa3Jior na ce y npeBHOj 
Ejiann ctboph mht o 6oxaHCKOM nopeKJiy h 
^ynoTBopHOM nejcTBy Mena. y cbojhm 6ccmpthhm 
nejiHMa "HjiHJana" h "Onnceja", bcjihkh XoMep, 
kojh je XHBeo y 9. BeKy npe Hame epe, oneBaoje 
h npocjiaBHO JieKOBHTa CBOjcTBa Mena. JyHaKHH>a 
AraMena cjryacenn nHBHO nnne "khkcoh" ynnjeM 
cacTaByje HaJBHUie 6hjio Mena, Jienn 6ojiecHHKe, 
CMnpyje aoiBne, naje caH h onBaxHOCT tphkhm 
paTHHUHMa. Tana cy CMaTpajin na je Men 6o- 
roBHMa naTa xpaHa jep "napyje 6ecMpTH0CT h 
BeHHy MJianocT". 

3HaMeHHTH <J)hjio30(J) /JeMopHTJe y ncxpaHH 
ynoTpe6jbaBao Men h cMaTpao na nocenyje 
H3y3eTHa JieKOBHTa , npeBeHTHBHa n non- 
MJia^HBaHKa CBOjcTBa. 

reHHJaJIHH npeBHH (J)HJI030({) H HCTpa2CHBan 

npnpone ApncTOTeji, na3BaH "CymjeM npeBHor 
nnejiapcTBa". TBpnno je na je Men y cTan>y na 
noBeicy nponyacn xhbot h na HMa HeKa cnenn- 
jajma CBOjcTBa Koja BeoMa 6jiaroTBopHo nejryjy 
Ha^oBeHHJH opraHH3aM. 

Onncyjyhn xhbot XnnoKpaTa, Ha3BaHor 
"oneM MennuHHe" IiJiyTapx 3a H>era Kaxe naje 
noacHBeo nySoKy CTapocT (460-377. ronnHe) "3a- 
XBaibyjyhH TOMe iuto je ynoTpe6jbaBao Men Kao 
xpaHy h JieK". CaM XnnoKpaT y cbojhm HayHHHM 
panoBHMa je ncTnnao na Men nopen ocrajior 
nponpKyje ^khbothh BeK. 

OpaHuycKH HayHHHK dr Balzli Kaace na y OpaH- 
nycKoj nocToje SejieniKe on npe hckojihko cto- 
THHa ronnHa, y KojnMa ce cjiaBH BpenHOCT Mena 3a 
CTapnje oco6e. 



93 



nnejiap 1998 




Med y 6oKcecuMa 



HaJHOBHJa HayHHa HCTpaatHBaita noKa3ajia cy 
rsl apeBHH JieKapH h (})hjio30(J)h HHcy 6e3 pa3Jiora 
bhcoko ueHHJiH nHejiHH>H mqr CMaTpajyriH ra "jw- 
jeTOM flyroBe^HOCTH". 

riojbCKH Jiexap h iraejiap H. Bhtbhhkh y cbo- 
joj kh>h3h "O 6jiaroTBopHOM ymuajy Me^a Ha 
jtyncKH opraHH3aM" hcthhc jia ce nojbCKH necHHK 
TpeM6eiiKH xpaHHO o6huhom xpaHOM, yioby- 
nyjyhH h Men, pe^oBHO nyHHX Tpn^eceT ronHHa. 
Ka#a ce Bhtbhukh yno3Hao ca h>hm HMao je 80 
ro^HHa. Bhtbhukh tbpjih m je 6ho 3a#OBOJbaH 
H>eroBHM H3rjienoM, cbcxhhom h BHTajiHomny. 
MerjyTHM, y^HTeib TpeM6euKor, MojiBaxep 
HMao je 120 ronHHa, a H3nie,nao je Kao na HeMa 
BHUie on 70 ronHHa. H ohjc TaKorje, CBaKonHeBHO 
jeo Men! 

PbyjopuiKH neKap dr Schwcishcimer, cneuHJa- 
jiHCTa repoHTOJior, 3ana3HO je HeoGnuny, totobo 
MJia^ajiaHKy CBeaoiHy Kon hckhx cbojhx nann- 
jenaTa, h Kana je neTaibHo ncnHTao Te cjiynajeBe 
ycTaHOBHO je na cy ce th Jbynn 6aBHJiH nnejiap- 

CTBOM HJIH Cy pe^OBHO KOpHCTHJIH M&R y HCXpaHH. 

BnBuia CoBJeTCKa aKaneMHJa nayKa je yc- 
TaHOBHJia, npnjiHKOM aHKeTHpaiba 130 CTapaua 
CTapnJHX on 100 ro^HMa, naje Merjy H>HMa 6hjio 
BHiue on 80 oflcro nnejiapa. BejiHKy CTapocT 
HO^CHBejiH cy h MHorn y CBeTy no3HaTH nnejiapn, 
Kao uito cy: Djerzon, Cander, Rut, Baldensperger, na 
h no3HaTH npcKH necHHK EepHapn IIIo, kojh je, 
TaKorje, 6ho nnejiap. 



MHorn npyrn ayropn kojh cy ce 6aBHJiH yra- 
uajeM Mena Ha npony>KejLe JbyncKor BeKa, TBpne 
na penoBHO y3HMan.e Mena, crapHJHM ocoSaMa 
Bpana CHary h noSojbiuaBa (J)yHKHHJy cbhx op- 
raHa h HHTaBor opraHH3Ma y uejiHHH, 36or Hera 
ce Men y MHorHM 3eMJbaMa Ha3HBa "mjicko 3a 
CTape".y Be3H ca obhm jenaH aMepHHKH JieKapje 
peKao: "Oho hito KpaBa naje MJianHMa, nnejia 
naje CTapHMa". Ja 6hx peKao na Men naje jenHaKO 
CBHMa h MJia/iHMa h CTapHMa. 

BpenHO je noMeHyTH h MHHiJheH>e uyseHor 
aMepn^Kor JieKapa J\. II,. IJepBHca. Oh Kaace 
"Men he cbojhm MHorocTpyKHM ho3hthbhhm ne- 
jcTBHMa CBaKOM ojiaKiuaTH CTapocT. )Kao mh je 
Kana mh HeKH Jbynn Kaxy na He jeny Men, 3aT0 
uito je CKyiutH on pa(J)HHHcaHor 6ejior mefrepa. 
IloKyHiaBaM Tana na hm oojacHHM na ce Ha 
3flpaBJty HHKaaa He cMe ihtchhth. Kana ce pa36o- 
jiHTe, BHjrHTe na HOBau yuiTerjeH Ha xpaHH MopaTe 
yrpouiHTH 3a KynoBHHy JieKOBa, kojh Tpe6a na 
BaM BpaTe 3npaBJbe". 

Cbh noMeHyrn npHMepn cy noKa3 na penoBHO 
y3HMaH>e Mena y CBaKonHeBHOj ncxpaHH yrane Ha 
noBeha^e HMyHHTeTa, tj. OTnopHOCTH op- 
raMH3Ma npeMa 6ojiecTHMa, Kao h Ha npony>KeH>e 

3CHBOTHOT BeKa. 

Ha HaMa je caMO na npnxBaTHMO Men Kao 
BejiHKor h BepHor npHJaTejba Haiuer 3npaBJba h 
na pyKy non pyKy npoBeneMO xhbot ca h>hm. 



94 



n^ejiap 1998 

Hexe MeTOfle 6op6e npoTHB Bapoe 




riocTOJH MHoro MeTOjja yHHiirraBaH>a Kpnejba 
Bapoa, aiiH HHJejjHa ro cajja npHMeitcHa MeTo/ja 
HHJe JioBejia jjo noTnyHor yHHUiTeiba Kpnejba. 

HaJBHiue ce npHMeityje "xeMHJCKa MeTOJia" 
6op6e ca BapooM, jep ce pa3HHM xcmmjckhm 
npenapaTHMa yHHurraBa HaJBerrn 6poj OBor 
nuejiHiber napa3HTa. Bcjihkh je 6poj obhx npena- 
paTa 6ho ynoTpe6jbaBaH, a h cajxa ce ynoTpe- 
GjbaBa, na ce CTajiHO yBOJje h hobh, 36or nojaBe 
pe3HCTeHUHJe Kpnejba Ha Ayace npHMeitHBaHH 
npenapaT. Ajih,obh npenapara, Maibe hjih BHine, 
ocTaBJLajy TparoBe y nnejiHibHM npoH3BOHHMa, 
3ara^yjy hx no 3/jpaBJbe uitctkhm MaTepnjaMa. 

Obhm He ^cejiHM cyrepncaTH nnejiapHMa jxa. 
yonuiTe He KopncTe xeMHJCKe npenapaTe panH 
yHHinTaBaH>a Kpneiba, aiiH mhcjihm jja hx Tpe6a 
Man>e KopncTHTH h Ha JipyrauHJH HauHH. MaH>e hx 
TpeSa kophcthth jep nocToje h Jjpyre, BeoMa 
e(})HKacHe MeTojxe, Koje naK n y KOMGHHaiiHJH ca 
npHMeHOM xeMHJcKHx npenapaTa He 3arar)yjy 
nuejiHite npoH3BO/je . HaBemfty caMO HeKe 
npHMepe kojh jjajy BeoMa jj,o6pe pe3yjiTaTe. 

y "nnejiapy" 6p. 6/96 PajioMHp Chmhu H3 
Yaama mime Kaxo je join 1978. r. noicioHHO 
Bejin6opy CHMHny KoiuHnuy BpuiKapy ca 
nuejiaMa h ^a je OBa BpuiKapa "h /xaHac acHBa h 
3^paBa h pe^oBHO, . . OTnyuiTa pojeBe . . .". 
"IToMeHyTa BpuiKapa HHKajj, HHJe JiHMJbeHa" . . . 
"hhth JieueHa Ha 6hjio kojh jjpyrH HauHH". JJajbe 
HaBonH, jja je Bejin6op on; pojeBa BpuiKape 
HacejiHO TpH JI. P. KoniHHHe, Koje TpeTHpa h yeeK 
HMa Bapoe, jxok kojj BpuiKape HHJe 6hjio. 

PajioMHp jjajbe HaBO/XH jjeBeTorojiHimbH 6o- 
paBaK miejiHite 3aje/XHHHe y iuynjbHHH jjpBeTa, 
Kojeje yjxaibeHO oko 500 m ojj, hckojihko nuejin- 
H>aKa kojh cy cTpajjajiH ojj Bapoe. 

Ha Kpajy PzmoMHp nocTaBJba nHTaite: "Ka- 
ko cy ce h HHMe OBe 3aje/iHHHe 6paHHJie or Ba- 
poe? .." 

IIlTa je OBJje y nHTaiby, mhcjihm jja HHJe TeuiKO 
cxBaTHTH. 06e 3aje;iHHne, Koje PajioMHp HaBOJiH 
CBaKe rojjHHe cy ce H3pojaBajie. OnJia3enH, 
nojioBHHa nnejia 3aje;jHHHe ca npBHM pojeM, ca 
H>HMa je 0£Jia3HJia h nojioBHHa Bapoa Koje cy 
6opaBHJie Ha H>HMa. HHMe je 6poj npeocTajiux 
Kpnejba Ha n^ejiaMa ocTajiHM y kouihhuh CBejjeH 
Ha nojioBHHy. Ako je 3ajejjHHHa nycTiuia h JjpyrH 
poj (^pyreHau), Kajjaje Ben h HaJBerrn jxeo nuejra- 
H>erjierjia H3amao, ca /jpyremieM je oneTOTHUiJia 
nojioBHHa ojx npeocTajiux Bapoa. A nouiTO je no 
H3JiacKy npBor poja y6p30 HecTajio OTBopeHor 
jierjia, to npeoerajie Bapoe y kouihhuh HHcy 
HMajie r/je jja ojuiaacyjaja, UHMeje HacTao 3acToj 
y pa3MHoacaBaH>y Kpnejba. 

OBJje ce h Moace Haftn oojaunteibe 3auiTO ce h 
ca/ia kojj Heioix npocTOKOiuHHuapa ojjpxaBajy 
miejinibe 3aje#HHue 6e3 TpeTHpaH>a. To je Moayia 



KpaHKoPeAuh, CpeM. Mutnpoeuu^a 

h pa3jior uito ce Bapoa HHJe MHoro paHHJe 
pa3MHOXHJia, Kao cajja, Kajia ce cnpenaBa H3po- 
jaBaibe miejiHH>HX 3aje/jHHHa, na uaK h kouh 
Gpoj^iaHO janaibe 3ajejjHHHa orpaHHuaBaibeM 
MaTHue y JieaceH>y, KaKO 6h ce 6ojbe HCKopncTHJia 
rjiaBHa nauia. 

JjpyrH. CMaTpaM, BCOMa BaacaH UHHHJian, y 
ojip2caBaH>y miejiHibHx 3ajejjHHua y KouiHHnaMa 
ca HenoKpeTHHM caheM (BpauiKapaMa h Rp.) je 
2chbot 3ajejjHHira 6e3 y3HeMHpaBaH>a. OBe 
KouiHHne ce He OTBapajy na ce y THe3;jy He peMeTH 
KJiHMa, OHe ce 6p30 pa3MHO^caBajy h H3pojaBajy. 

Cjihuho H3pojaBan>y je npaBJbeH>e BeurrauKHX 
hjdi naKeTHHX pojeBa. Ha OBaj HauHH, ^eo6oM h 
noMony apyre MaTHue yeenaBa ce yicynaH 6poj 
nuejiHHiHX je^HHKH, TaKO jia ce ohhoc 6poja nuejia 
npeMa 6pojy Kpnejba Men>a y kophct nnejia. 
MeljyTHM, koji nnejiapeHia Ha mqjx, Jxeo6oM 
nuejiHHiHX 3ajeuHHua CMaH>yje ce ca6npHa CHara 
nuejiHH>aKa, tj. CMaH>yje ce yicynaH npnHoc Me^a. 
3aTO, jia ce He6n ryGnjio Ha npHHOcy Me^a, 3ajen- 
HHue, HanpoTHB, Tpe6a GpojuaHO ojauaBaTH, 
6hjio ^o^aBaH>eM 3pejior Jierjia npe rjiaBHe name 
hjih cnajan>eM noneTKOM name, tj. noja^aH^e 
nuejiaMa. MefjyraM, ojauaBaH>eM 6hjio JierjioM 
6hjio nnejiaMa, yHouieH>eM y 3ajenHHny, Koja ce 
ojanaBa h Kpnejbe, y KpajiteM (nociie rjiaBHe 
name) MeH>a ce ojxhoc Spoja nuejia npeMa 6pojy 
Kpnejba y kophct Kpnejba. 

/Ja 6h ce 6pojhoct Kpnejba CMaH>no 6e3 
ynoTpe6e xcmhjckhx cpejjcTaBa, Koja 3arar)yjy 
mqjx, npenopynyjy ce Jjpyre MeTOJje. Ojj, obhx Me- 
Tojia HaJBHme ce kophcth HceuaH>e TpyTOBCKor 
jierjia H3 OKBHpa rpa^eBHiaKa. Obom mctojiom ce 
jlocTa e(})HKacHO Mo^ce o^p^caBaTH nojiHouubHB 
CTeneH 3apaxeHOCTH, ajin OHa Tpa^cH nocTa pajia 
nuejiapa. 

MeTOfla HceuaH>a TpyTOBCKor jierjia, kojihko 
CMan.yje 6pojhoct Kpnejba 3HaTHO CMaityje h 
npnHoc Mejja. Jep nuejie, y nyHOM pa3Bojy 3ajejj- 
HHue HacToje ^a ojjroje h jjoera TpyTOBa (npejipo- 
JHJj6eHH nepnojj). Ako mh, HanpHMep, CTajiHO 
HceuaMO TpyTOBCKO jierjio, nuejie ne CTajiHO 
ojjrajaTH hobo, na ne TaKO, y ojipefjeHOM Bpe- 
MeHy, yMecTO je;iHe reHepaunje TpyroBCKHX 
jiapBH ojjraJHTH JiBe, HHMe he Ha ncxpaHy 
yrpomHTH ^ynjio BHme Mejja. 

riopejj HeeKOHOMHHHOCTH HceuaH.a TpyroB- 
CKor Jierjia, H>eroBHM CTajiHHM yHHUiTaBaH>eM 
6poj TpyTOBa y 3ajejxHHHH ce cbojj,h Ha MHHHMyM, 
na aKO ce BpuiH omiojjH>a MaTHua, 36or HeaoBO- 
jbHor 6poja TpyTOBa Moace H30CTaTH KBajiHTeTHa 
onjiojjH>a MaTHue. 

llo3HaToje jj,a ce HeuiTO Kpnejba ocnna, cnajja 
ca nuejia h najja Ha nojiH>auy. OTnajiH KpnejbH ce 
noHOBO XBaTajy Ha npBy nuejiy Koja Hanrje, na ce 
3aTO npenopyuyje nojj,H>aHa ca Mpe^coM. HnaK, 



nqejiap 1998 



y3najytiH ce y CBof)eH>e Kpneiba Ha nonHonubHBy 
Mepy Ha OBaj HannH, 6e3 ocHOBaje. 

y MHorHM 3eMJbaMa je H3yHeHa h neero 
npHMeH.HBaHa TonjioTHa MeTo^a. llo3HaToje rq. 
cy janaHCKH nnejiapn npeB03HJiH KoniHHue y 
KaMHOHHMa, B03enn hx npexo HepaBHHX nyTeBa, 
KaKO 6h ce n^ejie BHiue y36ymuie h thmc noflnnie 
TeMnepaTypy yHyrap Konmnne, Taxo m. cy ce 
MHorn KpneibH ocHnajin. OBy npaxcy ohh cy 
HanycTHJiH, jep je ^ojiasHJio jxo cpo3aBajba cafta 
ca mchom h JierjioM, Te ryinen>a nnejia. 

y 3eMJbaMa 6HBiuer CCCP-a MHoro ce 
npHMeityje TepMHHKa o6pana rojinx pojeBa. CBe 
iraejie, 6e3 cafta, craBJbajy y KaceTe (KaBe3e ojx 
acH^ane Mpeace) Koje H3Jia:acy TeMnepaTypH oko 
40°C, Te Taxo ocjio6ojie nnejie an Kpneiba. Ajih, 
KpneibH Kojn ce Hajia3e y Jierjry ocrajy, naTpera- 
paHe nnejie HaceibaBajy Ha cane 6e3 Jierjia. 3aTO 
ohh TepMH^Ky o6paay Bpme Haj^enifte y BpeMe 
Ka#a HeMajierjia, y no3HyjeceH hjth 3hmh. 

KaKO Bapoa HaJBnuie HaHocn niTeTe h 
Hajnenine saje^HHne crpaflajy y flpyroj hojiobhhh 
neTa (aBrycT. cenTeM6ap), HaJHejincxoflHnja Me- 
To^a 6op6e ca BapooM je o^,pxaBaH>e TeMnepa- 
Type Ha bhuicm HHBoy y n^ejinikeM rHe3,ny. Ha 
H3yqaBaH>y OBe MeTo^e MHoro cy pamuiH 
Hay^HHun y HHCTHTyrnMa SnBiner CCCP-a. O 
pe3yjiTaTHMa HCTpaxnBaita, Koja cy BpmeHa y 
n^euapcKOM HHCTHTyry (HHH11) Pn6noe. A. H. 
MypaBCKaja nnnie: "TeMnepaTypa 37°Cje Kpaj- 
H>e HenoBoibHO /lejioBajia KaKO Ha ofljiarafbe jaja, 
TaKO h Ha xeHKy Kpneiba. ripn oboj TeMnepaTypH 
CKopo je noTnyHO npecTano o/yiaraibe jaja, a 
oiuio^ceHa jaja cy yrnH>aBana 

Ha tom nojty pannjin cy h HayHHnnn CBe- 
caBe3Hor HayHHO-ncTpaacHBaHKor HHCTHTyra 
BeTepHHapcKe eHTOMOJiornje n apaxHOJiornje y 
TjyMeHy. /Ja 6h noTBpjiHJiH JiaSopaTopnjcKe 
pe3yjiTaTe ncTpaxnBaH>a, ohh cy y CaMapKaHji- 
ckoj n Tonjinjoj CypxannapHHCKOj o6jiacTH<j)op- 
MHpanH y CBaKoj no ,nBe rpyne ojx no 10 nHejiHH>nx 
3aje/iHHua, 3apaaceHnx BapoaT030M, npH6jiH>KHO 
hcthx no CHa3H h kojihhhhh Jierjia. Y CBaKOJ 
o6jiacTH cyjczmy rpyny o,n 10 saje^HHua CTaBHJiH 
Ha 3aceH>eHO MecTO (xuajioBHHy) a apyry Ha 
OTBopeHH npocTop tj. Ha cyHue. 3a neo nepHOfl 
nocMaTpan>a 3aje,HHHHe Hncy no,OBpraBaHe 
npoTHBBapoo3HOM TpeTHpaH>y. 

Obhm HCTpa^HBaH>HMa cy yrBpjiHJiH na y 
xjiajiHHJoj CaMapKaH^CKOj oSjiacTH y jyHy-jyjry 



CTeneH 3apaxeHOCTH nnejia h Jierjia ko,h o6e 
rpyne mije ce 6htho pa3HHKOBao. MerjyraM, y 
aBiycTy, cenTeM6py n OKToSpy y o6e o6jiacTH 
"kojx 3ajejiHHna pacnoperjeHHX Ha 3aceH>eHOM 
MecTy, y noperjeiby ca 3aje£HHH,aMa Ha 
OTBopeHOM npocTopy, 3ana^ceHJe yBepibHB no- 
pacT CTeneHa 3apaxeHOCTH o/ipacjinx nnejia h 
nnejinHier Jierjia. TaKO je y CaMapKaHUCKOj 
o6jiacTH koji 3ajejiHHua pacnopeljeHnx Ha 
3acen>eHOM Mecry, CTeneH HHBa3HJe o^pacjinx 
nneua nopacTao Ha 20.6% a koji pacnoperjeHHX 
Ha OTBopeHOM npocTopy Ha 11,2% a y CyxaH- 
napnHCKOj o6uacTH Ha 14,9% h 73%". 

Pa3JiHKa je 6njia n y CTeneHy 3apa^ceHOCTH 
nnejinfter Jierjia, y CaMapKaH^CKOj o6uacTH 
3apaxeHOCT n^ejiHiter Jierjia y xnanyje nopacua 
Ha 32,9% a na OTBopeHOM npocTopy Ha 18,6%, 
^ok je y Tonjinjoj CypxaH^apnHCKOj oSjiacra 
3apaxeHOCT n^ejintber Jierjia ko^ 3aje,UHHna y 
xjiany 6HJia 28.8% a Ha cymry 14,0%. 

36or orpaHH^eHOCTH npocTopa y obom 
HuaHKy HHcy HaBe^eHH n ocTajin aHraGnoTK^KH 
(J)aKTopn (BJia^HOCT, cacTaB Ba^oyxa) kojh yra^y 
Ha ocnnaH>e h ^CHBOTHy cnoco6HOCT Kpneiba. 

"Ha Taj HaHHH aHTnSnoTH^KH (J)aKTOpH (TeM- 
nepaTypa, BJia^KHOCT, cacTaB Ba^ayxa) Shtho 
yrany Ha o,HBajaH>e or n^eua, ^cnBOTHy cnoco6- 
hoct n penpo^yKTHBHy (})yHKHHJy Kpneiba Bapoa, 
a caMHM thm, y H3BecHoj Mepn, peryjiHiny H>HXOBy 
6pojhoct y nonyjiaHHJH" ("nnejioBO^CTBo" 1/89). 
3aTO npenopynyjy m. ce KouiHnne CMeniTajy Ha 
ysBHUieHHM. tj. one^HTHM h #o6po oSacjaHHM 
MecTHMa, jxa. ce koch TpaBa - KopoB n H36eraBa 
BJiaacHOCT. 

OB,zie Tpe6a no^ceTHTH Jia je, koa Beher 3arpe- 
BaH>a yHyrpanntocTH kouihhhc, noTpe6Ha ^o6pa 
BeHTHJiaunja (uiHpoKa ueTa) flOBOibHO npocTopa 
n ^,o6po yHBpmfteHO (o^cnneHo) cane. Obo, He 
caMO jia zionpHHOCH CMaHjen>y 3apaaceHOCTH 
KpneibOM, Hero h 6ojbeM HCKopnmhaBaH>y 
nHeuHH.e name, tj. BeneM npnHocy Me^a no 
koiuhhuh. 



JlHTepaTypa 

A. M . MypaBCKaja, "BjtHJaitHJe TeMnepaTypH h 
BJia^cHOCTH Ha KJLemha", "riHejionQUCTBo" 8/84. 

Thtob B. O.. BecHajioBa T. C, ^KapoB A. B., 
"npoTHBOBapoaT03Haja e(J)4)eKTHBHOCT CTaH>eT BHine". 
"ITqejioBO^CTBo" 1/89/B 



96 



nnejiap 1998 



nPEnopynyjEMO 




Moryhe je no6ojMiiaTH iraejiinby namy 

EyduMupAmauacKoeuh, TpcmettuK 

OPrAHM30BAHOM AKTOBHOIimy flPYUITABA E1HEJIAPA MOrYHE JE nPMEJlM- 
2KMTM nAlliy I1HEJIMH>MM 3AJEflHMUAMA 



yeo^ 

C o63MpoM Ha MorynHOCT h noTpeSy 
no6oibuiaH>a, qhhocho npH6jiHxaBaH>a nnejiHH>e 
name, Met)y nnejiapHMa nocToje aBa pasjiHHHTa 
MHUDbeifca. 

npBH MHCJie aaje to HJiy3HJa, jia He nocTOJH 
MHoro pa3nora 3a no6ojbinaH>e nHejiHH>e name. 
rsl to HHJe HaHHH #a ce nocTnrHy 6ojbh pe3yji- 
TaTH, a flpyra, naK, CMaTpajy #a ce Mory HaBecTH 
MHorn y6eaJBHBH pa3Jio3H m je CTajma 6pnra m 
nepMaHeHTHH pan Ha no6ojbinaH>y name HeMH- 

HOBHOCT H 6y^yhHOCT H TO HapOHHTO 3a OHe 

nnejiape kojh cy ce o^jrynHJiH Ha CTannoHapHO 
nnejiapeite, kojh c o63HpoM Ha MHore ycjioBe 
(cTapHJe flo6a, jiaioiia 6ojiecT, panHa o6aBesa, 
Hexa flpyra aKTMBHOCT)... HHcy y MoryhHOCTH /ia 
ce 6aBe ceo6oM n^ejia. y obom TpeHyTKy y 
Cp6HJn obhx apyrnxje npeico 80%. 

Ako ce ceo6oM nnejie npnGjinxaBajy namn 
onaa ce no6ojbmaBaH>eM nHejiHJte name, naina 
npnGjiHxaBa iraejiaMa. 



Je^aH or ochobhhx ycnoBa 3a ckohomhhhoct 
n*iejiapeH>a, nopea ocTajinx, a to Tpe6a £a 6yae 
npeBacxo,OHH hhjb, jecTe ^o6pa h KOHTHHynpaHa 
nnejiMfta nama. llo3HaTO je #a H36opy MecTa, 
oflHOCHO peoHa y KOMe he ce nnejiaHHK nocTa- 
bhtk, n^enap Mopa jia nocBeTH noce6Hy na^cH>y. 

ripe ho uito ce ojyryHH 3a MecTO-peoH 
n^ejiapetba Mopa no TaHHHHa /ia yno3Ha, nope/i 
ocTajior, h KaKO aoSpe Taxo h Jiome CTpaHe 
nHejiHH>e name o£pet)eHor peoHa. Kaa ca3Ha He- 
^ocTaTKe nnejiHH>e name mnper peona, y KOMe he 
CTannoHHpaTH cboj nnejiaHHK o/iMax Mopa, caM 
hjih ca rpynoM nnejiapa (nrroje 6ojte), cannHHTH 
nporpaM no6ojbinaH>a name 3a HaJMan>e fleceTO- 
roanmH>H nepnoji, Kora Tpe6a CTajino aoiry- 
H>aBaTH h o6aBe3HO HSBpmaBaTH. 

MHora peoHH cy 3axBajbyjyhn n^ejiapHMa-eH- 
Ty3HJacTHMa h npaKTHHapHMa, Ha TaicaB Ha^HH 
nocTaiiH oa3e pa3HOBpcHor McnoHOCHor 6njba. 
CapaHH>y y obom npaBny Tpe6a Tpa^HTH h ca 
myMCKHM ceKUHJaMa, MJiaanMropaHHMa, Hanpefl- 




IIocAe daepeMa - Auna 



100 



riqejiap 1998 




YeeK o6ujiame name 
o6e36edumu 3a nnejie 



hhm CTonapHMa, BonapHMa. npoH3Bo5aHHMa Jie- 
KOBHTOr 6njba . . . 

riHTaH>e je Koje HHiteHHne niejiap Tpe6a jja 
HMa y BHJjy, ojjhocho niTa TpeSa jjo6po jja 3Ha npe 
/ioHonieH>a ojjJiyKe o bpcth, KBajiHTeTy h KBaH- 
THTeTy noGojbinaita name. 

1 . Mopa ce noy37jaHO 3HaTH kojihko y npnpo/jH 
Ben HMa o/iroBapajyner Me/joHOCHor 6njba 3a 
o/iroBapajynH BpeMeHCKH nepnon h KaKBorje to 
6njbe KBajiHTeTa c o63npoM Ha H3/janiHOCT HeK- 
Tapa-onHOCHO UBeTHor npaxa. 

2. Kojihko y yaceM peoHy, y KOMe ce njiaHHpa 
no6ojbmaH>e name, HMa nnejiHitHX /jpyuiTaBa. 

3. n^ejiap Mopa 3HaTH-o;iHOCHO BJia/jaTH no- 
jianHMa kojihko HeKTapa ojjhocho UBeTKor npaxa 

y nOBOJbHHM BpeMeHCKHM yCJIOBHMa Mo^ce 

jiyHHTH-jjaTH nojejjHHa Me/jpHOCHa 6HJbKa noje- 
jjhhhuh Mepe (ha, no6po pa3BHJeH x6yH, uih6, 
CTaSjio). 

4. Mopa ce 3HaTH kojihko je CBaKoj nnejiHH>oj 
3ajejj,HHUH noTpe6HO Me/ja hjih UBeTHor npaxa 3a 
cojiHJjaH hjih y6p3aH pa3Boj (npojiehe) ojj, Kpaja 
jaHyapa jjo 3a3HMJbaBan>a. 

5. Yno3HaTH KBajiHTeT 3eMJbnuiTa Ha KOMe 
Mo^ce /jo6po /ja ycneBa o/jpetjeHa Bpcra Me- 
jjohochc 6HJbKe. 

6. OBJiajjaTH nocrynuHMa pa3MHo:>KaBaH>a h 
cejatba 6HJbaKa. 

7. M3BPUIHTH HJjeHTH(j}HKan,HJy H eBHJjeHTH- 

pan>e cjio6o/jHor 3eMJhHnrra y ^p^caBHOM h npn- 

BaTHOM BJiaCHHIUTBy H y Capa/IH>H C BJiaCHHUHMa 

OMoryhHTH h>hxobo npHBorjeite HaMeHH. 

Cse OBe HHHjeHHue noTpe6Hoje jj;o6po aHaji- 
H3HpaTH-npoyHHTH, Te Ha ocHOBy Tora jjohcth 
saKJby^aK o TOMe, Kojy Bpcry, Ha kom 3eMJbHuiTy, 

y KOJOJ KOJIHMHHH H Ca KaKBHM KBaJIHTeTOM Me- 

HOHOCHe 6HJbKe Tpe6a no6ojbuiaTH namy 3a JiaTH 
BpeMeHCKH nepnojj,. 



HeKe or SnjbaKa, KOJHMa TpeSa no6ojbmaTH 
namy, jjonyHHhe He/iocTaTaK 6njbaKa HeKTapnna, 
HeKe HejjocTaTaK 6HJbaKa nojieHyuia, HeKe He- 
aocTaTaK o6ejy Bpera, a CBe HMajynn y BH/xy 
noTpe6y nnejiHH>HX 3aje;jHHna y onroBapajyneM 
BpeMeHCKOM nepHOJjy. Ako nnejiap hjih niejiapn 
nponeHe h oneHe, a nponeHa h oneHa, aKO ce 
xejiH jjo6ap pe3yjiTaTJe hcmhhobhoct, jia y cbom, 
ycjioBHO peneHO miejiHiteM aTapy HeMa jjobojbho 
ojjroBapajyhe name, noTpe6HO je npe;jy3eTH 
ojjroBapajyne Mepe jja ce OHa uito xhthhjc 
o6e36e/iH tj. ruiaHCKH h CHCTeMaTCKH, CBaKe 
rojjHHe, no6ojbuiaBa, ojjhocho, npnGjnocaBa 
cbom nnejiHH>aKy. 

KOJHM TO Me/JOHOCHHM 6HJLeM H 3a KOJH Bpe- 
MeHCKH nepno/j or Kpaja jaHyapa jjo Kpaja okto- 
6pa Tpe6a pajjHTH Ha njiaHy no6ojhinaH>a name? 



ripBy npojiefmy namy HHHe BHcn6a6a, 
KyKypeK, JjpeH, JiecKa, pa3He Bpere Bp6a, a noce- 
6ho Bp6a HBa. 

3a BpeMe cyHHaHHX h Tonjinx jjaHa KpajeM ja- 
Hyapa h noneTKOM (J)e6pyapa y HopMajmo pa3BH- 
jeHOM nqejiHH>eM jjpyuiTBy noHHH>e nojiaKO jja ce 
pafja hobh ^khbot. Tajja MaTHne noHHity ca 
HomeiteM jajaniana h ojj Tajja no*iHH>e hobh 
peacHM ^KHBOTa yjjpymTBy. J\el 6h Taj hobh ^chbot 
Morao jjonpHHeTH 6p^ceM pa3Bojy npyniTBa y 
uejiHHH y nHejiHH>oj 3aje;jHHnH, nope/j Beher 
6poja n^ejia h Marane Mopa nocTojaTH oSnjbe 
xpaHe h jjocTa nejiyjja kojh y obom nepnojiy npe/i- 
CTaBJba HaJBa^KHHJy cyncTaHny. BejiHKy noMoh y 
tom CMHCJiy npyaca T3B. npBa npojienHa nauia 
Kojy nnejie, c o63npoM Ha BeoMa xeTeporeHe Bpe- 
MeHCKe npHJiHKe ojj Kpaja jaHyapa no Kpaja 
MapTa, He Mory y jjoGpoj Mepn hjih noTnyHO hc- 
kophcthth. Y tom BpeMeHCKOM nepHOJjy nojaBe 
ce h Kpann cyirqaHH h tohjih BpeMeHCKH nepnojjH. 
Ako 6am Ta/ia y npnpojjH HeMa nnejiHH>e name, a 



101 



nqejiap 1998 



npe CBera UBeTHor npaxa, nnejie Hene npaBHjmo 
HanpejioBaTH. /JyroronHinjtHM nocMaTpaibeM 
Mo^ce ce 3aKJbyHHTH jja. caMO ykojihko y npHpojjH 
on Kpaja jaHyapa jjo Kpaja MapTa HMa Henpe- 

CTaHO, CyKIjeCHBHO, KOHTHHynpaHO UBeTHor 

npaxa, na n Heicrapa - Kana Hanrjy Ton/in jiaHH, 
iraejie Mory hckophcthth. Ako acejiH jja nnejiaMa 
yTOM nepnony noMorHe, nnejiap Mopa 3HaTH Koje 
to 6Hibe jjohoch paHH npax n HeKTap, icajja to 
6njbe UBeTa, kojihko Tpaje HBeTaite, kojh to yiry- 
TpauiHiH h cnojbHH ycjioBH Mopa na 6yny Hcny- 
H>eHH m 6h npaumnnn narcn ubcthh npax a HeK- 
Tapnje tnjiyHHBajie HeKTap, a npe CBera jj,a jih y 
6jih3hhh n^ejiaHHKa (He jjaibe on 1.5 no 2 km) 
pacTe o/jroBapajyna BpcTa 6mba. ITa, n nopejj, 
Tora, HHKafl He Mo^ceMO 6hth noy3Jj;aHH h 
craypHH m cy n^ejie y obom nepnojxy Torninx h 
cyHHaHHX jjaHa yHejie 3ajjpBOJi>aBajyny - ojxhocho, 
noTpe6Hy KOJin^HHy UBeTHor npaxa n HeKTapa. 
jep cy ncTpaacHBa^KH pe3yjiTara o yHocy HeKTapa 
n UBeTHor npaxa, kojihko pennMO jejjaH no6po 
pa3BHJeH uih6 JiecKe, hjih jejjaH Sojbh rpM jjpeHa, 
Henoy3/iaHH h BapibHBH c o63HpoM Ha ^HtteHHiry 
uiTa CBe yTHHe Ha JTyneite HeKTapa, ojxhocho, 
H3Jj,aniHOCT UBeTHor npaxa. OBa Henoy3JjaHOCT h 
BapibHBOCT, 36or Mare MorynHoera KOHTpojie 
yHoca nojieHa, join je jejjaH jjoKa3 BHine jja y obom 
nBOMeceHHOM nepnony y okojihhh nnejinHHKa 
Mopa ce o6e36e/iHTH jjobojlho 6njbaKa nojie- 
Hapnna KaKO 6n iraejie Taj nojieH Morjie CKynnTH 
h yHeTH y KoniHHny. Obo je BeoMa Baaoio, jep 
mhoth HCTpaacHBa^n HCTiray na 6e3 oGnjme 
KOJiHHHHe neHOHOBaHe nepre (nHejiHH>n xjie6) 
ojihocho, CBeacer UBeTHor npaxa, HeMa He caMO 
y6p3aHor, Hero h hobojlhot pa3Boja npyuiTBa y 
obom nepnojjy. A Taj y6p3aHH pa3Boj (Hapo^HTO 
y MapTy) 3a OBaj pernon na n mnpe y nejioj 
CpSnjn je cyn6oHocaH 3a MaKCHMajinn pa3Boj 
iraejiHite 3ajejjHnne KaKO 6h ce Morjia HajnH- 
TeH3HBHHJe hckophcthth npejjcTojena 6arpe- 
MOBa nama. 

y nrapeM 3anajjHOM IIoMopaBJby y paHoj 
npojiermoj namn no6ojbinaji>e ce Mo^ce bpiuhth 
pa3MHO^caBan>eM JiecKe, JjpeHa, Bp6e HBe h ^;p. 

1. JIECKA. To je yKpacHH h pojjhh Bnme- 
rojjninjLH uih6, kojh pacTe no 6pe:*cyjbKacTHM 
myMaMa n niHKapaMa. Ubct je y o6jiHKy pece Koje 
ce (J)opMnpajy y TOKy jeceHH, a HBeTajy npBHX 
Tonjinx jaHyapcKHX h (J)e6pyapcKHX JiaHa, Jjajynn 
npBn CBe^cn hbcthh npax n*iejiHH>HM 3ajejjHH- 
naMa, kojh npejjcTaBJba ochobhh ycjioB 3a pa3Boj 
nnejiniter Jierjia. LJbct Tpaje 7 JiaHa. 

Pa3MHO)KaBa ce H3 njio^oBa h BereTaraBHO H3 
H3^aHaKa. 

2. 3PEH. ^peHJe ac6yHacTO nin6jbe-rpMJbe ca 
rycTHM 6ohhhm rpaHHHnaMa. PacTe Ha 6pe^cyjb- 

KaCTHM, Sp/JOBHTHM, OUeJIHTHM, CyHHaHHM, KpeM- 

H>aHKHM npe/jejiHMa. UBeTa KpajeM (})e6pyapa h 
no^eTKOM MapTa. ,ZJaje npBy npojieliHy neT- 
HaecTOJjHeBHy nojieHOBy h HeKTapoBy nauiy, 6e3 
Koje ce He Mo^ce 3aMHCJinTH npBH npojienHH pa3- 
boj nnejia. 

Pa3MHO^caBa ce H3 ceMeHa h npecar)HBaH>eM 
MJiannx H3JiaHaKa ca jjo6po pa3BHJeHHM ko- 



peHOBHM cncTeMOM npBHX JjaHa no OKonH>aBaH>y 
CHera. 

3. BPBA HBA. On cbhx BpcTa Bp6a Haj6ojba 
nojieHapnna h MejioHoma je njiaHHHCKa HBa. 
PacTe Ha 6p^obhthm h Spe^cyjbKacTHM npe,zie- 
jiHMa jjo 1000 m HajjMopcKe bhchhc JaBJba ce y 
BejiHKHM CKynnHaMa Ha nepn(J)epHJH myMa. 
UBeTa Henocpe^HO no nBeTan>y #peHa n to 
o6nHHO nojioBHHOM h KpajeM MapTa. C o63HpOM 
Ha BHCHHCKe pa3JiHKe UBeT Tpaje 10-15 jjaHa. 
UBeTJe y o6jiHKy pece -"Mane". Myimce "Mane" 
jjajy iiBeTHH npax, a aceHCKe "Mane" HeKTap. 

Pa3MHO^caBa ce o^cnibaBaHjeM pe3HHna. 



II 



BoliHa nama (ojj npBor UBeTa ijeHepnKe no 
nocjie^Hjer UBeTa KacHe ja6yKe, o/ihocho ojj, 
no^eTKa anpurca jj,o noneTKa Maja) y peraoHy 
3ana,ziHor rioMopaBiba npejjcTaBJbaje/iHy o^, jiBe 
3ajioBOJbaBajyhe name . Te nanme ycjioBe He 
Tpe6a MHoro noSojbuiaBaTH jep OBaj Kpaj o6n- 
jiyje pasHOBpcHHM BoneM (Kajcnja, ijeHepnKa, 
TpeuiH>a, BnniH>a, CBe BpcTe unbHBa, paHe n KacHe 
ja6yKe), Kao n bcjihkom kojihmhhom H3flaniHor 
Macjia^Ka. BonHa namaje yrjiaBHOM oSnjiHa, tj. 
y obom nepnoAy n^ejie no^cnBJLaBajy 6ypHH pa3- 
boj, yHecy naK n BejiHKe pe3epBe ubcthot npaxa 
(KaT-Kan n 6jioiaipajy Jierjia), a eBH^eHTHpaHe cy 
h ro/iHHe Kana jaKa apyuiTBa yHecy n neTHaecTaK 
h BHUie KHJiorpaMa HeKTapa, Majja je 6hjio, a 
BepoBaTHo n 6nne ro^HHa Kana, 36or HecTa6HJi- 
hhx BpeMeHCKHX ycjioBa (xjia/iHona, CTaima Knma 
na n CHer). nnejie yonniTe He ncKopncTe OBy 
naury. 



Ill 



rioce6Hy na>KH>y Tpe6a o6paTHTH Ha nepnojj, 
kojh HacTaje o,zi nocjie^Hjer HBeTa ja6yKe no 
jiyneH^a HeKTapa H3 6arpeMa. Y tom nepnony 
UBeTajy rjior h flyita na ce canitoM ^yn>a Mo^ce 
o63e6e^HTH MaKap nojjcTnnaJHa nama Koja 6n 
OMorynnjia cbhm n^iejinHjHM 3ajeflHHnaMa 
3anp^caBaH>e T3B. pa/iHor pacnojio2ceH>a. 

riocjiejjH>HX /jeceTaK ro/nrna bcjehkh aonpn- 
hoc no6ojbmaH.y nnejiHite name 3a OBaj n Kpaj 
npeTxojjHor nepno/ia y^HHHO je HHCTHTyr 3a 
kpmho 6wbQ H3 KpyiueBua JiaHCHpajynn KpMHy 
6mbKy "nepKO " h yjbsuiy penraiy Koje cy, nopejj; 
CTO^He xpaHe, oanHHHe n 3a n*iejiHH>y nauiy. Y 
capa#H>n ca Hanpe^HHM CTonapnMa n^ejiapH 
Mory cajiHjOM obhx /iBejy 6nibaKa noMonn 
nnejiaMa, jep HepeTKO OHe npo,ny2caBajy CBOje 
UBeTan>e h nocjie nocjienH>er UBeTaH>a ja6yKa 
iuto je ojj, HeoSHHHe BaacHOCTH n KopncTH. 

1. IIEPKO. llepKojejejjHorojiHmH>a 3ejbacTa 
KpMHa 6njbKa yKpurreHHna yjbaHe pennne n kh- 
HecKor Kynyca. Ceje ce y jeceH Kao 03hmh yceB. 
YcneBa Ha imojjHOM 3eMJLHinTy. LfBeTa y anpmry. 
UBeT Tpaje 20-25 jjaHa. CojiHJjHaje HeKTapyma n 
ojjJEHHHa nojieHyma. C o63npoM jja UBeTa y BpeMe 



102 



nqejiap 1998 




BoIiHe name 3ana^KeHO je jia ra 36or CBOje 
H3,nauiHOCTH nnejie 6ojte nocehyjy o^ UBena 
Bona, a 3a nnejiapcTBOje HHTepecaHTaHJep noK- 
pwBa Ben HaBejieHM nepno,it. 

2. yJLAHA PEIIHIIA. To je cwiMHHa KpMHa 
6HibKa h npBa npaBa npojieliHa nama 3a nnejie. 
3eibacTaje. Ceje ce Kao 03hmh h japn yceB. y 
03HMOJ (J)opMH ceje ce y npBoj nojioBHHM cenTeM- 
6pa, a Kao japn yceB xpajeM anpHJia. IjBeTa oko 
Tpn He/ieibe m #aje npHHoc Me,iia oko 40-200 kg no 
xeKTapy. /Io6paje h Kao jeceita nama G a P H yceB) 
jep aaje 3aBHHny KOJin^HHy HeKTapa h LmeTHor 
npaxa. 

HeKTap h UBeTHH npax yibaHe pennue y 
npojiene npejicTaBJba npaBy Gjiaro^eT 3a 6ypaH 
pa3Boj nHejiHHiHX 3aje/iHHna npe^ GarpeMOBy 
namy, jep BnuiaK yHoca HeKTapa Moxe .nocrariH 
h 40 kg no koiuhhuh ozihocho oko 3-4 kg^HeBHO. 

IV 

HajpacnpocTpaH>eHHJa h Hajn3jiainHHJa Me- 
HOHOCHa 6njtKa OBor pernoHa - 6arpeM, yncraHy 
npencTaBJba je^Hy npaBy h Haj6oiby namy. 
HapaBHO, y noro^HMM BpeMeHCKMM ycjioBHMa, 
Kao n y ycjioBHMa flo6po npnnpeMJbeHHX irqejiH- 
h>hx 3aje/iHHna y npeTxo^HHM nepno^HMa. Ako ce 
o6a OBa ycjioBa ncnyHe 6arpeMOBa nama ce Mo:>Ke 
npoflyacHTH h Ha ncraaecTaK #aHa HHTe3HBHor 
Me,n,eH>a, aKO ce nqejiaHHK nocTaBH Ha MecTO Koje 
OMoryhaBa onniTeH>a rraejia ca 6arpeMOM Ha 

pa3JIH4HTHM Ha^MOpCKHM BMCHHaMa. 



llpecTaHKOM 6arpeMOBe name jiojihhom 3a- 
na^He MopaBe . jicbhm m ^ecHHM noSprjeM , 
yrjraBHOM npecTaje HHTeH3HBHa nama. nocjie^,- 
h>hx ,n,eceTaK ro^HHa y no6prjHMa HHTeH3HBHHJHM 
rajeiteM MajiHHe h KynnHe nama nocraje Tnxa. 
Oboj thxoj nauin /jonpHHOCH nBene pa3HOBpcHHX 
Me^oHOCHHX GnibaKa (TpaBa cnepyiua, Sejin 
GocHJbaK, pa3JiHHHTe BpcTe jieTejiHHa), a KaT-Kan, 
3aBHCHO or BpeMeHCKHX ycjioBa, iraejie Mory 
y6para, n Bene kojih^mhc MezubHKOBna. Tnxy 
jieTH>y, a noce6HO aBrycTOBCKy no^cTHnaJHy 
namy npeucTaBibajy m JiHBa^e, Koje nocjie£H>HX 



roflMHa, HapoHHTO y no6pr)HMa 3ana#Hor FIo- 
MopaBJba. 36or Heo6parjeHor 3eMibMuiTa 3ay3H- 
Majy CBe Bene noBpniHHe. HeKaKBy namy npeji- 
CTaBibajy h 3pejiH ruioflOBH BonaKa cbhx Bpcra. 

OBa jieTH>a nama ce Mo^ce no6ojbinaTH caa- 
BOMaMop(j)e (6arpeMua), <j)au;ejiHJe, ecnap3eTe, 
pasjin^HTHX BpcTa aeTejiHHa . . . 

1. AMOPOA. AMopc{)a hjih GarpeMau pacTe 
nope# peKa, noTOKa, csyna TaMO me HMa jiobo- 
jLHOBJiare.Toje niH6no2.5 MeTpaBHCHHe. IjBeTa 
y Majy m jyHy Henocpemio nocjie GarpeMa. \\bqt 
Tpaje 15-20 jiaHa. npHHoc Me,na no xeKTapy je 
200-300 KHJiorpaMa, a jihcbhh yHoc y HajnoBOJb- 
HHJHM ycjioBHMa Kpehe ce on 5-7 kg. Zlaje o6HJiHy 
KOJiH^HHy HaJKBajiHTeTHHJer nBeraor npaxa KaKO 
3a noTpe6e iraejia TaKO h 3a JtyncKy ynoTpeSy. 

Pa3MHO^caBa ce BeoMa JiaKO - ceMeHOM. 

2. <DAUEJIHJA. OauejiHJa je je^Horo^HinH>a 
6nibKa Koja pacTe Ha cbhm 3eMJbHinTHMa. 
O/yiHHHaje nojieHapnua h HeKTapyma, a kophcth 
ce h Kao cojiH£Ha croHHa xpaHa. Ca je^Hor xeK- 
Tapa iraejie Mory y6paTH y noBOJtHHM BpeMeH- 
ckhm ycjioBHMa 400-600 kg HeKTapa ouhocho 5-7 
kg £HeBHO no kouihhuh, na ce no H3,n,a]iiHOCTH 
Moxe MepnTH h ca GarpeMOM. LJseT Tpaje oko 30 
jiaHa. Ako ce rajw Kao 03hmh yceB UBeTa y Majy na 
HHJe HHTepecaHTHa 3a OBaj pernoH 36or UBeTaH>a 
GarpeMa. Jlo6po ce kophcth Kao japn yceB jep ce 
n>eHO UBeTaH.e Mo^ce nporpaMnpaTH ca^H>OM h 
no^ecHTH na. UBeTa Ta/ia Ka^a Heivra iiBeTOBa 
npyrHX Me^oMOCHHX GnjbaKa. ^oGpe pe3yjiTaTe 
(J)auejiHJa /jaje aKO ce rajn Ha BJia^cHOM 
3eMJbHinTy. 

3. ECIIAP3ETA. To je KpMHa 6nibKa Koja 
zio6po ycneBa wa njiHTKHM, KaMeHHTHM h ch- 
poMauiHHM 3eMJLMUiTHMa tj. Ha 6pe^cyjLKacTMM 
n 6p^oBHTHM npenejiHMa, Te je c Tora BeoMa HH- 
TepecaHTHa 3a OBaj pernoH. O^JTHHHaje CTOHHa 
xpaHa h HeKTapyma. I^BeTa jiBa rryra rojiHmH>e: 
KpajeM Maja h no^eTKOMJyHa, yjyjiy Meceny. Ca 
jejiHor xeKTapa n^ejie Mory yHeTH oko 120 kg 

HeKTapa, a jihcbhh yHoc 3-4 kg no koiuhhiih. 
IjBeTa 20-30 ,n,aHa. 3a n^ejie je HHTepecaHTHO 
npyro UBeTaH>e jepje mgr or OBe 6hjlkc o^JinnaH 
3a npe3HMJi>aBaH>e h 6p3H npojiehHH pa3Boj. 
Ecnap3eTa je h ofljinm-ia nojieHapnua. 




Jedna od jieeyMimosa 



103 



n^ejiap 1998 




Jlecica - npeauodAUHHanojieuamui^a 
Ymccto saiv. i>> MKa 

rTocjieaH>HX zieneHHJa, 36or ncBHarax Mnrpa- 
hmohhx KpeTaiba npeMa rpa^oBHMa, BennHa 
MaitHX Hacejba HajyaajteHHJHX ojx yp6aHHX cpe#- 
HHa ocTajia cy totobo 6e3 MJia^or HapauiTaja. 
CTapanxa ^OMatiHHCTBa HHcy y MoryhHocra aa 
oSparjyjy 3eMibHinTe na oryna y thm no^pyqJHMa, 
Koja cy h HHa^e noroflHa 3a nnejiapeite, HMa 
MHoro HanyuiTeHor 3eMJtHinTa, MHoro yTpHHa h 
Hpyro. Te noMajio h aerpaflwpaHe noBpuiHHe, hc- 
npecenaHe MHorHM noTOUHMa h ^y6o,ziojiHHaMa. 
npyacajy H3BaHpe,ziHe MorynHocra 3a nc\inoaH>e 
Me^oHOCHe <{)Jiope. CapamtoM ca uiyMCKHM ceK- 
UHJaMa, TaKo^e, ce Mory npoHann o^roBapajyhe 



noBpuiHHe Beher o6HMa 3a HCTe CBpxe. npaBHJi- 
hhm ycMepaBan>eM Hanpe^HHX c-Tonapa o no3Ha- 

THM KBaJIHTeTHMa HeKMX KpMHHX 6wjbaKa 

(nepKO, (})aucjiHJa), 3a c-TOHHy ncxpaHy, Koje cy 
HCTOBpeMeHO noromie h 3a Hanpe^HO 
miejiapette, Taicolje ce Mory noBenara noBpuiHHe 
HaMeiteHe no6oibiLiaH>y nnejiHH>e name. 

Moje CTaHOBHUiTe jecTe jia. HHcy y npaBy hckh 
nnejiapH-npaKTHHapw h Teopcnmapn kojh TBp^e 
aa npMpo^HH ycnoBM Kao hhhmohh 3a BHCOKe npn- 
Hoce y nnejiapcTBy, He Mory ce no6ojbinaBaTH. 

Ako ce rwejiapH twryne (h mhcjihm ^a je to CBe 
noTpe6HMJe) #a Ha cbom peoHy opraHHSOBaHO 
pa^e Ha no6ojbmaH>y-npH6jiH:»caBaH>y nnejiHH>e 
name, Mopa jia. panyHajy h ca o/iperjeHHM MaTepw- 
jajiHHM H3aanHMa.TH HH3aauHce npe cBerao^Hoce 
Ha npnnpeMaity ca#HHna 3a noje^HHe BpcTe 
6HJtaKa (jiecKa, #peH), 3a npHKyrubaH>e chhocho 
KynoBHHy ceMeHa Me/ioHOCHor 6njba (nepKO, 
ecnap3eTa . . .), 3a o6e36et)HBaH>e 3eMJbHinHHX 
noBpmnHa (yjbaHa pennua, (j)anejiHJa). 

ripHJia3enH obom noany njiaHCKH h opraHH- 
30BaH0 cbm H3/ianH h caB nnejiapcKH Tpyii y6p3o 
he 6hth BpaheH y BPmy MHonix nnejiHHjHX npons- 
Bo^a. 

JIirrepaTypa 

- Maconnc "nnejiap" (1970-1996.) 

- T. JeBTHfr: )Khbot h rajeite n^ejia 

- PejbHli: llMejiapeH.e h eKOHOMHKa rmejiapeH>a 

- KyjiHHqeBHh-raMHft: FlMejiapcTBO 



TABEJIAPHH IIPErJIEj; HEKHX ME^OHOCHHX BHJLAKA 




HlUHH Blt/hKtf 


BpcMB 


Tpujait* 


TIpHiuK un 


j'l.fn.-imii 


M-JJIdJHHOCT 




UBerniba 


tLBcraifca. 


hav kg 


yw*c 


uuncHaowO-i 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


UpCH 


II H 111 


7-10flflHa 


2(» 


. 


2 


ftnryw 


1 H (I 


7 ,1,1 ifu 


- 


- 


2 


1 BcJia ftpfiii 


111 


)0-l5;Wir:i 


IStl 


2-3 


1-2 


III n IV 


UH&jtun 


15t) 


2-3 


4 


Kiijciijii 


111 H TV 


10-15 Rtfta 


-10 


2 


2 


UcMcpirica 


JV 


IOjuiho 


-in 


12 


2 


IK i.KiiLi ,!i.iin;ih;i 


IV 


lOjtfttn 


211 


1 


2 


BH1I»M 


IV 


HM2K«itt 3U 


1-2 


A 


TpBBBh* 


IV 


10-14 j|ftHa 


-HI 


1-2 


4 


Jufiyva 


IV 


10-14 A^"ii 


25-51) 


0,5-1.5 


4 


Mbomvuc 


IV IT V 


20-30 /la Ha 


5fMfli) 


3 


4 


Ey*A 


IV H V 


1(1 ;ian:i 


2(1 


0J5 


- 


TfltM* 


IV it V 


10-15/iiiHj 


XII 


2-.^ 


3 


ricpKo 


IV 


2CV2.S jiii h;i 


7MO0 


2 


4 


VjT»,THa yiciiKua 


111 ii IX 


2ft -M i Nana 


4U-2IH) 


3-4 


4 


BttjMM 


V 


1IV14 jiawa 


sniv-Am 


3-10 


J 


Anopsia 


V jiVI 


] 5-2U n :« i r.i 


2(«)-3^«» 


5-7 


4 


JIhiih Ocjia 


VI H VII 


Ujtam 


5IV>-1lMX) 


5-11) 


1 


4>jhc/ihjj 


V li VIJI 


3Qjvk» 


4DtMi(in 


5-7 


A 


Ecitap-jcTa 


V, VI h VII 


21) 3(1 ;i;i fr il 


I2<1 


3-4 


4 


KyincHii 


V H VI 


21 A3" 


40 


2 


3 


Manna 


V H VI 


21jtaH 


nm-2ry» 


4*6 


3 


Ccpyma 


vi vm 


iSO^iina 


3nn-*iin 


4-6 


- 


Ecjiii flocviutit 


VI -VI 11 


15-20 gain 


50-200 


2-3 


- 


Hei^Jiima jivjjjepita 


V H IX 


KK^jund 


L2i>-340 


2 


1 



104 



n^ejiap 1998 



3aHMMJbMBOCTlili3CBeTa 




Ilpupeduo, JlacAoJIyicaH, Eenej 



1. Ca ko.imko TpyroBa ce napii MaTHua? 

ITpe 200 ro^HHa je npBH nyr nraajnapcKH 
HayHHHK F. Huber otkpho na Marana nocjie 
cnapHBaita HMa o6ejie>KJe, HaHMe bhph H3 H>e 
ceMeHa Kecnna TpyTa nocjie cnapHBaH>a. Hcth 
Hay^HHK KacHHJe je otkpho, Ra H3 MaTHiie bhph 
^aK jim ceivieHe Kecnue H3 RBa Tpyra. MeljyrHM, 

OBO OTKpHhe HHJe 6HJIO £OBOJbHO o6Hapo^oBaHO, 

TaKO Ra join h 1940-thx ro^HHa, HapoHHTO uor 
yranajeM HeMaHKHX HayHHHKa, CMaTpajio ce jxa ce 
MaTHua cnapyje caMO cajejiHHM TpyTOM. 

TeK 1951. rojiHHe B. B. TpnacKO, cobjctckh 
HayHHHK, je yrepjiHO Ra KOJiHHHHa cnepMe, Koja 
ce HanaHH y MaTHUH, o^roBapa kojihhhhh cnepMe 
Koje nocejjyje 6ap Tpn-neTHpn Tpyra. 

AMepHKaHHH cy npBH npoiunpHJiH BeuiTaHKO 
onjiorjeHje MaTHna. ITouijih cy or Tpn TpyTa, na 
cy y6p30 BtmejiH Ra ce MaTHna 6p30 H3HypH. 
CTora cy nonejiH ca eKcnepHMeHTOM: kojihko 
cnepMe Mopa HMaTH MaTHua, Koja o^roBapa npn- 
Pojihhm nyreM cnapHBan>a MaTHue. 3aKJbyHHJiH 
cy jxa ce MaTHna Tpe6a neceT nyra ,/xa cnapn, or- 
hocho ca jieceT TpyTa, Ra 6h HMana jjoBOJtHy 
KOJiHHHHy cnepMe. J\a ce MaTHna 3ancTa cnapyje 
ca BHine TpyTOBa, to h JiaHK, TaKorje, Moace Ra 
yrBpjiH. HaHMe noTOMCTBO o/ije^He MaTHne, hh- 
Ka/ia HHJe je/nraKO, Hero HMaMO nnejie pa3HHX 
BejiHHHHa h pasjiHHHTHX 6oja yje^Hoj nnejiHH>oj 
3ajejiHHHH. ^a cy nnejie y je/nroj sajejjHHUH no- 
tomuh je^He MaTHne HJe^Hor Tpyra Tpe6ajio 6h 
na 6yny npH6jiK>KHO hctc 

2. Illra je to xairra BHpyc - HPS (Hanlavirus 
Pulmonalis Sindrum)? 

OBaj BHpyc, Kora npeHoce noibCKH mhuicbh, y 
50% cjiynajeBa je CMpTOHOcaH. IlpBH cmpthh 
cjryqaj on OBora BHpyca perncTpoBaH je y CAH, H3 
Hobot MeKCHKa. Bnpyc je jjo6ho HMe or peice 
Hantaan y BnjeTHaMy r,zie je or OBe 6ojiecTH 
o6ojiejio 3 000 aMepHHKHX BOJHHKa. Or 1994. 
ro£HHe Kajia ce je^aH cryneHT, HHCTenn je/iaH Ma- 
rauHH, pa36ojieo h yMpo, mciihhhhckh CBeT je 
noSno 3a,naTaK Ra yno3Ha HajuinpyjaBHOCT o oboj 
onaKoj 6ojiecTH. flouiTO nojtcKH mhuicbh, kojh 
npeHoce OBy 6ojiecT yjia3e y KouiMHuy, nocTojn 
onacHOCT Ra ce n nnejiapn 3apa3e ca obhm 
BnpycoM. C Tora npenopynyje ce: Ra ce npiuiHKOM 
o/icTpaH>HBajba MnmeBa H3 KoniHHue, He yjjnine 
mhphc h npaniHHa H3 KouiHnne. J\a ce ocrami 
MHiujer THe3,zia hjih caMHX MHineBa pajjH ca 
pyxaMa y pyKaBHHH. 

3. Bop6a npoinB Bapoe ca thmojiom y 
CKamniHaBCKHM 3eMJbaMa 

y HopBeuiKoj, IIlBejxcKoj h Ohhckoj 36or;xy- 
roTpaJHe 3HMe, caMO OHe nnejiHibe 3ajejjHHue 



Mory npe3HMHTH Koje cy 3#paBe. CToraje 3a h>hx 
noce6aH npo6jieM 6ho 6op6a npoTHB Bapoe. Or 
cbhx HaHHHa HajSojbe hm ce noKa3ao thmoji. 
HaHMe, ohh HMajyje^aH okbhp ca hjihtkhm Bajio- 
bom Ha ropn>oj CTpaHH OKBHpa, a ncnojije cane. 
Taj okbhp CTaBe y cpe^HHy Jierjia ca lOgr THMOJia, 
Te ce thmoji HcnapaBa nejie 3HMe. YTBpflHJiH cy 
na Bapoa kojh H3Jia3H H3 nejinje nana Ha uor h 
yrHHe y BpeMeHCKOM nepnoay on 10 MHHyrano 4 
naca. 

nopen OBora yrBpjjHJiH cy h cjienefre: OBaj 
TpeTMaH He y3HeMHpaBa HopMajiaH xhbot 
n^ejiHH>HX 3ajejjHHua. MaTHne He CTpa^ajy. HeMa 
uiTeTe y Jierjiy. HeMa yMHpan>a nnejia. HeMa 
rpa6exH. HeMa ocTaTaKa y Mejxy h y BOCKy. He 
yrHHe Ha nojiaraH>e jaja. nocrynaK je \qr- 
HOCTaBaH h He Tpa^KH mhoto Tpyna. nocTynaK 
HHJe CKyn h jxaje 3auiTHTy nnejiaMa nejie ro/iHHe. 

4. MyBa iviecapa - Senutainia tricuspis 

OBa BpcTa MyBe h kor Hac nocTojn. y CTpy^Hoj 
jiHTepaTypH peTKO ce cnoMHH>e Kao uiTeTOHHHa 
h 3a nnejiy. TeK neBeneceTHX ro^HHa ce nnme 

HHTeH3HBHHJe O OBOJ UITeTOHHHH . OBe MyBe 

o6hmho ce Hajia3e Ha npeflH>oj CTpaHH KoniHHne 
H3Han JieTa. HapoHHTO y npojiene BHiie ce y BeheM 
6pojy. Ca^eKajy nneny Koja H3Jia3H H3 KoniHHne, 
Te cjieTe Ha nnejiy ca Jie^a h nojioace jaje y nnca- 
jhh otbop nnejie. nnejia He Moxe Ra ce ocjio6ojih 
jiapBe, Te JiapBa je/iyliH n^ejiy y6nje je. no 
noTpe6n ca MpTBe nnejie yjia3H y 3eMJby, ynaypH 
ce h neKa noBOJbHy npHJiHKyna cc H3JierHe y MyBy. 
noniTO cy HHceKTHUH^H, KOJHMa ce Moxe 
yHHinTHTH OBa MyBa, nrreTHH h 3a nnejie, to ce 
npefljia^ce jenna npaKTH^Ha Mepa: Ra ce y nHBCKy 
(})jTaniy cnna Tpn npcra nHBa h Ra ocTaBH Ha 
koiuhhuh. nocjie nap Rana. aKO HMa thx MyBa, 
nnejiap ne ce H3HeHaflHTH: uejia (})Jiauia ne ce 
HanyHHTH ca thm MyBaMa. 



5. KaKO Bapoa ynwe Ha mnpeii>e KpeHHor 
jierjia y npou,einiiMa? 

AMepHKaHUH cy BpuiHJiH eKcnepHMeHT h 
yrBpnHJiH cy, Ra y nnejiHitoj 3ajenHHUH 
3apa3ceHoj BapooM, y npojiene je H3BpmeHO 
MepeH>e, naje yrBp^eHO naje ca 13.5% noBeftaHO 
Ha 52,3% sapa^ceHOCTH nHejiHH>er npyuiTBa ca 
Kpe^HHM JiernoM. JJok y hcto BpeMe y 3ajenHHUH 
6e3 Bapoe ca 10% 3apa^ceHOCTH noBenaite je y 
jieTH.eM nepnojiy Ha 18,8%. nopen OBora iyor 
MHKpocKonoM je BpmeHO nocMaTpaH>e Bapoe, 
HOKa3aHO je Ra cy caMO Haje/jHoj Bapon H36pojajiH 
3.598 cnopa KpeHHor Jierjia. TaKo^eje yTBpljeHO 
Ra Ha niTHTy Bapoe HMa h Rpyrmx y3poHHHKa 
6ojiecTH Kao uito je H03eMa h cnopa Jipyrax 

TJbHBa. 



108 



nnejiap 1998 



6. IlpeBeHTHBHa Mepa 3a oiKpiiuaibe aiviepiiMKe 
Tpyjieaai Jierjia 

IToiiito je OBa SojiecT ko,h Hac floera 
paiunpeHa h nourro nnejiap OTKpHJe 6ojiecT TeK 
Kajia je Ben y sanitoj <})a3H, ica^a Ben nponana 
3ajenHHua, HHJe Ha o^MeT jia ce Kaace HeuiTO o 
TOMe KaKO y CBeTy npe,ry3HMajy Mepe 3a paHHJe 
OTKpiihe OBe SojiecTH. HaHMe, OTKpHBeHoje, jxa 
y Me^y 3apa^ceHe 3aje#Huue ce Taicolje Hajia3e 
cnope npoy3poKOBaua OBe 6arceeTH-Bacilms 
larvc-a. rio3HaTO je jia HaKOH yrBpfjeHe SojiecTH y 
Me,ny, H3BpmeHa je KOHTpojia nnejiHitaKa, Te je 
KOHCTaTOBaHO jxa hh je^Ha nnejiHH>a saje^HHua y 
cnopHOM nnejiHitaKy HHJe MaHH(})ecTOBajia 
6ojiecT, uito yKa3yje Ha to, jxa npucycTBO 6auujia 
y nnejiHH>aKy He hobo^h o6aBe3HO h y CBaKOM 
ciry^ajy h ,ho nojaBe o6ojbeH>a. MefjyraM, axo ce 
nHejiHH>e 3aje/iHHHe Harjy y TaKBOj cuTyauHJu jxa 
He Mory o^ojieTH Hana^y 6auHJia, OHe tie ce 
pa36ojieTH h Tajxa 3Ha ce una he ce aecHTH. CTora 
ce npejyiaace jxa ce mcji majte Ha npeBeHTHBHy 
KOHTpojiy, pa^H SjiaroBpeMeHor yTBprjHBaita 
y3poMHHKa 6ojiecTH. 

7. Pe3HCTeiniHJa Ha 4>JiyBajniHaT h y AyerpHJH 

Pe3HCTeHHHJa Ha (jwryBajiHHaT ce uiupn Taxo 
jxa HMa BecTH h H3 AycTpHJe jxa cy OTKpHBeHe 
Bapoe Koje cy OTnopHe Ha (JxnyBajiHHaT. CMaTpa 
ce jx?L pe3HCTeHUHJa Kojaje KpeHyna ca CuuHJinje 
y HTajiuJH, npexo THpojia yuuia He ca\io y Ayc- 
Tpujy Ben h y IIlBajuapcKy h CjioBeHujy. 



MHJiujapaH (J)ophhth (BpeflHOCT Tor nnejiuiber 
(})OH/ia). riuejiHH>auH cy npeTe^cHO BejiHKH on 50- 
100 npyuiTaBa ajiu HMa BejiHKH 6poj h uiMerjy 
200-400 npyunaBa . Pa#H ce o hckhx 1 5 .000 
nuejiapa-po6HHX nponsBofjaua. npo6jieM noBe- 
haBa joui h to, uito cy nuejiapn y Mafjapcicoj u 
npouuie ronuHe HMajiu cjia6o Me#o6paH>e, Taxo 
na je (})HHaHCHJCKO CTaite nuenapa Bpjio Jiouie. 

9. IlMejiapcTBO h 3aKOH o iiiYMavia 

riuejie cy aHrjejiu nojba u uiyMa. Hnje noTpe- 
6ho noce6HO HarjiacuTH kojihko cy 6ujbKe h 
nuejie noBe3aHe, noce6HO y #aHaiuH>e BpeMe, 
Kaaa 36or HHTeH3UBHor npcicaH>a, BeftuHa Kopuc- 
hux HHceKaTa 3a onpauiHBaite 6ujta yHuuiTeHO. 
y uejioM CBeTy je no3HaTO h yBaxeHO jiaje 3Hauaj 
nuejia 3a yHHH>eHO onpamuBaifce y paTapcTBy, 
noBpTapcTBy, BoftapcTBy, BMHorpa^apcTBy, miji. 
je 90%. a npHxo/i ojx wdjxa je CBera 10% 3a 
npyuiTBeHy 3aje,HHHuy. HoBa BpeMeHa. CTBapajy u 
HOBe omroce H3Mef)y uiyMapa h nnejiapa. flpe 
CBera 6arpeM u Jiuna ycTynajy MecTO #pyruM uh- 
nycTpujcKH 3HanaJHUM copTaMa. Becnapuua u 
tpxhhiho npuBpe5uBaH>e Tepa uiyMape aa yBone 
aaac6uHe 3a KopHuiheH>e 3eMJtuuiTa (y CTBapu 
name). Hobh 3aKOHH 3a^p^caBajy CTape oape^Se 
no KojuMa je KopHiuneH>e naura £03BOJbeHO h 
6ecnjiaTHO, ajiu o^perjyjy jia nnejiapu Mopajy 
o6aBecTHTH HMaoua name, kojh HMajy npaBO jxa 
o^pe^e JioKauHJy 3a nnejiuifcaK Taxo jxa ohu He 
OMeTajy pan uiyMapa, TypucTe-H3JieTHHKe, npo- 
jia3HUKe, wtr. uito naje MorynHOCT 3a MaHHny- 
jiauHJy. 



8. Be3 Ma repiija-iiie noMonn/ip>Kaue, npeKO 

3HMe Moaie ^a c ipa/ia Belm ^eo iwejimber 

4»on ja y JNlaTjapcivO j 

HaKOH aHajiH3upaH)a nonaTaica nap aeueHHJa 
yHa3afl, y Mafjapcicoj cy 3aKJbyuujiu jia obo- 
rojiHuiH.H KJiHMaTCKH ycnoBH cy OHeMorynujiH 
nuejiapeite y toj Mepu aa npe je^Ba jibs. Meceua 
npe y3eMJteH>a nuejia CTan>e je ajiapMaHTHO. 
Penuua u 6arpeM cy noTnyHO no^6auujiH, a cyH- 
UOKpeT kojh je Tpe6ao o6e36eauTH 3HMHnuy y 
BejiHKOM 6pojy cjiynajeBa Huje no^Mupno hh 
HHeBHe noTpeSe nnejia. CTora je cnac nuejia y 
npnxpaH>HBaH.y ca 6ap 15 kg uiehepa no flpyimrjy. 
C o63upoM Ra. ce pa^H o 500-600.000 apyuiTaBa 
to je orpoMHa CTaBKa, Koja ce Kpehe usMeljy 4-8 



10. AHHMOHmija je npocjiaeiuia cboj 100- im 
pol)CH/iaH 

y EejiraJH ce po^ujia npBH nyr wieja na ce 
nnejiapu CBeTa noBpeMeHO cacTaHy h rq. H3MeHe 
CBOja ucicycTBa U3 o6jiacTH nuejiapcTBa. OBa 
uaejaje po^eHa 1897. ro^HHe. /Jo 1954-Te ro^HHe 
onpxaHoje 15 KOHrpeca, Ka^aje ^OHeTa o^JiyKa 
aa ce OBaj cbctckh caBe3 nnejiapa Ha30Be AI1H- 
MOH/I,HJA. O^ Ta^a ce caeraje CBaxe apyre 
ronuHe, cthm #a ce KOHKypc 3a flOMahHHa koh- 
rpeca pacnnuie neTupu ronuHe npe. TTo npaBHJiy 
CBaKH zipyra cycpeT ce o^pacaBa y EBponu. y 3HaK 
npH3Han>a 3a unejy, CToro^HuiH.u jy6njiej je 
o^pacaH y Bejiruju. 

Ha ocHOBy -i, lai i;ik;i H3 
"Mchesziijsag"-a 6p. 1-8/97 



109 



nnejiap 1998 



Kojh je 3Hanaj o^raJHBanKor ^pyuiTBa y cejieKUHJH 

nnejia 

IIpoip. dp CAo6odaH MuAopadoeuh 




OBe ro?w- 

He CJiaBHMO 

100 rojiHHa or 
ocHHBan>a Ha- 
me nuejiapcice 
opraHH3auHJe 
h H3JiaxeH>a 
npBor 6poja 
Haiuer uaconn- 
ca no,n ziaHaiu- 

H>HM HMeHOM 

"nnejiap". 

CjiynaJHO 
hjih He, OBoro- 
3HuiH>a nue- 

JiapCKa H3JI03C- 

6a y TaniMa- 
j^aHCKOM nap- 
Ky, npa3HHK 
cbhx nuejiapa 
Cp6nje, yra- 
caK je MHornx, 
3aceHHJia je 
CBe npnpeljeHe ro ca#a. ITope/i MHornx noceTH- 
jiana H3 HHOCTpaHCTBa nonme cy h Haine KOMinnje 
- Byrapn. O^yineBJbeHH cbhm ohhm uito cy 
BH^ejiH, 3a je^HHM uiTaH^OM CKopo y rjiac y3- 
BHKHyuie: "Aji* CTe ra3,iie!" 

Haine 6oraTCTBO, axo to Mo^ce Ra ce Kaxe, je 
join y HeneM apyroM. y nocjiefliwix nap ro^HHa 
Ha HaineM nnejiapcKOM He6y nojaBHJia ce HOBa 
CBeTJiocT - onraJHBanH MaTHua. TTpeMa no/iauHMa 
H3 KaHuejiapHJe Hame opraHH3auHJe h>hxob 6poj 
je flocTHrao oko 70. Ha HHnnnjaTHBy Hamer 
Bejiennejiapa, rocno^HHa HBaHa Benepa, pyico- 
Bo^enn JtynH nnejiapcKor caBe3a Cp6nje, 
rocnona Mnxajno OnjinnoBHn h ITpBocjiaB 
Hemnh, opraHH30BajiH cy 12. HOBeMSpa 1997. 
HjHxob cacTaHaK. HeraHa, HHcy cbh npncycTBO- 
BajiH. Y3 no3HB 3a cacTaHaK 6ho je H3BO,n H3 3aic- 
OHa y KOMe ce MaTnne, nope/i ocTajior, Mory 
CTaBJbaTH y npoMeT caMO axo ce H>HXOBa ceneic- 
nnja BpuiHJia no JiHHnjaMa y npeTxo/iHOM #eceTO- 
ro^HiniteM nepnony. YnponineHO, JiHHHJCKa ce- 
jieKUHJa cacTOJH ce y TOMe Ra ce on bhcoko 
KBajiHTeTHe MaTnne-MaJKe, H3Bo^e MaTnne-icnep- 
Ke, na ce h>hxobo noTOMCTBO oneityje no nponyic- 
thbhocth h /ipyraM napaMeTpnMa. H)HXOBa 
onjiojiH>a je cjioSo^Ha. He y3HMa ce y o63np 
kojihkh je yneo y HacjieflHocra TpyTOBa Kojn cy 
ynecTBOBajin y h>hxoboj onjio#H>H. YcjioBe 
npejiBnrjeHe 3aKOHOM ncnyHno je je^HHO 
"AnnneHTap" Ha nnjeM nejiy je Ham, h y CBeTy 
yBa^ceHH, npo<j). ap JoBaH KyjiHHueBnn. 

Pa3roBop ce yrjiaBHOM bojiho o cejieicnHJH. 
nocne ncrynaifca rocno^e npoc}) . JoBaH 
KyjiHH^eBHna n curaJHBana: Bope IHoninna, Mn- 
pocjiaBa Bn^cnha, HBaHa BeHepa, /JyniaHa 



MocKOBJbeBnna h MnjieTe MapKOBnha (icoonep- 
aHTa " AnnneHTpa"), Ma^a HHcaM HMao HaMepy/ia 
nniTa KaateM, 6no caM npo3BaH Ra y3MeM pen. 
OHa je, OTnpnjiHKe, H3rjieflajia OBaKo: "Ja He 
3HaM una m. KaaceM o cejieKHnjn nuena. nnejia je 
caMa no ce6n je^HO nyijo npnpone n uito Bnme 
ca3HajeM o H>eHOM acHBOTy y CBe caM BefreM nyny. 
OTan, eBponcKor nnenapcTBa CBeuiTeHHK JaH 
"Bep30HJe 1856. muHHe nocne OTKpnfra napTeHO- 
reHese (1845. ro^.), par)an>e TpyTOBa H3 Heo- 
nnorjeHHX jaja CneBnuaHCKO par}an>e), 6ho ecicy- 
MyHHunpaH H3 pe^oBa npKBe, Koja Hnje Morjia 
npnxBaTHTH jxa jom Heico HMa npnBHJiernjy 
aeBHHaHCKor parjaita ochm Hcyca, CHHa EoacHJer. 
Hexn nnejiapcKH Hay^Hnnn TBp^e h flOKa3yjy Ra 
yranaj TpyTOBa Ha Hacjie^HOCT nuejia nue iaK n 
ao 75% (KonTeB, 1991. tor.). IIIto ce Tnne 3aK- 
OHa, oh je jacaH. nojaBa TomiKor Spoja o^ra- 
JHBana MaTHua je y kophct Hamer nuejiapcTBa. 
Bnjia 6n niTeTa aa hm ce 3a6paHH pan. Kojihko 
MHJe no3HaTO, hhko or h>hx Hnje ycneo 3a^oBO- 
jlhth CBe noTpe6e Hauinx nnejiapa." 

noHOBO je roBopno npo(J). KyjiHHHeBnh n 
H3Me^y ocTajior, noTKpenjbyjynn Te3y jia. 
o/uiy^yny yjiory y Hacjie^HocTH nnena HMa 
MaTHua, H3Heo HHH>eHHuy aa cy Hecn £OKa3ajiH aa 
Khepxe or cejieKnnoHHcaHe MaTnne - Majxe Koje 

Cy OmioljeHe TpyTOBHMa H3 HHCKOnpOpyKTHBHHX 

HpyniTaBa cy najie BncoKonpo/iyKTHBHe nnejie. 

CacTanaKJe 3aBpuieH (J)opMHpaH>eM KOMncnje 
Koja he CTynHTH y KOHTaKT ca 3aKOHOflaBueM rq. 
6h ce H3HanuiH Monycn, kojh 6h OMoryhnjiH ,zia ce 
h apyraM o/iraJHBauHMa MaTHua rzl npaBO Ra 
CTaBibajy CBOje MaTnue y npoMeT. 

A ^a jih caMO MaTnne n TpyTOBH npeHoce 
HacjiejicTBO Ha CBOje noTOMCTBO - n^ejie? 

BpaTHMO ce nnTan>y nocTaBibeHOM y HacjioBy 
OBor TeKCTa: Kojn je 3Hanaj o^rajnBaHKor 
apyuiTBa y cejieKunjn nnena? 

Mapjic flapBHH je, CBOjeBpeMeHO, nonByKao 
3Hanaj (3a CBOjy Teopnjy eBonynnje) nnH>eHHue 
nocTojan>a TaK03BaHHX ^pyniTBeHHX HHceicaTa, 
cneunjajiHO Me^oHOCHnx nnejia, koh kojhx "6e- 
cnojiHe jejiHHKe ce pa3Jinicyjy y cbojoj opraHH- 
3an;HJH Kaico or My^cjaxa Taxo h o,n xeHKH Koje cy 
cnoco6He Ra ce c n>HMa nape". Pa3MaTpajyhn Taj 
npo6jieM /JapBHH je #oinao k Mncnn "jia ce c 
npaBOM Mo^ce nocTaBHTH nnTaH>e jejin camacaH 
cjiynaj npyuiTBeHnx HHcexaTa c TeopnjoM npn- 
pojiHe cejieKunje". LUra Bnme, /^apBHH je CMa- 
Tpao Ra je OBaj npo6neM "je/ian o,n HaJBennx 
TeuiKoha" 3a TaHHOCT H.eroBe Teopnje. flapBHHJe 
nomao ro 3aKJbyHKa ^a ce ceneKunja Moate H3- 
bojihth He caMO ca nojcuHHaHHHM opraHH3MHMa 
Beh n ca H>eroBHM uejioKynHHM rpynaMa, y 
cnynajy c nnejiaMa n c nenoM nHejiHH>OM 3ajeRim- 

UOM. 



56 



nqejiap 1998 



MerjyTHM, oB^e je ocTaojenaH HepemeH npo6- 
jieM kojh cy 6hojio3h npen co6om KacHHJe nocra- 
bhjih: Kaxo Mory 6eciuio/iHe (J)opMe Ra yrany Ha 
Hacjie^HOCT aKO OHe 3a co6om He ocTaBJbajy no- 
tomctbo? Kaxo Te SecnoMotiHe h Hecnoco6He 
(J)opMe HHniTa He npe^ajy noTOMCTBy, a y TOKy 
HCTopHJe 3eMJte CBe ce Meitajio -eBOJiynpajio, Te 
je 6ho H3Be^eH 3aKJbyHaK jjaje HacjiejjHOCTHe3aB- 
HCHa or Tejia opraHH3Ma h ycjioBa y KojeM :*khbh. 

Tpe6a HanoMeHyrH Ra cy OBy h cjiHHHe Teo- 
pnje pa3BHJajiH HayqHHnn, kojh caMH c n^ejiaMa 
HHcy pa^HJiH Ben cy caMO pa3MaTpajiH onuiTy 
CHTyauHJy npnpoflHe HCTopHJe HHceKaTa. V to 
BpeMe irqejiapH-6HOJic-3H, 3HajyfiH pa3BHTaK 
nMejiHH>e 3ajeiiHHne, jj,ojia3HJiH cy k npaBHJiHHJHM 
3aKJi>yHLiHMa. Taico cy no3HaTH HayHHHnn pycKor 
iraejiapcTBaripcx}). T. n. KoHflpaTJeBnaKaneMHK 
A. M. ByTJiepoB ynopHO 6paHHJiH Te3y o TOMe Ra 
y (})opMHpaH>y Hacjieija nHejiHH>er jjpyniTBa 
BaacHy yjiory Hipajy nnejie - pajiHjnme. MerjyTHM, 
rjiac obhx HayHHHKa 6no je 3arjiymeH or CTpaHe 
30ojiora kojh cy 6hjih npHBpxeHH cynpoTHOM 
MHinibeH>y. II. JI. CHeaceBCKHJ, caMoyKH nnejiap, 
yje^HOM or cbojhx nocjiejjH>nx HJiaHaxa 1937. tor. 
6noje npHHyrjeH rel Hannnie: " Ja caM ocTao je/i- 
hhh He HamaBuiH npncTajrana y TOMe na y 
no6ojbinaH>y nnejia HMa yranaj, He caMO OTan h 
MaJKa (TpyT h Marana) Ben h CTeneH bpcthocth 
Tpefter ejieMeHTa - ojjraJHBanKor ,zipyinTBa." 

Ho, h npe Hero nrroje OBaj pan oojaBJbeH, Ha 
eKcnepHMeHTajiHoj nnejiapcKoj CTaHHHH y TyjiH 
(y 6jih3hhh je JacHa riojLaHa me je iracao h 
miejiapno JT. H. Tojictoj) Snjia je 3aBpmeHa 
cepHJa opnrHHajiHHX onHTa A. C. MnxajjioBa, 
KOJHJe H3MepHBinH BennnHHe HeKHX KapaKTep- 
hcthhhhx oco6HHa nnejia h o6pannBniH hx 

BapHUHOHO-CTaTHCTHMKOM MeTOJIOM, y6enJbHBO 

HOKa3ao Ra iraejie pannjinne - xpaHHTejbHue 
HMajy onpeijemi yTHuaj Ha Heice MopcJDOJioniKe 
KapaKTepHCTHKe npHJiHKOM onroja, H>HMa Tyfjer, 
jierjra. HnaK, no npn3Han>a Ra n^ejie - 
xpaHHTejbHue HMajy ynena y HacnenHocra Shjio 
je join naneKO. 

MerjyTHM, 50-thx ronHHa npo(})ecopH A. <I>. 
Ty6HH h H. A. XajiH(})MaH cy H3BejiH onnyHyjynn 
eKcnepHMeHT. noSyne cy 6HJie hhcto 
npaKTH^Hor KapaKTepa. Tpe6ajio je pa3JacHHTH 
kojihko je ocHOBaHa Hana y no6ojbinaH>y nnena 
caMO npocTOM 3aMeHOM MaTHue. Onrajara 
Marane pejiaTHBHO HHJe TeuiKO. n^enapn cy 
HaSaBibajiH cejieKHHOHHcaHe MaTHue h or h>hx 
h3bo/ihjih MJiane MaTHue aiiH cy pe3yjiTaTH 6hjih 
najieKO or o^eKHBaHHX. /Jouijio ce no npeT- 
nocTaBKe Ra nnene - xpaHHTejbHue Ha hckh HanHH 
"KBape" reHeTHKy HOBoporjeHnx MaTnna. A. O. 
Ty6HH h H. A. XajiH(})MaH cy xtcjih Ra yTBpne 
CTeneH Tor yrHnaja. Ohh cy y rHe3no npymTBa 
cpe^H>epycKe nnejie CTaBHJiH npa3aH caT y Kora je 
MaTHiia ycKopo 3ajierjra jaja. TTpe Hero hito cy ce 
H3 jaja H3Bejie JiapBe caT cy npeMecTiuiH y 
iipyuiTBO KaBKacKHX nnejia H3 Kora cy npeTxonHO 
oncTpaHiuiH CBe paMOBe c OTBOpeHHM JierjioM. 
KaBKacKe nnene cy 6nne npnHyfjeHe Ra Heryjy 
"KyKaBHHHJa jaja". Kana je Jierjio 6hjio 
3aTBOpeHO eKcnepHMeHTaTopn cy H3BannnH pa- 

MOBe H3 KOIHHHHe H CTaBHJiH HX y HHKy6aT0p TRQ 

je TeMnepaTypa 6HJia HCTa Kao h y koihhhhh. Y 



thm ycjioBHMa nnene cy ce HopMajiHO H3Bene h 
ycKopo, xpaHenn ce MenoM h nojieHOM, nocTane 
cy pa^HO cnoco6He. Or h>hx cy <J)opMHpann 
npyniTBO h nann My MorynHOCT na noiciana Men. 
To je 6ho o r iury i ryjynH MOMeHaT eKcnepHMeHTa. 
HcnHTHBanH cy npoMHiHJbeHO hckophcthjih 
nHH>eHHuy na KaBKacKe h cpejiH>epycKe nnene He 
noKJianajy mqr Ha hcth HaHHH. KaBKacKe nnejie, 
KaR ca3pe mqr y ftenHJaMa, BouiTane noKJioniie 
npHJLy6jbyjy y3 Men Taxo ,zia caT c Me,zioM o/iaje 
yrncaK Kao ^a je "MOKap". CpejutepycKe nnejie, 
nax, H3Merjy M&Ra h BouiTaHor noKJionua 
ocTaBJbajy cjioj Baszjyxa na caT Hsrjie^a 6eo 
("cyBO noKJianaH.e"). Pa3JiHKe y "nnejinHjOJ 
ecTeTHun" Tpe6ajie cy mhoto jja Kaacy HcnH- 
THBaHHMa reHeTCKHX TaJHH KOHiHHue. KaRa cy 
eKcnepHMeHTajiHa apyuiTBa 3aBpniHJia cboj pan 
HcnocTaBHJio ce #a cy KaBKacKe nnejie ojicTynHJie 
or vena cbojhx npeRaKa: Reo nejiBJa ca 3penHM 
Me/ioM OHe cy noKJianajie "na pycKH" , jjok 
cpe/iH>epycKe nnene, aKO cy H>nxoBe JiapBe o^ra- 
jane KaBKacKe nnejie, CTeicie cy MaHHp ^a Me/j, 
noKJianajy Ha "mokph" Ha^HH, Kao uito HHHe 
KaBKacKe. 

Hapo^Ha nocjioBHna "c khm ch, TaKaB ch", y 
kojoj HMa MHoro HCTHHe, He 6h Morjia Ra ce npn- 
MeHH Ha n^ejie H3 eKcnepHMeHTa jep cy 6HJie 
jinmeHe MoryriHOCTH Ra "burq h Hayqe" or nnejia 
KaKO ce noKJiana mqr. Ilpe 6h Morjia na ce npn- 
MeHH OHa " HHJe MaJKa OHa Koja Meje poiiHJia, Hero 
OHa Koja Meje onraJHJia", Koja 6n npeBe^eHa Ha 
nnejiHH>H "je3HK" Morjia Ra H3nie,na: "Hnje mh 
nopoRima OHa Koja Me je H3HenpHJia, Hero OHa 
Koja Meje onxpaHHJia". 

036HJbHy npoBepy obhx eKcnepHMeHaTa 
H3BpniHoje y AycTpnJH llpoc}). Opnnpnx PyTHep, 
kojh y saKibyqicy Kaace: "FIoTpeSHOje 036hjbho 
pa^yHaTH Ha MoryriHOCTH npoMeHe onpe^eHHX 
ocoSHHa noTOMCTBa uor yrnnajeM cnenHc^H^He 
H3MeHe MJiena. Y CBaKOM cjryqajy Taj npo6jieM He 
6h Tpe6ajio BHme 3ao6HJia3HTH." 

iipo(})ecopH A. H. MejbHH^eHKO h H. J\. Byp- 
MHCTpoBa ncnHTyjyriH Ha XHJbane HHceKaTa, Merjy 
H>HMa oko 350 MaTnna h 1000 TpyTOBa (H>nxoBa 
HcnHTHBaH>a cy Tpajajia hckojikko lORmna) cy 
yrBpjiHJiH Ra HcxpaHa TyrjHM MJie^oM Moace yra- 
iiaTH Ha H3MeHy KapaKTepncTHKa kojj nnejia 
pajiHJiHua, TpyTOBa n MaTHna, npn ^eMy cy Te 
H3MeHe canyBaHe y npyroM, TpeheM h hctbptom 
noKOJLeHjy . 3HaHH , nocTane cy Hacjie^He . 
Me^yTHM, npoTHB npH3Han>a yjiore nnejia 
pa^HJiHua - xpaHHTejbHna y HacjiejiHOCTH MaTnna 
h TpyTOBa nojaBHJia cy ce HOBa ocnopaBaH>a 6e3 
noTpe6Hnx eKcnepHMeHTajiHHX noTBp/ia. Je/iHa 
or 036hjlhhx npHMe^Sn thx ocnopaBaH>a, Ha 
npHMep, 6njia je Ra y Mara^HOM MJieny, kojh Jiyne 
n^ejie - xpaHHTejbHue HeMa TaKBe 6ejiaH i ieBH- 
HacTe MaTepnje Kao niToje DNK, Koja ce c npa- 
bom CMaTpa je/iHOM or rjiaBHHX HOCHJiaua 
Hacjie^He HHcfopMaunje. 

Ho, necHJio ce nyno. Y Topkobckom Yhh- 
Bep3HTeTy (Pycnja) capaaHHK jia6opaTopHJe eK- 
ojiornje h reHeTHKe , MaracTap Ghojiouikhx 
HayKa, 6noxeMH x iap J. JI. BaBHJioB, Bpmefin 
aHajiH3y MaTHHHor MJiena y npBOKJiacHoj 6ho- 
xeMHJCKOj Jia6opaTopHJH Hay^Hor HHCTHTyra 3a 
6HoxeMHJyH <})H3HOJiorHJy:>KHBOTHH>a, noKa3aoje 



57 



nqejiap 1998 



jja ce y CBe^ceM, TeK H3JiyneH0M MaTH^HOM MJie^iy 
iraejia - xpaHHTejbHiia, Hajia3H He caMO RNK Ben 
h DNK, OAJiy^yfte cpejjcTBO Hacjie/iHe HH<})op- 
MaiiHJe. Hcth ayTop je JxejiHMHHHO noKa3ao jja 
HeKe bhcoko MOJieKyjiapHe 6ejiaH i ieBHHacTe Ma- 
Tepnje, He pacnajxajynH ce £0 MOHOMepa, Mory ;xa 
Kpo3 3HJipBe upeBHor TpaKTa npoHHKHy y KpBO- 
tok h Rajbe y tkhbo jaJHHKa Maraue. 

Cbh mh 3HaMO kojihko cy nnejie niTejiJbHBe. 
3HaMO h to Ra nocjie H3JiacKa MaTHne H3 
MaTHHH>aKa, pojeBor hjih THxe CMeHe, Ha RHy 
MaTHHH>aKa ocTaHe tojihko MJieua /xa 6h ce CKopo 
HopMajiHO Morjia ojixpaHHTHJoinje/iHa MaTHHHa 
jiapBa. Hnje jih Ta H3jraiiiHOCT y xpaH>eH>y 
MaTH^He JiapBe ynpaBO y 4)yHKUHJH npenaje hito 
Bene KOJiHHHHe RNK h DNK. AyTop je ckjioh Ra 
y to noBepyje. 

Ha kojh Ha^HH Mory Ra ce npeHoce yrnuaJH 
nHejia-xpaHHTejLHiia noKa3yjy HHTepecaHTHH pa- 
jjobh flOKTOpa Boji(J)a EHrejica (30ojioihkh hh- 
CTHTyr npn BecT(})ajicKOM yHHBep3HTeTy, rpa# 
MHHCTep, HeMaHKa). FLo nojjanHMa B. EHrejica, 
Koje je H3Heo Ha KOHrpecy AnHMOH^HJE 
ojipacaBaHOM y Mockbh 1971. tor. o6ejie2ceHa 
xpaHa panHOH30TonoM npHMeneHa je npBO y 
jiyqeray BHJiH i iHHx:>KJie3Jia, 3aTHM ce 6ejierxpaHe 
nojaBHO y xeMOJTHM(J)H MaTHue, Kojy cy nuejie 
xpaHHJie MJie^oM. Kacmije, hcth pa;iHOH30Tonje 
6ho npncyraH y jaJHMa Koje je Maxima 3aHejia. 
rio3HBajyriH ce Ha aMepHUKor npo(})ecopa M. Ta- 
jjiaKa (1970. toji.), kojh BepoBaTHO Hnje 6ho 
yno3HaT c pe3yjiTaTHMa pycioix Hay^HHKa B. 
EHrejrc nnuie: "yKJbyqeite HeruionHHXjejiHHKH y 
6hojioihkh UHKJiyc pa3MHO^caBaH>a je hhthmhh 
(J)eHOMeH (nojaBa) kojh je otkphbch Kao nocjie- 
jjHua noHamaH>a jjpyniTBeHHX HHceKaTa." 

Ftopeji MHornx pycKHX HayHHHKa kojh cy 
onroHeTajiH nHTaH>e yjiore nnejia xpaHHTejbHua 
y 6hojiothjh n^ejiHfte 3ajejj,HHHe je h Hay^HH 
capa/jHHK 6HOJioniKe CTaHHue MocKOBCKor 
np^caBHor yHHBep3HTeTa (JTomohocob) H. IT. 
CMapar^oBa. OHa je noKa3ajra jja XH6pHJiHa 
npyniTBa Ha CBOje Jierjio HMajy Man>H yrauaj y 
npejxaJH Hacjie^HOCTH Hero uhcto KpBHa, a noce- 
6ho ayTOXTOHa. 

y CBeTJiy OBe HHH>eHHue Mo:ace ce h pa3yMeTH 
3aniTO Ham ripocj). JoBaH KyjiHHHeBHn (^hjh 
OTau, HHKa MnKa, aKO mh je ,no3BOJbeHO jia 
HannuieM, jom yBeK nuejiapn a HMa 95 roji.) y 
CBOJOJ HaJHOBHJOJ KH>H3H, Ha RBa MecTa, c npaBOM 
yno3opaBa jja je yHouieH>e n^ejia y 3eMJby 3aK- 
ohom CTporo 3a6paH>eHO. 

CBy 036hjbhoct obot yno3open>a jjajy HaM 
nuejie "y6HH,e". Y nporpaMy no6ojbiuaH>a Mec- 
HHX nuejia^EpasHJijep^sTaHsaHHJe, 1956. tor. 
Prof. Uorvfk Kerr yBe3ao 183 HeonjiorjeHHX 
MaTHua arpecHBHe a(j) pHHKe nnejie (Apis mellifera 
scutellata adansoni). FLpe Hero ihto ce h nouejio Ha 
ocTBapHBaH>y cejieKHHOHor nporpaMa, Hec- 
MOTpeHO, 26 MaTHiia ce Hamjio Ha cjio6ohh. 
CnapHBniH ce c mcchhm TpyroBHMa h y6HBUiH 
MaTHue y JipyinTBHMa MecHHX nnejra (J>opMHpajie 
cy CBOje KOJioHHJe. H3 h>hxobhx onjiorjeHHX jaja 
H3BojiHJie cy ce XH6pHiiHe nnejie, a H3 Heo- 
njiorjeHHX, 36or napTeHoreHe3e, hhctokpbhh 
TpyTOBH nonyjiaunje ajxaHCOHH. Ohh cy SnjiHJauH 
h 6pacH on TpyTOBa MecHHX n^ejia uito je JioBejio 



ro HeBepoBaTHO 6p3e XH6pHJjH3anHJe. 3aBJiajiajie 
cy nuejie "y6Hue", or kojhx cy mhoth JbynH 
CTpajiajiH. 3a obhx 40 tojj., He caMO jj,a ocBOJHiue 
JyacHy AMepHKy Hero npeKO MeKCHKa, jipcneine 
h yjyaoie jipxaBe CA/],. y nmty 3aniTHTe JhyRW 
or a(J>pHKaHH3HpaHHX nnejia ("y^Hua") y MeK- 
CHKy je HanpaBJbeH njiaH h>hxobot XBaTaita h 
yHHHiTaBaH>a. y nepHojxy or 1990. no 1992. roji., 
rojiHinH>e, y npoceKyje yHHiHTaBaHO 117 XHJba^a 
pojeBa or kojhx cy mhoth 6hjih yxBafteHH y 
BejiHKHM rpanoBHMa. 

He jjo3bojihmo hh ce6n hh JipyrHMa (h pa#H 
Hac h pajiH noTOMCTBa) yKpniTaH>e Hame nnejie 
ca Shjio kojhm apyrHM pacaMa. 

CejieKHHJa y nnejiapcTBy, 36or napTeHO- 
reHe3e TpyTOBa h nojinaHjipHJe MaTHuaje BeoMa 

KOMnJIHKOBaH H, KaO IHTO BHfleCMO, HeH3BeCTaH 

nocao. 36or Tora, BepoBaTHO, hh caM OTau re- 
HeTHKe Teopr Mqhrqji Hnje hh noKyuiaBao ^a 
BpuiH cejieKHHJy nuejia naKO hx je rajno y cbom 
BpTy. Cbh Hanopn cejieKHHOHapa y OBa RBa BeKa 
HHcy ctbophjih hh jeiiHy HOBy npoayKTHBHy pacy 
nuejia. HanpoTHB, MHore pace n^ejia 36or xh- 
6pH^H3aHHJe H3ry6HJie cy CBOjy paHHJy acHBOTHy 
CHary h no3HTHBHe BpejiHOCTH. 

A, Aa JiHJe y cejreKUHJH (no6oibuiaH>y) Haninx 
nuejia BaacHHJa MaTHua, TpyroBH hjih cajja ojjra- 
JHBa^KO flpyuiTBO npe 6h MOKRa. motjio #a 6yae, 
He HayqHO, a (J>hjio30(J)cko, ro caRa HepemeHO 
nHTaH>e: 'TJannje CTapnjejaje hjih KOKOuiKa?". 

Pa3BHne nuejia pajjHJiHua h MaTHua H3 Heo- 
ruiorjeHHXjaja (TejiHTOKHJa) jjaBHOje npHMeheHa 
kor KancKHX nnejia (A. m. capensis) Koje acHBe y 

JyaCHOJ A(J)pHITH. 

JJ& cy Haiue MejjoHOCHe nuejie 3ancTa ^jjo 
npHpojj,e, BeK HaKOH 'Bep30HOBor OTKpnria, 
TauHHje 1949. tojj,., aMepHHKH HayHHHK Macken- 
zen HaM je to ny^o KOMnjieTHpao. ^OKasao je jxa 
ce H3 HeonjiorjeHHX jaja nopeii TpyTOBa Mory, no^ 
o^perjeHHM ycjioBHMa, H3JieriH KaKO nnejie-pa- 
jlHJiHii,e TaKO h MaTHue. Mackenzen je yrjteH- 
jihokchjj,om HapKOTH30Bao HeonjiorjeHe KaBKacKe 
h HTajiHJaHCKe MaTHue. HaKOH HapK03e, y cbhm 

HCnHTHBaHHM CepHJaMa, 6pOJ TaKBHX MaTHua, H3 

UHJer ce Jierjia H3Beo 1 % n^ejia panHJinua, Kpe- 
Tao ce or 23,9-57%. Mhoth Haiun nuejiapn 
npaKTHHapn, kojh cy Behn ^eo cbot acHBOTHor 
BeKa npoBejiH y apyaceH>y c n^ejiaMa, HHcy caMO 
jejjHOM 6hjih y npiuiHUH Ra BHJje Hy^o-MJiajxy 
MaTHuy, cnaceite 3a H>eHO OTpyTOBejio ^pyniTBO. 
A H3peKa BejiHKor (J>paHHycKor npHponH^aKa 
PeMH LLIoBeHa: "nnejie cy 3ancTa hckh nynaH 
CBeT Kao Jjaje nao ca HeKe Jjpyre njiaHeTe" , He 
hhhh jih BaM ce, Ra CBe peueHO noTBprjyje. 

JlHTepaTypa: 

1. I. A. Halifman, O nHTan>y yjiore nnejia 
pajjHJiHua y npeHomeity HacjiejjHOCTH, nuejio- 
bohctbo 1973, 6p. 12, CTp. 38-39. 

2. C. A. nonpaBKO, Bhjbkc h nuejie, MocKBa 
1985. 

3. H. H. Kphbhob, Ochobh reHeTHKe h nep- 
cneKTHBe cejieKHHJe nnejia, riHejioBOJjcTBO 1995. 
6p. 3. CTp. 10-11. 



58 



nqejiap 1998 



Moja KOM6nHOBaHa MeTOAa nne/iapei-ba 



Mean Benep, Kynunoeo 



JJaHamtbH ycjioBH h MHore okojihocth imy Ha 
iiiTeTy 6poJHOCTH-jaHHHe nuenntfee 3ajenHHiie. 
IIlHpoKoje npHXBaheH MeTon nojauaBaitajenHor 
npyuiTBa, Menapa, Ha pa^yH npyror Koje nocraje 
noMohHO. TaKO ce on CTOTHHax npyuiTaBa cejiH 
oko nojioBHHe, a ocTajio ce ocTaBJba Kon Kyfte Ha 
onopaBJLaH>y. To pemeite je CTBopeHO H3 
noTpe6e h HcxycTBa. IIInpoKO ce npnMeiByje h to 
HHJe TaKO hh Jioine. Cjia6a CTpaHa Myje y TOMe 
iiito 3axTeBa nBoerpyKO HHBecTHpaH>e y 
KoiiiHHue h MHoro pana. Kon nojanaBaHHX 
npyuiTaBa JierjioM, necTO ce noncTnue h npn- 
po^,Ha pojiurpa. 

y Tpaateity pemeita 3a HCTe HeH36e^cHe 
npo6jieMe, ajiH ca Maite pana uito je ochobhh 
npenycnoB 3a bcjihkh miennikaK h MaH>e HHBec- 
THUHJa opraHH30BaHe cy Ha HameM miennitaKy 
jlBe MeTone. JenHaje pan ca ^bojhhm npyuiTBHMa, 
kojom OBaj nuennitaK yrjiaBHOM panu h npyra 
3HaTHOje^HOCTaBHHJa h JiaKina 3a pan, kom6hho- 
BaHa MeTona. OHaje npe hckojihko ronnHa npen- 
CTaBJbeHa Kpo3 npenaBaite 6eorpancKHM h ho- 
BocaflCKHM nuenapnMa, Koja je h onucaHa y 
^aconncy "n^enap". Ca H3BecHHM nonyHaMa h 
KopeKUHJaMa npencTaBHhyje h obom npHJiHKOM. 
OHa Hcnyn>aBa 3axTeBe ycneuiHor nuenapeita h 
yKJbyuyje pemaBaite noTpeGa miennitaKa Koje ce 
nojaBJbyjy CBaKe ronHHe. OcHOBHa KapaKTepnc- 
THKa MeTone je na ce panu ca jenHHM npyuiTBOM y 

jeilHOJ KOUIHHUH. YbCK CHa^KHO JIpyiHTBO je Te- 

MeibHa opHJeHTauHJa. PemeH>e ce Hajia3H y 
3aMeHH MaTHue CBaxe ronHHe h iteHOM yBofjeity 
y KoniHHuy nocjie 6arpeM0Be name, He jihkbh^h- 
pajynH HCTOBpeMeHO nocTojeny MaTHuy. 
Hapemra Tpu Meceua o6e MaTHue, pa3nBojeHe y 
hctoj KOIHHHHH. To je ocHOBa H>eHe CHare h 
ycneniHOCTH. ITo OKOH^aity aKTHBHe ce30He 
npyuiTBa ce cBone HajeiiHy MaTHuy h npyuiTBo y 
jeiiHOM imonHuiHOM HacTaBKy h jibs. nonyHac- 
TaBKa. CBe Toje HcnyH>eHO xpaHOM h nnenaMa, 
6e3 noTpe6e 3a npnxpaikHBaiteM. HecTO cmo 
Shjih, h nopeii CBer Tpyna, ynaraita, na:*CH>e h 
yTpouieHor BpeMeHa, He3anoBon>HH jaiHHOM 
npyuiTaBa 3a 3HMy h nponehe . NpyuiTBa 
npnnpeMJBeHa Ha OBaj HaunH he ncnyHHTH Haiue 
3axTeBe. Ja, CBaKaKO, He no3HajeM Memny Koja 6h 
obo 6on>e peniHJia. 

1.3HMa01. 10. -10.04. 

yHyTpaiiiiBOCT KouiHHue cmo cpennnu KpajeM 
jieTa, a tokom 3HMe TpynHMO ce na nocTaBHMO 
Haj6on>e cnoibHe ycjioBe 3a no6po 3HMOBaH>e 
npyuiTaBa. y TOMe je rjiaBHO ocurypaTH 




Hey3HeMHpaBaH>e npyuiTaBa on CTOKe, B03HJia h 
cji. llHejiHHjaK ce He CMe Hajia3HTH Ha BeTpoMe- 
thhh, a h Kana HHJe Ha TaKBOM MecTy no^ceibHaje 
HeKa 3auiTHTa on Beher CTpyjan>a Ba3nyxa. Hnje 
noSpo naje n*ienHH>aK CMeniTeH y HenocpenHoj 
6jih3hhh BenHX Bo^eHHX noBpuiHHa hhth Ha Te- 
peHHMa kojh cy BJia^HH. CBe cyTO onuiTe Baacehn 
npHHunnn 3a CMeuiTaj h 6opaBaK nuennitaKa 
npeKO 3HMe. IloBpeMeHa o6HJiaaceH>a h Han3op 
Han onp:>KaBaH>eM cnon>HHX ycjioBa n*ienHH>aKa cy 
CBaKaKO noacejbHH na h HeonxonHH. AKOje CBe 
hito je HeonxojiHO ypafjeHO y npnnpeMH 3a 3H- 
MOBaite Tana Hene 6hth noce6He 6pnre 3a CTaite 
npyuxraBa y kouihhuh. OBne ce mhcjih, npe CBera 
Ha o6e36erjeHOCT npyuiTaBa noBOJbHOM xpaHOM, 
h nocTojaH>eM no6por npyuiTBa ca no6poM MaTH- 
uom. 

2. Pa3Boj m ceo5a Ha 5ai peivi 

Kon CHaacHHX npyuiTaBa ce Jierjio nojaBJbyje 
Beh KpajeM jaHyapa h no^eTKOM (J)e6pyapa Me- 
ceua. Eojbe je jia ce nojaBH HeuiTO KacHnje Hero 
pamije. y TOMe je HaJBaaoiuje na Kan jenHOM 
nemo no^He He TpeSa na ce npeKnna Ben na ce 
HHTeH3HBHO uinpu. IlpeKHn y 3aneraH>y HMa yBeK 
nouie nocnenune Ha pa3Boj npyuiTBa. Haj6on>a 
CTHMynauuja 3a no6ap pa3Boj cy noBOJBHe 
KonHHHHe no6pe xpaHe, Mena h HBeTHor npaxa. 
^o nonoBHHe Meceua anpuna nemo Tpe6a na je 
Beh MaKCHManno pa3BujeHO. Tpe6a na je Beh 
npouiao nepnon cna6n>eH>a npyuiTaBa Kana Bnuie 
nnena yMHpe Hero uito ce Mnannx parja, Te je 
HacTana HOBa CHTyauuja Kan ce Buuie Mnannx 
miena pa^a h npyuiTBo 6poJHO noBehaBa. OBOje 
BaacaH TpeHyTaK 36or onpef)HBaH>a BpeMeHa 3a 
npouiHpeH>e npocTopa y kouihhuh. 3aKauiH>eH>e 
y TOMe Momo 6h ce onpa3HTH Ha nojaBy npBHX 
3HaKOBa HaroHa 3a pojiinSoM. Obo noce6HO aKO 
je mienHH>aK cMeuiTeH y no6pHM nauiHHM yc- 
noBHMa 3a paHH nponehHH nepnon. IlBeTaite 



59 



nqejiap 1998 




Bona h yibaHe pennne aejiyje noce6HO craMyjia- 
thbho Ha pa3Boj njanatke jipyuiTaBa. Toje BpeMe 
Kana ce, y oboj MeTo^H pa^a, Bpinn npouiHpeH>e 
RojiaBaibQM je^Hor Tejia y mchhiiihh npocTop. 
FIojiyHacTaBaK, kojh ce tokom 3HMe Hajia3HO Ha 
miacTHUHOj MaTHHHOj peuieTKM , H3Ha# 
iuio^HiuHor HacTaBKa no/inxe ce h hciioa H>era, 
Ha MaTH^Hy peiueTKy CTaBJba ce to npouiHpeite. 
Taj HacTaBaK je HcnyH>eH ca H3rparjeHHM 
Me^HniHHM paMOBHMa y3 nap KOMa^a paMOBa ca 
caTHHM ocHOBaMa. /Jo6po Jiorjy h nap paMOBa y 
KOJHMajom o^jeceHac HMa Majio Me,na h UBeTHor 
npaxa. To cy ohm paMOBH Koje cmo jeceHac 
noniTeaejin npeTanan>a jep HHcy 6hjim CTapn a 
6hjih cy flOHeKJie HcnyH>eHH. 

Obo npomnpeHjeje 6hjto H3a3BaH0 noTpe6oM 
Bener npocTopa 3a CMeuiTaj iraejia, a He 3a 
nponiHpeH>e Jierjia 3a Koje y njiojiHuiTy HMa ro- 
bojlho npocTopa. y cjrynajy nojaBe HeKe 
npe/iname, nnejie HMajy MecTa n 3a CMeurraj 
BHiiiKa yHoca y H>eMy. Obo MO>Ke ycnoBHTH h 
HeuiTO paHHJe npomnpeite. Mjiaae n^ejie Hajia3e 
h MoryhHOCT 3a o6aBJbaH>e rpa£H>e Ha RORaTUM 
caTHHM ocHOBaMa h cpef)HBaH>a ocTanor cafra. 
Obo je o6n i mo je^HHa HHTepBeHnnja koji 
.upyurraBa npe 6arpeMa. Ben kor caMor HHHa 
OTBapaH>a KoniHHue h flOflaBaita Tena 3a 
npouiHpHBaH>e, oueityje ce CHara apyinraBa Te ce 
KomHHue y toj BejiHHHHH h cejie Ha 6arpeM. 
no^cejLaH ^o,n;aTHH nocao npe 6arpeMa 6h Morao 
6hth KOHTpojia 3/ipaBCTBeHor craH>a, npe CBera 
yBH/ioM y KBaiiHTeT Jierjia. 

3. BarpeM (10.5.-27.5) 



HeKOJiHKO paMOBa BeuiTa^Kor cana Han3Me- 
hhhho nocTaBJLeHHX H3Merjy H3rparjeHor. Y 
cjryqajy Ra y ohom HacTaBKy, Kora cmo caR 
o/iy3ejiH HHJe 6hjto Mejia, oh ocTaje Ha cbom 
MecTy, a RORaje My cejom je^aH npa3aH. M kom- 
GHHanHJa ca H>eroBHM 6jiaroBpeMeHHM BpnaH>eM 
h BpanaH>eM y ^pyuiTBOje Taxorje Moryfta. ^o6po 
pa3BHJeHOM apyuiTBy he h 3a 6arpeM 6hth noTpe- 
6Ha CBaKaKO RBa MCHHiima Tejia. Ca obhm 
nocTaBibaHjeM Me^HinHnx HacTaBaxa ypamuin 
cmo cse uito je 6hjio Heonxo^HO 3a HCKopnin- 
heH>e 6arpeMa, o,zihocho npy>KaH>e apyuiTBHMa 
Ho6pnx ycjioBa 3a pan; Ha 6arpeMy. CaB onpe3 ro 
UBaTH>e 6arpeMa cacTojao ce y TOMe Ra y apyuiTBy 
6yne jioBoibHO npocTopa jia. oho He 6h KpeHyjio y 
npaBny pa3Boja HaroHa 3a pojn,n6y. y TOMe Ro6po 
aejryje h npa3aH nauiHH npocTop, kojh kor Hac 
o6hhho Tpaje or 3aBpmeTKa HBaTH>e Bona ro 
noneTKa GarpeMa. 3a BpeMe nBaTH>e 6arpeMa He 
6h CMejio nonn ro nojaBe MaTHHH>aKa o63HpoM Ra 
cy apyuiTBa CHa6^eBeHa MJiaaHM MaTHuaMa. Kor 
apyuiTaBa TaKBor CTaH>a 6Hne HCKOpnuiheHH h 
MHHHMajiHO noBOJLHH ycjioBH kojh ce nojaBe y 





Me^,o6paH>y 6arpeMa. ITo 3aBpmeHOM Mejio- 
6pan>y, ojiy3HMajy ce Me^HH HacTaBHH, 3aMeH>yjy 
ca H3BpuaHHM, nnejiHHjaK ce eBeHTyanHO cejiH (ca 
jejiHHM npa3HHM Me^HuiTeM) h Taxoje cnpeMaH 
3a HOBe h Ba^cHe nocTynKe. 

4. yBot)eH>e HOBe Manme h iipiiupevia 3a JieTity 
nan iv 



Flo /iocejbeH>y Ha 6arpeM n noueTKy Meno- 
6paH>a, hjih Ha MecTy npojieTH>er pa3Boja, aKO Ty 
ocTajeMO 3a GarpeM, 3aMeHjyje ce OHaj HacTaBaK 
y MeRuuiry kojh je Rar Kao nponiHpeH>e, axo y 
H>eMy HMa Meaa. Ha MecTO H>era no^ajy ce RBa 
npa3Ha HacTaBKa , nonyH>eHa ca MJian,HM 
H3rpa^eHHM cafteM Merjy KojnMa Mo^ce 6hth h 



BpeMe ORMax nocjie GarpeMa je H3y3eTHO 
BaacHO 3a ^,arbH pa3Boj jipyuiTaBa, noceSHO 3a 
H>HXOBy npnnpeMy 3a 3HMy h unyny roflHHy. To 
jecTe rnaBHa KapaierepHCTHKa MeTo^e Koje 
onHcyjeMO. ITpe/iycjioB 3a uito ycneuiHHJe pe3yji- 
TaTe je GjraroBpeMeHO o6e36erjeH>e MJia/ie 
onjio^eHe MaTHue. OHa Tpe6a Ra 6yue npon3- 



60 



n^ejiap 1998 




Be/ieHa tokom Maja Meceua, 3a BpeMe HBaTite 
6arpeMa, Haj6oibe Ha cbom nnejiHH>aKy. Ykojimko 
je to HeH3Bcwi>HBO, Tpe6a o6e36e,HHTH H>eHy Ky- 
noBHHy h yBecTM je y KoniHHiry tokom jyHa Me- 
ceua. LLIo npe to 6ojbe. Cano,nH>aHe ce CKHHycBM 
HacTaBUH. Ca^a ce Ha uojubany CTaBH nojiyHac- 
TaBaK KOJH je ro caRa h y 6arpeMy 6ho Ha Bpxy 
KouiHHue. Oh je rope h 3HMOBao. Y H>eMy je 
tokom 3HMe, npojieTH>er pa3Boja h 6arpeMa, 6hjio 
HeKan BHine HeKa# Marae Me/ia. Cjiyacnoje Kao 
3ajiHxa Koja ce TpouiH h RonyYbaBa. M caRa he y 
Ty CBpxy cjiy>KHTH. Oh ce HHKa/ia He Bpua h cji>okm 
apyuiTBy Kao ruaBHH ocjioHau, h CHrypHOCTy MaK- 
CHMajiHOM pa3Bojy h o^ipacaBaH>y y CBaKO Ro6a 
roflHHe. Ha H>era ce CTaBJba npa3HO Tejio Koje je 
rorelto npyuiTBy nocjie GarpeMa. M3 imoflHiuTa 
ce ozry3HMajyziBa TpH paMa canerjioM 6e3 MaTHue 
m flo^ajy ce y noMeHyTO Teno CTaBJbeHO Ha noji- 
yHacTaBaK m no,ziH>aHy. npH TOMe ce MaTHua noce- 
6ho He TpaacH, ceM aKO ce y3rpe^ bhjih, paM ca 
h>om ce ocTaBM y CTapoM iuiQUHiirry. Ta ^Ba Tpn 
paMa ca JiernoM ce naxibHBO CTpecy y CTapo 
njioflHiiiTe kor CTape MaTHue, Te ce TaKO 6e3 
nnejia npenecyy noMeHyra HacTaBaK. Y Taj ROibn 
HacTaBaK ce CTaBH h Maraua y cneuHJajiHOM 
Kase3y. y tukbom KaBe3yja HcnopynjjeM Mamue 
h npifjeM je o/ynmH. MajiH otbop Ha je^HOM 
Kpajy KaBe3a je 3aTBopeH noranoM h HceHKOM 
MaTHHHe peineTKe, BeftH rqo npojia3a je 
3aTBopeH, TaKorje, noranoM. MaTHuy nnejie 3a 
,ziaH-jiBa nycTe yKJiaraajyhH norany. Hobo 
njio^MuiTe ko,zi MJia^e MaTHue ce nyHM 
M3rparjeHMM paMOBHMa kojh cy ro caRa 6hjih y 
tom HacraBKy. Ha H>era ce CTaBH noKJionau, or- 
hocho CHejirpoBa^acKa. Ha H>y CTapo iuicuHiiiTe 
ca CTapoM MaTHUOM h ocTana TpH-nerapH paMa 
jierjia. Ha hcto njio^Hiirre ce CTaBJba nojiyHac- 
TaBaK, kojh je h ro caRa npHna^ao tom npyuiTBy 
h Hajia3H0 ce Ha no^H>aHH. Ako y H>eMy HMa h 
HeuiTO Jiema to He Men>a CTBap. Y #OH>eM 
HpyuiTBy cy TaKO ocTajie cse nnene Koje cy 6HJie 
y ropiteM nonyHacTaBKy h H3JieTHHue Koje ce 
Bpahajy Ha CBOje CTapo JieTO. Y6p30 he HMara m 



MJia^wx nnena H3 jionaTa /iBa-TpH paMa cajiemoM. 
XpaHe HMa aobojlho y nojiyHacTaBKy Te y3 ro- 
Rajy MJiany Marairy h hbcthm npax, Kora y jyHy 
Meceiry HMa ^obojbho, noceGHO Ha GarpeMiry 
(Amorfe), Rdfrw he ro HHTeH3HBHor pa3Boja Jierjia 
y H>eMy. ropH>H njionniuHH HacraBaK HMa TpH- 
^eTHpH paMa Jierjia h CBe MJiajje nnejie, CBOjy 
CTapy MaTHuy h nojiyHacTaBaK ca cajipxajeM y 
H>eMy or HBeTHor npaxa, Me^a h eBeHTyajiHO 
HeuiTO Jierjia. M obo njiomnuTe, ca cbojom Mara- 
hom, he HacTaBHTH ca hhtch3hbhhm pa3BojeM. 
AKOje Ha ropiteM HacTaBKy 6hojoui or paHHJe 
OTBopeH, o/ihocho H3BarjeH ^en H3 npe/iH>er 
OTBopa or 25 mm npeHHHKa, kojh ce o6hhho 
CTaBJba h Ha KOMeje JieTejio noHeuiTO H3JieTHHua, 
ropH>e apyuiTBO he 6hth yTOJiHKO y noBOJbHHJeM 
nojioxajy, jep he o^Max HMaTH h HeuiTO H3JieT- 
HHua, Te Hehe aoxhbcth 3acToj y pa3Bojy. 

y cjrynajy Ra je ko^ onepauHJe pa3pojaBan>a 
yTBprjeHO Ra je apyniTBO HMarco noByneHHX 
MaTH4H.aKa, Ta^a ce y florae njioflHiHTe RORaje 
caMO MJia.ua MaTHua 6e3 Jierjia, a ropran rco 
ocTaBiba noTnyHO 6e3 H3JieTHHua KaKO 6h 6hjio 
noTnyHO cnpeneHO H3pojaBaite. y TaKBOM CTaray 
BejiHHHHe, KouiHHue ce cejie Ha cyHHOKpeT kojh 
o6h x iho noHHH>e oko npBorjyua. 

5.CyHUOKpeT(4.7.-25.7.) 

no flonacKy Ha cyHHOKpeT, hjih y raeroBOM 
noneTKy, aKO He cejiHMO, KouiHHua ce npouiHpyje 
Ha Taj HaHHH uito ce Ha Ron>e njioflHiiiTe CTaBJba 
MaTH^Ha pemeTKa, Han>y RBa npa3Ha HacTaBKa ca 




61 



riqejiap 1998 



H3rpaf)eHHM catieM, Mo^ce n noMeiuaHHM ca Ta6- 
jiaMa BeuiTa^Kor catia, a H3Han, Ha Ta MenwiiiTa, 
nocTaBiba ce npyuiTBO Koje je h nocan 6hjio y 
ropH>eM nojio^cajy. McTOBpeMeHoce, npeKOJieTa 
Ha CHejirpoBoj nacKH, ony3HMajy H3neTHHHe on, 
ropn>er apyuiTBa m ycMepaBajy y MenninTe noraer. 
TaKO cmo notte apyuiTBO 3HanaJHO noja^anw. y 
CTBapn, Ha Taj HaHHH cmo y noH>H nonoxaj Bpa- 
thjih CBe nnejie Koje cy 6nne npe6aqeHe y ropn>H 
nojio^caj jom Kon yBorjeH>a npyre Marane. To cy 
OHe nnejie Koje cy ce H3Jierjie H3 Tpw-HerapH paMa 
jierjia ocTaBJbeHnx ropitoj CTapoj MaTHiiH jom 
KOfl pa3nBajaH>a. Ha Taj HaHHH ca6npHa CHara y 
kokihhhh Hwje HHiuTa H3ry6HJia. HanpoTHB, no- 
6nna je h neo HOB03ajie^ceHHX h HOBOH3JierjiHX 
MJia^HX iraejia on ropi^e Marane, Koje cy porjeHe 
y MerjyBpeMeHy. yKonnKO npe je oojaBJteHO 
pa3pojaBaHje nocjie 6arpeMa, o^hocho yBorjeH.e 
npyre Marane , yTonnKO BHiue tie 6hth rax 
MJiajHX n^ejia Koje cy 3ajie^ceHe nocjie 6arpeMa, 
na tie m Rotbe npyuiTBO 6nra yTOJiHKO jane. Ako 
cmo HeuiTO 3aKacHHJiH ca noMeHyTHM 
cperjHBaH.eM nocjie 6arpeMa h yBorjeH>eM HOBe 
Maraue, mm tieMO HMara MaH>e HOBOHacTa/iHX 
n^ejia 3a nojanaBatbe non>er npymTBa. Apyra 
kophct on pa3pojaBaH>a m nan>e ocTaje h OHa je 
rjiaBHa. Cnajan>eM 3a 3HMy, ropn.er h non»er 
npyuiTBa, HMatieMO CHa^cHO npyuiTBO 3a 3HMy, 
npojietie m 6arpeM h CBe ocTajie npenHocra Koje 
to noHOCH. 

OpraHH3yjyhH OBaj HannH ja*iaH>a npyuiTaBa 
HMajie cy ce y Bnny nauiHe npHJiHKe npn KOJHMa 
ce opHJeHTHiue HanBe rjiaBHe name. BarpeM Kao 
paHy h cyHUOKpeT Kao nera>y. ITpH TOMe je jyHH 
Meceu 6e3 H3pa3Hrajer Meno6pan>a h yrjraBHOM 
cjiyxcH 3a cperjHBaH>e npyuiTaBa h npnnpeMy 3a 
nera>y namy.20.6.-10.7. 

y cjiynajy KopHinneita nnne (Ha OpyuiKoj 
TopH Koja o6mhho Kpetie ca MeneH>eM oko 25.06.) 
nocTynaK Moxe na ce pa3JiHKyje yHeKOJiHKO y 
TOMe, na ce iiito Man>e pa36HJa ca6Hpa x nca CHara 
npyuiTaBa. To hcto Baacn h 3a eBeHTyajiHO 
KopHmlieH>e nHBancKe name. 

Mothbh 3a Hanie nocTynKe y obo no6a ronnHe 
ce cacToje y HacTojajty na onyBaMO ca6Hpa i ncy 
CHary npyuiTaBa 3a HacTynajyfty namy. ,U,a y toj 
nauiH cnpeunMO eBeHTya/iHa pojeH>a, iuto je 
H3paxeHO Kon Kopnmneika jiHBa^a. ,11a 
3aMeHHMo MaTHny, uito je npenycnoB sa no6pa 
npyuiTBa. J\a ctbophmo CHa>KHa npyuiTBa 3a 3HMy 
h npojietie. Tokom ronHHe HeMaMO noBOJLHHJH 
TpeHyTaK na npeny3MeMO Mepe 3a 3aMeHy MaTHua 
h jauaitc npyuiTaBa 3a Hnyhy ronnHy. CTora, 
TOMe MopaMO nocBeTHTH HaJBehy na^oty 6am 
Tana, Kan onBajaH>e paMa Jierjia h HeuiTO nnena 
He npeflCTaBJtajy bcjimko cna6jbeH>e npyuiTBajep 
je oho can Hajjane, Mo>Kna y3 HeKe jiHHHe KopeK- 
unje h npHJiaro^aBaHia noTpe6aMa. 



6. Ilocjie cyHiioKpeTa 

Meno6pan»e Ha cyHHOKpeTy ce 3aBpmaBa no 
20. 07. Ilocjie HeKOJiHKO naHa ca3peBaH>a Mena, 
ojiy3HMajy ce MenHumn HacTaBUH. yMecTo h>hx 
Mo^ce ce CTaBHTH jenaH HacTaBaK hjih nojiyHac- 
TaBaK ca H3rpafjeHHM catieM 3a npHXBaTJom yseK 
3HanaJHe KonnunHe nnena y noraeM npyuiTBy h 
CMemTaj eBeHTyajiHHX HaKHanHHX yHoca or 
6ocHJbKa, neTejiHHe, KopoBa h cji. floSpoje aKO 
ce y Taj HacTaBaK craBH h paM xpaHHJiHua ca 
noranoM or oko 3 kg. OHa tie nocjryaorra 
CTHMyjiHcaH>y roh>q MaTHue rq. paHO He npeKHHe 
3ajieraH>e. CBe ocTajio ocTaje 6e3 npoMeHa. 
TopH>e npyuiTBO ca CTapoM MaTHiipM ce tokom 
aBrycTa Meceua onopaBJbajio or ony3HMaH>a 
H3JieTHHua h caaaje ocpe,ziH>e. ,HoH»eje 3HaTHo 
CHa^cHHJe or H>era. IlHejie jom yBeK Hajia3e HBeT- 



- — vm 




hot npaxa h na6Hpne noMajio Mena ca noMeHyrax 
GHJbaKa. BaxHO je na ce o6hm Jierjia 3anp>KH y 
aBiycTyjom yBeKyno6poj kojihmmhh. y to BpeMe 
ce CTBapajy "3HMCKe nnejie". OnMax no ony3H- 
Man>y MenaJomncTHnaH, BaiKia CTaBHTH JieTBHne 
(J)jiyBajiHHaTa npoTHB Bapoe . AsrycT Meceu 
Tpe6a HCKopHCTHTH h 3a npernen npyuiTaBa Ha 
n^ejiHH>e 6ojiecTH. 

7. JliiivBiimipaibe ropibe, CTape MaTHue 

FIoHeTKOM cenTeMGpa ce on ropH.ernpyuiTBa, 
npeKO neTa ony3HMajy H3neTHHLi;e y kophct 
noHjer npyuiTBa. Obo ce hkhvl rsl 6h ce CTapa 
MaTHua JiaKiue Hamna y ocTaTKy Mnannx n^ena. 
Kpo3 nBa-Tpn naHa ce npoHarje CTapa MaTHua h 
nHKBHnHpa. yicnoHH ce CHenrpoBanacKa H3Merjy 
npymTaBa. McTOBpeMeHo ce yicnoHH h npHBpe- 
MeHO CTaBn.eHH npa3aH MennuiHH HacTaBaK. Oh 
je onnrpao CBOjy ynory, a h paM xpaHHnnna je Beti 
HcnpaxH>eHa. FIonyHacTaBaK ropn>ernpyiuTBa ce 



62 



n^ejiap 1998 




CTaBH Ha MaTHHHy peiueTKy potter njio^HuiTa, a 
Ha H.era iljiouhhihh HacTaBaK ropH>er npyuiTBa 
ca^a Ben 6e3 MaTHue. Tokom Hape^HHX RBajie- 
ceTaK aaHa, CBaKaKO ro Kpaja cenTeM6pa, Jierjio 
he H3 ropn>er njioflHinra, o^hocho H>eroBHX pa- 
MOBa, noTnyHO hshhh. Taxo je KouiHHua Beh 
3ay3ejia 3hmckh pacnopea, ceM uiToje Ha H>oj join 
ocTajio njionHuiTe ropiter npyuiTBa 6e3 MaTHue. 
ITo H3JiacKy CBer Jierjia H3 Tor ropH>er HacTaBKa, 
oh ce o#y3HMa h hoch y pannoHHiry Ha npeTa- 
naite. Irbera cy n^ejie, H0B0H3Jie:aceHe, yrjiaBHOM 
HanycTHJie h CHinjie koji nocTojehe MaTHue. Jlo- 
6pHM aejioM cy npeHejie y roionHiHTe h Mea H3 Tor 
HacTaBKa. YKOJiHKOje 3a thm noipe6a 6HJia Beha, 
yTOJiHKO cy OHe to y Behoj Mepn h o6aBHJie. 

PaMOBH H3 Tor 6HBiner njio^HuiHor HacTaBKa 
ce yrjiaBHOM npeTanajy uiToje 3HanaJHa Mepajep 
ce bhcok nponeHaT iuio/ihihhhx paMOBa pe^oBHO 
3aMeH>yje. Flap paMOBa, kojh cy flo6po CHa6^e- 
BeHH noceSHO HBeTHHM npaxoM, ^o6po je 
3anp^caTH h 3aMeHHTH hx ca nojiynpa3HHM pa- 
MOBHMa y ^OH>eM njionHimy apyuiTBa. 



riHejiHH>aKJe KonaHHO 3ay3eo 3hmckh W3nieji 
h o6hm KouiHHua, cejiH ce y shmobhhk. YHy- 
TpauiH>ocT KouiHHHa Tpe6a flaje noTnyHO noceji- 
Hyr nnejiaMa. ropH>H nojiyHacTaBaKJe nyH Me^a, 
y iuiouhhihom HacTaBKy 10-15 kg Me^a, a y ^ofteM 
nonyHacTaBKy, TaKorje, HeuiTO Mena h npHJiHHHO 
UBeTHor npaxa. TTocjie CTaBJbaHja yronjbaBajyher 
MaTepnjajia ncnoii KpoBa 3aBpniHJiH cmo nnejiap- 
CKy ronHHy. 

1. OBOM MeTO/JOM CMO 3a 3HMy CTBOpHJIH 

CHa^cHO ^pyuiTBO or 4-5 kg MJiajxax nnejia 
H3Jie^ceHHX or nojioBHHe aBrycTa jio nojioBHHe 
OKTo6pa Meceua. To cy TaK03BaHe "shmckc 
nnejie", Koje cy y cbom opraHH3My o6e36e,ziHJie 
MacHO tkhbo Koje hx hhhh noce6HO cnoco6HHM 
3a o6aBJbaH>e shmckhx (j^yHKHHJa h o6e3- 
6ef)HBaH>e ycneuiHor npe3HMJtaBaH>a h pa3Boja 
KpajeM HacTynajyhe 3hmc OHe he noTnyHO 
o6aBHTH CBOjy yjiory, o^hocho o^raJHTH HOBy 
reHepauHj'y mjiohhx nnejia, Koja he o6e36e^HTH 
noTnyHO noaMJialjHBaH>e nHejiHH>e 3ajenHHue h 
ocnoco6HTH je rzl ^octojho npey3Me CBe o6aBe3e 
apyuiTBa y hoboj ce30HH. 

2. JIpyuiTBa cy npaBOBpeMeHO CHa6,aeBeHa 
npBopa3pe^HOM xpaHOM h hbcthhm npaxoM kojh 
je npnnpeMaH y jiBa apyuiTBa, ihto je 3HanajaH 
ycjioB ao6por pa3Boja noneTKOM HapeuHe ce30He 
h CTBapaH>a KBajiHTeTHHX nnejiaje^KHKH. 

3. 3/ipaBCTBeHH yCJIOBH 3HMOBaH>a OBaKBHX 

HpyuiTaBa cy, TaKofje, Bpjio #o6pH. Ho3eMa OB^e 
HeMa ycnoBa 3a pa3Boj, KpeHHO Jierjio - TaKolje. 
CBaxe Tojimne ce 3aMen>yje Behn jieo iuio,miniHHX 
paMOBa hito HMa no3HTHBaH ynmaj Ha #o6po 
3npaBCTBeH0 CTaH>e n^ejiHfbe 3aje,nHHHe. 

4. IIpoiHJiorojiHiHH.a MaTHua ce 3aMeH>yje 
CBaxe rojiHHe. CBaxa Maraua, y CTBapn, ^chbh h 
paanje^Hy uejiy ro^HHy h yapyroj tojihhh yjyHy, 
jyjiy h asrycTy, y neMyje H>eH bcjihkh h HaT- 
npoceHHH ^onpHHOcjanaity 3ajeaHHue. 

5. CBe HaBe^eHoje o6aBJbeHoje£HOCTaBHO, a 
HMa BejiHKH 3Hanaj 3a xhbothh h npHBpe^HH yc- 
nex 3aje#HHue tokom 3HMe h y HapcuHoj ronHHH. 



63 



Eteejiap 1997 



Hiejtuika 3a|Rg-Rc?»-. £ atuwrrwmw 




Ilpotp. dp Cjtododan MiiAopadoeufa 



Ojx cbmx paca nqejia caMO cy ce eBponcKe Me- 
AOHOCHe imejie npiuiaroanne orpOMHMM KJiMMaT- 
ckmm pa3JiMKaMa. 06MTaBajy CByme rae 6iubKe 
oajy HeKTap m nojieH, on eKBaiopa jxo ceBepHnx 
reorpaqbcKiix nmpwHa, 6e3 o63Mpa Ha BejinKe 
TeMnepaTypHe pa3JiHKe or + 49°C jxo -45°C. 3a 
paauMKy on, apyrnx MHceKaia, kojm 3MMyjy y 
crafty aHa6no3e (yMpTBJbeHOCT) nnejie inviajy 
cnocoGHOCT aa npexo 3MMe oapxaBajy TeMnepa- 
Typy HeonxQzmy 3a ^cmbot. 

3tiMa caivio iuto Hiije 3aKyuajia Ha BpaTa 
HauiMx Beh ToruiMx ooMOBa. Hanojty, rae cy tcm- 
nepaiype CBe Hiiace, y KOiuHMuaivia cy Hauie 
nqejie. JIlTa he ce y TOKy 3MMC, jxo npojieha. 
aorarjaTM c R.MMa BiiaeheMO M3 pe3yjiTaTa mhoitix 
paooBa ny6jiMKOBaHMx y pa3HMM BpeivieHMMa m y 

pa3HMM 3CMJbaMa. 

3hmcko nMe.THibe KJiySe 

Kaaa cnojbHa TeivinepaTypa cnaoHe on 12 - 
10°C, nnejie ce rpynMiiiy y iviajie rpyne. CHitacette 
TeMnepaType y KOuiHiiuMJe cnopMJe or CHKKttba 
cnojbHe TeMnepaType, jep Konmnna c paMOBMMa, 
y KOJMMa je Men, wrpa yjiory M30JiaTOpa. Yinene ce 
He CKynibajy y KJiy6e ,aoK ce TeivinepaTypa y 
kouihmum He cnycTM jxo 10°C. Ako TeivinepaTypa 
npoay^aBa aa nana, Majie rpyne niejia ce o6je,nM- 
H^aBajy m npw 7°C (J»opMivipajy jeanHCTBeHy Macy 
-nnejintt-e KJiyGe. ri4ejiMH>e KJiy6e MO^ceivio CMa- 
TpaTM Kao CBOjeBpCTaH opraHM3a\i kojm je cnoco- 
6aH ixa peryjiMine TeivinepaTypy yHyrap CBOJe 
Mace. O/iBOJeHa niejia on KJiy6eTa Beh npn -4°C 
HeMCOKe jxa xmbm bhuic oaje^Hor caTa, aok KJiy6e 
y KOMe je 17.500 nnejia MO^ce oa ^kmbm npn tcm- 
jiepaTypn ojx -15°C, 329 caTM (K. L. Korkins. 
1932.). Mhctmhkt o6pa30BaH>a KJiySeTa M3a3BaH 
je apyrMM CMCTeMMMa peryjiMcaita kojm cy Heo- 
nxooHM 3a npe^aiBJbaBatt-e 3ajeaHMne 3a BpeMe 
Henoro/iHMx 3hmckmx ycjiOBa. 



MeTa6ojiH3aM m TeiwnepaTypa 

Kao n KQa apyrnx xjiaaHOKpBHnx ^chbmx 6nna 
ochobhm hmbo MeTa6ojin3Ma n ynoTpe6a xpaHe 
kqd, niejia, CMattyje ce cnaaan>eM TeMnepaType 
jxo 10°C, Kaaa nocTaje MUHMMa/iHa. C .aajbMM 
naaoM TeMnepaType, nponopnnoHajiHO ce 
yBehaBa noTponnta xpaHe (Z. B. Fri, Z. Simpson, 
1963.). fliejie, H30JiOBaHe ojx KJiy6eTa, M3Merjy 



10° m 7°C nocTajy HenoKpeTHe. Ojx 0° jxo 10°C OHe 
Mory jxa ^oiBe 2-3 ,oaHa, npn -3°C, jxo Tpn caTa, a 
npn -4°CAOJe^HorcaTa (Z. B. Fri, 1966.). 

XnMepjc Hamao, jxa TeMnepaTypa M30JiOBaHe 
nnejie y cranky MnpOBajba ce npn6jnocaBa TeM- 
nepaTypM H>eHe okojimhc, o,ok TeMHepaTypa aK- 
THBHe niejie npeManryje TeMnepaTypy H>eHe oko- 
jiMHe 3a 20°C. MeTa6o;iM3aM kojx M30JiOBaHnx 
nqejia je pacTao npn CHM)KeH>y TeMnepaType 
HiDKe ojx 35°C n .nocrnrao je MiiHMMyM npn 15 n 
20°C. npn TCMnepaTypaMa hidkmm ojx obmx, Me- 
Ta6ojiM3aM ce ycnopaBao o,a npn 7-10°C, nnejie 
nocTajie K0MaT03He (M. D. Alen, 1959.). 

Canp>Kaj Boj,e y Tejry iraejie 

C npn6jinjKaBaH>eM 3HMe caap^caj BO^e y Tejiy 
nnejie ce CMan>yje. IloBeliaHje KOJiniMHe 
yrjbeHAHOKCHAa yHyrap KJiy6eTa CTHMyjinuie 
OTKpMBaH>e anxajina. Kao nocjie^Mna noBehaHor 
KOpMinhett-a Ba3ayxa noBehaBa ce McnapeH^e bojxq 
Kp03 3MAOBe Tpaxeja (Cesajr, 1888;Snogras, 1956.). 
Caap^aj BOixe y xeMOJiHM(J)n peryjinuie jKJie3,ne 
KOpnopa ajiaTa h KOpnopa Kap^naKa. XopMOHM, 
Koje jiyMM KOpnopa KapanaKa CHMJKaBajycan,piKaj 
Bo^e y xeMOJiMM(J)H nnejie, a xopmohm KOpnopa 
ajiaTa noBehaBajy (T. Altman, 1956.). 

LUipivy.TuuHJa some y Tejiy meie 

KaKO niejie 3HMH so/ie aKTHBaH Hainn 
^KHBOTa, noTpe6y 3a boaom 3aaoBOJbaBajy yHy- 
TpamH>MM pe3epBaMa. McnnTHBaH^a cy noKa3ajia 
ixa nnejie KOpncTe He3HaTHy KOJiniMHy BO,ne npn 
10, 15 n 20°C, BeoMa Ma/io npn 25 n 30°C, h 3HaTHO 
BejinKy KOJiMHMHy npn 35 n 40°C (Z. B. Fri, J. 
Spenser-Buts, 1958), Pa3JiH4MTii qbn3nojiomKM 
nponecn ,najy MoryhHOCT HOHOBJbeHe nnpKy- 
jiannje bojxc y opraMH3My. Ha Taj HannH o6pa3yjy 
ce pe3epBe BO^e Heonxo^He 3a kpbotok, BapeH^e 
xpaHe, a TaKorje n 3a HeroBaH^e Jierjia (T. Altman, 
G. Gontoiski, 196!.). 

BeHTiuiannjoM .anxajma ry6nTaK bojxc, Kp03 
ncnapeHie. CMaityje ce c na^OM TeMnepaType c 
20°C Ha 10°C. nponycTJbHBOCT 3anii>er npeBaje 
Beha npn hmckmm TeMnepaTypaMa Hero npn bm- 
coKnM. To ce oojanubaBa c thmc iuto ce xopMOH 
^cjie3j,e KOpnopa ajiaTa, Kojn CHn>icaBa 
nponycTJbMBOCT 3anH>er npeBa, He ocjio6ar}a npn 
hmckmm TeMnepaTypaMa. Kaaa Me,n, ,n,ocne y TpaKT 
3a BapeH>e xpaHe, BQoa Koja ce Haaa3n y H>eMy 



355 



n^ejiap 1997 



(oko 20%) MO^ce /ja 6yne ancop6oBaHa M3 cpe/j- 
H>er upeBa Kojeje OBJia^ceHO xeMOJiMM<J)OM. 

ycjiea MeTa6ojiM3Ma, BOjja ce CTBapa xaaa 
uiehepM Me,na caropeBajy y MMiuMnMMa m jxpyrMM 
TKMBMMa, ocjio6al)ajynM eHeprajy y o6;iMKy ATF 
(adenozintrifosfome kiseline) m xonjiore. Pacxo/r 
Mena 3a CTBapajte eHeprnje je 48% on. yKyrme 
K0JiM4MHe noTpoiiitt-e. Kao pe3yjiTaT noTponiH.e 
lKTMejja, ocjio6arjace 0,681 BO/re(F. Cesair, 1879; 
R. Fris, 1921; Vidmore 1947.). 

IJiipK\ lauiija eo^e yHyrap KJiySera 

Bojjy CTBOpeHy yHyrap KJiy6eTa KOpMCTe CBe 
imejie, xaKO OHe y neHTpy, Koje cy Ty Bony (y 
o6jiMKy nape) h CTBOpMJie, Taico m OHe Koje cy y 
cnojbHeM OMOTany, npMMajynM napy Kp03 iw- 
xajma, Koja ce y TKMBMMa mejia ancop6yje y 
o6jiMKy TenHOCTM. Hmckc TeMnepaType cnojbHor 
aejia K/iy6eTa cnpenaBajy M3Jia3aK Bene 
kojimmmhc Bone y Basnyx n H>eHy KonneH3anMJy Ha 
xjiaAHMM noBpniMHaivia paMOBa, caha m 3MjxpBa 
KOuiHMMe. CyBMnma BO/ra M3 (Jjexa/iMJa 3aAfi>Mx 
npesa, ,a,M4)y3MJOM Kp03 3MAOBe jjocneBa y 
xeMOJiMMtljy, a 3aTMM Kp03 3MHOBe Tpaxeje y 
Ba3/ryx KJiy6eTa. 

KoimeiiTpauiija >ui>ch iiiokcii m 

KojiM4MHa yrjbenaMOKCMAa y Ba3jxyniH0M 
npocTOpy yHyrap KOuiHnne (McnMTMBaHO y OpaH- 
uycKOj) KOJie6ajia ce M3Mel)y 0.2 m 3.08%, a 
K0JiM4MHa KMceoHMKa M3Merjy 13.0-20,5%, y 3aB- 
mchoctm ojx Tora na jim je Baaayx 3a McnMTMBaii>a 

y3MMaH M3 BCHTMJianMOHe MJ1M CTaTMMHe 30He (L. 

Bigo, 1953.). KojiMMMHa yrjteHJTMOKCMjra y 3hm- 
ckom nnejiMHieM KJiy6eTy ce noBehaBa (T. A. 
Avetisjan, 1950.). uito CMan-yje noTpe6y n^ejia 3a 
xpaHOM HMMe ce CMan-yje CTBapan>e <J>eKajiMJa (K. 
I. Mihajlov, G. F. Taranov. 1961.). Simpson (1961) 
npeTnocTaBJba na caacMMan-e KJiy6eTa 3a BpeMe 
xjiaaHohe MO>Ke jxa JTOBe/re jxo noBeftatta KOHueH- 
TpanMJe yrjbeHJTMOKCMjxa y H-eroBOM neHTpy j\o 
4-6%, 4MMe ce nojaqaBa MeTa6ojiM3aM neHTpaji- 
hmx nnejia KJiy6eTa (F. Kjuber, 1972; Z. Fri; Z, 
Simpson, 1961., Z, Simpson, 1963.). 



Caaprcaj (|)ep\ienaTa 

y jieTH^eM nepnony aKTMBHOcr 4>epMeHaTa 
kojj mchohochmx nnejia ce CMaftyje c y3pacTOM, a 
y 3mmckom ce OAp^KaBa Ha bmcokom HMBoy. To 
,n,OKa3yje j\a ce y TOKy 3MMe nponoc CTapeH>a op- 
raHM3Ma 3aycTaBJba. OepMeHT KaTajia3a, kojm ce 
Ha/ia3M y peKTajiHMM ;KJie3,naMa, yrane Ha 3M- 



MOBaite. Oh yKJiaita otpobhm BO/roHMK-nepOK- 
cma M3ABajajynM npM peaKUMJM c h>mm BO/xy m 
KMceoHMK. riqejiMje pace c BefiMM caapxajeM 
KaTajia3e - MOiyTie je, 6ojbe cy ocnoco6jteHe 3a 
jaxe m jxyre 3MMe (M. V. Zerepkin, 1967, 1971). 

Fko. ioi iija 3HMCKor KJiySera 

MHorM MCTpa^oiBaiM cy MCTpajKMBajiM TeM- 
nepaTypy yHyrap KomHMue y TOKy 3MMe. K. D. 
Ouzis (1971) npOBQunoje jviepen-a on 1. ^eneiviGpa 
jxo 3 1 . MapTa y TOKy neT 3MMa n jto6mo 6oraTy 
HH^opMaunjy o npouecuMa Mcnapeii>a, kojm ce 
neiuaBajy y 3mmckom KJiy6eTy. y jteroBOM cno- 
jhti£M cjiojy TeivinepaTypa ce ojrpjKaBa Ha HMBoy 
6.1-12.0°C. C pacTOM mjim naaoivi cno/bHe TeM- 
nepaType KJiy6e ce niMpMJio mjim CKynjbajio, 
yBehaBajynn mjim CMaH-yjynn oahoc M3Merjy n>c- 
roBe noBpmMHe m Mace m M3a3MBajynn Ha Taj 
HaiMH yBehaH^e mjim CMaH>eH.e ojjBoI)eH>a to- 
njiOTe M3 HieroBor neHTpa. 

TeMnepaTypa y neHTpy KJiySeTa 6e3 Jierjia 
KOJie6ajia ce ojx 13-30°C. Memhe je 6njia oko 
30°C. Kajra je cnojbHa TeMnepaTypa 6MJia CTa- 
6njiHa, TeMnepaTypa yHyrap KJiy6eTa ce, TaKorje, 
HMJe MeH^ajia. /],yjTMTJi je ycTaHOBMO jxa npM 
npOMeHM cnojbHe TeMnepaType 3a 15°F (8,3°C) y 
neHTpy K/iy6eTa HacTaje npOMeHa 3a 10°F 
(0.6°C). 

CnojbHa KOpa KJiy6eTa cjiyxM Kao M30JiaTOp 
(E. F. Filips, 1914; T. S. Zdanova, 1958; K. D. Ouzis, 
1971.). Kana no4He M3Bor}eH.e Jierjia TeMnepa- 
Typa y nempy KJiy6eTa 3HaTHO ce noBehaBa 
,HOCTM>KyhM 33°C - 36°C y yjinnn M3Merjy JTBa paMa 
c jierjiOM m 29,5-33°C aKO je.jierjio 6mjio caMO Ha 
je/moj CTpaHM yjinne. HaJBnnia TeMnepaTypa Koja 
je 6MJia M3MepeHa y KJiy6eTy je 40,5°C (K. D. 
Ouzis. 1971). Moxe ce CMaipaTM m je KOJiMHMHa 
TOiuiore KOJyocjio6ar}ajierjiojejTHaKa kojimhmhm 
Ton/iOTe Kojy CTBapajy mctm 6poj nnejia Koje ce 
Hajia3e y CTan-y MMpOBan-a (K. R. Ribends, 1953). 

Kojie6aH>a TeMnepaiype KJiy6eTa Mory ce 
BMAerM y cjie/reliMM cjiy4ajeBMMa: npM BeoMa 
xJiajJHOM BpeMeny, npM HapymaBaH^y cnoKOja 
3MMCKor KJiy6eTa, Kana HacTaje 3HaTHO noBenafte 
TeMnepaType; npM npMxpaHM n^ejia inehepOM, 
Kaaa je npMMeheHO 6p30 noBehan-e TeMnepaType 
Koja ce ojipiKasajia na tom HMBoy y MHTepBa/iy ojx 
10-15 caTM, jia 6m ce 3aTMM BpaTMJia Ha npBo6MTHM 
hmbo (Bjy^ejt, 1960; P. Lavi. 1954). 

3ajejTHMne cjiMHHe no CHa3M m pe3epBaMa 
xpaHe Mory jxa ce paarHKyjy no TeMnepaiypM naK 
3a 9°C. JlpyuiTBa. Hajjana no CHa3M m c bcjimkmm 
pe3epBaMa xpaHe HMcy yBeK 6MJia m "HaJTonjiMJa" 
(P. Lavi. 1954). 



356 



nnejiap 1997 



n^ejie cy cnoco6He jia peryjinmy TeMnepa- 
Typy y 3hmckom KJiy6eTy. Ka,aa cnojbHaxeMnepa- 
Typa nocTaHe hhm ojj, Te Kojy imene noBpniHH- 
CKor cjioja KJiy6eTa Mory na H3/j.pxe, npouecn 
MeTa6ojiH3Ma rmejia y ueHTpy KJiy6eTa ce y6p- 
3aBajy no Tor CTeneHa j\a 6h ce nociHrjia 
oarouapajyha TeMnepaTypa Ha tberoBoj cnoibHoj 
noBpuiMHH. Himer npeinocxaBiba jxa nnejme cno- 
ibHer cjioja KiiySeia ocefrajy TeivinepaTypHe 
pa3JiHKe KpaJH>MM cerivieHTHMa cbojmx aHTeHa h 
pearyjy noBenaiteM hjiu CHHace^eM MexaHHHKHX 
aKTMBHOCTM Koje CTMMyjiumy nnene cyceAHor 
cjioja KJiy6eTa. E. B. Vidmore, (1947) CMaTpa Aa 
n4ejie e<peKTiiBHO KOHTpojiuwy teivinepaTypy, 
peryjiHiuy aotok Ba3Ayxa koJu unpKyjiHine Kp03 
KjiySe. CMaH>eH>e AHMeH3uje KJiy6eTa npn naAy 
cnoibHe TeMnepaType aoboah no CMaH>eH>a 
oniiiTer nonpeiHor npeceKa Ba3AywHMx npOTOKa 
H3Merjy nnejia h Ha Taj HaiHH CMaH>yje ce 6p3HHa 
KpexaH>a Ba3Ayxa, kito ii3a3HBa paBHOMepHO 
noBenaite TeMnepaType yHyiap KJiySeia. Himer 
TBpAH Aa ce nnejie nepHqbepHor cjioja KJiy6eTa He 
3aMeH>yjy nnejiaMa yHyTpaniH>Hx cjiojeBa?. To 
TBprjeH>e npOTHBpemi online npHXBafteHOM 
MHiiiJbeH>y. HeMajyhn MoryfiHOCTAa ce npocjiean 
3a npeMeuiTaH>eM noce6HO iejxne n^ene y 
KJiyGexy, c tom TBpAH>OMJe TeniKO cnopHTM. 

MerjyTMM. unejie Meitajy nojioxtaj KJiy6eTa 
KpehynH ce Ka ApyruM caTOBHMa Aa 6h y3ejie Meji 
(P. Lavt, 1954; D.Ouzis, 1971), aKO ux He 3aAp>KaBa 
npiicycTBO Jierna Ha uctom MecTy. TaKBO 
npeMeniTaH>e Aaje MoryfiHOCT nnejiaMa cnojbHer 
cjioja jxa ce 3arpejy h HaxpaHe. XpaHa ce npeHOcn 
oa nepmpepHJe Ka ueHTpy KJiySeia {G. Kurtois, Z. 
Lekompte, Saleron, 1961). Kjiy6e ce npeMeniTa Ha 
rope, pyx caTOBa, h nonpeHHO oa jejiHor pa\ia Ka 
npyroM, ho Hii y kom c/iyqajy HaAOJie. npn cpejx- 
HjHM TeMnepaTypaMa KJiy6e ce pyniH. C HacTy- 
noM H3HeHajiHHX xjia^Hoha nnene 6p30 (popMM- 
pajy KJiySe, h cnynaJHO Mory Aa H3a6epy MecTO 
HeaoBOJbHO o6e36er)eHO xpaHOM. HeKH 3umckh 
rySnuH Hoce cjiyiaJHii KapaKTep h aeiuaBajy ce 
iaK h koa jaKHX apyniTaBa Koja cy y 3HMy yuiJia 
ca o6hjihhm pe3epBaMa xpaHe. IloHeKaji ce y 
npojiene y kowhmuh Mory bhactm MeAHe pe3epBe 
Ha HexoM pacTOjaH>yoA KJiy6eia yrMHyjiHX niena. 

H3yqaBaH>y BJiaxHOCTH Ba3Ayxa y kouihhuh 
nocBeheHO je mhoto MaH>e paAOBa, Hero 
H3yMaBaH>y TCMiiepaType. Pa3Jiorje y tcxhhhkhm 
noTeuiKohaMa Mepeita BjiaatHocTH, noce6HO 
Merjy caMHM nnejiaMa. Y eKcnepHMeHTHMa 
Orteqa, 3 AOH>eM Tejiy c JierjioM h npBOM Teny Haa 
H>HM pejiaTHBHa BJiaaaiocT Ba3Ayxa Suna je 40- 
62%, y apyroM 32-78%, a y TpeheM (npa3HOM 
Teiiy) 36-90%. BjiaxHOCT Ba3ayxa y koihhhum 



nivia TeHACHunjy jxa ce H3paBHa c BJiaxHOinny qt- 
MOC4>epCKOr Ba3Ayxa H3BaH kouihuuc IlpH Hop- 
MajiHOJ TeMnepaTypu pacnjiOAHO rHe3no je Hajcy- 
BJbn a,eo KOiiiHime c pejiaTHBHOM BJia>KHonihy ojx 
40%. LI,MpKyjiauHJa Ba3jiyxa y kouihhuh o6h4ho 
u^e y civiepy npeMa rope, ho Moxe ,aa 6yj,e m 
o6paTHO, aKO HcyBHiue Tonno BpeMe npHHy^H 
n^ejie jxa. BeHTHJinpajy Jieio. 

PejiaTHBHa Biia>KHOCT y 3hmckom KJiy6eTy, 
npu TeMnepaTypH y koiiihhuh oh 20-30°C, KOJieSa 
ce on 50-80%, a anconyTHa, o6hhho Ha 1-2 mg/1 
BHiue Hero BaH KJiy6eTa (Bjudeq, 1960). npn cpea- 
Hioj TeMnepaTypH on 2-4°C pejiaTHBHa BJia^iHOCT 
Ba3/ryxa y HeKHM jiejioBHMa KouiHHiie je 75-85%. 
a yApyniM 80-98% (P. G. Andrejev. 1974). BeHTH- 
jiau,HJa h Apyra KpeTaH>a Koje nqejie H3BO/ie y 
ueHTpy KJiySeTa CTBapajy paBHOMepHy unpKy- 
JiaiiHJy BojieHe nape, xoja ce yciviepaBa npeina 
Kopn KJiySeTa, rae h H3Jia3H y Ba3,n;yx kojh ra 
OKpy^cyje. 

Ilqejie Koje cy XHBejie npn penaTHBHOj 
BJia^cHOCTw: 25, 51, 57 h 73% HHcy noKa3a;ie 
pa3JiHKy y ziy>KMHH xiiBOTa, ajiw npH 97% 
BJiajKHOCTH OHa ce CMaH>HJia 3a je/iHy leTBpTHHy 
(A. Vudrou, 1935).YjeceH npn AHeBHHM Teivinepa- 
Typaivia on 18°C h penaTHBHOj BJiaacHOCTH on 
60%, TeivinepaTypa y kouihiium ce KOJie6ajia on 
20-25°C, a pejiaTHBHa BJiaacHOCT 6njia je na HHBoy 
40-60%. Hohy, npH cnojbHHM TeMnepaTypaMa oa 
13°C h pejiaTHBHOj BJia^HOCTH on 96%. TeMnepa- 
Typa y kohihhhh 6njiaje 17,5"C, a y n4ejinH>eM 
KJiy6eTy 20-30 o C. PejiaTHBHa BJiaacHOCT y 
koihhhhh 6njia je 70-90%, a y KJiy6eTy je 6HJia 
HCTa Kao h n&a>y (A. Hanson. 1966). Moxe jih 
n4ejiHH>a 3aje/jHMua na KOHTpojiMuie BJia>KHOCT 
nyTeM noBeriaifca TeMnepaType y KJiySeTy He- 
no3HaTO je. YTBprjeHO je Aa noBHineibe mhhh- 
MajiHe HohHe TeMnepaType 3a 5°C, noMaace na ce 
oapxh pejiaTHBHa BJiaxHOCT y cnojtHeM cnojy Ha 
HHBoy 60% , ay hcto BpeMe BJiaxHOCT y koihhhuh 
ce noBehajia. Kornejlj je joni 1885. toahhc micao: 
"BnaxHocTy koihhhuh y 3hmckom nepHOAy HHJe 
npo6jieM 3a jaKe nMejiHH>e 3ajeAHHue, Koje cy 
cnocoSHe na ocjio6oAe tojihko TonjioTe kojihko 
je HeonxoAHO m ce o^cTpaHH cyBHHiHa Bo^a 

XlajiH 3hmh yTonjtaBaTH KOinHHue 

y PycHJH, me cypoBe 3HMe Tpajy h cejjaM no 
oca.vi .vieceun npaBHJiH cy cneunjajiHe 3H.viOBHHKe 
y Koje cy, c noneTKOM 3HMe, yHOCHJiH nnejie. Ho. 
3a nocjieAH>HX 40-50 roAHHa Ha npo6jieM npe3H 
MJbaBaH>a niejiHJtHX 3ajeAHnua, CKOpo CByr^e, 
noce6HO y ceBepHHM Ap^aBaMa CAJl, npHuuio ce 
Ha ApyrH HaHHH. 



357 



JlHejiap 1997 



EiccnepHMeHTH kojm cyH3Be^eHH (K. L. Farar) 
y6e,HJbHBO cy noKa3ajiH jia nqejie He CTpaaajy on 
xjianHohe aKO mm je yBex ,nocTynHa KBajiHTeTHa 
xpaHa. y yronjLeHMM "KoiHHHuaMa c ejiex- 
tphhhhm 3arpejaBan>eM noapacaBajia ce tcm- 
nepaTypa or +12,7°C no -3,9°C, a y .npyraM Ha 
HMBoy oh -3,9°C. Ffaejie y obhm apyiMM kouhm- 
uavia H3Jia3HJie cy H3 3ii\ie c janoM jkhbothom 
cnaroMoaoiiHXKOJec\ on. le iarpejaiiane. 3aTHM 
cy h jczme h apyre Koinmme CTaBJtajiH Ha 50 ,naHa 
y (J)pn3fHHepe me je Snjia KOHCTaHTHa TCMnepa- 
Typa en -45°C. Flqejie cy ocrajie aoiBe. 

Or Tana y AMepnim, any MHorHM ,npyraM 
3eMibaMa CBeTa, irqejiapn yomuTe He yrombaBajy 
CBOje KoniHHHe. Jcuhho Bone panyHa^ajieTa 6yay 
3aKiTHheHa on BeTpa. 

Mh, kojh raJHMO rraejie. Tpe6ajm 6h na cxBa- 
thmo jia nqejie npexo 3HMe iKHBe y koiuhhuh Ha 
cacBHM jxpym Ha^HH Hero Jbynji y cbojhm toiuihm 
flOMOBHMa. TH Ha^HHH 6h Sitim H CJIH^HH aKO 6h 
jieTa npeKO 3HMe 6HJia 3aTBopeHa. ToruiHHa y 
HauieM /ioMy He 6h ce onpxaBajia 3a BpeMe 3hm- 



ckhx xjia/iHoha axo 6h BpaTa h npo3opn 6mjih 
OTBopeHH. rinejie Heinajy CHaryaa oapacaBajy to- 
njioTy y ucjiom npocTopy KoniHHue 3a BpeMe 
xjiaflHorBpeivieHa. 36orToraoHeTOMeii HeTexe. 
3hmcko KJiy6e o6e36ef)yje jiobojbho TonjioTe h 
CTBapa 3a iraejie, Koje ce Hajia3e Ha "3hmckom. 
o^Mopy", yrojHe ycjioBe 3a ;khbot h 3a Opeivie 
HaJBeliMX xjia^Holia, axo cmo hm ocTaBHJin 6ap 
pa3yMHH jxeo MQjxa Koje cy OHe tokom ronoHe 
noHejie (20-25 kr ) a He KpHCTan iiiehepa hjih 
"noraMe" Koje one y KoiiiHHiiy HiiUKa^a Hiicy caiwe 
AOHejie. 

Ako Baine koiuhhuc HHCTe yToiubaBajiH, He 
ceKHpaJTe ce! 

ZloSpo je iuto to (He) ypaancTe. 



JlHTepaTypa: 

l.T.S K. h M. P. Yohanson: "riHejiHH>e .npyniTBO 3hmh", 
ieeWorld.No 4, 1479. 

2. M. KopMeHKo: ")Khbot 3JiaTHor poja", KypraH, 1994. 

3. M. B. >KepeTKHH: "3HMOBaH>e n i iejia",MocKBa, 1979. 



358 



rinejiap 1997 



QapapoBCMCTeMnHejiapetba 

JluttA. unwc. MapKO Cmojatioeuh, Eeoepad 



ysoa 

OTeacaHH ycjioBH nnejiapeita, H3paaceHH 
HapoHHTO y nocjie/j.H>e Tpn ro/iHHe, KaKO 36or 
HenoBOJtHHX BpeMeHCKiix ycjioBa TaKO h 36or no- 
jaBe SojiecTH n^ejiHiker Jierjia, rySiiTaKa 
ApyuiTaBa 36or npHcyCTBa Bapoe h OTexaHnx yc- 
jioBa kojj, cejbeH,a niejia, npe/icTaBJbajy 3Ha i iaJHa 
orpaHHiepta y yKynHHM pe3yjiTaTHMa nnejiape- 
H.a. O-Ty^a nocTojn noTpeSa, h HHTepec nnejiapa, 
3a CTHuaibeM hobhx 3Han,a, KopeKnnjoM 
TexHOJioraje n i iejiapeH,a, HHOBannjoM niejiapcKe 
onpeivie h npnSopa h npey3HMatkeM cbhx 
pacnojioacHBHX Mepa Koje he jx&tw 6ojbe pe3yji- 
TaTe npnBpeT}HBaH.a. Y CKJiajry ca TaKBHM TeH- 
a,eHU,HJaMa noja L iaH je HHTepec, HapoiHTO MJia/i,HX 
nnejiapa 3a "OapapoB" cmctcm nMejiapetka, noce- 
6ho 3a "tteroBy" KouiHHiiy. KaKO OBaj, Heuno 
Moa,H(pHKOBaH, CHdeM npHMeibyjeM BHUie 
ro,aHHa h HMaM sa/joBOJbaBajyha HCKycTBa y pa/jy 
ca HjHM, acejba mh je Ra o TOMe HH(popMHiueM CBe 
OHe koJh ce 3a H>era HHTepecyjy. JacHO, HHJe mh 
HaMepa jx& ra XBajiHM, noceSHO He Ha paiyH 
/jpyrnx CHCTeMa, Beh %a H3HeceM uiTa cy H>eroBe 
npej,HocTH h "He/iocTaiiH". 

I "<DapapoBa" Koiuiu-ma 

H36op npaBor THna KouiHHue h TexHOJiorHJe 
nMe;iapeH>a 3a Haine nauiHe npHJiHKe je or 
H3y36THor 3Hanaja. Ham bcjih nnejiap 
MnjiHBOje ByrapcKH je CMaTpao ji,aje nocjie 
name, KoiiiHHiia HaJBa>KHHJH HHHHJiaiiycneiiiHor 
niejiapeH>a. Cbctckh npH3HaTH BejiHKaH nnejiap- 
CKe npaKce AaaM Kepjie (Brother Adam) je 
tbpjiho Ra je CBaKH HaiHH nMejiapeH>a h KpajibH 
ycnex 3aBHcaH or KouiHHue. ThpRibe MHornx 
niejiapa Ra je Ha aoSpoj namn cBaxa KouiHuua 
/j,o6pa Mome ce npHXBaTHTH caMO flOTjie rok ce He 
yTBp^H kojihko KomTa npoH3Be,o:eHa KOJiniHHa 
Me#a,UBeTHornpaxa,nponojiHcaHCJi.KO,z],CBaKor 
or THnoBa KoniHHua Ha hctoj namn. 

Kajja ce roBopn o "OapapoBoj" kouihhuh pen 
je o koihhhiih HacTaBJbaMH, cacTaBJteHoj or njiHT- 
khxtj. Me/jHinHHX HacTaBaKa JXaRaHOBe KouiHHiie 

MHJa BHCHHa H3HOCH 168.2 Cm TRe CBaKH HacTaBaK 

inoxe HMaTH 8, 10, 1 1 hjih 12 paMOBa. 3a 
jiBOMaTHiHH CHCTeM niejiapeiba Oapap je npe- 
nopyMHBao HacTaBKe ca 1 2 paMOBa. CaM Ha3HB 
KorjHHue Moace 6hth cnopaH H3 pa3Jiora mio 
<Papap HHJe KOHCTpyncao HHJe/i,aH rco Koiimnne. 
MerjyTHM, H36opoM hjihtkhx nojiyHacTaBaKa 



CTBopno je HOBy KomHHuy, Koja paHHJe HHJe 6njia 
npHMeH>HBaHa na HMa ocHOBa OBy KouiHHuy Ha3- 
BaTii (PapapoBOM kouihhuom. 

Kor Hac jc <PapapoBOM kouihhuom Ha3HBaHa 
KouiHuua njiHTKHX HacTaBaKa nnjaje BHCHHa Hac- 
TaBKa H3HOCHJia or 17 ro 20 cm a ji,HMeH3HJe paMa 
(no ayatHHH) curoBapajie Ji,HMeH3HJaMa JlaRaH- 
-EjiaTOBe KouiHHue. 

y CAJ1 ce HaJBHine kophcth CTaH^ap^Ha 
JIaHrcpoTOBa KouiHHua ca jjeceT paMOBa y Hac- 
TaBKy, ,H,a;iaH-EjiaTOBa, KBHH6njeBa h apyre cy 
aajieKO Matte 3acTynjbeHe. Jlyxnua paMa kor 

CBHX OBHX KOUIHHlia H3HOCH 44.8 Cttl, a H.HXOBa. 

BHCHHa Bapnpa or 13.65, npexo 15.88, 23.2 ro 
28.87 cm kojihko h3hoch BHCHHa paMa y 
njiojjnmHOM HacTaBKy Jla/jaH-EjiaTOBe KouiHHue. 
Ha ocHOBy HaBe/i,eHHX ;iHMeH3HJa bhchhc paMOBa 
KOHCTpyncaHH cy HacTaBHH BHCHHe 24.2 h 14.45, 

KOJH Ce KOpHCTe KaO nJIOJJHLLIHH OJJ.HOCHO 

Me/iHiHHH HacTaBaK y JlaHrcTpoT- PyTOBOj 
KomHHiiH, Kao h HacTaBUH BHCHHe 29.88 h 16.82 
cm ca hctom (pyHKiTHJOM y ,TJajTaH-EjiaTOBOj 
koluhhuh. TpeSa iicTahn Ra je cae obo koh- 
CTpyncano naKoii JlaiiTCTponoBor OTKpiitia 1851. 
rojjHHe o "niejiHH»eM npocTopy" (Bee spase) tj. 
npocTopy kojh niejie He Jiene h ne ncnyibaBajy 

Hll BOCKOM IIH nponOJIHCOM, H KOJH H3HOCH 3/16 - 

3/8 Hii'ia. tj. 5-9 mm. RaKJie, CBaKO pacrojaibe y 
kouihhu.ii viaibe on 5 h Bene or 9 mm ri'icie ne 

HCI1VHHTH BOCKOM. HcTe TOJJHHe JlaHTCTpOT je 
KOHCTpyncao H CBOJy KOIUHHUy. 

KpajeM npomjior h noieTKOM oBor Bexa pajjH 
nonsBOJjH^e Me/ja y cahy y CAH jc KopmnheHa 
XaHJjoBa KouiHHua yHyTpamH,nx ,HHMeH3HJa paMa 
43.6x10.9 cm, ,0,aHiieH6eKepoBa jj;HMeH3HJa paMa 
40x17. 2cmHJi.p. 

AMepniKH nienap Demuth je jom 1920. 
ro^HHe yTBp/i,HO Ra nnejie ycnemHHJe 3HMyjy y RBa 
HacTaBKa Hero y jejjHOM a Ra ce H3MeHOM Hac- 
TaBaKa y BpeMe HHTeH3HBHHJcr pa3Boja nMeiiH- 
riHX 3aje,aHHiia Moace cy36njaTH pojeBH HaroH . 
nocjie H,era Oapap je H3Bpmno BejiHKH 6poj 
HcnHTHBan>a h jjomao ro 3aKJLyiKa Ra ce y 
KomHHiiaMa ca njiHTKHM HacTaBUHMa Mory pa3- 
bhth hcto TaKO jaKa a,pymTBa Kao y ocTajiHM 
KouiHHuaMa. y cbhm HCTpajKHBaibHMa je TaKorje 
yTBpjjno: 

- Ra pa3Boj Jierjia y KouiHHuaMa He 3aBHCH or 
BHCHHe paMa Beh ojj; hjiojjhocth MaTHne, 3ajinxa 
MCRa h uBeTHor npaxa, januHe jjpyuiTBa. TonjioT- 
hot peacHMa h a^eKBaTHor npocTopa y kouihhuh; 

- jja je HacTaBaK bhchhc 16.82 cm ca flBaitaecT 
paMOBa, Hajnoro/jHHJH or cbhx noMeHyTHX Hac- 



359 



n^ejiap 1997 



TaBaxa Hapo^MTO 3a aBOMaTMHHO nnejiapeH>e n 
36orToraje CTaumpmie HaHrcTpoT-PyroBe Hac- 
TaBKe bhchhc 24.2 cm CKpaTMO Ha bhchhy on 16.82 

UM . 

Ho HCTor pe3yjiTaTa, Kajxa je peM o pa3Bojy 
mejiHJbHX 3aje,znTHna Ha pauiH^HTHM BHCHHaMa 
paiua, .aonuia je m rpyna ncTpaaoiBaqa Ha 
ORQibeiby 3a nqejiapcTBO y MHCTHTyry y XoxeH- 
xajrviy y CP HeMamcoj 2 ' ihto je noBoiban ,noKa3 ,na 
rage hcthhhto TBprjeite ,na ce nMejiHH>e 3ajea- 
Hime y obhm KouiHHuaMa cnopnje pa3Bnjajy. 

KaKua cy hckvci i$a ca Oapapouo\i kowhhuom 

y EBponn, noce6HO y CP HeMaHKqj h Ayc- 
rpHJH, OapapoB CHCTeM je npoyqaBaH h 
npHMeH>eH. ITo3HaTH cbctckh HaymniKy o6jiacTH 
n^ejiapcTBa jxp Jo3e4> Epe*nco y cbojoj kh>h3h 
nmne 3) : 

1. "ILihtkh HacTaBaK je JiornqaH pe3yjiTaT 
Aajber pa3Boja HacTaBKa ca bhcokhm paMOM. 

OBfle MO»CeMO MHpHO rOBOpMTM o EBOJIY- 

U,HJH y nnejiapcTBy." 

2. "McnHTMBaHie n^ejiapeita koiuhhuqm ca 
bhcokmm paMOBHMa je H3a Hac, cana ,nojia3e 
KoniHHue ca hjimtkhm HacTaBUHMa." 

3. "Mhcjihm ,naje pan ca KonmnnaMa ca hjiht- 
khm HacTaBUHMa MaH>e npoGjierviaTHHaH Hero pan 

Ca KJiaCHMHHM HaCTaBUHMa." 

no3Ha™ nuejiap y CP HerviaHKOj Geoig Schus- 
ter" y cbojoj kh>h3h nnine "MnpHe caBecra Mory 
noTBp,nHTH, nourro BHine oa /receT roaMHa 
mejiapHM ca 20,npyniTaBa y KouiHnnaMa ca ruiMT- 
khm h hcto tojihko ,npyiHTaBa y KoniHHuaMa ca 
CTannap^HMM HacTaBUHMa CMeuiTeHiix je/mn 
nopen ,npyrMX jxa je npnxoii, Behn a pan MaH>n ko/i 
Kommiua ca njiHTKHM HacTaBUHMa. 36or Tora 
caM HaKOH TecTHpaH>a apyror BHiue on aeceT 
roAHKa CBa ApyiiiTBa (50-60 .npyuiTaBa) npeSanno 
y miHTKe HacTaBKe." 

CjioBeHa^KH nnejiap MaKC KpMejb, kojh je 
npoBeo ABe rquHHe y CAJJ, Ha rraejiHH»aKy ko/i 
Oapapa nnine . "Y cbom BHiue Hero ne,neceTO- 
roflHiinteM nqejiapen>y Mcnpo6ao caM unTaB HH3 
CHCTeiua KOKiHHua. TToMeo caM oGhmhhm 
"KpaitHriHMa", npeuiao Ha AMSpooicraqeBy H3- 
Ben6y Kpan>nna, kojh HMa rope jieTBime, 3aTHM 



1) Productive Managetnent of Honey- Bee Colonies, Ameri- 
can Bee Journal 7/1993 Part III of an 8-part Series 

2) Die Entwiklung von Bienenvolkern aufversehiden grosen 
Waben G Liebig, R. Gerlich, R. Sanzenbacher Deutsches Bienen 
Journal No 1 1997. 

3) Der Magazinimker 5 Auflage strana 190 "Plitki nastavak" 

4) Erfolgreiches imkern mit dem Flachzargenmagazin 

5) ntejipatbe HacTaBJi>a4aMa npocp. ap Joxe Piixap 
Hejie6apcKa 3aapyra JhyQjhaua 1984. ron. 



caM H3pan,HO "6eqKe" Ha Tpn eTaiKe, noTOM caM 
mrejiapno koiuhhuom no Kvht Ha caHKaMa, a 
ronHHe 1934. HMao caM, nope,n Tora, Beh 120 A)K 
KoiuHHua. FIpHJe ,no6pe ,ziBe AeneHHJe no^eo caM 
vbquhth Hajnpe JJanaH-EjiaTOBy KouiHHuy, na 3a- 
thm JIP. Ojx Tana caM npeuiao Ha nuejiapen>e no 
Oapapy. Thm caM HannHOM 3anoBOJbaH h He 
ocehaM HMKaKBe noTpe6e na ra Men>aM. 3a Taj 
CHcreM mjejiapeH>a HapoqnTO caM ce onyineBno 
touhhq 1958. Kaaa caM noxoaao OapapoBo 
nqejiapcTBO y MenncoHy, Syaynn ,na caM Beh ot- 
rrpnje no3HaBao H>eroBe HJiaHKe n pacnpaBe,Ta,na 
Me je KOHaHHO yBepno. Ha ocHOBy H>eroBnx 
pa3JiaraH>a aoinao caM ,no ca3HaHia ,na jeanHO Taj 
Ha^HH HMa 3HaHCTBeHy ocHOBy n m ce caMO Ha Taj 
Ha^nH Mory pa3BHTH Hajjaue 3aje^HHne h 
nocmhii HaJBehn npuHoc. Toje noTBp,ziHJio h Moje 
HeTpHaecToroaHuiHje nqejiapeHie no EteroBoj Me- 

TO^H." 

Ha Mer}yHaponHOM n^ejiapcKOM KoHrpecy y 
Ajiejiamm 1977. ran. npodp. up BorojbyS Koh- 
CTaHTHHOBnh je y cbom pedpepaTy npe3eHTnpao 
pe3yjiTaTe ncToroanniH>HX ncnHTHBaHia 
OapapoBe MeTo^e ca je^HOM hjui ,HBe MaTnue. 
KoHTpojiHa jipyiuTBa 6njia cy y JlajiaH-Bna 

TOBHM, OflHOCHO JIP KOUIHHUaMa, Ca je/IHOM HJIH 

^Be MaTHne. npnHoc Mena no OapapoBoj MeTO,HH 
6noje3a35%, oiihocho25%, BehMHeroy^laiiaH 

-BjiaTOBOJ 0,HHOCHO JIP KOUJHHUH. Ko,II ,HBO- 

MaTH^Hor cncTeMa OBa pa3JiHKa jc Smia join Beha 
tj. 53% Beha y onHocy Ha ^a^aH-BjiaTOBe, o,ii- 
hocho 39% Beha Hero kojx JIP KoniHnna. HcnHTM- 
BaHja cy parjeHa 3a BpeMe 6arpeMOBe name. Kqh 
KacHHJnx nauia - JinBana, Jinna, cyHnoxpeT h jip., 
pe3yjiTaTH ko,h je^HOMaTHMHor nMejiapeH>a cy 
6hjih cjih^kh aok je ko,h ABOMaTHMHor cncTeMa 
npnxoj], 6ho 3a 19% Behn Hero koji j],aa;aH-Bjia- 
tobhx, o,hhocho 14% Behn Hero JIP. 

Ham yBaiKeHH nqejiap BpaHKO Pejtnh Kpo3 
CBOje HJiaHKe y obom uaconncy, Spojna npe- 
jiaBaiba n KH^nre ^eKJiapncao ce Kao BejiHKH npnc- 
Tajinna OapapoBe MeTo^e nnejiapeH>a, qnHehn 
to y3 TeMejbHy apryMeHTannjy. HcTHHa, BncnHa 
HacTaBaxa kojt KouiHHiie Koje oh KopncTH, 
H3HOCH 19 cm uito CTBapa Hexe TemKohe npn 
MaHnnyjiannjn HacTaBnnMa Kaaa cy ncnyibeHH 
mqjiom. 

^nMeH3HJe OapapoBe KomHnne 

y HauiHM n BeheM 6pojy 3eMajta He nocToje 
noce6HH CTaHHapaH 3a OapapoBe KomHnne Beh 



6) Ekohomcko 3HaMeH,e OapapoBe MeToje y CpSuJH 
npodp. ap B. KoHCTaHTHHOBHh PedpepaTHa XXVI KoHrpecy 
nMe-iapa y AjiejiaviRn 1977. roauHe. 



360 



n^ejiap 1997 



CTannap^H ejieivieHaTa M3 kojhx je OHa cac- 
TaBJbeHa. KpoB, noKJionHa nacxa, nojxibma h Hac- 
TaBUH cy jxaKJie CTaH/jap/irooBaHH ejieivieHTH OBe 
KOKiHHue npezicTaBJbaHe Ha cjihiih 1 . 




mt- um mi. *i ■• *■ it »• a* •* 







Cji 1. KoiuHima upam no cmaudapdy U3 CAJJ. 



U,HMeH3HJe nojubane, 36era hjih noKJioime 
jracKe h KpoBa cy were Kao Ha JlanaH-EjiaTOBOj, 

QHHOCHO JIP KOHIHHHH. KopHCTellH OBaj THn 

KouiHHue on 1980. rojjHHe jjomao caM no ca3Haita 
jxa je 3a Hame ycjioBe ircejiapeita kophcho 

H3BpHIHTH MOJJH4>HKaHHJy HaBeneHe KOIIIHHHe H 

to: 

1. Ymccto KJiacHHHe no/nta^e norozmHJe je 

KOpHCTHTH aHTMBap03Hy nOJJftaHy Ca )KIWaHOM 

MpeacoM h jihmom Hcnon Mpeace. OBa nonitaqa 
HMa npenHOCT Han KJiacHMHOM 36or e<J)HKacHHJe 
6op6e hpothb Bapoe , noBenaHe xnrajeHe y 
kohihhhh h aejiHMHMHor yBH/xa y CTaite jipyiHTBa. 
(Ha ocHOBy OTnanaKa on BOCKa Ha JiHMy MOiKe ce 
BHaeTH me jipymTBO 6opaBH, HMa jih yHyrpa 
jia>KHa MaTHua h jip.). ^HMeH3HJe OBe nombsmt cy 
HCTe Kao Koa KJiacH^He H3y3eB ihto H>eHa BHCHHa 
HHJe 5 Beti 7 cm. 36or ycjioBa cejbeita a 
pa3JiHHHTe KOHCTpyKHHJe OBa no/Hta^a 6h Tpe- 
Sajio jja Sync H3par)eHa on TBpjj,or jjpBeTa. Ja 
KopncTHM xpacTOBO JipBO Koje ce noKa3ajio Bpjio 
,Ho6pHM. 

2. ^yaoiHa paivia on 44 cm cnojbHe Mepeje 
noroAHHJa on OHe on 44,8 cm H3 pa3Jiora ihto 
/IBaHaecTopaMHa KoniHHHa Tana y ochobh HMa 
KBanpaT MHMe ce OMoryhaBa hobojlhhjh to- 
njioTHH peaaiM y kohihhhh y ojjHocy Ha KouiHHue 
Koje y ochobh HMajy npaBoyraoHHK. nopea Tora, 
y nsaHaecTopaMHOj kohihhhh he ce THMe 
ctbophth MoryhHOCT jj,a ce HacTaBHH nocTaBJtajy 
Ha "toiijih" ojjhocho "xjiajiHH" nojioacaj. OBaj 
npo6iieM MHora nnejiapn npeBH^ajy, MerjyraM, 
HCTpaacHBaH>a IlepenejioBe, Koja cy BpuieHa 
nocjie Jlpyror CBeTCKor paTa, a nocjie H>e HH3a 
jxpymx ayropa, npe CBera M.B. ^KnjieHKa 1957. 
roaHHe, B.O. BejiHKOBa 1961. roaHHe, B.A. Hec- 
TpoBoncKHJa 1954-1956. 7 ' cy noKa3ajia jxa cy 

apyHITBa KOfl KOJHXJe, y 3aBHCHOCTH on CnOJbHHX 

ycjioBa. nojioacaj paMOBa MeitaH Ha "Tonjio", on- 
hocho "xnanHo" , nocTH3ajia Behy npojxyK- 

THBHOCT. 

3. CaTOHorje Ha naMOBHMa Mory 6hth jj,e6ejie 
10 HaJBHHie 12 mm, yMecTO 16 ojjhocho 20 mm. 
Obhm ce ocTBapyje ynrreiia y /jpBeTy a noBehaBa 
noBpiHHHa caha y kohihhhh ihto je yoSiraajeHa 
npaxca y AycTpHJH h CP HeMa^iKoj. Hajnoron- 
HHJH MaTepHJaji 3a paMOBe je jrnna. 

4. 36er hjih noKJionHa aacKa h KpoB yMecTO on 
npBeTajejie hjih OMopHKe Moace ce Bpjio ycneiHHO 
npaBHTH on Tonojie Kojaje 3HaTHO jecJmiHHJa a 
Moace TpajaTH, axo ce pejjoBHO 6ojajjHme, Bpjio 
nyro. riocTojeha npaxca jjejiHMHMHor onuiHBaita 



7) B.M. JleSe^eB: TonjiH h xjia^HH nojiojKaj npe- 
HMyhcTBa h HejocTaun "ri'iejioBO^CTBo" 6p. 11/86. 



361 



n^ejiap 1997 

TA5EJ1A 1 



nOBPLUMHA CATiA ydm 2 3A nOJEflMHETMnOBE HACTABJbAHA 



Bpoi wacraaaKa 


DfipflfrBrtar 


Hbm PyT 


0APAP 


paMOoa y Hacrafiicy 


| pawoea y wacTa^Ky 


paMOoa y nacT atJKy) 


]Q 


12 


e 


10 


10 


12 


1 


113.4 


136.08 


70.8 


88.56 


56,8 


70.56 


2 


226,8 


[ Z72.1GI 


141.7 


177,12 


H7 r 6 


141.12 1 


3 
4 






2l2 h 5 


1265.58 1 
354.24 


176.4 

235,2 


211.68 | 


l2S3,4t 


\2&24 


5 




_. 




[ami 





YOKBMPEHA BPEflHOCT nOBPLUMHECATiA KOJA CE nPEJIOPYHYJE 



KpoBa HHJeaoSpa. lloTpe6Hoje jihmom npeKpnra 
KpoB h ca CTpaHe, i DiMe H>eroBa TpaJHOCT nocTaje 
npaKTHHHO HeorpaHH^eHa. 

3aw i o Kopiic 1 11 in Oapapoee koii ihhuc 

Ycjiobh Kpje Tpe6a ^a ncnyHH ,no6pa KoiuHHua 
cy: 

- ,na yBaiKaBajyhn SnojioniKe 3axTeBe koiii- 
Hnua 6yne noBOJbHO craHHiiiTe iFiejiHH>er 
apyiuTBa, 

- ja ce c h>om pyxyje y3 MHHHMyM Hanopa h 
yrpouiKa BpeMeHa, 

- na ce JiaKO rpann h oopxaBa. 

noBOJbHO CTaHHiiiTe nqejiHH>er apyniTBa, npe 
CBera no.n,pa3yMeBa onraMajiaH npocTop 3a pa3- 
boj Jierjia h CKJianHinTeite pe3epBH xpaHe, tj. 
UBeTHor npaxa h Men;a. KojiHKy noBpinnHy cahe y 
dm 2 3axTeBa je^HO ,npyuiTBO Qnpefjyjy KBajiHTeT 
Marane n nanme npiinnKe, aiiH Mef)y mejiapHMa 
BJia^a MHiiuLeite j\a aoSpa Kommma Mopa HMaxn 
260 ,no 290 rm 2 cafta aKO ce pann o jenHOMaTHMHOM 
n^ejiapeity h Heurro Bnme qh ^pBCTpyxo HaBene- 
^enor H3Hoca axo je peq o imejiapetty ca ^Be 
KouiHHue. H3 npiuioaceHe Ta6e;ie 1. bhuh ce ^a 
CBa Tpn Tuna HacTaBJurca 3aaoBOJLaBajy OBaj 

KpHTepHJyM, C THM UITO OCMOpaMHa J1P KOUIHHUa 

3axTeBa qerapn HacTaBKa a .neceTopaMHa 
OapapoBa qax neT HacTaBKa. 

BejiMKH 6poj imejiapa npaicra^apa h 
HayHHHKa, noce6HO TTan Epenra 3ojiTaH ncra- 
uajiH cy na je HajnoronHnja noBpinnHa paivia 3a 
pa3Boj jierjia 40x30cm, ij. 12dm 2 . Ko,n jx&a ruiHTKa 
paMa OapapoBor HacTaBKa OBa noBpuiHHa 
h3hoch 2x5,88 - 1 1,76 dm 2 ca MoryhHomhy 
H3MeHe nojiyHacTaBaKa h THMe noncmnaH,a pa3- 



Boja Jierjia. Rna OapapoBa nojiyHacTaBKa, Koja ce 
HaJHemhe KopncTe 3a njiomnirre HeuiTO cy Benn 
Hero jeaHO njiQUHiirre kqh .IlanaH-EjiaTOBe 
KOKiHHue n no npocTopy OMorynaBajy MaKcn- 
MajiaH pa3Boj Jierjia n kqh HajmionHnje Marane h 

CKJiaUHKITeJLe aOBOJLHHX KOJIH^HHa UBeTHOr 

npaxa n MQiia y njio/inniTy, kojh cy noTpe6Hn 3a 
ncxpaHy Jierjia. IlpeKO 3HMe MeljynpocTop 
H3Mef)y HacTaBaxa OMoryhaBa ycneniHnje 
KpeTan,e iraejia y KJiySeTy, Koje 3ay3HMa paMOBe 
y o6a HacTaBKa. To je 3Ha^aJHa npe^HOCT OBe 
KOKiHnne y oimocy na apyre HacTaBJba^e. 36or 
miHTKor HacTaBKa nMejinite npyuiTBO, aKO ce y3- 
nivin ca 8 ^o 10 yjinna nqejia, Mopa jxa 3ay3Me o6a 
HacTaBKa n He,nojia3H no <J>opMHpaH>a KJiy6exa 
caMoyje/iHOMHacTaBKyHaoyrHHyha/ipymTBa 
yKOJinKO 36or xjiaHHone He Moace jia nocenHe 
HacTaBaK ca xpaHOM. YcneniHO npe3HMJbaBaH>e 
y3 noBpeMeHy H3MeHy MecTa nojiyHacTaBaxa 
tokom npojiehHor pa3Boja npn o6njLy xpaHe y 
KomHHHHCTBapajyceBpJiojaKaapymTBa3a6a- 
rpeMOBy h KacHHJe name. 

Pan; ca obom KomminoMJe JiaKuin n 3a Kpahe 
BpeMe ce o6aBJbajy panoBH Ha nnejiHH>aKy 
(nperjien ^pymTaBa, HCTpecaH>e Me^a h ^p.) 
3aTBapaH>epaMOBacaMejioMKOAH5Hxje7-10 
aaHa paHHJe Hero ko/i apyrnx KomHHna iuto 
CTBapa ycjioBe 3a paHnje ncTpecaH>e Mena h qh- 
jia3aK Ha apyre name, o^hocho npaBJteHje hobhx 
pojeBa n o^rajaHie MaTHi^a. 

TTojiyHacTaBUH cy Bpjio noro/iHH 3a onjio/i- 
H>aKe, JiaKO ce npaBe n oupxaBajy. MaHe OBe 
Komnnue cy kito TpaiKH Behn 6poj parvioBa no 
apyuiTBy, iuto 3HaMH HeuiTO Behn yrpomaK Ma- 
Tepnjajia n BpeMeHa H>eHe H3paa;e y o^Hocy na JTP 
n HaaaH-BjiaTOBy KoniHnny. 



362 



M.iiMmivvM.YM! 



HA nHEJlMHiAKy 
WlAflMMMPA XyHsAflMJA 



Cy3aHa Ko6ej, y CBeTy nuejiapcTBa no3HaTa 
aMepHHKa HayuHHua 3a KpaitcKy nuejry 
Kojoj MHorn CTaBibajy 3aMepKe m je poju- 
Ba, Ka^ce jja "npnpoflHO pojeite HHJe HHKa^a 6ho 
3HanajaH npoSjieM ca KpaitcKHM nuejiaMa Baxa 
aojiHHe (y Kajiu(popHuju, npuu. J.K.), Haico to 
Moxe 6hth npo6neM 3a nuejiape kojh micy npu- 
npeMibeHH 3a 6p3H nponenHH pa3Boj flpyuiTaBa 
OBe pace nnejia (dpyzuu pemma nnenapuMa koju 
ne 3hajy nnejiapwnu, npuM. J. K.). IIpaBH iianmi 
iwejiapeita Moxe npeTBopHTH 6p3H npojieliHH 
pa3Boj y BejmKy ^o6ht". 

"KpaibCKHM MaTHiiaMa Mopa ce Jiojiam npo- 
ctop 3a Jie^ceH>e", HCTune ueiteHa HayuHuua, a to 
pa;iH h BjianHMHp XyitajiH, nuejiap H3 Hobot Ca- 
jxa, hhjh cy nuejiHH>aK y rap/iHHOBUHMa, 9. HOBeM- 
6pa 2003. rojjHHe nocerajra nuejiapu nuejiapcKor 
HpyuiTBa "OSpeHOBau" H3 06peHOBiia. 

3auiT0 noceTa y BpeMe, Kaa joj BpeMe HHJe? 
3aTO iiito rocnojjHH Bjia;iHMHp y obo BpeMe 
TpeTHpa nuejie npoTHB Bapoe, Ka/ia HeMa y ko- 
uiHHuaMa Jierjia, h Ka#a je cnojbHa TeMnepaTypa 
H3Mer)y +5 h + 8°C (onTHMajma), y cbojhx 200 ko- 
uiHHiia y nuejiuH>aKy naBHibOHCKor rana. ITpH 
TeMnepaTypH hh^coj oh + 5°C MHTaK y bo#h Kpn- 
CTajiH3Hpa h 3anyuiH ;iH3He, na Ka#a ce y TOKy 
TpeTHpaH>a h jjotojih TaicaB cjryuaj, rocno^HH 
Bjiazto caBeTyje, ";xa ce TpeTMaH npeKHHe 3a Bpe- 
Me #ok TepMOMeTap He noicaace onTHMajiHy TeM- 
nepaTypy". 

HcTHHa, HHJe ueKao Hac, ajiH HaMJe noKa3ao 
pe3yjiTaT TpeTupaita on npe neT ;xaHa, jep je hc- 
kophctho noBOJtaH TpeHyTaK. HucTenu Ha ouh- 
rjie,n npHcyrHHX MpTBe ocTaTKe Bapoe, yBepHJiH 
cmo ce ;xaje napa3HT OTnao ca nuejia h Haiuao ce 
MpTaB na nony KouiHHua. TTocjie Tora HaM je npe- 
3eHTOBao npaKTHHaH npHKa3 pa/ia ca yperjajeM 
kojh nojx npHTHCKOM or TpH 6apa, ojx Bo^eHe 
eMyji3HJe (5ml MHTaxa + 300ml Bo^e) npaBH aepo- 

COJI. Ca TOM KOJIHHHHOM, 3aflp2taBajynH nUIUTOJb 

yperjaja y JieTy Koumuue 60 no 90 ceicyHJXH (Mepu 
BpeMe uiTonepuupM) HCTpeTHpa 150 JipyurraBa. 
TaKBHM nocTynKOM CBaKO JipyuiTBO y KJiy6eTy 
Ho6HJe Marny y kojiuuhhh qu 2 mji BO£e h 0,033 mji 
aKTHBHe MaTepnje MHTaxa, a uejry KOJinuuHy Ma- 



Joeo H. Kantnap 

rjie KJiySe ancop6yje y BpeMeHy 4-5 jjaHa kojihko 
ce Mania 3aflpxaBa y koiuhhuh, h cbh napa3HTH 
Ha nuejiaMa yrHHy. HeMa roBopa, Kaxo TBp^e He- 
kh "MyapauH" Hamer n^ejiapcKor npyuiTBa, m. ce 
noBehaBa BJiara y koiuhhuh h HapyuiaBa MHKpo- 
KJiHMa OBaKBHM HauHHOM yHuurraBaika Bapoe. 
Tocno,nHH XyH>a^H obom mcto^om (J e # aHn yr ro_ 
HuuiH>e) ycneuiHO (6e3 rySHTaKa) nuejiapu y3 Ba- 
poy Ben 15 nwma h npoH3BOflH EKO copTHH utjx 
h EKO BocaK, or UHJHX caTHHX ocHOBa nuejie H3- 
rparjyjy 3npaBe nejinje 3a "KOJieBKy" JiapBaMa, 
"HHKy6aTop" JiyrxaMa h "ocTaBy" 3a Mejj,. Ha no- 
MeH aHTH6uoTHKa, Ha Jiuuy rocno^HHa XyH>ajxuja, 
npHMeTHCMO rpHMacy rarjeita. "Hh 3flpaB uobck 
He y3HMa aHTu6uoTHKe icaaje 3#paB", pa3JioxHo 
onroBopu ucicycHH nuejiap. 




TIoKpemuu uneAuwaK Bjiadumupa Xywaduja 

"Je^HHM 0TBapan.eM KouiHuue peuiaBaM bu- 
uie npoSjieMa" (ce^aM, npuM. J. K.), Kaace Bjiano 
u nojauiHjaBa: "nuejie cy HajcpenHHJe Ka^a hx He 
HupaTe, saTo: 1. cy36njaM pojmi HaroH sa uejiy ce- 
30Hy, Ha caMOM noueTKy 6arpeMOBe name qh- 
CTpan>HBaH>eM H3 KouiHuue uejioicynHor Jierjia, 
ochm je^Hor jxo ^Ba paMa MJia^a pa3JiHUHTor CTa- 
pocHor no6a ca MaTHHOM, a Ha h>hxobo MecTO ro- 
aajeM caTHe ocHOBe no npuHunny "kojihko ch H3- 
Ba^uo paMOBa Jierjia tojihko jxom\ paMOBa caT- 
hhx ocHOBa"! CaTHe ocHOBe caM npou3BOflH, jep 
He CMaTpa sa uctuhckot nuenapa oco6y Koja ux 
Kynyje, jep KynoBHe caTHe ocHOBe n^ejie Hepano 
npnxBaTajy u H3rpH3ajy, Ha H>HMa ce cjia6o pa3BH- 
jajy, h Ha H>HMa Hepa3BHJeHa npyuiTBa HeMajy Me- 
aa 3a ce6e, a KaMOJin 3a nuejiapa. 



538 



nS^AAP. Sp. \Z t 2003. 



2. BpuaM caB 3aocTajiH mcr H3 npeTxo^He ro- 
jjHHe h OHaj Koje cy nnejie yHejie y Bp6oBO-BohHoj 
nauiH, Kora kophcthm 3a HcxpaHy pojeBa. Bejra: 
"H3BpuaM h nocjiejuky Kan Me^a, CTape caTOBe 
niKapTHpaM 3a npeTanatte, a Ha MecTO YbwxjxoRa- 
jeM hobo cahe hjih caTHe ocHOBe, h HMaM hhct 
copthh Mejj, Kao iiito je OBaj", noKa3yje HaM Bp- 
chh nnejiap Jinny, 6arpeM h JiHBany, HanoMHH>yhn 
Ra HeMa hhko y cyccucTBy (mhcjih Ha MafjapcKH 
6arpeM) KBajiHTeTHHJH 6arpeM or Hauiera, a H>e- 
roBa ^CHBOTHa canyrHHua rocnorja Mapnja, npBa 
"KpajLHiia Mcua" Ha jiaHHMa n^ejiapcTBa y Ho- 
bom Cajiy or npe jieceTaK ro,n,HHa, HyjjH HaM no- 
cny>KeH>e. 

3. noSyrjyjeM hhcthhkt Tpa^cH>e h caKymta- 
H>a HeKTapa H3JieTHHuaMa. 

4. UejroKynHO o^cTpaH>eHO Jierjro (cbhx cra- 
Pochhx ^o6a) 3aje#H0 ca BapooM H3 Koumniia y 
naBHibOHHMa, npeMenrraM y nojiouiKe, Koje caM 
Ha3Bao "aKyMyjiaTopH", a OHaj paM ca OTBope- 
hhm JierjioM, uito caM ra ocTaBHO ca MarauoM y 
npoH3BojiHHM npyuiTBHMa cjiyacn Kao paM Ma- 
Mau-JioBau Bapoe Koja je ocTajia Ha nnejiaMa. 

5. CraBibaH>eM ro tph BepTHKajiHe nperpa^e 
y "aKyMyjiaTop" aoGhjzlm no nerapn Hyicieyca h 
^eTHpn y3rojeHe KBajiHTeTHe Marane yje^Hoj no- 
jioumn, a HMaM hx BHine or RBaReceT. 

6. Ybck y KoniHHiiaMa HMaM hobo hjih ro 6o- 
je 6poH3e cahe, y mhjhm hejinjaMa HeMa rjy6peTa 
or JiapBH, hhth onacHOCTH or nojaBe Tpyjie^cHHX 

H rJLHBHHHHX 60JieCTH". 

7. AHra^cyjeM "perpyTOBaHe" 3a pojeH>e n^e- 
jie H3JieTHHue. OHe He H3Jiehy Hanojte hhth CKy- 
nibajy HeKTap, Beh ^eKajy "3HaK" 3a pojeite, Ka- 
ko 6h CBy npHKynjbeHy CHary "ncTpecjie" y ho- 

bom ROMy". 

^aiaie, jcuhhm OTBapaH^eM KouiHHHe y Tpe- 
Hyncy KaRa nnejie jjoHecy npBe "tph" Kamwine 
HeKTapa ca GarpeMa, o6aBJba ceaaM KpyHHJajiHHX 
aKTHBHOCTH, Ha neMy cy My nnejie 3axBajiHe, a Ha- 
po^HTO H^eroBe MyuiTepHJe. 

CBaKH nyr, y BpeMe Bpnan>a, Bpiim o^cTpa- 
H>HBaH>e "cTapnx" paMOBa h yMecTO h>hx zionaje 
caTHe ochobc Pe3yjiTaT: yBeK ncnpaBHO h xhth- 
jeHCKH no^ceibHO cahe. 

"Ako y jyjiy KouiHHne HHcy HanyH>eHe 3hm- 
ckom xpaHOM, HeMOJTe o^eKHBaTH Me,no6paH>e Ha 
SarpeMy. He 3a6opaBHTe Ra jyjicKa nnejia Tpe6a 
Ra BaM jj,ohoch mqr h y nojicuHiirry npnnpeMa 
xpaHy 3a npe3HMJbaBaH>e, jxohoch nojieH h 3ajiHJe 
ra Me^oM, Te ra noKJionn BoniTaHHM noKJionHH- 
hHMa. 

CBaKojaje Koje MaTHua 3ajie:>Ke y cahe or 1.8. 
na Ha jjajte 6nhe 3HMCKa n^ejia Koja he hochth 
2chbot nHejiHH>e 3ajeflHHue ro npBHX npojiehHHX 
jxaHa. y to jierjio Bapoa BHine He CMe Ra yjia3H. 
3aTO ce y tom nepnony Mopa o6aBe3HO h HeH30- 



CTaBHO none™ ca 3auiTHTOM. UnKJiyc Tpe6a 3aBp- 
ihhth Hapejj,HHX Meceu ^aHa, tj. jjo Kpaja ocmot 
Mecena. 

Mjia^e niejie Koje ce Jiery KpajeM aBrycTa, 
tokom cenTeM6pa h y HapenHOM nepno/ry jioKJie 
tor MaTHua nojiaxe jaja, He CMejy BHine 6hth 
TpeTnpaHe hh MajiTpeTHpaHe xcmhjckhm npena- 
paTHMa. To cy nnejie Koje he hochth ^khbot n^e- 
jiHH.e 3ajeflHHue tokom uejie 3HMe. 

CBaKO TpeTHpan^e noMeHyrax n^ejia ca yna- 
jbeHHM JiHCTHhHMa, hjih Ha 6hjio kojh npyrH Ha- 
hhh, CKpahyje ^khbot CBaKe je^HHKe y nnejiHH>oj 
3ajenHHHH. HaKOH TpeTMaHa n^ejia y tom nepno- 
ay, nHejiHH>e 3ajejjHHne npe^cnBJbaBajy TeniKe 
TpeHyTKe. Bcjihkh 6poj je^HHKH He Ro^ieKa npo- 
jiehe, jep hm je xhbot CTpecoBHMa TpeTnpan>a 
otpobhhm MaTepnjaMa CKpaheH. IiHejraH>e 3ajen- 
HHue, aKO yonniTe h npe^KHBe, H3 3HMe H3Jia3e Be- 
OMa cjiaSe. TaKO ocjiaSjbeHe, <})opMHpajy KJiy6e 
BejiH^HHe Majio Behe 0£Ja6yKe. Ojj TaKBnx n^ejia 
HeMa Me^a y HapenHoj ce30HH. 

HaKOH Hea/ieKBaTHO TpeTHpaHHX nnejiKH^HX 
3aje^HHna, nnejiapn Hajia3e KpHBne 3a Jiouie CTa- 
H>e Ha nnejiHH>aKy, y BHpycHMa, H03eMH, Me^JtH- 
UH, rpa6eacH, a He BHne jja cy ohh rjiaBHH bhhob- 

HHHH. 

no^eTKOM npojieha HeejjyKOBaHH nnejiapn 
npaBe HOBe rpeuiKe. J\a 6h Ha 6hjio kojh HaHHH 
BeoMa cjra6e nHejiHH>e 3aje^HHne ^obcjih y HopM- 
ajiHO CTaH>e, npn6eraBajy ynoTpeSn JieKOBa h 
npenapaTa 3a HaBO^HO CTHMyjincaH>e nnejia h Ma- 
THue, a Kao KpyHa CBeraje - ^ajy "npeBeHTHBHa " 
3aniTHTHa cpejjcTBa npoTHB 6ojiecTH n^ejiHH>er 
jierjia y BHJjy pa3Hnx aHTHSnoTHKa. M HaKOH cbhx 
thx TpeTMaHa He nocraacy HHKaKBe pe3yjiTaTe. 

"MojLau He Hanajja cahe 3apaaceHO xeMHKa- 
jiHJaMa", onroBapajyhn Ha je/iHO nHTaH^e, Ka^ce 
XyH>anH. "Y KOHTHHyHTeTy or 25 rojiHHa H3Jiara- 
ho ^ejcTBy xeMHJCKHM npenapaTHMa, H3BanHO 
caM caT y Meceny Majy h CTaBHO ra y ycjioBe ^a ra 
MOJtan, ouiTeTH. Ka^a caM y aBiycTy y3eo jja npo- 
BepHM, ycTaHOBHO caM jja ra MOJbau Hnje hh jjoTa- 
Kao. 3aTO BehHHa n^ejiapa HeMa npo6jieMa ca bo- 

IHTaHHM MOJBUeM"! 

TocnonHH XyH>a^H mhoto je Tora BHine npn- 
Ka3ao, noKa3ao h h3tobopho, y HaMepn ^a HaM 
CBe hito 3Ha h yMe caonniTH, uito OBaj ayTop 36or 
orpaHHHeHor npocTopa y ^aconncy HHje o6yxBa- 
tho (a MHoro Tora 3Ha h yMe, Ha npHMep: TyHeji 
3a yjia3aK y KouiHHuy H3JieTHHua ca name, kojh 
CTonponeHTHO OHeMoryhaBa rpa6e^c, jep Kytme 
nuejie o6pa3yjy CTpaacy Ha 17,5 um yHyTap ko- 
niHHne - "Ha yjia3HHM BpaTHMa" yrHe3^o. 

HieroBy uiKOJiy nnejiapcTBa npHXBaTHJiH cy 
nnejiapn H3 Ba^Kor MoHoniTopa h mhoth nnejia- 
pn Ba^Ke, BaHaTa, CpeMa h Cp6HJe. 



n^€A4P ( 5p. 12 t 2003. 



539 



nnnsransn 



KOJWKO (HE)3HATE 

POJEHjY? 



Pojeite je npHpo/jHH HaroH Me/joHOCHHX 
nqena 3apajj jjBa muta: npBO, jja 6m ce 
noBenao 6poj nnejia mnpoM CBeTa, ojj- 
hocho jja 6h ce nnejie H3Je/jHe npecejinne Ha 
HOBy TepHTOpHJy. flpyro, H3BecHH noje/jHHijH 
nponarnpajy KapaKTepHCTH^HH aHTpono- 
Mop(J)HH pa3Jior (tj. KapaKTepHCTHKy iraejie 
Koja je cjiHHHa ^OBeKy): jjBe MaJKe-MaTHue He 
Mory 3aje/jHO jja XHBe y hctoj koihhhhh. 

rjiaBHH ijhjb HayHHHKa h npo<j>ecHOHajiaua 
KOJH ce 6aBe anHKyjiTypoM jjBa/jeceTor BeKaje 
6ho /ja ce ojjpe/je rjiaBHH pa3Ji03H pojen>a, jja 
ce (J)opMyjiHiHy HaHHHH ynpaBJtaita jjpyuiTBH- 
Ma h jja ce hjih cnpe^H hjih CMaitH, ojjhocho hc- 
KopeHH ckjiohoct nqejia Ka pojeray. npe OBor 
BeKa, HejjocTaTaK npaBor, onniTe npHXBaneHor 
ca3HaH>a o pojeray necTO je *ihhho HeonxojjHHM 
jja ce HMajy 3 hjih 4 jjpyniTBa Kaxo 6h ce CBaice 
rojjHHe npoH3Bejio 100 cjjyHTH (1 <j>yHTa = 0,454 
kt) Me/ja. Me^yrHM nocTojajiH cy H3BecHH Be- 
hith nnejiapH kojh cy CTajiHO ycneBajiH jja npo- 
H3Bejjy npeKO 100 (J>yHTH Mejja no je/jHOM jjpy- 
niTBy CBaxe rojjHHe, h to y CKOpo CBaKOM jjejry 
3eMJLe. 

Tokom nocjiejjiBHX 50 ro/jHHa, npoMeHOM 
npHMeHiHBaHHX nponejjypa H3 npoTeKJinx Bpe- 
MeHa, a HayqHHM HCTp&aaiBaiMiMa MHornx 
pa3Jiora pojeita, h hobhm TexHOJiorajaMa n^e- 
jiapeH>a y HHJby jja ce cnpenn hjih ycnopH poje- 
H>e, MHoro ce HOBora ca3Hajio o pa3Ji03HMa po- 
jeita, CBe y muty jja ce npaKTMHO OMoryhn jja 
nnejie npoH3Bejjy 100 <J)yHTH Mejja no kohihh- 
uh, hjih BHine, CBaxe rojjHHe. 
Gne/jene CTaBKe cy 3acHiypHO ycTaHOBJteHe: 

a) riocTOJH o/jperjeHa ce30Ha pojeita 3a CBe 
Apis mellifrere, koja ce reHepajiHO jjecJraHHine 
Kao nepno/j y npojiehe Kajja je o/jroj Jierjia Ha 
BpxyHuy; h, BehHHOM je to nepnojj ojj 4 jjo 6 He- 
jjejta ynpaBO npe rjiaBHor yHomeita HeKTapa 
(Mejjo6paH>a). 

6) Hexe pace Apis HMajy Befty ckjiohoct Ka 
pojeity ojj ocTajrax paca. Mcto ce Mo^ce pehn y 



llopy. MMupu 
Ca eneAecKoe npeeena: Tamjana Kpyuufi 

Be3H pa3JiHHHTHX BpcTa jejjHe pace. Obo HHJe 
npoGjieM 3a HiKOJioBaHor rraejiapa, ajin Mo^ce 
6hth rjiaBHH npoGjieM 3a HeHH(J)opMHcaHor 
nnejiapa. 

b) Pa3Jior 6poj 1 3a pojeite je npeHaTpna- 
hoct hjih 3aryineH>e y npocTopy 3a Jierjio 
(njio/jHimy). HacraBHH HeMajy HHKaKBy Be3y 
ca obhm, jepje to TOTajiHO Jjpyrn npoGjieM! 

r) Pa3Jior 6poj 2 3a pojeite je CTapocT Ma- 
THue. riope/j fteHor 3ajjaTKa jja nojia^ce jaja, 
H>eHa yjiora je jja npoH3Bejje h iHHpH MaTHHHH 

(J)epOMOH (TaKOrje Ce 30Be H MaTHHHH MHpHC) 

kojh Jjejiyje nonyr jienKa jja ojjpacn 3ajejjHO 
cbhx iteHHX 50-60.000 noTOMaKa Kao je/jny je- 
jjHHy (J)yHKHHOHajiHyje^HHHiry. McTpaxHBaH>e 
je jacHO jjoKa3ajio jja ce npoH3BOJjH>a obot Ma- 
thhhot (J>epoMOHa cMaityje CBaKor /jaHa ojj; jja- 
Ha H>eHor cnapHBan>a, h ihto je MaTHija crapH- 
ja, to je H>eH ymuaj Ha noTOMKe CBe MaH>H. 
rinejie ce peTKO poje Kajja hx KOHTpojiHine Ma- 
THita Koja HMa Maite ojj, rojjHHy jjaHa CTapocTH. 

jj) Hnje yoGnnajeHO jja ce nqejie poje to- 
kom yHoca HeKTapa, jep he to pHe ocTaBHra 3a 
KacHHJe, KaKO 6h o6e36e/j,HJie xpaHy 3a oncTa- 
HaK CBor jjpyuiTBa 3a npecTojehy 3HMy. Ajih, 
Mopa jja nocTOJH jj,obojbho npocTopa jja ce yc- 
KJiajjHiHTH OBaj pejjaK BOJj;H>HKaBH HeKTap jjok 
n^ejie He ncnape H>eroB BOJjeHH cajjpxaj h He 
npepajje ((J)epMeHTHiny) y rycra Mejj. Ykojih- 
ko HHJe jjociynaH ojj,roBapajyhH npocTop, a no- 
iuto cy GecnocjieHOCT h JieitocT Heno3HaTe y 
reHeTCKOM oGejiexjy (ciciony) n^ejie, OHe ce 
poje tokom yHoca HeKTapa. Obo je y hgjiocth 
100% KpHBHua n^ejiapa. 

5) Mhoth n^ejiapH cy 3aKJbyqHJiH jja ce po- 
jeH>e jjeinaBa H3HeHajja, hjih jja je nocTojajio 
HeKOJiHKO CHTHajia yno30peH>a ynyheHHX nqe- 
Jiapy, TaKO jj,a je pojen>e caMO jejj,aH ojj ohhx 
HecpehHHX npoGjieMa nqejiapeH^a. Hh jejjHa ojj 
obhx H3JaBa HeMa y ce6n HHKaKBO 3HaneH>e 
hjih HCTHHe. Kajja npocTop 3a Jierjio nocTaHe 
npeHaTpnaH ca cyBHine mhoto Jierjia, npeBejiH- 



n^^AAP. ftp. 12, 2003. 



545 



khm GpojeM n^ejia-HeroBaiejbHua, HeMa jjo- 
bojbho npocTopa 3a 3ajieraH>e MaTHue, hhth 
HMa npocTopa y hejinjaMa 3a noneH hjih HeK- 
Tap, Tajja nqejie Koje nay jja Tpa^ce xpaHy ce 
npoGnjajy Kp03 ryacBy He3anocjieHHX nnena, 
yna3e h H3Jia3e Kp03 npe/jH>H yjia3; ynpaBO Ta- 
jja iraejie 3anoHHH>y cboj nporpaM pojeita. y 
nepojjy ojj 7 jjo 12 jjaHa npe pojeita, rraejie Tpe- 
6a jja H3ipajje MaTHHH>aKe, jja npoH3Bejjy nyHO 
MJiena jja 6h ce HaxpaHHJie JiapBe; jja CMaite 
hjih *iaK jja cnpe^e MaTHiry jja noji&ate jaja, Ka- 
ko 6h OHa CMaifcHJia Te^cHHy jja 6h ycneumo Jie- 
Tena ca pojeM, h jja nomajby rraejie H3BHrja*iH- 
ue jja Harjy hobh jjom. npe Hanynrraiba koihhh- 
ne OHe ce HanyHe (npeje/jy) Me/joM kojh tie no- 

HeTH y CBOJ HOBH JJOM. C TOra OHe JjeJIHMHHHO 

onycrajy ojj TpaxeH>a xpaHe y nojty, Beh caMO 
GopaBe y kohihhhh h neicajy "cHraaji 3a ojjjia- 
3ax H3 KOHiHHite". Obo je npouejjypa pojeita y 
ce30HH 3a pojeite npe maBHor yHoca Heicrapa. 
Kajja no^He yHoc HeKTapa, nqejie o/jycra- 
jy ojj cbojhx noMHCJiH Be3aHHX 3a pojen>e h 
KOHueHTpHiiiy ce Ha CKynjLan>e HeKTapa. yico- 
jihko rraejiap HHJe o6e36ejjno jjobojbho npo- 
CTOpa, rraejie noKymaBajy jja HanpaBe MecTO 3a 
jiarepoBaH>e Mejja rpa/jefiH 3anepKe y CBaKOM 
MoryneM npocTopy, h KOHaHHO cnpenaBajy Ma- 
Tinry Jja nexe jaja THMe hito nonyH>aBajy npa- 
3He hejiHJe jierjia HeKTapoM. KoHa^HO (Kajja 
ce CBe hejiHJe nonyHe), HejjocraTaK npa3HHX 
hejiHJa npHMOpaBa nqejie jia rpajje MaTHrae 
hejiHJe, h Tajja 3ano*iHifce npouec pojeita, jep 
je nnejiap 6ho cyBHine JieH> hjih HHJe 6ho jjo- 
bojbho naMeTaH jja o6e36e/jH jjobojbho npo- 
CTOpa y npaBO BpeMe, a Koje je Ghjio HaJMaite 
7 jjo 10 JjaHa npe pojeita. HeKH he pehn: 
"IJopij je Jiy/j, y Be3H H>eroBHX CTaBOBa oko po- 
jen>a h KOHTpojie pojeita". Ako je to TaKO oh- 
jja cy TaKorje JiyjjH h BehHHa npo(J>ecHOHajiHHX 
rraejiapa kojh cene CBOje nnejie, a kojh HMajy 
5.000 jjo 25.000 jjpyurraBa h npeMeurrajy hx 
niHpoM CAJX-a, h onpaniHBaqH kojh npeHoce 
1.000 jjpyniTaBa y tby IJepcn je/jHe Hejjejte, 
jjBe Hejjejte KacHHJe hx npeHoce y hbyjopK, Ha- 
koh TpH Hejjejbe y MeJH, a OHJja Ha3ajj y Ojio- 
pHJjy jja 6h noGojLmajiH yceBe y y3rojy noMO- 
paHiiH. n^ejiapeHie j h>hxob nejioicynaH npn- 
xojj h ohh He CMejy jja npaBe rpeniKe THMe ihto 
he jjo3bojihth pojeite. HeKH ojj h>hx *iaK Me- 
H>ajy MaTHuy y jjpyuiTBy JjBa nyra CBaKe tojjh- 
hc jja 6h 6hjih CHrypHHJH jja je MaTHua BeoMa 
MJiajja jja 6h Morjia jia H3Jiexe jjocra jaja h jja 
npoH3Be^e nyHO (J)epoMOHa ihto he ycnopHTH 
(xejta je OHeMoryhHTH) pojeH>e. Ohh CKOpo 
cbh Kynyjy MaTHue ojj bhcoko CTpyHHHX y3ra- 
JHBaqa MaTHua h noHOBO ncry MeH>ajy y jeceH 
jja He 6h "3a6pJbajiH" (36or pojeH>a) npojiehHH 
npHxojj h y n^ejiHH>HM npoH3BOJjHMa hjih yro- 



Bop o onpaiHHBaity. yKOJiHKO nocehyjeTe ca- 
CTaHKe AMepnqKe n^iejiapcKe (J>ejjepaii;HJe, mo- 
aceTe h caMH jja nopa3roBapaTe ca obhm JtynH- 
Ma Kao ihto to ja pajjHM, h MoxeTe ce yBepnra 

KOJIHKO nyHO OHH 3Hajy! yKOJIHKO je, peHHMO, 

cajja anpHJi, He MoaceTe jja ypajjHTe HHHiTa jjo 
cjie/xehe rojjHHe (HHJe o6e36erjeHa MJiajja MaTH- 
ua), ajra MoxeTe ^a ypajjHre cjiejjehe: 

1) J\a cnpeHHTe HejjocraTaK npocTopa 
npejjBHrjeHor 3a Jierjio (y njiojjHnny), a to je 
HeonxojjHO ^ihhhth tokom (J)e6pyapa, MapTa h 
anpHJia. Tpe6a jja KopHCTHTe hjih JjBa jjyGoKa 
Tejia KouiHHue hjih 3 cpejjfta. 

2) HacTaBUH HHcy ^o6pH Kajja CTOje y Ba- 
nioj rapaxH hjih nojjpyMy. JlqejiaMaje Mo^ia 
noTpeGaH jjojjaTHH npocTop h 3aTO CTaBHTe 
HaJMaH>e jejjaH HacTaBaK Ha njiojjHHiTe noqeT- 
kom anpHJia, TaKO jja OHe Mory HeoMeTaHO jja 
ce pa3BHJajy (npeHoce BHUiaK Mejja H3 njiojjn- 
uiTa, jiarepyjy HeKTap h npHXBaTe BHHiaK nne- 
jia) . CTaBHTe 5 HacTaBaKa ca H3ByneHHM caheM 
Ha CBaKO jjpyuiTBO oko 15. anpHJia. He KopH- 
CTHTe caTHy ocHOBy. 

3) RnaHHpaJTe MeH>aH>e MaTHue CBaKe ro- 
jjHHe h KOHTaKTHpaJTe noy3JjaHor y3raJHBa*ia 
MaTHua. 

4) HHTaJTe, qHTaJTe, nnraJTe, noceGHO Tpe- 
he H3Jj,afte ZlnjaHe CaMaHTapo H3 1998. rojjHHe 
"n*iejiapcKH npHpyqHHK", npBeHCTBeHO HaMe- 
ibQH noneTHHHHMa h npoce^HHM n^iejiapHMa. 
To je Moacjja HajGojba latHra 3a no^ieTHHKe ko- 
jaje HKajj HanncaHa. JlyjjocTJe h HeMaTH Konn- 
jy "KoniHHua h MejjoHOCHa nqejia", peBHJjHpa- 
ho H3/j,aH>e H3 1992. ro^HHe, ^a 6h CTe jjojjaTHO 
Hay^HJiH mhoto Tora Ha 1300 cipaHa Koje cy 
Hanncajia 34 HaJBeha nnejiapa h HayHHHKa y 
oGjiacTH nnejiapcTBa y CAJl. Mhoth je 30By 
"nnejiapcKa BnGjinja". Mhcjihm jja je 8. no- 
rjiaBJte jjp. HopMa fepHJa o noHauiaH^y nnejia 
jejjaH ojj HajGojbe HanncaHHX TeKCTOBa Ha CBe- 
Ty, a 9. norjiaBJLe o <J)epoMOHHMa je MeTa 3a 
Gojte pa3yMeBarae nnejia y 2 1 . Bexy. 

Mojihm jja oGpaTHTe naaoty Ha Moje cjie/je- 
he pe^n: rpHH>e (ojjhoch ce Ha Bapoy) ce y 
CAIJ HHcy nojaBHJie jjo 1984-1987. rojjHHe, 
a<J)pHKaHH30BaHe n^ejie HHcy yuuie y CAJl jjo 
OKToGpa 1990, a orpoMHa BaacHOCT (^epoMOHa 
je TeK (ynpaBo) 3anonejia HejjaBHHX rojjHHa. 
CTora, lOfcHre Koje cy HanncaHe npe oko 1982. 
rojjHHe 3a Bac HHcy mhoto BpejjHe, jep ce OHe 
He 6aBe npoGjieMHMa rpnita, a(J)pHKaHH30Ba- 
hhx n^ejia h (J)epoMOHa. 

HeKe HCTHHe h Jiaxn y Be3H pojeH>a: 
1.) Tokom mhoto rojjHHa n^ejiapn cy npaK- 
THKOBajiH jja yKJioHe CBe hejiHJe 3a pojeite 
(MaTH^H^aKe) jejjHOM HejjejBHO, jja 6h cnpeHH- 
jih pojeH>e. MaKO 6h to motjio jja ojjjioxh po- 
jeH^e, poj oGhhho H3Jia3H h H3a ce6e ocTaBiba 



546 



mQMP. Sp. 1$, 3003. 



jxpyuiTO 6e3 MaTMue. flajte, BeoMa uecro He 
bhjjh (noTneHH) je/xHy MaTHUHy hejiHJy Ka#a 
BpuiM OBy nponejjypy OTKJiaH>aH>a, m nnejie cy 
ce pojiine Ta^HO npeMa pacnope/xy. 3aKJby4aK: 
OTKJiaH>aH>e MaTHUHHx hejiMJa He cnpeuaBa po- 
jen>e! 

2.) Mhoth nnenapH CKpahyjy (pTcenajy) 
KpMJia MaTHue Jia He 6h Moraa Jia neTM, h Bepy- 
jy Jjaje obo TexHHKa 3a KOHTpojiucaite pojeita. 
Kajja nnejie OTKpnjy m MaTHira Hwje jjeo poja, 
OHe ce Bpahajy y KOuiHuuy ca HjjejoM yra noHO- 
bo noKyuiajy cyrpa. OBa pajjita ce MO^ce ojjjio- 
^khtm Ha je/iaH jjaH hjih cjihuho, ajin ce o6huho 
HOBa MJiaaa MaTHna nojaBJbyje h poj HanyuiTa 
erapM jjom npe/jBorjeH hobom HeomiorjeHOM 

MaTHHOM. 

3aKJtyHaK: CKpahnBaite (o/jceuaite) KpMJia 
MaTMue He cnpenaBa pojeite! 

3.) Kao iiiTO ce nojejjHHUH npe/rajy ajiKOxo- 
jiy hjih Jjpora, cjihhho ce noHauiajy h nuejie. 
HaKOH uito 3anpTajy cboj nporpaM 3a 6p3MM 
pojeiteM, m HaKOH uito H3Bpuie no/rocTa KOpa- 
Ka Be3aHHx 3a nepMO/j, npe pojeita, KpaJH>e je 
TeuiKO 3aycTaBMTH obo apyuiTBO or CBOJe 3a- 
mhcjim, ochm yKOHMKO ce He npejjy3My /xpa- 
CTMHHe Mepe. OBe Mepe 6m MO^aa yKJtyuHJie 
/jeji>eH>e JipyuiTBa Ha jjBa /jejia, CKJiaH>aH>e Ma- 
THue, yKJiaH>aH>e uejior Jierjia m ocTajie hhtch- 
3MBHe pa/jOBe; na uaK hm Tajja, Te Mepe He mo- 
pajy jja 6yjxy ycneuiHe. Ykojihko npMMeTHTe jja 
MaTMHHa napBa miyra no MJieny y MaTMHHOJ 
hejiMJH, nporpaM pojeita je ^o6po ycnoera- 
BJteH; ohjx4 tie 3aycTaBJi>aH>e pojeita 6hth Te- 
uiko. flajte, aico BH/jHTe 3aTB0peHe MaTH4H>a- 
Ke, MoaceTe jra 3a6opaBMTe Ha 6mjio Kojy Tex- 
HMKy cnpeuaBaita pojeita, jep he ce jjpyuiTBO 
M3poJHTH y poxy ojx 24 caTa, ochm yKOJiMKO je 
BpeMe py^KHO. Mo^ce ce pehn jja nuejie niejia- 
jy o/jjryuHO m ctphktho yje/jHOM npaBuy, m jja 
je, yKOJiMKO cy H3Bpunuie npnnpeMe 3a poje- 
H>e, BeoMa he TeuiKO npeycMepMTM CBOJe mia- 
HHpaite (pa3MMmjt>aH>e) Ka hckom yoGuuaje- 
hom 3a^aTKy, Kao niToje caKynjbaite HeKTapa. 

4.) HaKO ce y MepHJieHjjy He Bnrjajy uecro, 
nuejie Mory jia ce poje y jieTO hjih naK y jeceH, 

36or H3BeCHHX Heo6MHHHX OKOJ1HOCTH. Y nOT- 

nyHOM onajy, mejie Mory Jia jjo6MJy "HaroH 3a 
pojeH>eM" y JieTO, aKO cy 3ajiHxe y h>hxobom 
ApyniTBy Ha HyjiH, a y3pOK TOMe je to uito mm 
nnejiap y3HMa McyBnme Me/ra, mjim je nepHOjj 
He^ocTaTKa HeKTapa 6ho ucyBuuie jjyr. flajte, 
c BpeMeHa Ha BpeMe, jeceitH yHOC HeKTapa, 
hjih cenTeMGap kojh je HHTeH3HBaH m kojm /xy- 
ro Tpaje, Mory jja M3a30By jeceite pojeite. 
Ykojimko HMaTe jjobojbho 3HaH>a m BeuiTHHe 
jj,a cnpeunre hjih KOHTpojinmeTe HOpMajiHO 
npojiehHO pojeite, He MOpaTe jja ce 6pMHeTe o 
jxpyruM, Heyo6nHajeHHM perjHM pojeitMMa. 



no/ioxAj 

nHEJIAPCTBA 

y npuBPE/in 

MAt)APCKE 

JIacjio Jlyuan, 
Ce.MapKoeuha 6,21220 Eenej 

nnejiapCTBO y MarjapCKOJ npMBpejjn HMa 
CKpoMaH 3Hanaj. y 6pyro npOH3BOjjy 
nojbonpHBpejje ynecTByje ca 0,5%, a y 
6pyTo npOH3BOfly CTO^apCTBa ca 1.03%. Ho, 
HMa CBOJCTBO CTaJIHOT pa3BOJa HaBHiue, c o63M- 
pOM fla MarjapcKa jjaHac npon3BOJiH oko 16.000 
TOHa Mejja, ojx nera 68% hhhh 6arpeMOB Meji, 
19% MemaHH jiMBa^CKH Mejj, 6% cymiOKpeTOB 
Mea, 5% Mejj, oji, yjLaHe pennije n 2% ocTajin 
copTHH Me/iOBM, a HMa noTeHHHJaji 3a npon3- 
BOjjH>y 40-46.000 TOHa rojj,HiuH>e. MarjapcKa 
ynecTByje y cbctckom npOMeTy Mejja ca 4 - 
4,5%, c o63HpOM jj,a Ha cbctcko Tp^cnuiTe H3- 
B03M Bpjio Tpa»:eHH MarjapCKH 6arpeMOB Mejj,. 

IlpoGjieM 3a 6ojt.e HCKopHmhaBaH>e na- 
iuhhx noTeHiiHJajia y MarjapCKOJ, nopejj ojxho- 
ca TponiKOBa m npHxojja, hhhh h to iuto y Ma- 
rjapCKOJ flOMHHHpajy nojiouiKe Kao THn ko- 
uiHHue, Koje HHcy npaKTMHHe 3a MexaHH30Ba- 
Hy npOM3BOJTH>y, Kao iuto je to cjryuaj ca Ha- 
CTaBJBanaMa Tuna LR. TaKorje h ocTajia onpe- 
Ma je 3aocTajior TMna, ca kojhm MaJapCKa h 
Hehe Mohn yhn y EBponcKy yHnjy. 

Ojjhoc TpouiKOBa h npHxo/xa Huje je^HH- 
CTBeH 3a CBe cjiynajeBe nHejiapeH^a, jep to 3a- 
bhch o^ THna KOuiHHire h o^ 6poja ^pyuiTaBa 
ca kojhm nnejiap pajjn. MarjapH cy H3pa/iMJiM 
Ta6ejiy ojjHOca TpouiKOBa m npnxo/ia Ha 6a3M 
KOpHuiheH.a nojiouiKH, 3aTMM HacTaBJbaua, no 
ochobh pa3JiHKe y nocTHTHyTOM pe3yjiTaTy 
npou3BOjj,H3e Me/xa h y 3aBHCHOCTH ojx 6poja ko- 
uiHuua. 

OBe nojjaTKe caicynMOJe h o6pa,aHO Hhctm- 
TyT 3a HCTpa^KHBaH>e m HH(J)opMaTHKy y nojto- 
npHBpejjH MarjapCKe. 



nMeA<\p, ep. n. 2003 



547 



LUTA JE A03A 
JE OAPEAMTM 



CBeje otpob, HHiuTa HHje 6e3a3JieHO. JejjHHOje 
H03a npecy^a jj,a jih je Heiirro otpobho hjih 
He, peicao je napauejLJHJyc join y XVI Beicy h 
TaKO yKa3ao jj,a je rpaionia H3Merjy JieKa h OTpoBa 
TaHKa h HejacHa, iuto npejjcTaBJba KJiacHHHy jj,03ho 
3aBHCHy HHJieMy JieK - OTpoB. ITa Kajjje TaKO, a Taxo 
jecTe, nocTaBJba ce nHraH>e mTa je jj;o3a Jiexa hjih 
niTa ce y npaKCH nojj; jjo30m nojj,pa3yMeBa. 

3o3ajieKa, nojejjHoj ojj, ne(})HHHLiHJa Je o/jperje- 
Ha KOJiH^HHa JieKOBHTe cyncTaHUHJe Koja ce nojx ojj- 
perjeHHM ycjioBHMa h Ha o/jpetjeHH Ha^HH jjaje >khbo- 
THH^aMa y muty npeBeHHpaita hjih JieHeita ^khboth- 
H>a. flo3a Mo^ce 6hth: npo(})HJiaKTHHKa, TepannjcKa, 
TOKCH^Ha h JieTajiHa. 

Flpoc^HJiaKTHHKa hjih npeBeHTHBHa Jj03a jj,aje ce 
ca MejjHHHHCKH onpaBJjaHHM hhjlcm, jj;a ce kojj, Tpe- 
THpaHHX ^CHBOTHH>a cnpe^n nojaBa 6ojiecTH, 3a Kojy 
ce Bepyje jj,a 6h y jjaTHM ycjioBHMa Morjia jja Hacra- 
He. 

TepannjcKa jj;o3a hjih e(J)eKTHBHa jj;o3a je om ko- 
jiHHHHa Jiexa kojom ce Moace nocrahn KopHCTaH hjih 
acejteHH TepannjcKH e(J)eKaT kojj JieneHHX ^chboth- 
H>a. OHa Moace 6hth MHHHManHa, cpejj,H>a h MaKCH- 
MajiHa. 

MnHHMajiHa TepannjcKa jjo3a je HaJMaita kojih- 
4HHa Jiexa kojom ce Moace nocTnhn TepannjcKH e(J)e- 
KaT. Hnje noy3JjaHa nouiTojoj flejcTBO Moace H30cra- 
th kojj, Beher Spoja TpeTHpaHHX 2CHB0THH>a. 

MaKCHManHa TepannjcKa jj,03a je HaJBena kojih- 
^HHa JieKa hjih JieKOBHTe cyncraHnnje kojom ce mo- 
ry TpeTHpaTH 5KHBOTHH>e, 6e3 niTeTHHX nocjiejjHua. 
H>OMe ce nocTirate h HaJBehn TepannjcKH e(J)eKaT, 
ajin je to h rpaHHHHa jj,03a hhjhm naiLHM noBenaH>eM 
H30CTaje kophcho jjejioBaH>e JieKa, ajaBJbajy ce He- 
acejteHH e(})eKTH. HeKan je Ta jiHHHJa BeoMa TaHKa n 
3aTO ce y npaKcn Hajnemne nponncyje n kophcth 
cpejjita TepannjcKa ,1103a. 

CpejjH>a TepannjcKa jj,03a je OHa KOJiHHHHa JieKa 
Koja he kojj BehnHe TperapaHnx 5KHBOTHH>a npoy- 
3poKOBaTH o^eKHBaHH hjih xejbeHH TepannjcKH 
e(J)eKaT. Kojihhhhckh OHaje yBeK H3Mef)y MHHHMan- 
He h TOKCHHHe Jj03e. Ca cpejj,H>OM TepannjcKOM jio- 
30M He nocTojn MorynHOCT hh cy6jj,03npaH>a, a hh 
npejj03npaH)a JieneHHX ^CHBOTHH>a. OHaje nponnca- 
Ha or npoH3Borjana JieKOBa Ha ocHOBy (jiapMaKOJio- 
niKor MnnubeHja n kjihhhhkhx HcnnTHBaiBa. Y H3Be- 
chhm cjryqajeBHMa h non ojjperjeHHM ycjioBHMa h y3 
ojjo6peH>e BeTepnHapa OHa ce noHeicajj, Mo^ce noBe- 
hara. 

ToKCH^Ha jjo3a je om KOJiHHHHa JieKa, Koja kojj, 
BehnHe TperapaHnx 2CHB0THH>a npoy3poKyje Hexe- 
jteHe e(J)eKTe n cnMnTOMe TpoBaH>a. Hajneuihe m- 
CTaje Kajj,a ce npeKopann MaKCHManHa jj;o3BOJbeHa 
jjo3a, a CBe y acejtn jj,a ce nocTnme iuto 6ojbh Tepa- 
nnjcKH e(J)eKaT. 

JieTajiHa hjih CMpTOHOCHa jj,03a je OHa KOJin^HHa 
JieKa, Koja npoy3poKyje cmpt Jie^eHiix )KHBOTHH>a. y 

3aBHCHOCTH OJJ KOHneHTpannje, KOJIHHHHe H HaHHHa 



<DAPMAK 



JIEKA M KAKO 

y nHE^APCTBy 

ftp ci^u. AnfyenKO MaiccuMoeuti* 

anjiHKannje naTor JieKa yruHyhe he HacTaTH koji Ma- 
H>er, Beher hjih kojj; cbhx TpeTnpaHnx 2CHBOTHH>a. 

y n^ejiapcTBy je Hajnemhe no3npaH>e JieKa no 
kouihhuh, ojjhocho nHejiHHiOJ 3ajejjjj:HLi;H. Cpejj;H>a 
TepannjcKa jj,03a yBeK he 3aBHCHTH ojj, xeMnjcKor ca- 
CTaBa JieKa, H>eroBe KOHneHTpannje hjih jannHe, Ha- 
HHHa anjiHKannje, jjy>KHHe TpeTMaHa, noHaBJi>aH>a 
TpeTMaHa aKO je npejjBnrjeHO n tokchhhocth hjih 
otpobhocth JieKOBHTe cyncTaHHHJe 3a nnejie. Ajih, 
Ha ona6Hp JieKa, ojjhocho kojh heMO JieK y jjaTOM mo- 
Memy ynoTpe6HTH h ca kojom ho30m oSaBHTH Tpe- 
THpan>e jj,pyuiTaBa Ha HaiueM nnejiKHjaicy, ojj bcjih- 
kot cy 3Hanaja jaHHHa jj,pyuiTBa, 3acTyruLeH0CT nne- 
jiHH>erjierjia, creneH 3apaaceHOCTH BapooM, cnojLHe 
jjHeBHe h HohHe TeMnepaType, Kao h ocrajiHX Bpe- 
MeHCKHX npnjiHKa (KHUia, BeTap), THna h ncnpaBHO- 
cth KouiHHue. Kajja CBe HaBejjeHe ejieMeHTe hjih hh- 
H>eHHu;e carjiejjaMO, TeK OHJja MoaceMO jjohcth ojjjry- 
Ky o H36opy npenapaTa h ojja6paTH OHaj ojj; Kora y 
jjaTHM ycjioBHMa MoaceMO o^eKHBaTH Haj6ojbe pe- 
3yjiTaTe. 

Ha ycneuiHOCT y cy36HJaH>y Bapoe nopejj; ojj,a- 
6paHor JieKa h jj,03e ojj; BejiHKor je 3Hanaja h MeTojja 
hjth Ha^HH anjiHKauHJe. Toje CBaKaKO noce6Ha Te- 
Ma, BeoMa 036HJLHa h o6HMHa h Kojy Tpe6a o6pajj;H- 
th npe npojiehHor TpeTHpaH>a TRejiHH>HX jj,pyuiTaBa 
Ha Bapoy. 

SaKJbyMijH 

Bapoy ca 3a cajj,a nocTojehHM JieKOBHMa He mo- 

2CeM0 yHHIHTHTH, aJIH je MO^CeMO KOHTpOJIHCaTH, 

iuto h hhhhmo, a to HnaK OMoryhaBa ycneuiHO h 
peHTa6njiHO nnejiapeH>e. 

He jjpacaTH ce caMO jejjHor JieKa, Beh y 3aBHCHO- 
cth ojj CHTyauHJe h HaBejjeHHX ycjioBa h npoueHa Ha 
ir4ejiHH>aKy, onpejjejiHTH ce 6ap 3a join jejjaH hjih 
HBa CHiypHO npoBepeHa npenapaTa. 

3axTeBaTH ojj; npejj,aBana, noniTO ce y 3hmckom 
nepnojjy CKopo y cbhm n^ejiapcKHM jjpyurrBHMa op- 
raHH3yjy npejjaBaH>a 3a nnejiape, jj,a Kan roBope o 
SojiecTHMa n^ejia n h>hxobom JieneH>y, jja npBO He- 
iuto Kaacy n o JieKOBHMa, o h>hxobhm oco6nHaMa Ka- 
ko jjoSpHM TaKO n jiouihm, a He caMO o h>hxoboj npn- 
MeHH. Mopa jja ce H3Hece jja jih h nojj; kojhm ycjioBH- 
Ma jjoTHHHa cyncTaHunja Moace iutctho jj,ejioBaTH Ha 
nnejie, MaTHiry n n^ejiHHie Jierjio. O MoryhHM ocTa- 
niiMa y Mejxy h ocTanHM nHejiHH>HM npoH3BOJj;HMa, 
kojh cjiyace 3a ncxpaHy Jtynn h kojh Mory ihtctho 
jjejioBaTH Ha h>hxobo 3JjpaBJte, noroTOBy Kajj,a cy y 
nHTan>y aHTH6HOTHu;H, cyji(J)o-npenapaTH hjth HeKe 
xeMHJCKe cycnraHUHJe kojj cy36Hja Bapoe. 

Ha Kpajy, caBeTyjeMO nnejiape jja He jjo3BOJie jja 
h>hxobh nHejiHH>auH nocjiyace 3a npo6jieMaTH x iHa 
HcnHTHBaH>a ca HenpoBepeHHM h HeperacTpoBaHHM 
JieKOBHMa, KaKO HiTeTa He 6h 6njia Beha ojj kophcth. 

* JXv cuH.BeT.Mejj;. AHf)ejiKO MaKCHMOBHh, Hay^iHH caBeT- 
hhk, Bpinau;. 



mUW. 6p. 12 a 2003, 



551 



HOBHJIEK 



ATWAPfl - EK0J10L1JKM 
KOHUEnT 50P5E nPOTMB BAPOE 



noniTOBaHH UHTaoun XXXVIII KoHrpec 
nuejiapaje H3a Hac, ajinje ocTao HH3 Hayq- 
hhx pa/ioBa, on kojhx fteMO Hexe npeaera- 
bhth tokom Hape^HHX 6pojeBa Hauier naconnca. 

KoHiienT eKOJiouiKor n^ejiapeita npHcyraHJe 
HH3 ro^HHa y CBeTy, a HapouuTO je aKTyejiH30BaH 
uHH>eHunpM m ce MHore uiTeTHe MaTepuje 3anp- 
xcaBajy y nuejiHH>HM npou3BO,0HMa, Kao nocjienH- 
ua Hea^eKBaTHe h HecTpy^He npuMene JieKOBa. y 
OKBupy ceKUHJe nocBeneHe MoryriHOCTHMa eKOJio- 
uiKe npoH3BO#H>e Me,n,a npe^cTaBJbeHJe pa# ayro- 
pa J. Trouiller-a o reji abopMH THMOJia - anurapji. 

ITpeMa obom ayropy, y noarce,n,H>HX 10 rojimaa 
3HaTHO je nopacjia pe3HCTeHTHOCT Bapoe Ha KJia- 
CHHHe aKapuuH,ae, Te ce Tpara 3a 6ojlhm h MaH>e 
niTeTHHM HauHHHMa y cy36njaH>y OBe uiTeTOHHHe. 
TaKorje, y Ebpoiih je noBenaHa Tpa^cn>a 3a xpa- 
hom h nnejiHH)HM npoH3BOflHMa ca exo npe,n,3Ha- 
kom. HaKO KopHinneH>e THMOJia 3a cy36HJaH>e no- 
nyjiainije Bapoe y koiuhhlth HHje hoboct h motjih 
cmo je cpecTH y o6jiHKy Apilifevar-a. y HCTpa^cn- 
BaH>HMa Trouiller-a noKyuiaBa ce ca hobhm koh- 
uenTOM, KaKO 6h ce npeBa3HuiJia TeMnepaTypHa 
orpaHHueH>a npHMeHe THMOJia. 

Thmoji je npupojiHH cacTojaK 6ujbaKa H3 kojhx 
ce Mo^ce /io6hth eKCTpaKHHJOM. y LtlBajuapcKoj je 
H>eroBO npucycTBO y Me^y orpaHuueHO Ha 0,8 
mg/kg. /JyropouHOM npHMeHOM HMa KyMyjiaTHBHO 
nejcTBO h 3aflpacaBa ce y BOCKy, na KOHneHTpauu- 
ja H3Haa 2 mg/kr yraue Ha npoMeHy MHpuca h yicy- 
ca. Ha bhuihm TeMnepaTypaMa MaTuua Moxe npe- 
cTaTH m Hocujaja. 

HoBa reji BapujaHTa THMOJia, HanpaBibeHa je 
TaKO m ce peryjiuuie ucnapaBaH>e aKTHBHe cyn- 
CTaHue. Teji ce noHania Kao Mpe^ca Koja ce npn 
HHacoj TeMnepaTypn uiupn, a npu bhuioj CKyniba. 
OBaKBa ocoGHHa, npeivia HaBO^HMa ayTopa, o6e3- 
Serjyje MaKCHMajiaH yuHHaK caMO y jjpa TpeTMaHa. 

anurapn je TecrapaH y hckojiuko 3eMajta Ka- 
ko 6h ce ucnHTajia e(J)HKacHOCT npu pa3JiHHHTHM 



ITpeeod u oQpada: Mp HeQojma Heduh 
nojbonpuepeduu ^aKyAtnetnSeMyH 

TeMnepaTypaMa h HauuHHMa nuejiapepta. y CBa- 
kom HcnuTHBaHOM TpeTMaHy nocTojajia je Mpe^ca- 
CTa nojiH>au:a h HayjbeHH yjiouiun Ha KojuMa ce Ba- 
poa 3a,zipiKaBajia h 6pojajia. FIpHMeHa ce cacToja- 
jia y ^BOCTpyKOM TpeTMaHy (50 g 3aTBopeH y 06- 
jiHKy JiHMeHe nauiTeTe Koja ce ySaun y KouiHuuy) 
y HHTepBajiy ojx 2 Hcnejbe. HaKOH npecTaHKa ,nej- 
CTBa anurapa-a, npHMeiteHa cy 2 KOHTpojiHa Tpe- 

THpaH>a Ca pa3JIHUHTHM XeMHJCKHM Cpe/ICTBHMa. 

E<})HKacHOCT je H3pa^ceHa y npoueHTHMa h npe/i- 
CTaBJBa jieo Bapoa o6opeHux anurapjioM y o/iHocy 
Ha yKynaH 6poj o6opeHux Bapoa (anurap/i + xe- 
MujcKa cpe/icTBa). 

ITpeMa HaBe^eHoj MeTO^HUH yKynHa e<})HKa- 
choct H3Hocujia je 91%, ca pacnoHOM on 74 jio 
99%. E(})HKacHOCTJe 6HJia 6oiba y TonjinjuM kjih- 
MaTHMa, qnMax HaKOH yKJiaH>aH>a Me,THiuTa. Ka- 
CHHJe TpeTHpan>e pe3yjiTHpajio je cjia6HJOM e<})H- 
KacHouihy h BejiHKHM BapHJauHJaMa H3Merjy npy- 
uiTaBa. 

Pe3H/iye THMOJia MepeHe cy y HTajiuJH Ha jio- 
KajiHTeTHMa y YnnHaMa h JIoM6ap,HHJH, ^OKJe y 
TpuKoj Mepen>e BpuieHO y okojihhh CojiyHa (Ta- 
Sejra 2). 

M3 Ta6ejie 2 ce bhjih jia cy Bpe^Hocra y rpaHH- 
u;aMa no 2 mg/kg, c thm jxa. ce 3a Bpe^HocT y Tpu- 
koj (1,7 mg/kg) Kaace naje BeoMa cnpoMauiHa na- 
uia Ha Kpajy JieTa 6ujia y3poK OBaKO bhcokc Bpe,zj- 
hocth pe3Hjiya THMOJia. Ayrop joui HaBo^H u m 
ynoTpeSa annrapn-a y eKcnepuMeHTajiHe CBpxe 3a 
BpeMe name bo^h Ka TOMe na. ce pe3H^ye THMOJia 
ocenajy y Meny h Mory noKBapuTH H>eroB yKyc. 
Ka^a ce kophcth BaH nepno^a name, pe3H^ye th- 
MOJia y Me,ny cy hhckc n He yrauy Ha yKyc Mena. 
yKOJiHKO ce TpeTMaH cnpoBOTH KacHO ca anu- 
rapn-OM Heonxo,n,aHJe KacHujn nonyHCKH TpeTMaH 
hjih y npojieriHH Hape/iHe ro^HHe. 

ITopen OBor H3JioaceHJe u ynope^HH TpeTMaH 
nHejiHH>ux npyuiTaBa ca anHJiuobeBap-OM h anu- 
rapn-OM Ky6aHCKor ayTopa E.M.Esquijarosa. Ay- 



Ta6ejia 2: Pe3Hjiye THMOJia HaKOH npHMeHe Annrapna 



— — — _^ — — 


_ . — 

FojiHHa 


Epoj yiopaxa 


Cpeajta BpeaHocr 
(rag/kg) 


rpaHH4HC BpeffKOCTH 

(mg/kg) 


MrajiHja - Ymue 


1997 


10 


<0.03 


0.08 - < 0.03 


HTaiiMja - Jl0M6apflHJa 


2003 


10 


0.17 


0.38 - 0.05 


FpHKa - Cojiys 


2003 


10 


Ml 


L7-O07 



552 



n^cftap. »p. ia t $003, 



Ta6ejia 1 : Pe3yjrraTii npMMeHe anwrap^a Ha pa3JiM4MTMM jiOKauiijaMa 



3eMJka 


ro^HHa 


Epoj 

KOUIHHUii 


Tun 

KOUIHHT|e H 

paca miejia 


ITepnofl 
TpeTMaHa 


TeMnepa- 
rypa (°C) 


YKyiraa hh- 

Ba^HpaHOCT 


E^JHKa- 

CHOCT (%) 


Anxap 




5 


L/I 


8-9 


42-24 


1219 


93 


Hxa^HJa 1 




15 


D/L 


7-8 


40-24 


1060 


99 


EixajTHJa 2 




15 


D/L 


7-8 


41.1-24 


942 


99 


HxajiHja 3 




12 


D/L 


7-8 


40-24 


1237 


98 


HTajrHJa 4 




12 


D/L 


7-8 


40-24 


2009 


98 


HTaJTHja 5 




12 


D/L 


7-8 


40-24 


1743 


99 


Fp^nca 


2002 


10 


D/MA 


8-9 


36-18 


1383 


95 


MapoKo 


2002 


14 


D/I 


8-9 


35-26 


2008 


95 


MapoKo 




5 


D/l 


6-7 


32-28 


926 


91 


MapOKO 




5 


D/I 


8-9 


32-28 


2555 


92 


<I>paHuycKa 




10 


LM 


7-10 


34-23 


2106 


93 


MapoKo 


2001 


10 


D/I 


9-10 


32-22 


2302 


98 


HTajmja 




10 


D/L'C 


6-7 


32-21 


2352 


85 


Plrajiitja 




10 


D/L/C 


6-7 


32-21 


1988 


87 


Bejirnja 1 




14 


IG/B 


S-9 


32-15 


2962 


96 


Be/irHja 2 




5 


D/B 


8-9 


7 


8545 


97 


Eejrrnja 3 




1 


D/B 


K-9 


? 


3200 


98 


Eejinfja 4 




15 


MIX/B 


8-9 


24-14 


527S 


74 


EcJirnja 5 




y 


MIX/B 


8-9 


7 


>fi3 ( ) 


83 


UIsajuapcKa 1 




10 


S/M 


8-9 


38-17 


HH)2 


96 


LiiBaJLuipcKii 2 




10 


D/M 


8-9 


37-18 


2112 


86 


IUsajuapcKa 3 




10 


S/C 


8-9 


38-16 


217 


87 


IUaajuapcKa 4 




3 


D/C 


8-9 


36-18 


2339 


S5 


lUsajnapcKa 5 




3 


S/C 


8-9 


36 1^ 


1491 


92 


IllsajuapCKa 6 




10 


S/C 


8-9 


31-15 


306 


91 


EllQaj^apcKa 7 




m 


D/L 


8-9 


33-21 


2.M5 


75 


Tp^Ka 


2002 


10 


L/MA 


3-4 


25-8 


1088 


89 


4>paHirycKa 




4 


D/L 


10-11 


24-10 


3787 


77 


OpamjycKa 




5 


z/c 


7-a 


24-12 


750 


98 


<l>paHuyCKa 




2 


2VC 


7-8 


26-7 


3143 


95 


Tp^Ka 


2002 


10 


IVMA 


lf)-l I 


22-9 


3852 


80 


FIPOCEK 




279 








1623 


91 



Paca iraejia: B-bukfast; C-carnica; L-ligustica; M-mellifera; MA- 
Tip kosnice: D-Dadant; L-Langstrut; S-Swiss; Z-Zander 



macedonica; MIX-mesavina 



Top je HaBeo rbl je e4)MKacHOCT amirapa-a y o6a- 
pai-by Bapoe 6mia Jioma m M3HOcmia CBera 56,33%. 
Met)yTMM, MOpaM HanoivieHyTM ,naje anMJiM^eBap- 
a npMMeH>eH Ha 21 ,apyniTBy, jxok cy aniirap#OM 
TpeTMpaHa caMO 4 ,apymTBa. 3a noHomei-be cyna o 
ynope^HOJ Bpe^HOCTM o6a npenapaTa noTpe6aHJe 
mcth h ^aneKO Bthn 6poj nHejiHH>Mx npyimaBa y 
o6a TpeTMaHa. 

rioTpeSa 3a MaH>e iutcthmm Ha^MHMMa cy36ii- 
jai-ba Bapoe nocTOJH m OHaje aKTyejma TeMa y CBe- 



Ty. MeJyTMM, HMH>eHMHaje jxa He nocTOJH caivtoje- 
^aH CMrypaH HanwH 3a 6op6y ca BapooM. Ekojio- 
iukm npiiHUMnM cy36MJaH.a OBor napa3MTa cy npii- 
xBaTJLMBM, ajiM m pMSMHHM yKOJMKO ce Mef)yco6HO 
He KOM6MHyjy. rioMeHy™ npenapaT aniirapn HMJe 
ce nojaBMO Ha HameM TpxwniTy, na 6m CBaxa npii- 
MeHa jviopajia MMa™ Hajnpe eKcnepMMeHTajiHM Ka- 

paKTep OBJiaillheHIiX M 3BaHMHHMX MHCTMTyUMJa RO 

H>eroBor o,no6peH>a 3a ync-TeSy y nnejiapCTBy. 



incmp, Bp, n. $003. 



553 



3A flQEPO 3MM0BAH£ 



dp Muaqh Tiupoeuh 



OAJiHKe 3hmckhx rraejia h 3Haqaj ja^HHe 
^pyniTBa 

n^ejie H3Jie^ceHe y npnnpeMHOM nepno- 
jxy 3a 3HMOBaH>e 3HaTHO ce pa3JiHKyjy 
or JieribHX irqejia: HMajy Beny Macy Te- 
na, y Teny tux nnejia noBehaHa je KOJiHHHHa 
cyBe MaTepHj'e a CMaiteHa KOJiHHHHa BOJje, 
WlpejiHe 3cne3^e cy pa3BHJeHHJe h y TaKBOM 
CTaH>y odajy jio nponena, MacHO tkhbo h 
yxynHa KOJin^HHa pe3epBHHX xpaHJBHBHX Ma- 
TepHJa Belie... Kpauco pe^eHO, 3HMCKe n^ejie 
cy (J)H3HOJioinKH MJiajje h to cbojctbo 3a/xpxa- 
Bajy no Kpaja XHBOTa. Mory jja xnBe h npexo 
180 - 200 jjaHa. BHTarmocT obhx nnejia h /xyr 
xhbot o6janiH>aBajy ce HeyneinheM y HeroBa- 
H>y Jierjia h y caKynibaH>y h npepajjn HeKTapa. 
y nocjie^H>e BpeMe noMeHyre o/jJiHKe 3hmckhx 
iraejia npnnHcyjy ce jyBeHHjmoM xopMOHy (Ja- 
MHHa MyuiHHCKa: "Zimowanie pszczozl", Bap- 
niaBa, 1989.). 

JejjaH ojj HajrjiaBHnjnx ycjioBa ycneumor 
3HMOBaH>a je fla nqejinite jxpyniTBO 6yn;e jaxo 
(ca 8 - 10 yjinna, tj. 2 - 2,5 kt. iraejia). Jaxo jjpy- 
iutbo tokom 3HMe TponiH Man>e xpaHe no je/i- 
hoj yjiHUH nnejia ojj cjiaGor. YcTaHOBJbeHO je 
3a cpe/jH>epycKy pacy nqejia (A. C. JaKOBJbeB, 
1972.) jia HaJMaity noTponiH>y xpaHe no JQjm- 
hhuh Mace rraejia HMajy /xpyiHTBajaHHHe 9-12 
yjinna: to 6h Gurca onrnMajiHajannHa (ncno/j n 
H3Hau; Tora - cnenn^nqHa noTponnta xpaHe ce 
noBenaBa). 3a Hanry KpajnHCKy pacy nnejia n 
Hame KJiHMaTCKe ycnoBe, Taj onraMyM Hnje 
yrBprjeH, arm ce Moxe npeTnoeraBHTH jja je 
HeniTO hhxh (8-11 yjinna). 

Jaxa jjpyuiTBa CTBapajy ce y jecen>eM nepn- 
o,ny, nonnyjyhH CBe HaBe/jeHe npenopyKe, ajin 
ce OHa Mory ctbophth h cnajaiteM cpe/irae ja- 
khx n cjia6nx /xpyiHTaBa. JaKO nHejinite jjpy- 
iiitbo yjeceiteM nepnojjy Moxe jja CTBOpn ca- 
mo MJiaaa, jj,o6pa MaTnna. OHa He caMO jja CHe- 
ce BejiHKH 6poj jaja, Ben cy Ta jaja KpynHnja a 
irqejie H3Jie^ceHe H3 h>hx ca BenoM MacoM h bh- 
TanHHJe. OnHTHMa je yrBprjeHO jja jeiiHorojiH- 
iinta MaTnna yjeceH CHece JiBa nyra BHine jaja 
ojj TporojjnniH>e. Y3 to - MJiajje MaTnne ycne- 
niHHJe npe3HMJLyjy ojj CTapnx. 



OopMHpaH>e KJiy6eia h tok 3HMOBaH>a 

C npBHM jeceftHM 3axjiarjeH>eM (KpajeM ok- 
To6pa n noneTKOM HOBeMGpa), irqejie o6pa3y- 
jy KJiyGe: cna6a /xpyiiiTBa - npn 13 °C , cpe/jite 
jaxa - npn 10 °C h jaxa - npn 7 °C. Y KJiyGeTy 
pa3JiHKyjeMO OMOTan (Kopy) n je3rpo. Kopy 
o6pa3yjy npeTe^HO (J>H3nojioniKH crapnje, nc- 
TpomeHe nqene, aje3rpo - MJiafje. MaTnna ce 
Hana3H yBeK y neHTpariHOM jjejry KJiyGeTa, y 
TB3. TonnoTHOM nenrpy. KjiyGe je yronHKO 
36njeHHJe yKOJiHKO je TeMnepaTypa HHaca. 

EKcnepHMeHTajiHO je yrBpfjeHO jja ce TeM- 
nepaTypa y Kopn He CHHacaBa ncno/j; 6,1 - 12°C, 
a y je3rpy MHHHMajiHa TeMnepaTypa je 24,5°C. 
n^ene y je3rpy cy aKTHBHHJe Hero y Kopn n 
OHe ynpaBO creapajy noTpeGHy TonjioTy. 

06pa30BaH>eM KJiyGeTa BHinecTpyKO ce 
CMaH^yjy TomioTHH ryGnun, noTpoimta xpaHe 
ce CMaayje 3a 20 - 25 nyra, HaHHH ^ncatta n^e- 
jia ce Men>a, acnBOTHe (J>yHKLtnje CBO^e Ha mh- 

HHMyM. 

KjryGe ce npBO (J>opMHpa y .noiteM ^eiiy ca- 
ha, HacnpaM JieTa. Jlojio^cajeM JieTa nnenap 
Moxe yrnuaTH Ha MecTO oGpasoBaH^a KJiyGeTa, 
Hnp. pajn H>eroBor npH6jinxaBaH>a pa3Me- 
niTeHoj xpaHH. HaJBehn rgo nnejia (75%) Ha- 
jia3H ce Ha npa3HOM cahy, a Maan ,iieo (25%) 
Ha CBO/iy caha ca Me^oM. Meji noKpHBeH nne- 
naMa ce 3arpeBa h Ha Taj Ha^HH nocTaje ^,ocTy- 
naH n^enaMa. Ilqejie Meftajy MecTa y KJiyGeTy 
n Ha Taj Ha^HH £OJia3e ^o xpaHe n o/ip^caBajy 

CBOJe 3CHB0THe (J)yHKHHJe. 

On MecTa me je o6pa30BaHO, KJiyGe ce no- 
Mepa BepTHKanHO HaBHine Tpomehn xpaHy H3- 
Haa ce6e. Ka^ia ^,orje no caTOHonie, KpeTa^e 
KJiyGeTa ce HacTaBJba no xopH30HTajin, jxyac 
paMOBa, Ka 3ajjH>eM 3HJxy KoniHHije. JXoKa3ano 
je m npn TeMnepaTypn ncnojj, °C n^ejie Hncy 
y cranky jja npe^y H3Jejj;He yjinue y Jjpyry. 36or 
Tora, tokom KpeTan>a KJiyGeTa Mory m HacTa- 
Hy jjpaMaTH^He cnTyaunje - jja HecTaHe xpaHe y 
HeKoj yjiHUH, na cy nnejie y toj yjiHnn (a mo- 
acaa n MaTnna, aKO ce Ty Hajia3n) ocytjeHe Ha 
CMpT. HecTaHaK xpaHe yjejjHoj yjimtH Mo^ce jja 
yrane Ha pa3/jBajaH>e KJiyGeTa Ha jjBa Jjena, hh- 
Me ce 3HaTHO noropmaBajy ycjioBH jjarber 3H- 
MOBaH>a, a Moxe jjohn jjo yrnH^aBaHja n^ena y 



n^eAUP, 5f>. n. $003 



495 



je^HOM hjih 06a TaKBa jiejia. flo obhx He/jaha 
He 6h jjpnnio m je Me/jHa Kana Giuia JipBOJbHe 
BHCHHe, Ha MeMy cmo paHHJe HHCHCTHpajiH. Ta- 
Korje, Tpare^HJa Gh Gmia H36erHyra Kajja 6h 
TeMnepaTypa noBpeMeHO "cKO^HJia" H3Ha/iHy- 
jie, rraejie 6n Tajja H3 yjinue 6e3 xpaHe npemjie 
y flpyry yjiHuy y Kojoj join xpaHe HMa. ^eiuaBa- 
jy ce h cjiynajeBH jja ce nperpynncaBaite nqejia 
H3BpiHH npeMa ohhm yjiHuaMa y KojnMa HMa 
Mano xpaHe. To Moxe, npH jryateM xrcajjHOM 
nepnojry, jjoBecra ro yraitaBaika uejior jjpy- 
niTBa ojj niajJH, Haxo y jjpyroM ^ejiy KoniHHiie 
join HMa jjobojbho xpaHe caMO hito je OHa He- 
aocTyima nnejiaMa. 

IIojaBa npBor Jierjia h npnxpaiia nnejia 
KpajeM 3HMe 

y npBOM jjejry 3HMe y n*iejiHH>HM jjpyniTBH- 
Ma HeMa Jierna, na ce y je3rpy KJiyGeTa ojjpaca- 
Ba penaTHBHO HHCKa TeMnepaTypa - oko 25 °C. 
y tom nepno/ry iraejie 3a CBOjy ncxpaHy yrnaB- 
hom Tpome MeA- CacBHMJe 3ajjpBOJbaBajyhn h 
menepHH Me/j; npeparjeH yjeceH, kojh je h pa3- 
MeniTeH y jjpH>eM jjejry Me/jHe Kane Taxo jja ce 
TponiH y npBOM jjejry 3HMe. LUehepHH Mejj HMa 
MaH^e HecBapibHBHX MaTepnja (0,6%) ojj HBeT- 
hot Mejja (oko 1,8%), ajin oh npejicTaBJba 
"npa3Hy" yrjteHO XHJjpaTHy xpaHy kojoj" Hejjo- 
CTajy MHore KopHCHe MaTepnje. l^BeTHH Me/ije 
3HaTHO KopHCHHJH 3a miejie h HHUiTa ra He mo- 
ace 3aMeHHTH ycneuiHO, HapoHHTO y 3hmckom 
nepnojry. Me^JbHKa je 3a 3HMCKy ncxpaHy ca- 
cbhm HenpnrojjHa, naje yjeceH TpeGa ojjcTpa- 
hhth H3 KoniHHue. riepra (GejiaHHeBHHacTa 
xpaHa) KopHCHa je tokom nejie 3HMe, ajin je 
nnejie y npBOM jjejry Maite KopHcre. 

y JjpyroM jjejry 3HMe, Kajja "KpeHe" Jierno, 
TeMnepaTypa y ueHTpy KJiyGeTa ce noBehaBa 
Ha oko 34 °C. Pajjn ojjpacaBaita Te TCMnepaTy- 
pe, noBehaBa ce h noTpoinita xpaHe, nopejj Me- 
jja (cajja HajGojte iiBeTHor) TponiH ce mhoto h 
nepra 3a ncxpaHy JiapBH. Ako nepre HeMa, 
miejie cy y CTaity Jia Heryjy Jierno 3ajinxaMa 
GejiaHHeBHHa H3 cbot opraHH3Ma caMO 15 jjaHa. 

JaKO nnejinite jjpyniTBO JiaKine o/ipacaBa 
noTpeGHy TeMnepaTypy y Jierjry ojj cjiaGor. 
GrcaGo jjpyniTBO HMa Behy noTponnty xpaHe 
no je/jHHHnn Mace nqejia, naje n KOJiH^HHa He- 
CBapeHHX MaTepnja y Teny H>eroBHX nnejia Be- 
ha n oGojieBaite on H03eM03e Henihe. 

Kajja je pen o cjiaGHM jjpyniTBHMa TpeGa 
HarjiacHTH HHH>eHHny jja OHa yjeceH Jjy>Ke He- 
ryjy Jierjio ojj jaKHX, a KpajeM 3HMe Kpehy ca 
jieraoM paHHJe. Pi je/jHO h Jjpyro hx mhoto hc- 
upiubyje. Hapo^HTO je noryoira h Heno^cejtHa 
npepaHa nojaBa nerjia tokom 3hmc Jep npH 
He3H nerjia y to BpeMe, n^ejie Tpome He caMO 
xpaHy H3 KoniHHiie, Beh n pe3epBHy xpaHy H3 



cbot opraHH3Ma. Moxe ce cnrypHO pehn cjie- 
jjehe: uito nqejraite JjpyniTBO noqHe paHnje jja 
raJH Jierno, KacHHJH H>eroB pa3Boj 6nhe ycno- 
peH. Oho ce noHaina Kao aTJieTmap: aKO OBaj 
Ha no^eTKy 4)opcnpa TpKy, H3ryGnhe flax Ha 
Kpajy (na h TpKy). C Jjpyre CTpaHe, npepaHO 
H3Jie^ceHe Mjiajje miejie necTO HeMajy Jjyxe 
BpeMe npHJiHKy jja H3Jiehy na cy KpaTKor BeKa, 
cjiaGe KOHJjHnnje, tj". (J)H3nojioniKH cy CTape h 
nHejiHH>e JjpyniTBO HeMa oji h>hx BejinKe (one- 

KHBaHe) KOpHCTH. 

HopMajiHO 6h Ghjio jia MaTHita noHHe ^a 
nexe jaja KpajeM jaHyapa. BpeMeHCKH ycjioBH 
(nyxe 3hmcko OTonjLeH>e) Taj poK KaTKaa no- 
Mepe 3HaTHO paHHJe, naK h Ha Kpaj fleueMGpa. 
rinejiap Moxe h caM jia H3a30Be nojaBy npepa- 
hot Jierna paHOM 3hmckom npnxpaHOM nnejia - 
cnpynoM hjih niehepHO - Me^HHM TecTOM. CBa- 
Ka xpaHa npn^onuia y KoniHHiry ca CTpaHe - y3- 
Gy^yje nnene. Toje HaponnTO H3paxeHO Ka^a 
ce flaje cnpyn. floflyme, npn hhckhm TeMnepa- 
TypaMa n^ene TeuiKO y3HMajy cnpyn H3 xpaHH- 
jiHite, ajin aKO Hanrje MaKap h KpaTKOTpaJHH 
TomiHJH nepnofl, OHe cnpyn y3HMajy "ca Benn- 
khm 3aflOBOJLCTBOM M . To hx npeTepaHO y36y- 
rjyje, TeMnepaTypa y rHe3^y ce noBenaBa, a Ma- 
THita "HHcnnpHine" na noHHe na nexe jaja. M 
eTO jierna "ycpefl 3HMe Kaji My BpeMe HHJe". 
CeM Tora, y36yrjeHe nnene "ncKa^y" H3 ko- 
niHHiie, oxjia^e ce, yKo^e, na^ajy Ha CHer hjih 
3eMJty h yrHHiaBajy. Ha Taj Ha*iHH ce ry6H 3Ha- 
TaH 6poj y to BpeMe jjparoneHHX nqena. 

llIehepHO - MejjHO TecTO 3HaTHO MaH>e y3- 
6yrjyJH>e nnejie h OHe npH TOMe He H3Jiehy H3 
KoniHHue 36or ysGy^eH^a. MerjyraM, qBpcTa 
xpaHa H3a3HBa y 3hmckom nepnojry ^cerj h npn- 
HyrjaBa nnejie m H3Jiehy n Tpaxe BOJjy. Te 
nnejie ce no npaBHJiy Bnme He Bpahajy y ko- 
niHnny, jep ce oxjia/je h yrnHy. PaHO npnxpa- 
itHBaite TecTOM flonyn>aBa HecBapJLHBHM 
ocTauHMa xpaHe HOHaKO npenyH^eHa upeBa 
nnejia h Hcupnibyje nnejie yMecTO jja hm KopH- 

CTH. 

npeMa TOMe, y 3hmckom nepHOJjy cnpyn He 
TpeGa yonuiTe jjaBaTH n^iejiaMa, a ca niehepHO 
- MejjHHM TecTOM He TpeGa npeypaHHTH (ceM y 
cjryqajy HejjocTaTKa xpaHe y KouiHHnn). n^e- 
jiapH kojh tokom uejie 3HMe npexpaH>yjy n^ie- 
jie niehepHO - Me/jHHM TecTOM jjpxehn ce jxcbh- 
3e "hck hm Gyjje npn pyun" - HenpHJaTejbH cy 
cbojhx nnejia. 

Ayrop Ha cbom n*iejiHH>aKy npaKTHKyje jja- 
BaH>e niehepHO - Me/jHor TecTa TeK KpajeM (J>e- 
Gpyapa hjih no^eTKOM MapTa. Tajja nnejie Beh 
noHHH>y noBpeMeHO HopMajiHO jja H3Jiehy, 
nponncTe ce, a jjoHecy BeoMa noTpeGHy BOJjy n 
no HeKO jjparoneHO 3pHii;e HBeTHor npaxa. 



496 



ilMeAAP. Sp. Tl, 2003, 



ITIMLE IW 



A0PMKAHM3MPAHE 
MEflOHOCHE nHEJIE 
(T1HEJ1E yEMUE") 



ynnejiapCKOJ jiMTepaTypM, jjaHac cy 
npiicyTHa jj,Ba cjiMHHa Ha3HBa: 
a4>pMHKe nnejie n atJ)pHKaHM3iipaHe 
nnejie. Pa3JiMKyJMO nx. 

A(J)pH4Ke Me^OHOCHe nnejie cy pace 
nnejia Koje cy BeKOBMMa oncTane Ha tom re- 
orpa<J)CKOM noapyijy n npMJiaro/jMJie ce cy- 
pOBMM ycjioBHMa ^cHBOTa. y noTpa3M 3a 
xpaHOM m bojjom pa3BHJie cy HaBMKe Bpe/jHO- 
he, arpecMBHOCTM n 6p3or KpeTaita, r/je po- 
jeBM npeBajtyjy n no hckojimko ^eceTMHa 
KHJiOMeTapa /jhcbho. 3aHeMape n Jierjio a 
hobo rHe3^o pa/j,e y Gojbhm ycjioBHMa. 

AOPHKAHH3HPAHE Me^OHOCHe 
n^ejie cy HacTajie y Bpa3MJiy npe 50 ro/jnHa 
yKpuiTaH>eM jjOMahnx - hckojimko paca 
eBponcKMx nnejia m jjohctmx atJDpMHKMx n^e- 
jia. ITpeMaTOMe, a(J)pMKaHM3MpaHe n^ejie cy 
xn6pnjx m HMcy HMKaKBa HOBa paca. 

nonejioje 1956. ro/j,. Ka^aje npotj). W. E. 
Kerr #OHeo hckojimko pojeBa H3 Jy;>KHoa- 
4)pM4Ke peny6jiHKe. IIouito y TponcKMM 
KJiMMaTCKHM ycjioBHMa Epa3MJia flOMahe 
nnejie HMcy jjaBajie jjo6pe pe3yjiTaTe, noKy- 
uiajio ce ca ac^pMHKHM nnejiaMa, Koje noTM- 
Hy M3 cjiHHHHx KJiMMaTCKMx ycjiOBa. Obo je 
yparjeHO no o/jo6peH>y jjp^caBe y nnjhy xn- 
6pH/iHHx CTyjjHj'a. MerjyTHM, je/jHor jjaHa 
njjyhe ro^MHe, no,a cyMH>MBMM okojihocth- 
Ma, y onHTHOJ CTaHMUM Cao Flaojio, kouihm- 
ue cy ocTajie npa3He, a 26 apyniTaBa ce Ha- 
mjio y npHpo^n. IIoHejio je HeKOHTpojiMca- 
ho cnapHBaH>e ca AOMahnM nnejiaMa, r/je cy 
noceGHy yjiory ojjnrpajiM BMTajiHMJM a4>pM4- 
kh TpyTOBH, na je TaKO jjOMahn reHeTCKM 
MaTepHJaji a(J)pHKaHH3MpaH. Ajim h ca obhm 
cy pemeHH noMeHyTM npo6jieMM 6pa3MJi- 
CKor nnejiapCTBa. 



Tzypatj (flyuiana) MpicauAo> Hum 

A(J)pHKaHM3HpaHe nnejie jjocTa cy cjimh- 
He eBponcKMM, je^MHO ce yo^aBa jj;a cy cht- 
HHj'e, a nojj, MHKpocKonoM ce Bn^e pa3JiMKe 
oGjiMKa npejj,H>Mx Kpnjia h BoniTaHMx )KJie- 
3jj,a. Kao sajejjHMue Bnme ce pa3JinKyjn. Poje 
ce neinhe, a Ka/ia ocTaHy 6e3 xpaHe Hany- 
niTajy KoniHMiie. Ebo join hckojimko ynope- 
hmx nojjaTaKa M3 KH>nre Kojyje M3,aao Kop- 
Heji yHHBep3MTeT ( D. Sammataro, A. Avita- 
bile: "The beekeepers hand book"). 





At^pHKa- 
HH3HpaHe 


EeponcKe 


MaTHua ce H3Jie^e 


15, AaHa 


1 6. nana 


MaTHita hoch jaja 
^HeB./Maxc. 


4(X)U 


2500 


Pa^HJiHita ce 

H3J1C5KC 


! S,5 naiia 


21 JKIH 


J^y^cHHa paffumiuc 


12,73 mm 


13,89 mm 


npeniiHK paflH- 
jih^ihhx hejiHJa 


4,6 - 5 mm 


5,2 - 5,4 mm 


Poje ce roflHinibe 


3-10 nyra 


I -4rryra 


PojeBH npeBajbyjy 


OKO 75 KM 


5 EtM 



)Khbothm BeK pa/jnjinna je Jjynjio Kpahn 
ojj, HauiHx nnejia, na ce caKynjtaHKa CHara 
Ha^OKHarjyje BehMM GpojeM jaja Koja MaTniia 
hocm h paHHJHM M3JieraH>eM nnejia 3a 2,5 jja- 
Ha. 

CTpa^apnue 6paHe 30Hy ncnpe,a ko- 
niHMne Ha npeKO 15 m. Xcmmjckm cacTaB 



nH€AAP, 6p. 11. 2003. 



499 



OTpoBa Kao h BejiH^HHa xaoxe cy Kao kojj; 
eBponcKHX nnejia, ajin je Beha MacoBHOCT 
npH Hana/jy, TaKO aa y 1 MHHyTy H3Bpnie 35 
y6ojja. Bhjio je BHine cjiyqajeBa ca BehHM 
nocjie^HuaMa na cy Ha3BaHe "nnejie yGnue". 
Maite cy arpecHBHe y 30HaMa ca yMepeHOM 

KJIHMOM, KaO H Ha BehHM HaJJMOpCKHM BHCH- 

HaMa. 

ITocjie Bpa3HJia 6p30 cy ce npoinnpHJie 
no iiejioj JyacHoj AMepHiiH, a Kacroije h Ha 
ceBep no jy>KHe KajiH(J>opHHJe h TeKcaca. 

y Cje^HH^eHHM apxaBaivia jjaHac cy pa3- 
jiHHHTa MHinjLeH>a o obhm nnejiaMa. JTpocj). 
P. A. Mopce. (SopaBHO y A(J>pnuH h Bpa3H- 
jiy) nmne jja cy OHe y toiijihm KpajeBHMa oji- 
jih^hh nponsBofja™ Me/ja, nojieHa h npono- 
jiHca h Ra ce ca H>HMa Mo^ce nnejiapHTH y3 
noja^aHy 3aniTHTHy onpeMy h Betie jjhmhjih- 
ne (no HeKHMa CMHpyje hx mhphc Gejior jiy- 
Ka). npe^BH^a Jia he ce ninpHTH Ha ceBep jio 
"xnajme JiHHHJe". 

BehHHCKO MHinjbeH>e o a(J)pHKaHH3Hpa- 
hhm nnejiaMaje HeraTHBHO. n^enap h nncau 
KHsnre J. BnBnaH TaKorje CMaTpa ;ja cy OHe 
cynep nnejie, ajiH ce 3ana3ce na ce 3aycTaBH 
h>hxobo mnpeiBe. ArpecnBHOCT h necTO po- 
jen>e y rjiaBHOj naiun npenojioBHhe npoH3- 
BOJiray Me/ia, a nojiHHauHJa he 6hth HenoT- 
nyHa, idto he ce HeraTHBHO o/ipa3HTH Ha no- 
ibonpHBpe/iHy npoH3BOJiH)y. Jlo H>eMy iiih- 
pen>e Tpe6a 3aycTaBHTH (J)opMHpa*BeM ho- 
bhx CTaHHua 3a HCTpe6jLeHoe, a onjiojjH>y no- 

MahHX MaTHUa BpniHTH Ha H30JIOBaHHM 

ocTpBHMa hjih Benna^KHM nyreM, ca HHMe 
6h ce ejiHMHHHcajia yjiora a(J)pnKaHH30Ba- 
hhx TpyroBa. 

MaKO je yoneHO jia ac{)pHKaHH3HpaHe 
nnejie noce/jyjy Bejinxy omopHOCT npeMa 
BapoH, je/iHHO ce y Bpa3HJiy nnejiapH 6e3 
neKOBa, BepoBaTHO 36or KJiHMaTCKHX ycno- 
Ba. YTHcaK je jia JiaHac Hay^HHiiH y CjejjH- 
H>eHHM jpxaBaMa Behy naxity nocBehyjy 
eKcnepHMeHTHMa ca mhphhm nnejiaMa, Koje 
cy TaKotje OTnopHe npeMa Bapon, Kao uito 
cy iraejie ca pycKor JiajieKor ncTOKa. 

TeHeTCKO eKcnepHMeHTHcaiBe Tpe6a jja 
Bpiue HayHHHUH y3 ojjo6peH>e JipxaBe. CBa- 
ko HjierajiHO yHomeite MaTHua hjih naKeT- 
hhx pojeBa, Hapo^HTO H3 jjaneKHX 3eMajba, 
je 3a6paH>eHO jep 6h mouio npHHHHHTH Be- 
jiHKe niTeTe HanieM nnejiapcTBy. 



HCKYCTBA 



HERE 



CHTHHIJE 
KOJE TO 
HHCY (V) 



Upupeduo: EyduMup AwaHacicoeuh, 

TpcmenuK 

3hmcko paciojaibe OKBMpa. 

HopMajiHO pacTojaH>e OKBHpa (paMO- 
Ba) y njio^nniHOM npocTopy 6hjio 
Kor THna hjih BapHJeTeTa KoniHHiie 
(c o63HpoM Ha BejiHHHHy Tejia nnejia h Tpy- 
TOBa h yicynHe jjeGjbHHe caha) ojj caTOHome 
jejjHor jio caTOHome apyror cycejjHor okbh- 
pa H3H0CH 9 - 10mm. 

OBaj npocTop H3Mef)y njiojjHiHHHX okbh- 
pa je cacBHM jjoBOJtaH 3a HopMajiHO KpeTa- 
H>e MaTHue, nnejia m TpyTOBa pajjH oGaBJta- 
H>a cbhx noTpeGHHX nocjioBa. Ako je okbhp 
H3paJeH ca Xo(})MaHOBHM pa3MauHMa Ha 
Gohhhm JieTBHuaMa to paerojaite ce caMO 
Moxe noBehaBaTH. MefjyTHM, aKO cy 6oHHe 
jieTBHue 6e3 H3rpar)eHHX pa3MaKa npocTop 
H3MeJy cycejjHHx OKBHpa, na h H3rparjeHor 
caha y BHMa, ce Mo^ce He caMO noBehaBaTH 
Beh h CMaH>HBaTH. CMaH>eHO hjih noBehaHO 
pacTojaH>e HHJe noxejBHO, ochm y cjrynajy o 
KOMe je pen, na nnejiap nocjie CBaKor pa/ia 
yHyTap njiojjnniTa Mopa jja ocTaBH nponnca- 
ho pacTojaite, KaKO 6h h ca Tor acneKTa 
OMoryhno HopMajiaH pajj nHejiHH^e 3ajejjHH- 
ue. 

Beh HaBe/ieHO HopMajiHO pacTojaH>e H3- 
Merjy OKBHpajacHO je jja ce o^hoch Ha nepH- 
ojj BpeMeHa tokom rojjHHe Ka/ia y npHpojjH 
BJiajjajy HopMajiHH ycjioBH 3a xhbot nnejia. 
To, jjaKJie, 3HaHH jja y 3hmckhm ycjioBHMa 



500 



mtMF, 8p. 11. 2005, 



xhbot nnejia y KJiyGeTy (3hmckh nonycaH) je 
HeniTO cneuH^H^HHJH. AKOje to 3ancTa Ta- 
ko (a BepyJMO Jia to HHJe 3a6jiyjja) Tajja 3a 
Te h TaKBe ycnoBe Tpe6a H3BpmHTH jxejra- 
mh^ho noGojMiiarae hcthx Kaxo 6h 3aje/iHH- 
iia irqejia ca MaH>e Hanopa h TeuiKoha caBJia- 
jjajia 3HMy, Te ihto cnpeMHHJa ca Ghojioihkot 
acneKTa OTnonejia HopManaH pa/j y HapeiiHoj 
tojihhh. y tom UHJby npaKca je mhothx hc- 
TaKHyTHX imenapa jja y TOKy jecen>HX Mece- 
hh noBehajy pacTojaite H3Merjy OKBHpa Ha 12 
- 13mm. PacTojaH>a ce noBehaBajy caMO kojj 
ohhx OKBHpa Ha KOJHMa he ce nnejie yKJiyGn- 
th, a paerojaite OKBHpa ca Me^oM ocTaje 

HOpMaJIHO. 

lllTa ce nocTHxe obhm nocTynKOM? Ha 
OBaj Ha^HH CTBapa ce noBenaHH npocTop H3- 
Merjy OKBHpa kojh OMoryhaBa yKJiynnaBaite 
BHHie je/iHHKH irqejia Hero npH HopMajiHOM 
pacTojan>y. TaKBHM rpynHcaH>eM y BeneM 
6pojy iraejie Sojte ojjp;>KaBajy noTpeGHy 
TeMnepaTypy KJiyGeTa y TOKy 3HMe, Te TaKO, 

HITO je H HajGHTHHJe, "eKOHOMHHHHJe" Tpo- 

me nocTojehy 3ajinxy eHepreTCKe xpaHe. 3a 
cajja HeMa TaHHO yrBprjeHHX no/jaTaKa kojih- 
ko 3aje/iHHHa nnejia Ha OBaj HaHHH "ynrre- 
jih", ajiH je CBaKaxo yTpoiuaK xpaHe MaitH 
Hero Kajja cy okbhph HopMajiHor pacTojaita. 

Hcto TaKO Kajja OTnoqHe hobo Jierjio no- 

JIOBHHOM 3HMe OHO he 6HTH KBaJlHTeTHHJe 

^yBaHO, ihto TaKorje npejjcTaBJba cojiH/iHy 
ocHOBy 3a KacHHJH y6p3aHH pa3Boj. 

npHJiHKOM npBor npojiehHor npeniejja 
nnejia, nope/j ocTajinx nocTynaKa, nnejiap 
ycnocTaBJba HopMajiHO pacTojaite H3Mef)y 
OKBHpa Koje he 3aje;iHO ca jjoGpHM yromba- 
BaH^eM OMoryhHTH HopMajiaH pa# nnejia y 
npe^cTojehHM jjaHHMa. 

>Kii4ana noAibana 

no^H^anaje yncTHHy je/jaH ojj HaJ3Hanaj- 
hhjhx, aKO He h HaJ3HanaJHHJH jj,eo KouiHHHe. 
Ojj H>eHe jjyGHHe, BpcTe jjpBeTa or Koje ce 
H3parjyje, HaHHHa KOHCTpyKHHJe h caMe H3- 
pa/je, ejieMeHaTa Koje nocejjyje (aHTHBapo- 
3Ha Mpexa, xopH30HTajiHH XBaTaq hbcthot 
npaxa ...) necTO 3aBHCH yKynHa ycneniHOCT 
n*iejiapeH>a. KpajeM npoiiDior BeKa BpcHH 
n^enapcKH TeopeTH^apH h npaKTH^apH Tpa- 
raiiH cy, ocMHUULaBajiH h y npaKCH npoBepa- 
BajiH MHore THnoBe nojjH>aHa Kao ihto cy jxy- 
6oKa nojiitaHa, peineTKacTa no/jHsa^ia, nofl- 
H>ana ca BeHTHJiauHOHOM MpexoM, aHTHBa- 
p03Ha no/j^a^a Kojy CBe BHHie ynoTpeGjba- 
Bajy h HaniH nnenapH KaKO npo(J)ecHOHajniH 



TaKO h nnenapH aMaTepH. Toje jjyGoKa nojj- 
H>a*ia (jjo 5 cm) Koja yMecTO jjpBeHor nojja 
HMa XHHaHy Mpexy uejioM jjpkhhom h hih- 
Phhom ca OKUHMa He BehHM ojj 2,5 mm. Koh- 
CTpyKUHJOM h H3pa^0M OMoryheHO je Jia ce 
H3Hajj Mpe^e ca 3ajjH>e CTpaHe Moxe y TOKy 
MapTa h anpHJia nocTaBHTH npeKO uejie m- 
naHe noBpniHHe Tan>a jjacKa, jiecoHHT hjih 
neTocjioJHa JieneHKa Koja he y OBa jjBa Mece- 
ua 6hth y <J)yHKHHJH Gojter yTonjbaBaH>a h 
CTBapaita HajnoBOJbHHJe MHKpoKJiHMe y 
njio^HHiHOM npocTopy. y cbhm jjpyrHM Mece- 
UHMa OBaj /ip/waK ^cnqaHoj nojjraaHH ce 
CKJiaita. Ha npejjitoj CTpaHH uejioM uinpH- 
hom OTBOpeHO je JieTO Koje je y TaKBOM no- 
noxajy y BpeMeHy jjoGpnx nania a y ocTajiHM 
BpeMeHHMa (cjiaGnja nania, GecnaniHH nepH- 
o^, jeceH>H hjih 3hmckh nepHOJj...) 6HBa cy- 
xaBaHO Ha ojjroBapajyhy mnpHHy. Mcnojj, 
jieTaje noKpeTHa nojieTaibKa. 

3aniTO XHHaHa nojjH>ana? CMaTpa ce jja 
je OBaKBa nojjH^a^a y BejiHKOj npejjHOCTH Hajj, 
ocTajiHM, H3 cjiejjehnx pa3Jiora: 

a) XHMaHa nojjH>aHa je HCTOBpeMeHO h 
aHTHBap03Ha nojjH>aHa. npHJiHKOM CBaKor 
TpeTHpaita nqena npoTHB Kpnejba Bapoe 
(cpe/jcTBa Koje He ocTaBJLajy HiTeTHe ocTaT- 
Ke) KOJHMa ce yrjiaBHOM 3a ca#a caMO y no- 
^eTHOj (J)a3H jjejioBaH>a JieKa KpnejLH OMa- 
MJbyjy. Ohh Kao TaKBH nponajxajy Kpo3 Mpe- 
acy Ha 3eMJty 6e3 TpaBe h Ty cnrypHO yrHHy. 
To HHJe cjiynaj kojj ocTajinx nojjH>aHa. Ha 
OBaj HaHHH 6poj Kpnejta Bapoe y CBaKOM 
jjpyuiTBy "jj,pxh" ce nojj kohtpojiom h hhhh 
6op6y npoTHB hcthx ycneniHHJOM. 

6) Kp03 XHHaHy no/rita^y Ha BeoMa e(J)H- 
KacaH HaHHH ojjcTpaH>yje ce H3 njiojjHHiTa 
yrjbeH-jJHOKCH,n Kao npoH3BOJj jjHcaH>a nne- 
jia, Te OHa Kao TaKaB He HaHocn HHKaKBy 
HiTeTy nqejiaMa. y ocTajiHM nojjH>aHaMa 
yrjteH- jjhokchjj npejjcTaBJLa 3HaqajaH npo- 
GiieM y ^CHBOTy nnejia noceGHO y 3hmckom 
nepHOJiy. 

b) Mhoth nnenapH ca npHJinqHOM cyM- 
h>om yBOJje y CBOje KouiHHue xn^iaHe nojj- 
H^ane nnaiHehH ce jja jjpyniTBO y cypoBHM 
ycjioBHMa He yrHHe npe CBera 36or xnajjHO- 
he. TaKBO MHiHibeifce npe/jcTaBJba 3a6jiyjjy 
jep cy nnejie XHBehn Ha oboj nnaHeTH HeKO- 
jihko jjeceTHHa MHJiHOHa ro/jHHa y noTnyHO- 
cth caBJiajjajie ycnoBe acHBOTa y TOKy 3HMe. 
HaHMe, aKO 3ajejJHHira nnejia y 3HMCKe ycno- 
Be yf)e ca onTHMajiHHM GpojeM jjo6po npH- 
npeMibeHHX 3hmckhx n*iejia, ca onTHMajiHOM 
kojih^ihhom xpaHe (Me/j h nepra) Kojaje npa- 



riTO\<U\ Sp. 11 2003. 



501 



bhjiho pacnopefjeHa, ca MJiarjHM TomiHM ca- 
neM, MJia^oM MaTHUOM h GecnpeKopHHM 
3^ipaBCTBeHHM CTaiteM hh HajcypoBHJa 3HMa 
Hene hm OHeMoryliHTH HacTaBaK BpcTe. 

r) OBaKBa noaitaqa OMorynaBa o^jih^hc 
BeHTHJiauHOHe ycjioBe y njio/iHiiiTy tokom 
nejie ro^HHe a Hapo^HTO y nauiHHM npHJin- 
KaMa Ka^a 3aje,iiHO ca XHHaHOM noicionHOM 
/lacKOM Ha 36ery CTBapa cxopo H^eaiiHe 
ycnoBe 3a 6p30 ncnapaBaite BHiHKa Bo^e npn 
npenacKy HeKTapa y mqji. Ta^a OHa 36or 
npHpo^He BeHTHJiauHJe ocjioGafja BejiHKH 
6poj nnena Ha obhm nocnoBHMa. 36or H3y- 
3eTHO #o6pe BeHTHJiannje y njioj,HinTy ce ro- 
tobo HHKa^a He Mory Hahn paMOBH ca koh- 
,neH30BaHOM Bo^eHOM napoM Kao h 6yrj Ha 

KpaJH>HM paMOBHMa. 

n) y ycjioBHMa nocTojaH>a xn^aHe no^- 
H>ane cxopo jia h HeMa Ha no,HH>a*ffl pa3HHX 
OTna^aKa kojh cy npncyTHH Ha ociajiHM no^- 
H^a^aMa. 3HaHH, OBaKBa no/uta^a oMoryna- 
Ba Gojte XHrnjeHCKe ycjioBe. 

rj) Ka#a je XHHaHa no^ita^a jxydiba ona 
HapoHHTO y KOMGHHauHJH ca nOCTaBJbeHHM 
nojiyMe/iHHiHHM HacraBHHMa ca npa3HHM ca- 
neM (jeceH h 3HMa) OMorynaBa j,o6py o^;6pa- 
Hy o^ BeTpoBa y TOKy HaBe^eHor nepHO,oa. 

e) OnacHOCT Koja npeTH nnejiHitHM jpy- 
niTBHMa noceGHO o,ii MHineBa OBaKBOM no£- 
mhom noTnyHoje H36erHyra. 

floGpo je jia CBaKH nnejiap y CBOjoj npaK- 
ch npoBepH pe^eHO h yBepH ce y npe^Hocr h 
Bpe^HOCT OBaKBe no/uta^e. 

3mmcko cymje 

M36opy MecTa 3a nocTaBJbaite nHejin- 
H>aKa nnenap Mopa nocBeTHTH noceGHy na- 
acH>y. He Mory ce KoniHHue ca nnejiaMa no- 
CTaBHTH Ghjio rjie Ben caMO Ha ohhm mccth- 
Ma Koja cy oKpeHyrajyry, Koja HHcy BJia^cHa, 
Koja cy 3anrraneHa or jaKHX yaapa BeTpoBa, 
Koja pacnonaacy ^oGpoM nainoM h zipyro. 
HaBej,eHa na h £pyra MecTa totobo yBeK 
HMajy o/myqyjyhy ynory y pa3Bojy h ^HBOTy 
nqena. JloceGaH 3Ha^aj, Hapo^HTO y 3hm- 
ckhm ycjioBHMa, HMajy MecTa Koje HHHe 6jia- 
re na^HHe OKpeHyre on jyroncTOKa ro jyro- 
3ana^a. CBaxa KoiiiHHna noHaocoG Tpe6a jia 
6yae OKpeHyTa cbojhm jictom xa cymaHoj 
CTpaHH. y cynpoTHOM, 3ajej,HHita nnejia ce 
He Moxe pa3BHJaTH y xejteHOM npaBiry. 

Ilo3HaTO je jxa cyHHeBH 3pauH tokom 3h- 
Me HajcHaacHHJe 3arpeBajy Ba3^yx h 3eMJby y 
BpeMeHy qh 12:30 #0 14 qacoBa. y tom Bpe- 
MeHCKOM HHTepBajiy Cymje tie ce Hajia3HTH 



H3Merjy jyra h jyro3ana^a. J\a 6h nnenap 
3Hao y kom BpeMeHCKOM HHTepBajiy cymeBH 
3paun HajcHaacHHJe eMHTyjy TonnoTy He Me- 
dy r^,e je nocTaBJLeH nnejiHitaK nnenap jea- 
He 3HMe to yrBprjyje MepeiteM TeMnepaType 
y uejioM 3hmckom nepHo^y. Ka^a ce to ca- 

3Ha, nOCTOJBHMa Ha KOJHMa CTOJe KOIUHHUe 

Tpe6a o6e36e^HTH jxa JieTa 6yny OKpeHyTa y 
tom npaBiry. 

3aniTO je Ba^cHO 3hmcko cyHue? Tokom 
3HMe nnejie y noBOJLHHM, cyHHaHHM ^aHHMa 
HeKOJiHKO nyTa (3,4 na h BHine) cy npHHyrje- 
He jib, H3af)y H3 KouiHHiie h o6aBe T3B. npo^H- 
chh JieT. OHe Ta^a H3 cbot opraHH3Ma oa- 
crpaH>yjy HecBapeHe ocTaTKe xpaHe. OBa no- 
jaBa y XHBOTy n^ejia tokom 3HMe je Heon- 
xoj;Ha h HyscHajep obh hhcckth 36or cbojhx 
reHeTCKHX XHrnjeHCKHX HaBHKa y bcjihkom 
npoueHTy He oGaBJtajy npaxH>eH)e yrpoGe y 
koihhhuh. Heiuhn npoHHCHH JieTJe noTpeG- 
hhjh yKOJiHKO ce y 3ajiHxaMa 3HMCKe eHep- 
reTCKe xpaHe Harje h H3BecHa KOJiH^HHa Me- 
/IJbHKe, jep HecBapeHH ocTauH Me^JLHKe, aKO 
nqene He Mory H3HhH H3 KoiHHHiie 3a nyyKH 
BpeMeHCKH nepHoa yMHoroMe ouiTehyjy 
yrpoGy nnene. OBaj JieT nnejie Mory o6aBH- 
th no JienoM cyH^aHOM ,iiaHy caMO aKO cy ko- 
niHHue ca n^ejiaMa cbojom npe^H>OM CTpa- 
hom OKpeHyre CyHuy. CyH^eBH 3pauH 3arpe- 
Bajy npeaHjH 3H^ koiuhhuc, na ce TonnoTa 
6p30 oceTH yHyrap njio/inniTa. Tajia n^ene 

H3Jiehy MaCOBHO. yKOJIHKO KOIHHHUa HHJe 

OKpeHyTa Cymry hjih aKO ce Hajia3H y xjia^y 
Beher ^pBeTa 3arpeBan>e yHyTpanntocTH 
njio^nniTa je cjiaGnje na n^ejie y thm BeoMa 

KpaTKHM BpeMeHCKHM HHTepBaJlHMa He 

CTHTHy na H3Hrjy Ha nponncHH JieT. y TaKBHM 
cjiyqajeBHMa BeoMa necTO ^ojia3H jio oniTe- 
heH^a upeBHor TpaKTa koji mhothx nnena ko- 
je noTOM BeoMa 6p30 yrHHy. A CMaH>eH>e 
Gpoja 3hmckhx h MJiaRwx nnejiaje y obom ne- 
pHo^y HeHa/ioKHa^HBO. nocjie^niie TaKBor 
CTaH>a cy BennKe, jep n^ejieH>a 3aje^HHua 
bh/iho cjiaGn, MaTHua nonaxe Majin 6poj ja- 
janiana h j,pyro, na o^ TaKBnx 3aj/iHHua, yKo- 
jihko He yrHHy, He Tpe6a o^eKHBaTH HHKa- 
KBe pe3yjiTaTe. 

OBy "cHTHHuy" y nnejiapeity HHJe no- 
TpeGHO npoBepaBaTH jep he CBaKa npoBepa 

£OHOCHTH yBeK HCTH O^TOBOp. 



502 



nMCAAP, 9p. 11, 2003. 



HEnPHMIEJLH IWEHA 




MHHA PELUETKA 




Ca AOJiacKOM xiiajimix #aHa n^ejie CBe 
BMiue BpeMeHa npOBO^e 36MJeHe oko 
npeocTajior Jierjia, a Ha M3JieTe ce or- 
jiynyjy tck y HaJTOiuiMJeM aejiy #aHa. CnpeMa- 
jy ce 3a HacTynajyhy 3HMy. Ajim, HHcy caMO OHe 
oceTHJie aa HaM ce npM6jiM^caBa 3MMa; m ocra- 
ne >KMBOTMH>Mue Koje ^cHBe Ha nHejiHH>aKy no- 
KyuiaBajy ,aa ce6n npOHaujy noro^HO MecTO 3a 
3HMOBaH.e. To cy, npe CBera, pOB^Hua h mmiu, a 
KoniHMua hm je BeoMa noroflHo MecTO 3a to c 
o63HpOM ^a ce ohm xpaHe nuejiaMa, ajin Hene 
o^ojieTH hm Me,ay m Bocxy. 3aT0, Ka^a ce OBe 
uiTeTOHHHe yByxy y KOuiHuny, Ty ocrajy ro 
Kpaja 3MMe, BpunbajyhM no hoj, npjbajyhnje h, 
uito je Hajrope, y3HeMMpaBajyhM nnejie y Bpe- 
Me Ka^,a ce OHe Hajia3e y KJiy6eTy. IiHejiMifca 
3ajeaHM]ja Koja MMa OBaKBor He^ceibeHor rocTa 
tokom 3MMe TeuiKO ne npe3MMeTH, y npojiehe 
he ynn BeoMa cjia6a, aKO ra yonuiTe m ^oneKa. 




PeuieH>e 3a OBaj npo6jieM Behje yoGn^aje- 
ho: y BpeMe Ka^a ce ca nojta o6epe Kyicypy3, 
Ha jieTa ce nocTaBJtajy jimmchm HeuuteBM. Tm- 
Me ce cnpenaBa aa ce urreTOHMHe yByicy y ko- 
uiHMuy. MaHa HeuuteBa je uito ce H>MMa jxpa- 
ctmhho CMaH>yje npocTOp 3a KpeTaite nuejia, a 
tokom KacHe jeceHH, y 6naraM 3HMaMa m paHO 
c npojieha MHore noneHapnue aajy cboj ^paro- 
ueHM npax kojm nnejie Kp03 TaKO cy>KeHM 
otbop TeuiKO yHOce y KOuiHHuy; uiapeHe Jion- 
THue nojieHa ocTajy Ha neTy m Ty npona^ajy. 
flpyra He^ocTaTaK neuubeBa je onacHOCT aa ce 
tokom 3MMe MajyuiHM OTBopn 3anyuie OTna- 







JfejaH Kpeuyjb 
























m 









jihm mptbmm nnejiaMa m BOuiTaHMM Tpyn>eM na 
ce TaKO CMaH>yje ^otok Ba3,ayxa m peMeTH mm- 
KpoKJiMMa. MnaK, y nopejeity ca uitctom Kojy 
mmiu MO^ce Ra. HanpaBM, obo je mhoto Maita 
onacHOCT. 

Ka^a ce npn6jiM;>Ke xjiaaHMJn #aHM nnejie 
o^aGnpy MecTO me he 3MMOBaTH m y tom aejiy 
KoniHMue npnnpeMajy CBOJe 6y#yhe KiryGe. Ta- 
aa BMiue HeMa Me r ao6paH>a, cbm KOpnycn ko- 
uiHMue npenyuiTajy ce nnejiaMa. MaTMHHa pe- 
uieTKa BMiue HeMa (J)yHKUMJy m o^jia^ce ce y 
MarauMH. Kao m mhouitbo ^pyror npu6opa m 
CTBapM Koje ce KOpnere caMO noBpeMeHO, ca#a 
m MaTMHHe peuieTKe Tpe6a Herjre cmcctmtm, 
CMeTajy m 3ay3MMajy MecTO. Ha cbom imejiH- 
itaicy KOpMCTHM MeTajiHe, ^KMnaHe peuieTKe. 
OHe cy yoKBupeHe ^pBeHMM paMOM or neTBM- 
na ^e6jbMHe nap nemriMeTapa ^obojbhmm rsl 
ce Ha npe,aH>eM ,aejiy HanpaBM otbop 3a ropite 




msM?, up. ii, $003, 



505 




jieTO. T^e ca H>HMa 3hmm? OcTajy y koiiihhhm, 
aiiM cajja onyace /ja n4ejiHH>y 3ajejjHMuy 3aniTM- 
Te ojj, MMiueBa. IToMajio HeoGnmra yjiora Xa- 
HeMaHOBe pemeTxe. 

npw 3a/iH>eM nperae/jy, no nenoM h 6jiaroM 
jeceH>eM BpeMeHy, cbm KOpnycM ce CKMjjajy Ha 
ca CTpaHe o^io^ceHH noKJionan,. OcTaje caivio 
no/j^a^a Koja cejomje/iHOM nperjie/ja, ohmctm 
h nocTaBM ce jieTBuua 3a JieTO ca CMaH>eHHM 
otbopom, y 3hmckom nojio;>Kajy. 3aTMM ce Ha 
nojxibmy nocTaBM yoKBHpeHa ^MiaHa MaTHH- 
Ha pemeTKa, ajin HaonaKO, tj. ca otbopom 3a 
ropH>e JieTO OKpeHyTMM #a 6yae ca £OH>e CTpa- 
hc Ha H>y Jiojia3e Tejia koiuhmhc m KOinHnua 
ce 3aTBapa. Caaa iuio^miuhm HacraBaK jie>KH 
Ha OKBHpy y KOMe je ^KM^aHa peiueTKa, no^MT- 
Hyrje 3a nap neHTMMeTapa o,a nojjjtaHe, HMHe- 
hn je HeuiTO jjy6jbOM. 

He3BaHn rocTM Mory jia. noKyniajy /ja yrjy y 
OBaj ruiMTKM npocTOp, ajiM mx Ty Hehe ^oneKa- 

TH HMUITa aTpaKTHBHO C 063Hp0M Jja je HHTaBO 

6oraTCTBO KOuiHHue M3Ha# MeTajiHe, Henpo- 
6oJHe nperpa/je. CBe iuto Mory /ja flo6njy cy 
caMO y6ojw mejia. ITnejie Kp03 pemeTKy ho- 
paMJio npojia3e, nojieHapMne yHOce cboj to- 
Bap, a TpyTOBa Beh ojxaBHO HeMa. Kaxo cy 
otbop Ha neTy m otbop Ha penieTKM je^aH y3 
flpyrn, HeMa HMKaKBe onacHOCTM jxa he jjohn jj,o 
36yH3MBaH>a nnena; Beh nocjie nap MHHyra 
cTpa>Kapnite ce nocTaBJbajy Ha CBOJa CTpa^cap- 
CKa MecTa a nnejie HOpMajiHO npojia3e. He ca- 
mo mmui n poBmnra, Beh n £pyre nrreTOHHHe 
HMajy npoGjieMa ca OBaKBOM GapnjepOM. To cy 
npe CBera jienTnp Me/joje/j, MpTBa^Ka ruaBa ko- 
jh He MO^ce jja nporje Beh y tom ycKOM npocTO- 
py n CKOHna on y6o^a nnejia, ajiM m MHore 30- 
ibe Koje HMajy npo6jieMa ca npOBJianetteM 
Kp03 pemeTKy. Obo ce no3Haje no TOMe kojih- 
ko nx mptbmx nnejie H36ane Hcnpe/j KoniHnue. 

H TaKO MaTH4Ha pemeTKa, M3MMinjbeHa 3a 
cacBHM ^pyry HaMeHy, yMecTO ji& 6yae rmejia- 
py Ha CMeTH>M tokom 3hmckot nepnoija mjim 
6ecKOpncHH jxco KoniHHne, Hajia3n HOBy yjiory 
y 6op6n npOTHB nnejiniBHx HenpMJaTejba. 



yPAflM CAM 



nPAKTHHHO 



nOCTOJBE 3A 



KOIIIHHUE 



Cjio6odcm )K. JdHKoeuh, 

B. AKcenmujeeufia 13, 

11500 OdpeHoeay 

HMaTM ,ao6po nocTOJte, m Ha H>eMy CTa- 
6hjiho nocTaBJbeHy KoniHMuy, Hnje ca- 
mo CTBap M3mejxa, Beh npe CBera, Heo- 
nxo/iHe cnrypHOCTH. 

y cyuiHMM BpeMeHMMa, KaKBa cy CBe ne- 
mha Ha HamnM npocTOpMMa, n Koja Hac no 
nporH03aMa Hay^HHKa oneKyjy y Hape/jHMM 
jieTHMa ( ca TeMnepaTypaMa y TOKy /jaHa m o,a 
40-44°C ), HMJe CBeje^HO Ha KaKBOM nocrarby 
ctojm KoniHima. 

nocTOJba y uejiMHH o,a jxpBeTa, ca HoraMa 
no6o;j,eHHM /jMpeKmo y 3eMJty, KaKBMx HHane 
HaJBMine MMa, Tpe6a ,aa HecTaHy c Hamwx nne- 
jiHH>aKa. Cyme o KOJHMJe 6mjio pemi, ^onpn- 
Hoce jx& ce /xpBeHa nocTOJba 6p30 "pacicnaTe", 
jep ce, oko Horapa nocTOJta n o,a h>mx, no Bep- 
THKajiM m xopH30HTajiM nojaBJtyjy jjobojbho 
BejiHKe nyKOTMHe Koje cy npaBa onacHOCT 3a 
CTa6MJiHOCT KOiuHHira. M Heuno jann, a He 
ojiyJHM BeTpOBM ca kojhm cmo 6hjim cyoneHM 
OBe rojjMHe, Mory ocTaBHTH nycTom. 

flo6po peniejte OBor npo6jieMa, npe/jCTa- 
BJbajy 6eTOHCKa nocTOJba, a je/iHO on pemeH>a 




CnuKal 



506 



fTOrtAP, 8p. 11. 9003. 



- 
8 

CO 


\ 


1 


ru 










4 140 » 










^ \ 




P 


CD 

1 


i 








* 180 , 












380 










CnMica 2- 









tm no/iJionnce or jiHMa neftibime ro 2 mm h jw- 
MeH3MJa 25x25 mm, rsl ce He oiirrehyjy xopn30H- 
TajiHe aacKe npn CTe3aH>y Kanyna. BnjnM (m 
KOHCTpyKUHJa Kajiyna y uejiHHM) OMOiyhyjy #a 
ce Ben nocne 24 naca, Kajiyn pa3#BOJM, o&jihb- 
um yKJiOHe n npMCTynM M3pa^M hobmx. flo6po 
je %a ^acKe 6yny M3penaMcaHe, n ^a ce npe Ha- 
jiMBaita 6eTOHa HaMa^Ky npepafjeHMM yjteM, 
hjih je^HOCTaBHO OBJia^ce bo^om. 3a M3paay 
je/iHor napa o^jiiiBaKa ncrrpeGHO je 7 nonaTa 
iiutyHKa m jxbc nonaTe ueMeHTa. OBaj cacTaB 




*w.Vfc 



KOje caM ja npHMeHMO npe/iCTaBJbeHO je Ha 
cjiHKaMa 1-4. 

Ha 4>OTorpa(J)HJM (cjiMKa 1.) bm^m ce H3- 
riieji Kanyna h cyuiHBeHor GeTOHCKor napa no- 
CTOjta. Kajiyn je ypaf)eH 3a #Ba cuyiHBKa, ajin 
ce 6e3 MKaKBHx npo6jieMa, Mo;>Ke ypa^HTH h 3a 
nerapH o^jiMBKa, axo ce MMa Behn 6poj ko- 
niHHua. IIInpMHa ^acice je 100 mm, a #e6ibHHa 
20-25 mm. Ha upTe^cwMa (cjinKa 2. n cjiMKa 3.) 
H3rae,a n jxare Mepe OMOiyhyjy jia ce 6e3 npo- 
6jieMa H3pa#n Kajiyn, a r anMeH3HJe Mory 6htm h 
ApyraHHJe or noHy^eHnx. Tpe6a HanoMeHyrM 
#a ce BHJnn m6, ca HaBpTKaMa (cjiHKa 3.) Hajia- 
3e ca o6e CTpaHe Kajiyna, ^aicie yxynHO 12 ko- 
Ma^a. fleo BMJKa ca HaBOJeM 3a jxpbo yBnja ce y 
BepTHKauHe nperpa^e, a aeo ca mctphhkhm 
HaBOJeM m6, npoBJiann ce Kp03 M36ymeHe 
oTBOpe f 7-8 mm Ha xopH30HTajiHMM nperpa^a- 
Ma (cjiHKa 3.). Hcno# HaBpTKn Tpe6a nocTaBM- 




Bmjum (ca je/jHe CTpane nasoj M6. 
a ca Apyre Hasoj 3a apbo) 





M^ll 



J* 

noi^MHKOBaHU flMM 

C/iMKa 3. 



Cjiuko, 4 

flaje ^OBOibHy HBpCTHHy cwihbuh- 
Ma, ajin ce no ^eibn, MO>Ke ypa^n- 
th h apMaTypa o,a GeTOHCKor tbo- 
;>Kl)a f 6 mm, y o6nHKy cjiOBa "H" 
ca CBa HeTMpn noBnjeHa KpaKa y 
ropHoeM #ejiy 3a 180°. 

nOCTOJba Cy TaKO £HMeH3MO- 

HHcaHa, j\& OMoryhe n eBeHTyajiHO 
yKonaBatte ojx 50-60 mm m HaKHafl- 
ho cjieraite j\o potter ^,ejia je3rpa 
nocTOJba, uito 4>HHajmo ,aaje H3- 
BpCHy CTaGnjiHOCT n ixoBOihwy bh- 
CMHy jieTa KoniHHne ojx Tjia. 

KaKO nocTOJba H3rjie^;ajy y 
4)yHKnnJH, npMKa3aHOJe Ha <|)Oto- 
rpa<J)HJn (cjinxa 4.). ^BOMaTHHHe 
Konmnne, n nojx HajieTHMa ojiyj- 
Hor BeTpa, ajin m y cbhm ocTa/inM 
BpeMeHCKHM ycjiOBHMa, 6njie cy, n 
jecy BeoMa CTa6njiHe h cnrypHe. 



fllGAAP. Bp. 11. 2003. 



507 



KOHTPOJ1A KBAJ1HTETA 



BP3E 



EKCnPECHE 



METOPE 3A QZJPETiHBAH>E 

KBAJIHTETA MEM 

2>. ArifyeAKoeuh, EYI!*, M. AufyeAKoeuh, dunA.uue 



Cajra CBe *ienine, nnejiHH>H mzjx ce He npo- 
h3bo^h caMO sa concTBeHe HaTypajiHe 
noTpe6e, Ben h y npHMeHH pa3HHX TexHO- 
jiorHJa na je noTpe6Ha KOHTpojia y cbhm CTajxHJy- 
MHMa (J)HHajiH3auHJe npoH3BOJia. 

Pa3MaTpaH>e MeTo^a 3a cnpoBofjeite oueHe 
KBajiHTera Mejxa no y6p3aHOM nocTynKy ypatjeHO 
je Ha ocHOBy JiHnjioMCKor pa#a M. AHfjejiKOBHn 
Ha rTojLonpHBpeaHOM (J)aKyjiTeTy y 3eMyHy 

y 3aBHCHOCTH OR CJI02teH0CTH H BepOflOCTOJ- 

hocth cnpoBe^eHHX aHajiH3a KBajiHTeTa Me#a 
mctojih oneH>HBaH.a ce Jiejie Ha hckojihko BpcTa. 

EKCnPECHE y6p3aHe MeTojxe, jjajy opjeH- 
TannoHO h npH6jiH3CHe BejiH^HHe y o^oHocy Ha 
no,zjaTKe npen,H3HHX xeMHJCKHX paKinija. OBe Me- 
TOJie He Mory ce kophcthth npn HenocpenHOM 
KOMyHHUHpaH>y npojxaBana h Kynana a TaKorje 
npn oneHH KBajiHTeTa Mena oc})HUHJejiHHX opra- 
Ha. 

CTAHflAP/|HE MeTO/ie oneHe KBajiHTeTa 
no ycTajbeHOM nocTynKy noy3/iaHO /xajy nojjaTKe 
jiaSopaTopnjcKHM HcnHTHBaiteM no BaacennM 

HJIH HHOCTaHJjapjJHMa. 

APEHTPA5KHE MeTOJje oneHe KBajiHTeTa 
nocTojene pe3yjrraTe npoBepaBajy y pa3JiHHHTHM 
cneuHJajiH30BaHHM JiaSopaTopnjaMa h pe3yjrra- 
Te KopncTe Ha ojjroBapajyriH Ha*iHH KaKO npo- 
jraBnn TaKO h Kynun. 

EKCITEPTHE MeTOJje oneHe KBajiHTeTa jra- 
jy CTpyHHe oco6e ca bhcokobikojickhm o6pa30- 
Ban>eM (jjoktoph HayKa, MarncTpn, npoc})ecopH, 
cneuHJajiH3aHTn) n bpchh nnejiapn iipKa3aHH no- 
3HaBaouH KBajiHTeTa Mejxa Kao ncnoMoft y ojjpe- 
^eHHM nocTynuHMa. 

y 3aBHCHOCTH OH HHBOa CTpyHHe KBaJIH(})HKa- 

iprje ocoSe Koja Bpmn aHajiH3y KBajiHTeTa Mena, 
MeTO/ie oneHa Mory ce nojrejraTH Ha cjie/ienn Ha- 

HHH 

THITCKE MeTOJje oneHe KBajiHTeTa Mejxa 
cnpoBO/ie ce Kao 3a xpany y eKcnepTCKHM Jia6o- 
paTopnjaMa 3a MacoBHy npon3BOHH>y. 

* BpaHKO AH^ejiKOBHti, BeorpaacKO ya,pyafeH.e rmejiapa 

** MiipjaHa AH^ejiKOBHh, MarHCTap HyrpHiJ,H3Ma h ^HJeTeTHKe 



HH^HBH^yAJTHE MeTo/ie oneHe KBajiH- 
TeTa cnpoBojxe KOMnjieTHy aHajiH3y npn npHMe- 
HH eKcnepTH3e. 

y 3aBHCHOCTH ojj HaHHHa cnpoBe^eHe aHajin- 
3e KBajiHTeTa Mejia MeTOJie oneHa ce jiejie Ha: 

OPrAHOJIEnTHHKE (ceH3opcKe) MeTOJje 
oneHe KBajiHTeTa ce cnpoBojxe noMofry ^yjiHHX 
opraHa ^OBeKa. 

HHCTPyMEHTAJIHE ((}>H3HHKO-xeMHJ- 
CKe) MeTOJje oneHe KBajiHTeTa y3 noMon HHCTpy- 
MeHaTa h npn6opa hjih xeMHJCKHX aHajiH3a. 

npn oneHH KBajiHTeTa nnejiHiter Me/ia o6hh- 
ho ce yrBprjyjy nejiHHe Koje no#pa3yMeBajy: op- 
raHOJienTHHKa HcnHTHBan.a, (J)H3HHKO-xeMHJCKH 
cacTaB, aHajiH3a nojieHa, 6HOJiouiKe aHajiH3e, aji- 
TepHaTHBHe MeTO/ie (eKcnpecHe Hflp.). 

AHajiH3e nojx SpojeM 1 ao 4 npejjcTaBJtajy 
one Koje HHcy cyBHUie KOMnjiHKOBaHe, ajin Mory 
iia Bpuie ca 3ajjoBOJbaBajynoM TaHHomny caMO 
HCKycHH CTpyHH>anH y toj oSjiacTH y iioSpo onpe- 
MJteHHM Jia6opaTopHJaMa. 

IToBenaHa noTpomita Mejja *nija je neHa bh- 
coKa, HaTepajiaje nojejjHHe HecaBecne nnejiape h 
npoH3Bo^aHe jja (})ajicH(J)HKyjy Mejj. j\a. 6h ctbo- 
Phjih uito Befry ao6ht, HacToje rzl noBefrajy npo- 
H3B0,nH.y naK h ynoTpe6oM aHTHSnoTHKa Kao 
CTHMyjiaTopa nnejia y npoH3BOHH>H Me/ia. TaKO 
ynoTpe6jbeHH aHTHSnoTHUH Ha nHejiHH>aKy ,no- 
cneBajy h y Mea 3a BpnaH>e. 

npncycTBO aHTH6noTHKa ce yrBprjyje jejjHHO 
y JiaSopaTopHJCKHM ycjioBHMa no ripaBHJiHHKy o 
KOJiHHHHaMa necTHUHJja, MeTajia h MeTajioHJja h 
apyrnx otpobhhx cycnTamni, xeMOTepaneyTHKa, 
aHTH6noTHKa h ^pyrax cyncTaHunja Koje ce Mory 
Hajia3HTH y HaMHpHnnaMa ("Cjiy^c6eHH jihct 
CPJ",6p. 5/92). 

KBajiHTeT Mejja Ha nnejiapcKHM H3Jiox6aMa 
h nnjanaMa jjpacTHHHO je onao, KaKO je peneHO, 
pajjH 6p3e h jiaKe 3apa^e. TTojejjHHnH y npoMeT 
CTaBJbajy cyporaT Mej^a kojh je HacTao y noMa- 
Rhm KyxHH>aMa h cjihhhhm npocTopnjaMa, 6e3 
6hjio KaKBor y^emtia n^ejia ca jjojjaBaH>eM Man.e 
KOJiHHHHe npnpoflHor nHejiHH.er Mejxa. 



444 



mua?. ep. io. 2003 



OueH>HBaH>e KBajiHTeTa OBaKBor h /jpynix 
Me^oBa npHMeHOM HaBejjeHHX MeTo^a h aHajiH3a 
oShhho Tpaje hckojihko aaHa, na *iaK h Meceun- 
Ma. rioMofry ajiTepHaTHBHHX (6p3Hx) MeTo^a to 
je Moryhe ypajjHTH sa 2-3 ,naHa. OpraHH3aTopH 
nojejjHHnx H3Jioac6n Me/ia Mory ormslx y TOKy 
Tpajan>a MaHH(})ecTauHJe m. npe;xy3HMajy Mepe h 
pa#H>e y norjie^y HarpafjHBaH>a, y3HMan>a y30pa- 
Ka 3a noce6He aHJiH3e, neMOHCTpHpaH>e o/jperje- 
Hor nocTynKa npejj caMHM H3JiaraneM, CMan>eH>e 
TpouiKOBa h jjd. 

JloKpeT noTpoiuana h Jjpyre HHCHTHTynnje 
npHMeHOM 6p3HX MeTOJia Mory yTHuaTH Ha CMa- 
H>eH>e (J)ajicH(J)HKaTa. Mory ce npHKa3aTH y cpe/i- 

CTBHMa HH(J)OpMHCaH>a H e(J)eKTHO JXCJIOBaTH Ha 

npoH3Borjane, npo/iaBHe h Kynue Me/xa. 

I],Hjb, CBpxa h xeiba je Ra riojbonpHBpejiHH 
(J)aKyjiTeT y 3eMyHy 6yjje npoMOTep Sap noje/jn- 
hhx nocrynaica 6p3HX MeTO/ja, Kao h CBe bhcoko- 
uiKOJicKe h Jjpyre ycTaHOBe y jipyniM jjejioBHMa 
Hame 3eMJi>e. OnncaHe MeTone h nocTynun Mory 
kophcthth KOMHCHJaMa 3a oueHy KBajiHTeTa Me- 
rsl noBOflOM 03jio3c6h, pa3HHX KOHTpojia h y 
CJIHHHHM npHJiHKaMa. 

CBpxa aHajiH3e je rsl ce ojjpe/je KBajiHTeT, 
6hjbho nopeioio h eBeHTyajiHO (J)ajicH(j)HKOBaH>e. 
KBajiHTeT Mem Moace /ja ce noropuia 36or He- 
npaBHJiHHX TexHOJiouiKHX npoueca H>eroBor ro- 
6HJaH>a, npepa/je h ^yBaita (3arpeBan.e Ha bhco- 
koj TeMnepaTypn, nyBaH>e y Henoro^HHM ycjio- 
BHMa, 3ararjeHOCTH, htjj;.). KoHTpojia KBajiHTeTa 
h npnpojjHor nopeioia Mejja BpuiH ce Taxo ihto 
ce o/jpenyjy MHorn opraHOJienTHHKH h (})H3hhko- 
xeMHJCKH noKa3aTejbH. 

OPrAHOJIEnTHHKE METOPE 

riojenHHH nocTynnn obhx MeTO/ja Mory ce 

ypa/IHTH 6p30 H e(J)HKaCHO y 3aBHCH0CTH OR 
CTpyHHOCTH H CnOC06HOCTH HJiaHOBa KOMHCHJC 

rio tom ocHOBy hx MoxeMO CBpcTaTH y eKcnpe- 
CHe MeTO/xe. 

OpraHOJienTHHKa HcnHTHBaH>a noapa3yMe- 
Bajy yTBpf)HBaH>e BpcTe h KBajiHTeTa Mejja npeMa 
oco6HHaMa Koje ce Mory o;ipe;iHTH (occthth hjih 
yoHHTH) nyjiHMa. OBJje ce ojiperjyje yicyc, mhphc, 
6oja, 3pejiocT, HHCTofra h K0H3HCTeHHiija Me/xa. 
CaMO oueH>HBaH>e ce BpuiH Ha ocHOBy KpHTepn- 
jyMa Koje ycBaja opraHH3aTop oiieH>HBaH>a y ca- 
pamtH ca OHeH>HBaHKOM komhchjom. Y3opHH ce 
6ojjyjy, a 6poj 60/jpBa Mo^ce 6hth Hnp, 1-5 Kao 
ihto je HaBeneHO y H3BeuiTajy IToKpeTa noTpo- 
inana kojh je y npHJiory obot pajia. 

YKycje je^Ha ojj HaJBaacHHJHX h Haj6HTHHJHX 
ojjJiHKa a 3aBHCH ojj BpcTe meftepa, cajjpxaja kh- 
cejiHHa h pa3HHX jjpyrax MaTepnja Koje ce Hajia- 
3e y Mejjy. Mejj HMa cjia/iaK yKyc, ajin HeKe BpcTe 
Mejja HMajy ropaK h TpnaK yKyc ihto noTHHe or 
TaHHHa. 

TopHHHaje HapoHHTO H3paxeHa kox Mejja on 
nHTOMor KecTeHa, a cjia6HJe kojj, Me^a xeibjie, 
TpeuiH>e h BHinite. TpnKor h npHJaTHor yicycaje 



Men OR BpeCKa, UiyMCKH Mejj HJIH MeJJJbHKOBaHje 

onopor, SarpeM 6jiaror h npHJaTHor, jjok Jinna h 
cyHHOKpeT ouiTpor. 

ITocTOJH npe/uior na ce ceH3opHa aHajiH3a 

MOHO(J)JIOpHOr Mejja BpiUH Ha OCHOBy T3B. "TOHKa 

yKyca Mejja". MerjyHapo/iHa KOMHcnja 3a Men (In- 
ternational Honey Commission - LUC) je pa3pa- 
jjHJia KapaKTepHCTHKe Koje 6h noMorjie npn xe- 
rycTannJH Me/ra 3a nocTH3aH>e ihto Ta*iHHJHX h 
CTaH/iap/iH30BaHHX pe3yjiTaTa. y BHJjy Kpy^cHor 
jjHJarpaMa cy npencTaBJbeHe Moryna CBOjcTBa He- 
kot HcnHTHBaHor Me/xa. 

KoMHCHJa 3a onperjHBaH>e yicyca Me^a 6h 
6pojajia neT HJianoBa h Morjia 6h jja aHajiH3Hpa 
ro jjBa^eceT y3opaKa jjhcbho. y3opiiH 6h 6hjih 
aHOHHMHH y Heo6ejiexeHoj aM6ajia^cn. npHHHiin 
MeTOJje HHJe hob, ajiH CTaHJjapun h pe^epeHue 
HHcy Shjih Jie<{)HHHcaHH hh noMeHyTH jjo cajja Ha 

OBaj HaHHH. 

y carjiacHOCTH ca jejjHHM or ^JiaHOBa IllC-a 
OBJje h3hochmo iueMy Kojaje ycTaHOBJbeHa Ha ca- 
CTaHKy oupacaHOM 31,OKTo6pa 2002, CARI ac6ji. 
or CTpaHe MJiaHOBa MerjynapojjHe KOMHcnje 3a 
Mejj. 

Mhphc je TaKorje SHa^ajaH KpHTepnjyM y ojj- 
pe5HBaH>y KBajiHTeTa Me/ia naKO ra je Bpjio Te- 
hiko npeuH3HO ne(J)HHHcaTH. /3,aHac nocToje ceH- 
3opHe MeTOJje Koje ce peajiH3yjy KOMnjyrepcKH 
Ha ocHOBy eTajioHCKor y3opKa h Bpjio npeuH3HO 
ouperjyjy o^cTynaHja KOHTpojincaHor y3opKa 
Kpo3 ^H(J)epeHHHJy apoMe. 

ripn o^perjHBaH>y MHpnca noTpe6Hoje o6pa- 
thth naxH>y Ha hckojikko (})aKTopa: 

Mejj He CMe ca^pxaBaTH HHKaKBe CTpaHe mh- 
pnce hjih JiaTeHTHe TparoBe CTpaHHX MaTepnja 
(yjbe, 6eH3HH, hhcckthuhah, (J)epMeHTauHJa h 
cji.). 

Mnpnc Mopa 6hth npnjaTaH h KapaKTepn- 
CTHHan, 6e3 npHMeca h HeyroaHHX MHpnca kojh 
noTH^iy H3 6hjlhhx H3Bopa hjih cy HacTajiH Kao 
nocjiejjHiia nperpeBaH>a Me^a. 




Cjxukci 6p 1. Mupuc u apoua Meda 



nneAdP. Bp. io, 2003. 



445 



/ \xemhjckaV\ 


/ ripwp. amm\ 




/ AMM \ 

flMM qurapeTa 


Y/wKEHUPJA 


Vhetajiha/ 


/ \^ A/1KOXO/1 / 


\ /k o lu iTm u e\/ 


^^>y crape nM&ne ^*^ 



CnuKa 6p 2. ApoMa u cuojbaiufbu 

aycmamueuuHadpaoicaju 




Cjiukci 6p 3. Mupuc u apoMa Meda 

(u36op:IHC, 2002) opuz. npee. ca 

(ppant^ycKoe M. AnfyenKoeuh 

Ykojimko je MCTaKHyia 6mbHa BpCTa o,a Koje 

Mtjl nOTMHe, MMpMC MOpa 6mTM npM6jlMXHO ORTO- 

Bapajyftw MMpMcy Siuta or Kojer noTime. 

He CMe ca/ipiKaTM KMcejie MMpnce Kao nocjie- 
HMue (fjepjvieHTauMJe. 

Mmpmc jvie/ia noTH^e oji mmpmchmx MaTepMJa 
Koje ca/ip^cM HeKTap. ApOMaTM^He MaTepMj'e Me- 
fla JiaKO McnapaBajy m najy CBOJCTBeHe m npeno- 

3HaTJLMBe MMpMCe. TM MMpMCM Cy HaJMHTCH3MB- 

hmjm y n^ejiMi-baKy Kana ce oceria mmpmc HeKTapa 
Kojer nnejie yHOce m npeparjyjy. 

Mejx or noje^MHMx BpCTa SwjbaKa (Kao iiito 
je HanoivieHyTo) MMa cneuM(j)MHaH mmpmc kojm je 
HtKaR Bpjio M3pa;>KeH (jlMIIOB, mchtmh mcr) mjim 
Bpjio cjiaSo M3pa^<:eH (cyHiiOKpei), rok je Me- 

HJLMKOBail CKOpO 6e3 MMpMCa. 

npMJiMKOM 3arpeBaH>a Me,aa npMponHM Miipii- 
cm 6p30 MiuHe3aBajy. npo6y 3a ouei-bMBaibe mm- 



ptica TpeSa y3MMaTM H3 ^y6jtMx cjiojeBa Me^a. 
Ko# ^yror nyBai-ba mcr nocTeneHO ry6n mmpmc m 
apoiviy. OSmhho ce mmpmc m yKyc ocehajy Kao je- 
HMHCTBeH ocehaj T3B. 6yKe, Te MCKycHM ^erycTa- 
TOpn Mory ca ctirypHOiuhy r& o^pe^e nopeKJio m 
BpCTy jviena. 

Boja ce noHeKa/i y3MMa Kaoje^aH or 3Ha4aj- 
HHJMX KpMTepMJyivia KBajiMTeTa, iiaKO je mcr npii- 
po^HM npOM3BO/i. Boja CBe^ce eKCTpaxoBaHor Me- 

RBL MO^Ce R2i BapMpa M 3aBMCH OR KJIMMaTCKMX 

ycjiOBa 3a BpeMe Bpuai-ba Kao m or TejvinepaType 
noR kojom mcr ca3peBa y koiuhmum. 

MeR MO^ce 6mtm pa3Jin L iMTe 6oje CKOpo 6e3- 
6oJHe (SarpeM) na CBe ro TaMHe (KecTeH). Boja 
3aBMCM y npBOM pe^y or Bpcie MenoHOCHe 6mjb- 

Ke, 3aTMM OH M3J10^KeHOCTM CyH^eBOJ CBeTJIOCTM M 

or Ha^HHa ycKJia^MiDTei-ba. npojieTH>M mcr je 
CBeTJiHJM or OHor kojm ce #o6MJa y TOKy m KpajeM 
jieTa. 

MaTepMJe or kojmx noTMHe 6oja Me^a npMna- 
^ajy rpynw KapOTMHa, KcaHTO(J)i4Jia, xjiopO(})MJia 
m Rp. TaMHHJM Me^OBM ce CMaTpajy jioiumjmm M3- 

y3eBlUM nOJ!M(J)J10pHM JIMBa^CKM M nJiaHMHCKM 

Me^ kojm cnaaajy Mef)y bmcoko KBajiMTeTHe Bp- 
CTe. 



rfc^ 



I 






J>— H 



IIleMa ypefyaJQ sa odpefyueatbe 6oje Meda 

O 6ojm jvie,aa nocTOJM aocia nojieMMKa c 06- 
3MpOM Ha KBajiMTeT CBeuiMJer m TaMHMJer Me^a. 
npM 3arpeBaH>y Ha 80°C Kp03 30 MMHyTa Me^a, 
noTaMHM Kao m npMJiMKOM ayxer ^yBaH^a Ha to- 
njiOM MecTy (Ta^a ce ^pacTH^HO noBefta XMO). 
3a npeuM3H0 o/ipe5MBaH>e 6oje Me/ia KOpMCTe ce 
cneuMJajiHM ypejajw T3B. rpanepM, Ha ocHOBy 
ynopef)MBaH>a ca SojeHMM eiajiOHMivia. 

Boja Me^a ycKOJe noBe3aHa ca yKycoM m apo- 
mom. CBeTJie BpCTe Me^a o6mhho cy 6jia>Ker yKy- 
ca m 6jiaxe apOMe a TaMHMJM ouiTpHJer yKyca m 
jane apOMe, Kao iuto ce Mo^ce bh^ctm Ha /iMJa- 
rpaiviy 6p.l. Boja m yKyc noTM^y or HeKTapa a 
oSwjte MeneH>a yTM^e Ha 6ojy m apoivty ivieaa. Ka- 
na je Me,aeH.e oSmjiho mcr je cbctjimjm a apoMa 
6jiaxa, m o6pHyTO Ka/iaje Me^eH>e ocKyaHO 6oja 
je TaMHMJa a apOMajana. 



446 



RHCAftP. 6p, 10 P 2003. 



Tadena 1: Eoje ueda 



BpcTa MeAa 


6oja 


6arpeM0B 

(npn/iMKOM Bpuahba ce necTO 
nOMema ca jimbsackhm meaom) 


BOAeHacTo6ncTpa, 6e/i03e/ieHa 

(>KyfiKacTa6oja) 


/iwiob 


3/iaTHo->KyTaAO upBeHKacia 


CyHI40KpeTOB 


3/iaTH0->KyTa 


nMTOMor KecTeHa 


UPBeHo-TaMHa 


oflAYBaHa, 6arpeMua 


TaMHOAOTaMHO-MpKa 


MeA^nKOBau 


TaMaH ca 3e/ieHHM oflcjajerui 


/lflBaACKl/l 


Bapupa 


/laBaHAHH 


3/iaTHa 


xe/bAa 


TaMHoxyiaAOTaMHOMpKa 


BpeCKOB 


CBeTJIOMpKe AO UPBeHKaCTOMpKe 


AeTeJIMHMH 

-UPBena 
-6e/ia 


UPBeHKacTo-xyTe 
CBeTao 


xa/icf)Mja 


CBeivio-xyT, Ma/i0 3e^eHKacT 


py3MapnH 


6e/ia 


Tpeuji-ba, BMLui-ba 


3/iaTHo-xyTa 


ja6yKa 


3/iaTHo-xyTa 


<t)au,e/inja 


OTBopeHo xyTa 


Bp6a 


OTBopeHo xyTa 



TycTHHa 

yHyTpamtke Tpeite hjih OTnop kojh ce jaBJta 
npHJiHKOM TeneH>a je pe3yjrraT (J)H3hhko MOJie- 
KyjiapHHX yranaja. TycTHHa Mena 3aBHcn on H>e- 
roBe TeMnepaType, nponeHTa Bone h xeMHJCKor 
cacTaBa. 

Ha hhckhm TeMnepaTypaMa ryeraHaje Befta 
h o6pHyTO. To Mo^ceMO BnneTH Ha npHKa3aHOM 
rpa(})HKOHy (npn Koe<})HHHJeHTy Bone = 1). 

Kao iiito ce bh/ih npoMeHa ryeraHe HHJe npo- 
nopuHOHajiHa npoMeHaMa TeMnepaType h noBe- 
haBa ce Ha hkjkhm TeMnepaTypaMa. TycTHHa je 
yTOJiHKO Malta yKOJinxo je nponeHaT Bone y Me- 
ny BenH. 





MeOfeMKOMU 




Kecr«H 

Bp*cw 
Nmh 




CynuoicpeT 




Barpen BarpeMa^ 


i_ 


Ahimm 


I 


Cserao 






BOM 



Men kojh canpacn BHine KOJionna, neKerpnHa, 
GejiaHHeBHHacTHX MaTepnja, caxapo3e h rpoadja- 
hot meftepa HMa Beny rycTHHy. TaicaB je MQjubm- 
KOBau, flOK 6arpeMOB, Men on neTenHHe n on (J)a- 
nennje kojh canp^Ke Beny Konn^HHy BonHor me- 
ftepa, HMajy HaJMaity rycTHHy. llo rycTHHH Mo^ce 
ce onpenHTH nponeHaT Bone y Meny. 

3pejiocT Mena oneH>yje ce y TexyneM CTan>y. 
He3peo Men Kana ce 3axBaTH KauiHKOM 6p30 
OTHHe Kao cnpyn, noKJe 3peo Men rymhn, orane 



Mujazpam 6p. 


2 


ryauiwa 


jueda 


1600 










1400 










1200 










1000 










1 «■ 










800 










400 










zoo 



















~ t 




20C 30C 


40C 50C aoc 








trcj 





ffujaepaM 6p.l Eoja uyicycMeda 



cnopo n o6pa3yje HenpeoinHy hht. HeKTap 
o6hhho canpacn no 90% Bone. IiHejie Bnuie nyTa 
ncTHCKyjy HeKTap Ha Bpxy CBOje pnnHue Kao Ka- 
njbHue n 3a to BpeMe KOJinnnHa Bone y HeKTapy 
ce CMan>yje 3a 40-50%. Pa3JiHBaH>eM Ha TaHaK 
cjioj npHJiHKOM cjiaraH.a Mena y ftennjy n hhtch- 
3hbhhm npoBeTpaBan>eM nnena y6p3aBa ncnapa- 
BaH>e h THMe rySHTaK cyBnniHe BJiare. 

JJospeBaite ce CMaTpa na je 3aBpmeHO Kana 
cnenn(J)HHHa Te^cHHa (onHoc H3Merjy Mace onpe- 
rjeHe kojihmhhc MaTepnje n Mace HCTe kojihhhhc 
Bone) 6yne Herne H3Han 1,416 uito 3Ha*ffl m je 
KOJiH^HHa Bone ncnon 20%. TaKaB Men noeraje 
TpajaH nponyKT n He no/iJie^ce (J)epMeHTaunJH. 
HcTOBpeMeHO c HcnpaBaH>eM Bo^e noji nejioBa- 
H>eM HHBepTa3e H3 njtyBaHKe n ceKpeTa bojlkc 
HacTaBJta ce pa3JiaraH>e MOJieKyjra caxapo3e Ha 
MOJieKyjie rpoxrjaHor h MOJieKyjie BoriHor mehe- 
pa. y hcto BpeMe non neJioBaH>eM jxpyrwx (}>epM- 
eHaTa onBnja ce pa3JiaraH>e h ojinrocaxapHiia 
(MajiT03e, Mejiau;HT03e, pa<})HH03a, Mejie,n,H3e h 
Tpexajio3e). Ka^,a Men ca3pn nnejie nonyHe nejin- 
je, 3aTBope nx BoniTaHHM noKJionunMa na ce Men 
He npn>a h He ynnja Bnary. CMaTpa ce naje Men 
3peo Kana cy nBe TpetiHHe hennja Ha cany noicno- 
nn>eHe. 

HacToha ce oueH>yje npnnHKOM opraHonen- 
THHKor HcnHTHBaH>a Mena. Y Meny He CMejy 6hth 
CTpaHe npnMece Koje ce Mory Bnnera ronnM 



n^^ftAP. Bp. 10, 2003. 



447 



okom (BocaK, ocTaTaK nnejia, ocTajin hhcckth h 
cji.). Men y TejcyfteM CTaity TpeSa na 6yne 6h- 
CTap h npo3HpaH, a HHCTohaje 6ojba Kon hbct- 
hhx BpcTa. 

HncTona ce oueityje Taxo iiito ce ncnHTHBa- 
hh y3opaK HajiHJe y CTaKJieHy nocyny Koja je 
ycKa h BHCOKa, on 6e36oJHor CTaioia hjih y enpy- 
BeTy Te ce nocMaTpa npeMa cseuiy. Kon npoue- 
He TaMHHX MeflOBa CTaioieHa nocyna Tpe6a na je 
iiito yaca KaKO 6h cjioj Mena 6ho uito TatbH h 
npo3HpHHJH. MexaHH^Ke npiiMece Mory na ce 
yrepne h ijerjeiteM Kpo3 npeTxonHO OBJiaxeHy 
ra3y hjih Kpo3 (})HJiTep nannp, a Moxe ce BpniH- 
th h pa3perjHBaiteM Mena necTHJioBaHOM BonoM 
h Ta pa3pet)eH>a nocMaTpaTH y enpyBeTH. 

KpiiciajuBauMJa je npouec npejia3a TeHHor 
Mena y KpHCTajmy Macy. Toje npnponHO <j)H3HH- 
KO-xeMHJCKH npouec npH KojeM ce cacTaB h cboj- 
ctbo Mena He Meitajy h Men y TaKBOM CTan>y onp- 
xaBa CBe CBOje xpaHJBHBe h JieKOBHTe ocoShhc 
KpHCTajiH3auHJa je Be3aHa 3a npncycTBO T3B. 
KpHCTajiHHXje3rpn on rpoadjaHor uienepa y Me- 
ny oko kojhx ce CTBapajy KpHCTajiH Mena. OBaje- 
3rpa yjia3e y Men yrjiaBHOM ca caha ajiH Mory 6h- 
th AOHeceHa 3ajenHO ca HeicrapoM. 11pbo6hthh 
KpHCTajiH ce Mory o6jiHKOBaTH h 36or npe3acn- 
heHOCTH rpo^crjaHor nienepa, a hito ce jjemaBa 
HcnapaBaH>eM Bone y TOKy Bpeita Mena join y ca- 
ny hjih nyBaiteM y He3aTBopeHHM nocynaMa y cy- 
bom npocTopy. KpHCTajiH Mory 6hth: KpynHO-3p- 
HacTH > 0,5mm h CHTHO-3pHacTH < 0,5mm 

Ykojihko HMa BHUie rpoac^aHor uienepa Men 
jiaKiue KpHCTajiH3Hpa. Men HajjiaKiue KpncTajiH- 
3Hpa na TeMnepaTypn 13-14°C. Ha TeMnepaTypn 
27-32°C KpHCTajiH3auHJa npecTaje,jep ce CMan>y- 
je 3acHneHOCT rpoxrjaHHM menepoM. 

OnuiTe je no3HaTO na npnpojjHH Men npe hjih 
KacHHJe KpncTajiHiue. To je H>eroBa npnponHa 
oco6HHa no kojoj ce npaBH Men pa3JiHKyje or 
(J>ajicH(J)HKOBaHor. KpHCTajiHsauiijoM ce Men He 
Meita, oh caMO Meita cboj H3rjien h koh3hctch- 
Hiijy. y npoMeiy ce HeKan Moxe Hann yKpncra- 
jracaHH Men ihto ce norpeniHO neKJiapnme Kao 
"ymenepeHH" h kojj noTpouiana 36or He3Han>a 
H3a3HBa HenoBepeite. Ako Men cajjp^cn Bene ko- 




Cjiwca 6p. 4: OGjiuum Kpucuicuia 



jiHUHHe BonHor nienepa hjih (J)pyKT03e Te^ce ro- 

Jia3H RO KpHCTaJIH3aUHJe. y KpHCTaJIHCaHOM Me- 
ny MoryjacHO na ce pa3JiHKyjy nsa cjioja, ropn>H 
TenaH h jjoh>h rymnn. OBa nojaBa ce Moate o6ja- 
chhth THMe hito JieByjio3a (jj-({)pyKT03a) Koja ce 
KpncTajiHuie, HcnjiHBa Ha noBpniHHy, jjok nryico- 
3a h caxapo3a HCKpHCTajiH30BaHe h Kao Teace 
ocTajy Ha jjHy. KpHCTajiH3auHJy Mena TeniKO je 
cnpe^HTH h to ce y npaxcn o6h i iho He pajjn. /Ja 
6h ce cnpeuHJia KpHCTajiH3aHiija Mena Tpe6ajio 
6h OTonHTH KpncTajie jjeKCTpo3e y Meny h to 3a- 
rpeBan>eM Ha TeMnepaTypn on 70°C y TOKy 30 
MHHyra, ajin TaKBa TeMnepaTypa HenoBOJbHO 
yrane Ha KBajiHTeT Mena kojh ce He Moxe Kopn- 
cthth 3a Jbyjxcicy HcxpaHy. 

KpncTajiHcaHH Men ce Moace noHOBO noBpa- 
thth y CBOje npBo6nTHO CTaH>e 3arpeBan>eM ro 
TeMnepaType 35-40°C, HaJBHme ro 50°C 6e3 Be- 
frer yTHuaja Ha xcmhjckh h 6hojioiukh cacTaB Me- 
na. OcHOBHe npoMeHe no kojhx nojia3H npn sa- 
rpeBaity Mena cy HHaKTHBHpaite eH3HMa h noBe- 
naite KOJiHHHHe XMO-a. XHnpoKCHMeTHJi-<{)yp- 
(})ypoji je npaBH HHnHKaTop CBexHHe h 3arpeBa- 
H>a Mejja. H>eroBa BpejjHOCT 3aBHCH h or reo- 
rpa(J)CKor nopeKJia Mejja, ojjhocho or KiiHMaT- 

CKHX yCJIOBa. Y TOnJIHJHM KJIHMaTHMa Cy JJ03B0- 

jteHe BHine BpejjHOCTH 3a XMO. 

Oajiciic|)iiKOBaibe Me/ia 

EyjjynH na je Men cicynjbH on uienepa yBeK ce 
Ha^y HecaBecHH nnejiapn h nojenHHHH kojh <J)aji- 
CH(J)HKyjy Men pann 6p3e 3apane. Men ce Moxe 
(})ajicH(J)HKOBaTH yrjiaBHOM Ha res. HaHHHa: 6e3 
nnejia h noMofry n^iejia onHOCHO y KaHTH hjih ko- 
uihhuh. 

HajjenHOCTaBHHJH H HanpHMHTHBHHJH HaHHH 

je na ce uienep OTonn noMohy Bone y rycTH cnpyn 
n noMeuia ca npnpojiHHM MenoM. TaKO ce noBe- 
ftaBa KOJiHHHHa Mena h uienepa y Meny. yMecTO 
nienepa Moace ce y3era h rpoxrjaHH uienep - rjiy- 
K03a kojh nojia3H y TproBHHy y o6jiHKy rycTor 
cnpyna. H jenaH h npyrn Ha^HH (J)ajicH(J)HKOBaH>a 
Mory ce naKO otkphth noMofry nojiHMeTpnje. 

OnTHHKa aKTHBHOCT, OnHOCHO nojiHMeTpHja 

je (})yHKu;HJa kojikhkhckot onHoca H3MeIjy yrjbe- 

HHX XHnpaTa. KOJIHHHHCKH H KBaJIHTaTHBHH Ca- 

CTaB uienepa 3aBHce on GoTaHH^Kor nopeKJia, Te 

CTOra OnTHMKa aKTHBHOCT paSJIHMHTHX BpCTa HH- 

je jenHaKa. 

FlpHpOnHH UBeTHH Men OnTHHKH je JieBO aK- 

THBaH (L), a OTonHHa uienepa h rjiyK03e cy on- 
thhkh necHo aKTHBHe (D). Ako ce Menynona H3- 
BecHa KOJiHHHHa cnpyna hjih rjiyK03e y3 neK- 
CTp03y Koja Ben nocTojn y Meny a Kojaje TaKo^e 
onTHHKH necHo aKTHBHa nojiapHsauHJa CKpehe 
ynecHO, a (J)ajicH(J)HKOBaHH Men nocraje onTHHKH 
necHo aKTHBaH HHMe ce pa3nHKyje on ubcthot 
Mena. 

Mhoto je Teace aKO ce 3a (J)ajicH<i)HKOBaii>e 
ynoTpe6n HHBepTHH iuenep. Obo ce aKTHBHpa 
noMohy aHajiHHCKor xjiopnna. Hhct Men ocTaje 



448 



TWEAAP. 5p. 10, 2003. 



HenpoMeH>eH, a (J)ajicH<j)HKaT ce 060JH y npBeHO. 
Mejj. h HHBepTHH niehep cy no cbom cacTaBy Bp- 
jio cjihhhh, ajiH ce pa3JiHKyjy no TOMe uito hh- 
BepTHn menep y Mejjy Kao npHpojiHH npoH3BO£ 
caflp^cn h MHHepajiHe MaTepnje Te ce Ha thm pa3- 
jiHKaMa TeMeibH npeno3HaBan>e npaBor Mejja or 
(})ajicH(J)HKaTa. HHBepTHH menep ce JXp6HJa or 
oShhhot inefrepa h borc KyBaH>eM noMofry KHce- 
jiHHa: BHHCKe, JiHMyHCKe h Rp. Ako ce y HcnnTH- 
BaHOM y3opxy Haljy Te KncejiHHe to jjpKa3yje jia 
je Meji (J)ajicH({)HKOBaH. 

H caRa Kao h tokom ncropHJe nnejiapn npn- 
xpaH>yjy H3 pa3JiHHHTHX pa3Jiora n^ejie menep- 
hhm cnpynoM a noHeKajj pajjn noBenaita kojih- 
MHHe Mejja. nnejie HHBepTyjy cnpyn h CTaBJbajy 
ra y cane ajin je nponeHaT HHBepTOBaHor mene- 
pa y TaKBHM cjiynajeBHMa BefiH Hero uito je jip- 
3BOJbeHO npaBHUHHKOM. nnejie HHKajj He ycnejy 
Ho^aTHy caxapo3y jio Kpaja na HHBepTyjy, Te Ta- 
KaB mqr noKa3yje Benn nponeHaT caxapo3e. 

y onncHBaH>y nocTynaxa ajiTepHaTHBHnx Me- 
Tojia o6jacHnne ce nojejjHHH HaHHHH 3a OTKpHBa- 
H>e <t)ajicH(J)HKaTa. 

y ojjHocy Ha jia6opaTopHJCKe ycjioBe 3a xe- 
MHJCKe aHa;iH3e o6aBe3Haje h noTpe6Ha nojiapn- 
MeTpnjcKa oneHa Me.ua. 06aBJi>a ce nojiapHMe- 
TpoM Kojn paBaH nojiapH30BaHe cbctjiocth npo- 
jiasenn Kpo3 Mejj, cxpene JieBO hjih jxccho nojj; 

pa3JIHHHTHM yTJIOM, 3aBHCHO OR BpCTe H KOJIHHH- 

He Me/ia. HeKTapcKH Mejj caupxH npeTe^cHO HH- 
BepTHH menep cacraBJbeH ojjjejiHaKHX KOJiHHHHa 
rpoacrjaHor inefrepa (kojh CKpefre paBaH cbctjio- 
cth yjjecHO uor yrjioM or 52,70°) h BofrHor niefre- 
pa (kojh CKpene paBaH cbctjiocth yjieBO nojj; 
yrjioM -92°). HeKTapcKH Me^ CKpefre paBaH CBe- 
tjiocth yjieBO. 

yKOJiHKO je CKpeTaH>e yjieBO Bene yTOJiHKO 
ce panH o Befroj kojihhhhh BofrHor inefrepa. Ta- 
KaBJe Ha npHMep SarpeMOB Mejj. 

MejjJLHKOBau caapxcH CMOJiacTe MaTepnje 
neKCTpnHa Koje CKpefry paBaH nojiapH30BaHe 
cbctjiocth jaKO yjxecHO. 

3a nojiapHMeTpnjcKy oneHy kophcth ce 
10%-hh pacTBop Mejxa h h3bojjh ce 3aKJbyuaK o 
bpcth Meaa, ca^p^cajy niefrepa h CTeneHy 3pejio- 

CTH. 

AJITEPHATHBHE (BP3E) METOPE 
3A O^PEBHBAH>E KBAJIHTETA 

MEAA 

OBJje cy npHKa3aHe excnpecHe MeTOJje 3a 
yTBp^HBaHie cacTaBa nnejiHH>er Mejia Ha ocHOBy 
nocTojehnx CTaHJiapjia ca npHMeHOM 3a MacoBHO 
oneH>HBaH.e KBajiHTeTa Mejxa. OBe MeTO£e Tpe6a 
jxa ce npHMeH>yjy 3a noTpe6e npexpaM6eHe HHJjy- 
CTpnje h MacoBHe H3Jio^c6eHO-npo^aJHe kojihhh- 
He Mena rue Tpe6a nonyitaBaTH jjeceTHHe h BHine 
o6pa3ana. 

3a oneH.HBaH>e KBajiHTeTa tojihkc kojihhhhc 
Me^a ctphktho no CTaHJjapuHMa Shjio 6h no- 
TpeSHO HeKOJiHKO MecenH, a noMofry eKcnpecHHX 



MeTOJja to ce Moxe ypajiHTH 3a jjBa-TpH jjaHa. Ha 
ocHOBy TaKBHX oneH.HBaH>a, Moryfre je ojiMax y 
TOKy Tpajan>a MaHH<{)ecTanHJe, npejjy3eTH ojjto- 
Bapajyne pajjH>e 3a Harpat)HBaH>e, cjiaite Ha exc- 
nepTH3y, jiaBaH>e noy3JjaHHJHX nojjaTaKa noje- 

HHHHHMa, BpUIHTH Hexe eJIHMHHaHHJe H OCTaJIO. 

noceSHO Tpe6a oSpaTHTH na3CH>y Ha ca^p- 
ataj caxapo3e. y nocTojenHM CTaHJjapjjHMa tior 
thm TepMHHOM KpHJy ce ochm caxapo3e H CBH He- 
penyKOBaHH jjh- h TpncaxapHjiH, XHJipojiHSOBaHH 
uor jjejcTBOM coHe KncejiHHe (NaOH) ro moho- 
caxapn/ra. no tom ocHOBy caapxaj caxapo3e 
oShmho He npejia3H 0,5-2,0%. 

no oneHH KBajiHTeTa nHejiHH>er Mejxa o6hh- 
ho ce yrBprjyjy nerapH uejiHHe: yTBp^HBaH>e or- 
roBapajyner nperjiejjHor o6pacua 3a noTpe6He 
nojjaTKe npeivia BaxenHM CTaHJjapjjHMa, yTBprjn- 
Ban.e npnpojjHor CBOjcTBa nnejiHHjer Mejja, yTBp- 
t)HBaH>e CTeneHa nperpeBaH>a Mejja npn JxeKpn- 
CTajiH3auHJH h TexHOJiomKHM npouecHMa, yrep- 
^HBaHje BejiHHHHa Ha Kojnje nyBaH mcr y CKJia- 

JIHUITy. 

y OKBHpy eKcnpecHHX MeTo^a jjaTH cy Hann- 
hh 3a yTBprjHBaH>e (}>ajicH<{)HKaTa npnpojjHor 
nnejiHH>er mqrq. 3a pa3He noTpe6e a HapoHHTO 3a 
bhiuh CTeneH (J)HHajiH3auHJe Me/ia y npon3BOJiH>H 
npenapaTa. 

TaKo^e cy npeacTaBJteHe h eKcnpecHe MeTO- 
ne 3a ojjperjHBaite MoryhHOCTH jjy^cer nyBaH>a 
nnejiHH>er Mejxa. Te MeTO/ie ce KopncTe iia 6h ojj- 
pe^HJiH HMa jih pe3epBe y BejiHMHHaMa KBajiHTe- 
Ta 3a jjyroTpaJHHJe HyBaH>e Mejja (jjo rbq rojjHHe) 
3a HeKy o/jperjeHy KOJiHHHHy Me^a. Ha npHMep, 
HMaMO KOJiH^HHy Mejja c napaMeTpHMa KBajiHTe- 
Ta kojh ce Hajia3e Ha rpaHHUH caupxaja OKCHMe- 
THJi(J)yp(J)ypojia, hjih jiHJacTa3HH 6poj HMa bcjih- 
HHHy 8, TaKBy napTHJy hjih KOJiHHHHy Me^a He 
Tpe6a ^yBaTH Ha Jjyacn poK hjih no^BpraBaTH 
TexHOJiomKoj o6pa^H noroTOBy aKoje noTpe6HO 
mqr 3arpeBaTH uito y3poicyje noBe^aH>e ca^p^ca- 
ja XMO-a a <J)epMeHT jjHJacrase 6nBa HHaKTHBH- 
paH h cmraceHa je aKTHBHOCT. Ta napTnja nocjie 
oSpajje Hene 3a^oBOJLaBaTH BejiH^HHe KBajiHTe- 
Ta npaBor npupoj^Hor Mejja. 

BejiHHHHe y nperjiejjy o^pe^eHe 3a XMO h 
jjHJacTa3HH 6poj HMajy opHJeHTauHOHy BpenHOCT 
3a npHMeHy y (J)opMHpaH>y BepoflocTOJHHJe oue- 
He KBajiHTeTa Mejia. y TaKBHM cjiyHajeBHMa no- 
TpeSHO je npHMeHHTH Ta^Hnje MeTo^e oneHe 
KBajiHTeTa Me^a. 

npeMa TOMe, eKcnpecHe MeTOJje oueHe KBa- 
jiHTeTa n*iejiHH>er Mejja Mory ce mnpoKO npHMe- 
H>HBaTH y CBaKOJjHeBHOj npaKCH. HnaK OHe hh y 
kom cjiynajy He Mory 3aMeHHTH CTaH/iap^He hjih 
ap6HTpaxHe MeTo^e (npn HacTajiHM cnopoBHMa 
H3Me^y Kynaua h nponaBaua h 3a Rpyre SBaHH 1 !- 
He CBpxe), Beh Mory jjaTH opujeHTauHOHe nojraT- 
Ke 3a jjajbe aHajiH3e. 

Obom npnjiHKOM he 6hth npejjcTaBJbeHH ca- 
mo nojeflHHH nocTynun. Me^yTHM jjeTaibHHJe hh- 
(J)opMauHJe y3 npHMeHy Tpe6ajio 6h Ra peajiH3y- 



nHCAAP, Bp. 10, 5003. 



449 



je oflceK 3a n^ejrapcTBO Ha nojbonpHBpenHOM 
(J)aKyjiTeTy y 3eMyHy. 

Cse MeTcxne CBpcTaHe cy y TpH KaTeropnje. 

1 . EKcnpecHe MeTO/je 3a yrBpl)iiBan>e QZjroBa- 

pajyfinx KBajiHTeTa iraejiHBber Me/ja no 
yTBp^eHHM CTaHnap^HMa 

1.1. apoMa 

1.2. yKyc 

1.3. cneuH(})HHHa TeacHHa (KOJiH^HHa Bojje y Me- 

fly) 

1.4. KOJTH^HHa pe^yKOBaHnx MaTepHJa 

1.5. KOJiH^HHa caxap03e 

1.6. flHjacTa3HH 6poj 

1.7. XH^pOKCHMeTHJI(l)yp(l)ypOJT 

1.8. MexaHH^Ke npHMece 

1.9. 3HauH (J)epMeHTaunje Me^a Ha ocHOBy KHce- 
jiocth Mejia 

2. EKcnpecHe MeTO/je 3a \TBpT)HBaH>o (JiajicH- 
4>MKaTa upMpOiiuor line, miber rvie/ia 

2.1. yKyc 

2.2. ca^pEcaj caxapo3e 

2.3. caflpxaj cyMnpoHor raca 

2.4. npospa^HOCT 

2.5. paKUHJa Ha jjeKCTpHHe 

2.6. peaKUHJa Ha XHJj,poKCHMeTHJi(})yp(l)ypoji 

2.7. peaKUHJa Ha ocTaTKe cyMnopHe KHcejiHHe 

2.8. peaKUHJa Ha ocTaTKe coHe KHcejiHHe 

2.9. peaKUHJa Hajo/i, 

2.10. peaKUHJa ca ojioBO-aueTaTOM 

2.11. peaKUHJa Ha aMOHHJaKe 

2.12. peaKUHJa ca JlyrojioM 

2.13. mnnpHTycHa peaKUHJa 

3. ExcnpecHe MeTOJje 3a ozipeljHBaibe Moiyh- 
hocth 3a Tpajiio HysaBbe Mejja 

3.1. cjio6ojiHa Bojxa 

3.2. XH^poKCHMeTHJi(})yp(l)ypojT 

3.3. flujacTa3HH 6poj 

3.4. 3HauH (J)epMeHTauHJe 

Kao jejjaH ojt, jjoKa3a o KBajiHTeTy Mejja n^e- 
jiapu noHeKaji KopucTe cjiejjeny MeTojjy: OKpeTa- 
H>e nyHe Terjie 6arpeMOBor Mejj,a Ha jjojie. V oboj 
MeTojiH flOKa3 jra je mqjx caBpineHe rycTHHe, 3pe- 
jiocth h jja je npupojiaH je ojjcycTBo nojaBe uype- 
H>a Mejra H3 Terjie. 

3a obo nocToje HayHHe ocHOBe, MerjyTHM OBa 
MeTO/xa ce He Moxe npHMeH>HBaTH ca ycnexoM Ha 
TeMnepaTypaMa oko 30°C h bhuic 3a noTpoma- 
*ie ca He^oBOJBHO 3HaH>a o obhm nojaBaMa mcto- 
jja jxejiyje jaKO e(j)HKacHO, jtok HCKycHHM nnejia- 
pHMa h caBecHHM Jby^HMa OBa MeTOjra yKa3yje Ha 
HeKe jjojjaTKe y Me/ry. TaKBOM Mejjy kojh Ha bh- 
cokhm cnoibaniH>HM TeMnepaTypaMa He uypu H3 
Terjie oSHHHOje /lo/iaTa HeKa BpcTa CKpo6He Me- 
jiace, a Haj^emne acejiaTHH. ITocTynuH 3a yTBprju- 
BaH.e npucycTBa Menace y Mejry onucaHH cy Me- 
TO,naMa nojx 2.5 jxo 2.9, 3a JiojiaBaifce penHHe Me- 
jiace nojj 2.10, 3a jjojiaBaH>e acejiaTHHa, uinnpuTa 
h rycTHHa nojr, 2.11 h 3a JiojiaBaH>e Spauma hjih 
Menace nojr, 2.12 



y nocTynKy 2.9 peaKUHJa Ha jojj, npo6HH 
y3opaK pacTBopHTH y bojih (1:1) h JipJiaTH jejjHy 
Kan jo/ia. IlpoMeHa 6oje pacTBopa yKa3yje Ha 
upHcycTBO CKpo6a hjih npojjyKaTa H>eroBe xh- 
HpojiH3e. 

yTBpfjHBaH>e JiojjaBaH>a xejiaTHHa, uinupHTa 
hjih rycTHHa no nocTynKy HaBejjeHHM nojj 2.11 
o6yxBaTa: 3arpeBaH>e pacTBopa Mejia (1:2) ca bo- 
neHHM pacTBopoM jaKe cojje. HaKBauieHH JiaK- 
Myc nanup ce kophcth Kao HHjjHKaTop peKaunje 
npnjiHKOM Kiby^aiba pacTBopa. y npncycTBy ace- 
jiaTHHa hjih rycTHHa y Me/ry CTBapa ce aMOHHJaK 
kojh H3a3HBa npoMeHy 6oje (noMOJi,peH>e) JiaK- 
Myc nannpa. 

3a npoBepy KBajiHTeTa MejjJbHKOBua (T3B. 
iuyMCKH Men) KopncTe ce nocTynun HaBe/jeHH y 
obom TeKCTy no/i, 2.13. n 2.14, htjt,... 

HHCTPYMEHTH 

Ilopejj, ochobhhx JiaSopaTopnjcKHX yperjaja 
h HHCTpyMeHaTa (enpyBeTe, nopuejiaHCKH aBaHH, 
peTopTe H/ip.) 3a npHMeHy MeTO/ja 3a o/jperjHBa- 
ibe KBajiHTeTa noTpe6HO je HMaTH KBajiHTeTaH 
MHKpocKon, nojiapHMeTap, pe(})paKTOMeTap, jth- 
rHTajiHH pH-MeTap h HeonxojjHH jjurHTajiHH ype- 
rjaj 3a Mepen>e ejieKrponpoBOJiJbHBOCTH. 

BjieKTponpOBO^JbHBOCT 

EjieKTponpoBOJjJbHBOCT pacTBopa nnejiHiBer 
Me/xa naKO je BeoMa Majia y noperjeity ca ejieK- 
TponpoBOJjJLHBOuihy cojih, KHcejiHHa h 6asa, pe- 
3yjiTaT je npucycTBa MHHepajiHHX MaTepnja, op- 
raHCKHX KHcejiHHa h 6ejiaHHeBHHa y Mejxy. Cne- 
uiKJDH^Ha ejieKTponpoBOJjJBHBOCT Hepa3perjeHor 
Me/iaje Kao h kojj /jecTHJioBaHe Bo/je. Pa36jiaacH- 
BaH>eM bottom OHa ce noBehaBa h jjocTH^ce MaK- 
CHMajiHy BpejjHOCT npH 20-30% -hum pacTBOpn- 
Ma. 

EjieKTponpoBOJj,JBHBOCT je jjo6ap noKa3aTejt 
GoTaHH^Kor nopeKJia Mejja. ,H,aHac ce yrBprjyje 
npn pyTHHCKHM KOHTpojiaMa Mejja yMecTO cajj,p- 
acaja nenejia. OBa MepeH>a 3aBHce ojj, cajipxaja 
nenejia h KHcejiHHa y Mejjy; iuto je Behn h>hxob 
cajjpacaj, Benaje ejieTponpoBOJj,Ji>HBOCT. IIoctojh 
jiHHeapHa 3aBHCHOCT H3Mer)y cajjpacaja nenejia h 
ejieKTponpBOJTJbHBocTn: C = 0.14 + l,74Arjj,eje 
cjioBHMa npencTaBJteHO C - ejieKTponpoBOJj,JLH- 
boct H3paxeHor y MHJiHCueMeHc.uM 1 A - canp- 
acaj nenejia y r Ha lOOr. 

MepeH>e npoBOJj,JLHBOCTH je jejTHOCTaBHa h 
6p3a MeTOJja h He 3axTeBa CKynoueHy anapaTypy. 
HapoHHTO ce kophcth 3a pa3JiHKOBaH>e ubcthot 

Ta6ena 6p.2 Bpeduocmu 3a eneKmponpoeo- 
d/bueocm npeMa Codex start 



.',..:■..■ ,i , .■!.■..,,,, .,,.,.::■ 1 j BpCTfl Uf/fifi 




Lisernw um ft 


M*A/WKDftBg Of KKTiHOB IMft 




i «jnofloaoH>oiJjweKi*. 



450 



n^eAap. &p. to. 9003. 



3 



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1 



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IJT^^ 



a) 



6) 



u, 



Cjiukq 6p 5. EjieKmpoAumcKe henuje 



Me/ia h MejjJbHKOBiia, Kao h 3a KapaKTepH3anHjy 

MOHO(J)JIOpaJIHHX MejjpBa. 

EjieKTponpoBoaJBHBOCT je npnxBaneHa Kao 
KpHTepHJyM 3a oneH>HBaH>e KBajiHTeTa Me/ia y 
OKBHpy eBponcKHX CTaHJiapJia peBH3njoM 2001. 
roa. (Revised Codex Standard for Honey - Codex 
stan 12-1981, rev.l (1987), rev.2 (2001) 

CneiiHCJDHMHa npoBO/iJbHBOCT Mejja h TeKynn- 
Ha Bprnn ce pejjpBHO HaH3MeHHHHOM CTpyjoM. 
Pa3Jior TOMe je HanoH nojiHMepH3annje ejieKTpo- 
jja, kojh cnpenaBa jja ce OTnop TaKBnx MaTepnja 
ojjpejiH HajejiHOCTaBaH HaHHH Kao niToje to mo- 
ryfte kojj, MeTajmnx npoBOJJHHKa. nojiapH3aHnja 
3aBHcn ojj, CMepa CTpyje, na ce H>eHH yraHajn mo- 
ry totobo H36enn aKO ce ynoTpe6n HansMeHH^Ha 
CTpyja ojj BHine CTOTHHa Hz. npn MaH>HM 3axTe- 
BHMa y noniejiy Ta^HOCTH Moxe /ra 3ajjoBOJbn h 
(J)peKBeHUHJa rpancKe Mpe^ce ojj 50Hz. 

CTpyja ce vbo/jh y TeKynnHy h MaTepnjy npe- 
ko ejieKTpo/ja Koje cy o6hhho ojj, njiaTHHe, 36or 
H>eHe OTnopHOCTH npoTHB xeMHJCKHX peaKinija. 
noBpniHHa h pa3MaK ejieKTpo/ja o^a6npajy ce 
npeMa 6ojloj hjih jiouihjoj npoBojutHBOCTH Ma- 
Tepnja 3a ncnnTHBan>e. EjieKTpo/je 3a cyneraHne 
pejiaTHBHO Majie npoBojutHBOCTH cy CMeniTeHe 
6jin:>Ke jejjHa jipyroj, Kao kojj, ejieTpojinTCKor cy- 
na npnKa3aHor Ha cjinnn... 

Kofl HeKHX BapnjaHTH cyncTaHna ce yjiHBa y 
cyn (a) a kojj, npyrnx cyn ca ejiKTpo/jaMa ce ypa- 
tta y cyncTamiy (6, n). 

Mepeite OTnopa TeKynnHa o6hhho ce pajjn 
BncTOHOBnM moctom kojh ce Hanaja Han3MeHHH- 
hom CTpyjoM H3 ocuHJiaTopa hjih Mpeace. Cnenn- 

(j)HHHH OTnop (p) HJIH CneUH^HHHa npOBOJJJBH- 

boct (x) TeKynnHa 6hjio 6h Hajje/j,HOCTaBHnje on- 
pejiHTn MepeH>eM OTnopa CTy6a TeKynnHe TaHHO 
o/jpeljeHe nyacHHe h npeceKa. Tajia 6n Baxnojefl- 

HOCTaBHHH3pa3: 

P = p I q-' = 1 (xq)' 1 ojj,hocho 
X = L(qR)-i =AR-i 

Ko/j yo6nnajeHnx BapnjaHTH ejieKrpojiHT- 
ckhx hejiHJa, Kao uito cy noKa3aHe Ha cjihhh, 



36or HexoMoreHOCTH nojta He Moxe 6hth tobo- 
pa o HeKHM oupe^eHHM H3HOCHMa / h q ery6a Te- 
KynnHa. MefjyTHM, h kojj h>hx he nocTojaTH 
mbpct ojjhoc H3Merjy OTnopa R n npoBojutHBOCTH 
c, ojjhocho CBaKa TaKBa hejinja HMahe ojjpeljeHy 
KOHCTaHTy A. Ta KOHcraHTa ce Mo:ace eKcnepn- 
MeHTajiHO onpe/jHTH aKO ce H3Mepn OTnop R he- 
jinje HanyH>eH cyncTaHnoM (y HauieM cjiynajy 
eTajioH Mejia) no3HaTe cnenn^n^He npoBojjJtn- 
bocth. OBaj nocTynaK je nojejj,HOCTaBJteH jjhth- 
TaJlHHM HHCTpyMeHTOM kojh ojiaKuiaBa VTBpnn- 

BaH>e H HHTaH.e BpeJJHOCTH eJIKTponpOBOflJBHBO- 
CTH. 

OBaj KpHTepnjyM npeMa HaJHOBHJHM eBpon- 
ckhm CTaHJjapjj,HMa 3aMeH>yje ,npcajj,ainH>e onpe- 
JjHBajte nenejia Kao jenaH ojj, nocTynaKa 3a aHa- 
jiH3y Mejia. Hnje yHeT y TpeHyTHO Ba^cehn npa- 
bhjihhk y Hauioj 3eMJbn, na ce nocTynaK npnKa- 
3aH OBne Mo^ce CMaTpaTH ajrrepHaTHBHOM MeTO- 
flOM y OBOM TpeHyTKy. 

HAJHEUITiH y3POD;H BPEH>A H 
KBAPEH>A MEAA 

Meji ce Hajnemhe KBapn 36or cyBHniHe BJiare 
y npocTopnjn y kojoj ce HyBa. Bpen>e Mena y3po- 
Kyjy pa3He Bpcre ntHBHiia Koje ,nojia3e y Men He- 
nocpe^HO H3 Ba3Jjyxa hjih ce npeHoce nocyrjeM n 
npyrHM npn6opoM. BpeH>y Mejj,a norojryje cvbh- 
niHa BOJja n npeBncoKa TeMnepaTypa npocTopnje 
y kojoj ce Men ^yBa. HajnorojjHnjoM TeMnepaTy- 
poM 3a BpeH.e Me^a CMaTpa ce HHTepBaji 15-19°C, 
jjok ce npn TeMnepaTypn ncnon 10°C Mo^ce ^yBa- 
th n Jjyace BpeMe a Jia He jjorje jjo BpeH>a h KBape- 
H>a. 

Mcto TaKO Me/i, y cahy Moace jja ce VKncejin 
aKO ra jjp^chmo y BJia^cHHM npocTopnjaMa, Te Ta- 
KaB Men Jjo6nja KHceo yKyc. no^eTaK BpeH>a Me- 
jja Moxe jja ce 3aycTaBH aKO Men 3arpejeMO Ha 
TeMnepaTypn 65°C h MeuiaMO 30 MHHyra, a 3a- 
thm ra 6p30 oxjiajjHMO n Ha Taj Ha^HH y6jia^cnMO 
noBehaH>e XMO-a. 



m£Mi? t Sp. 10. 5003, 



451 



nPEBO/J 



Y3rOJ nHEJIA M 
fEHETMKA Y EBPOnil 



Aymopu: Maptco Jlodecauu u Cecunuja Kocma 
Ilpeeod: Tamjana Kpyuufi 



Oho iiito cjiejinje npenrcejj o y3rojy nnejia 
y EBponH, a HanncaH je 3a LLTecry eBpon- 
CKy KOH(J)epeHUHJy "IiHejie 6e3 rpaHHiia" 
Kojy je opraHH30Bajia IBRA a Koja je ojip^caHa y 
Kap^H(J)y, EHrjiecKa, y jyjiy 2002. EBponcKH 
HCTpa^cHBaHKH npojexaT "B.A.B.E." (BHopa3HO- 
jihkoct y Anne h nnejiapcTBy y EBponn) ce hcko- 
jihko roflHHa (J)OKycHpao Ha TaKBe TeMe h mhc- 
jihjio ce ,11a 6h KpaTaK npenie/j, TpeHyTHor CTaH>a 
y3roja nnejia y pasjiH^HTHM eBponcKHM 3eMJbaMa 
6ho KopwcTaH y njiaHHpaH>y h nponeH>HBaH>y 
6yzryhHX HCTpa^cHBa^KHX nporpaMa. HhcJdop- 
MaiiHJa 3a CBaKy 3eMJbyje jjoGnjeHa H3 ynHTHHKa 
kojh cy ca^p^caBajiH TeMe o y3rojy nnejia a kojh 
cy nocjiaTH HauHOHajiHHM npejjcTaBHHnnMa 
rjraBHHX HHCTHTyuHJa 3a y3roj iraejia (ueHTpHMa 
3a y3roj niejia, HauHOHajiHHM ynpyaceitHMa y3ra- 
JHBa^a n^ejia, HHCTHTyTHMa 3a anHKyjiTypy) y 
pasjiH^HTHM eBponcKHM 3eMJbaMa. 

riirraiba y Be3H y3roja iraejia 

OjuiyHHJiH cmo jja npncTynHMo pa3Bojy npo- 
(J)ecHOHajiHor y3roja MaTHiia y eBponcKHM 
3eMJi>aMa pa3MaTpajynn 6poj y3raJHBa*ia MaTHua, 
6poj KOMepHHOHajiHO y3rojeHHX MaTHiia 
rojiHimte, pacnoH yB03a-H3B03a, ynoTpeGy 
TexHHKa oceMeH>HBan>a h CTaHHiia 3a napeite, 
npHcycTBO perncTapa 3a y3raJHBane, pacy hjih 
pace Koje cy ojjaSpaHe 3a y3roj h pacnoH Haji- 
rjiejiaH>a cejieKHHJe h y3roja or CTpaHe HHCTHTy- 
HHJa hjih acoHHJaHHJa. IiH^opMauHJe Koje ce 
ojiHoce Ha CBaKy on 3eMajba or kojhx cmo npHM- 
hjih nojiaTKe -(24 ynHTa or 27 kojh cy nocjiaTH) - 
cy JiaTe y Ta6ejiaMa 1 h 2 h noKa3yjy jja ce 
aKTHBHOCT y3roja nnejia mnpoM EBpone pa3BH- 
jajia Ha pa3JiHHHTe Ha^HHe. 

IIoJiHTMKa yiiajaiba 

Ha npnpojjHy pacno;iejiy nonyjiaunja 
mcjiohochhx iraejia y EBponn (cjiHKa 1) je 
036hjlho yrHuajia JtyjjcKa aKTHBHOCT. JbyzjH cy 
npeHOCHJiH h nponarnpajiH mnpoM EBpone pace 
MeuoHOCHHX nnejia Koje HHcy JipMane. y MHorHM 
jjejioBHMa EBpone nonyjiannje ROMahmx 
MeuoHOCHHX nnejia h JioKajiHH eKOTHnoBH ce 
CMaTpajy H3yMpjiHM. y BeriHHH 3eMajta yB03 paca 



Koje HHcy ROMahe je BpmeH ca UHJteM jj;a ce 
CTBOpe xhSphuh, noce6HO y ceBepHoj EBponn. 
Pace Koje cy ce HajnHTeH3HBHHJe ojjrajajie 36or 
BHCOKe npoH3BojiH>e Me^a h MnpHone cy Apis 
mellifera carnica i A.m ligustica; OBOje npoH3Bejro 
rbq noBe3aHe nocjiejjHiie: npBO, Ra cy ce OBe JiBe 
pace yB03HJie y 3eMJbe y KojnMa OHe npBo6nTHO 
HHcy 6njie npncyTHe; Jipyro, Ra ce y3roj nnejia 
BHine pa3BHO y ohhm 3eMJbaMa H3 kojhx OBe pace 
noTH^y (TaKorje y ohhm 3eMJtaMa y KojnMa cy OHe 
CKopo 3aMeHHJie opnraHajiHy pacy). Obo je 
o^Hrjie^HO H3 6poja h npo(J)ecnoHajiH3Ma y3rajn- 
Ba^a n^ejia (h 6poja npon3Be/jeHHX MaTHiia) h H3 
opraHH3aunje ynpyacei-ba ysraJHBana nnejia. 
Tokom npouiJior BeKa pasjiH^HTe nojiHTHKe y3ra- 
jaita cy ce pa3BHJie Bpuienn pa3JiHHHTe yrauaje 
Ha jjoMane nonyjiannje Me/ipHOCHe nnejie (BHJjeTH 
ojjejbaK 1). 

O^ejbaK 1 

TIojiumuKa (y32ajaH>a) 

- yBorjerte nojiBpcTa BpcTa Koje HHcy jioMane 
hjih npHBaTHOM HHHUHJaTHBOM hjih npaneiteM 
nporpaMa y3rajaH>a npoH3Bo;i,H>e xnSpHJia 
(OpaHuycKa, riojbCKa); OBa BpcTa nojiHTHKe ce 
pa3BHJia y BetiHHH eBponcKnx 3eMajta y KojnMa 
hh A.m. carnica hh A.m.ligustica HHcy JipMane 
pace. 

- KoHTpOJIHCaHH H KOOp/IHHHpaHH y3rOJHH 

nporpaMH y OKBHpy JioMannx nojjBpcTa, ca uor- 
CTHnajeM 3a y3rajan>e xnibajja MaTHiia Koje ce 
jio6HJajy ojj cejieKTOBaHHX MaJKH (3eMJbe nocTO- 
j6HHe BpcTa ligustica h carnica). 

- 3aMeH>HBaH>e jjoMane pace ( y HeMa^Koj, Jia 
6h ce H36erjia xH6pH£H3an,HJa H3MeI)y JjoMane 
mellifere h yBe3eHe carnice). 

yranaj (Ha nonyjianHJy JipMahe Me/joHOCHe 
nnejie) 

- EKCTeH3HBHa XH6pHflH3aUHJa H3MeI)y HeKO- 

jihko paca, (})0pMHpajyhH HeKOHTpojincaHe h 
MemaHe nonyjianiije (ca jioiuhm cnopejjHHM 
e<})eKTHMa arpecHBHOCTH) r^e je no6ojbuiaH>e 
y3roja BeoMa TeniKO nocrnfiH 

- 0/ip2caBaH>e h no6ojbinaH)e pace, ajin pH3HK 
or ry6HTKa reHeTCKe pa3HOBpcHOCTH y OKBHpy 
jjoMane nonyjiannje 



452 



n^^AAP, «p. 10, 5005. 



- Pm3mk or M3yMMpai-faa nonyjiauMJe ,/jOMahe 
Me^OHOCHe nqejie ca ry6nTKOM reHoranoBa kojm 
cy a/ianTMpaHM Ha jioxajiHe ycjiOBe. 

Pace \n6pn;ui m reiieTCKa pa jhobpchoct 

y MHorMM 3eMJtaMa, pace n^ejia Koje ce pa3- 
jiMKyjy ojx ^OMahe ce yB03e jxa 6m ce npOM3Bejie 
xM6pn,aHe MaTMue Koje he otjiopMMTM jjpyuiTBa 
Koja jjajy bmcokc npMHOce Mejja, 36or no6po no3- 
HaTMx reHeTCKMx KapaKTepMCTMKa xeTep03e 
(xnQpMjma CHara). Ajim, #OKa3ajio ce 4a xm6pmjjm 
yonuiTeHO roBOpenn HMcy noxejbHM 36or Hera- 
tmbhmx, HexejteHMx ecJ)eKaTa (yrjiaBHOM arpe- 
cmbhoct m npeBejiMKa ckjiohoct Ka pojen>y) m 
rySMTaK npo/iyKTMBHe npe/iHOCTM nocjie npBe 
reHepauHJe (cjiMKa 2). /Jajbe, noceSHa CTpaTeraja 
cnapMBai-ba Me^OHOCHe n^ejie jjaje pe3yjiTaT y 
HeKOHTpojiMcaHOM yBof)eH>y xm6pmjjhmx reHa y 
OKOJiMHy (cpejjMHy). y MHorMM 3eMJbaMa y kojm- 
Ma xM6pMHM3auMJa npencTaBJta pM3MK mjim je Beh 
npo6jieM, jjaHac ce Bpiue KOH3epBaunoHe meivie; y 
HeKMM cjiynajeBMMa cy opraHM30BaHe HeHTpajmo 
(xao y AycTpMJM 3a A.m carnicu m y nojbCKOJ 3a 
A.m.melliferu), ca inubeM jxa. ce iiohobo ycTaHOBe 
HOMahe pace nnejia Koje cy ce Haj6ojte a^anTM- 
pajie, y jjyropOHHOM BpeMeHCKOM nepnony, Ha 
jioxajiHy cpe^MHy. JX& 6m ce jiojxcrro y30pax 
nnejia, ca M3BecHMM CTeneHOM BepOBaTHOCTM, 
no3HaTOj pacM, mjim jxb. 6m ce KOHTpojiMcajia 
4MCT0Ta pace, reHeTCKa pa3HOJiMKOCT A.mellifere 
je npoyiaBaHa Ha pa3JiMHMTMM HMBOMMa 
yKJbyHyjyhM MOp(J)OJiouiKe, 6MOxeMMJCKe m DNA 



1 % '- - - 




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•>:?* -r*£ 


H^k 


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A fv£ \ 


-' _ " j — ""^.^ ** ^H 




2- 


*vr ' 


^^— 




^ «y^_^^ 


< 4 


*«** 


Tj/-S jk^. 


WULtftllKTl. 







KapaKTepa, Kao iuto cy ziyxMHa pMJiMMe, 6oja Ha 
HpyroM TeprMTy, uiMpMHa jacry^Mha (tomentum, 
jiaTMHCKM - jacTyK, rpyna /yia^Mua Koja ce cacTO- 
jm M3 jjyxMx, MeKMx m 3aMpmeHMx juisnmxa. 36m- 
jeHMx Ha noBpuiMHM, npMM. npeB.), m yrjiOBM kojm 
ce <})opMMpajy y bchckom CKJiony KpMJia. To je 
Hajyo6M L iajeHMJM m HajnpocTMJM Ha^MH na ce 
HanpaBM pa3JiMKa Mejy pacaivta m na ce npMCTynM 

XM6pM/lM3aUMJM, M MO^Ke JX& MCKOpMCTM BCJ1MKM 

6poj no/iaTaKa kojm cy npMKynjtaHM tokom 
MHoro rojjMHa Mepen.a. Hanpe/iaK, noce6HO y 
MOp(J)OMeTpMUM KpMJia, ce jaBMO 3axBajbyjyllM 
KOMnjyTepCKMM CMCTeMMMa jiMKOBa. Pa3BMJeH je 
cneuMJajiM30BaH cotJ)TBep, "Beewings" 



CnuKa 1. PenuMa je odeAeofcena 

HaUiUOHaima pacnpocmpatbetiocm paca Alls 

me II if e re y Eeponu, doK cnoea (Ca-caucasi- 

ca, Cr-carnica, l-iberica, L-ligustica, M-mellif- 

era, Ma-macedonica) nohcasyjy cadauitby 

pacnpocmpathenocm paca Apis mellifere Koje 

ce Kopucme y KOMepuujaiiHUM y3eajatby. 

Tawcacme Jiimuje npedcmaejbajy ceeepny 

rpanuu^y nne/iapehba 

- Mop(J)OMeTpMKa yKJby^yje MeTOne 3a 

T\iepeH>e m/mJ1M KJiaCM(j)MKaHMJy pa3JlMHMTMX 







;*. 



Gr\ 



IQO' 



II L 



sa 1 






Ft ■ IS A - 15 



• 13 



Cjiwca 2. rope: upou3eodtha xudpuda 

pace Apis mellifere carnicay 4 eenepai^uje 

Koje cnede; ucnod: npodyKmuenocm 3 

xudpuda noHeemu od A.m. mellifere 

(P- UHUUiUJaiiHa ce/ieKmoeana Jiunuja unu 

paca; HI wiu Fl-npea eenepau^uja 

xudpuda; H2 wiu F2, H3 unu F3-dpyea u 

mpeha FeHepai^uja xudpuda). Y 06a 

cnynaja (pa3/iuHume epcme xudpuda, 

pasjiunume jiOKaujije) nad 

npodyKmueuocmu ucnod cpedn>e 

epednocmu nnenuhbaKa (manicacma 

AUHUja) je onuzjiedau, uaKO cy uajdo/ba 

dpyuimsa ce/ieKmoeana u penpodyKoeaua 

(Pymep, 1988) 



RSeAAP, 9p. 10, 5003, 



453 



("riHejiHH>a KpHJia", cjiHKa 3), Ha Hhcthtyty 3a 
anHKyjiTypy y flojiy, y HeuiKoj Peny6jinnn, ;ia 6h 
ce OMoryhHJio 6p30 h jjeTajtHO Mepen>e (3a hcko- 
jihko MHHyTa 30 3HaKOBa-KapaKTepa no Kpnny ce 
Moace H3MepHTH ynoTpeGoM OBor cnereMa). 

- Pa3HOBpcHOCT y eii3HMMMa (cHCTeMH reH- 
eH3HM). MH(J)opMaiiHJa Kojaje ,no6HJeHa H3 cryjjH- 
je H3BecHor 6poja nojiHMOp(})HHX ch3hmckhx chc- 
TeMa Hy^H MorynHOCT KapaKTepHcaita 
pa3JiHHHTHX nonyjiaiiHJa yHyTap BpcTa. 
HaJHHTepecaHTHHJa MecTa 3a pa3JiHKOBaH>e nqn- 
BpcTa A.Mellifere cy: esteraza-6 (est-6) malate 
dehdrogenase-1 (mdh-I); esteraza-3 (est-3). 

- Pa3HOJiHKOCT DNA. YBorjeite TexHHKe 
jiaHHaHe peaKnnje nojiHMepH3auHJe (PCR) jjajia 
je MorynHOCT ncnnTHBaita o^a6paHHX upTa 
reHeTH^Ke DNA, or kojhx cy Heice 3HanaJHe 3a 
TaKCOHOMCKa HCTpaacHBaH>a: 

MHTOxoHnpHJaima DNA (mtDNA) - npeHocn 
ce caMO npeKO MaJKe (npeico MHTOxoHflpnje Koja 
je npncyraa y jaJHC-j ftejiHJH), Koja OMorynaBa 
HCKJbyHHBaH>e JipnpHHOca MyacjaKa y reHeTHHKHM 
npoynaBaHjHMa; c Jipyre CTpaHe, HHJe Moryne 

H/ieHTH(J)HKOBaTH JIHHHJy O^HHCTBa pajiHJiHna, 

iiito CMaH>yje npaKTHHHy ynoTpe6y OBe 
TexHOJioraje 3a y3raJHBane niejia. 

HyKiieapHa DNA - nojiHMop<})H3aM kojh ce 
BH#H y H>eHoj CTpyKTypn je #03bojiho 
HCTpaacHBaite pa3JiHHHTHX HHBoa reHeTCKe 
pa3HOBpcHOCTH kojj, n*iejia. Cjie/ipBH hckojihko 
HyKJieoiw kojh ce BeoMa MHoro noHaBJbajy, a 
30By ce MHKpocaTejiHTH, ce Mory noja^aTH. 
AHajTH3HpajynH OBe 30He, Mory ce hjxchth^hko- 
BaTH pasjin^HTe JiHHHJe OHHHCTBa Koje cy 
npHcyrae yHyrap jjpyniTBa mcjiohochhx nnejia. 
E(})HKacHOCT MHKpocaTejiHTa Kao reHeTCKHX 
Mapxepa (o6ejieacHBaHa) OTBapa BpaTa mhothm 
npHMeHaMa, Kao iiito cy jioKajiH3auHJa cneun- 




Cjiukq 3. Cocpiueep MoptpoMempuKa 

KpuAa "Beewing" (TlHenuibe Kpuno) 

Koopduuame 19 Kpeuux 3amoica ce 6p30 

odpefyyjy ceneKmoeaweM MumeM u 

kaukom. Ha oeaj hqhuh ce Mepu 30 

pa3JiuHumux KapaianepucmuKa Koje ce 

do6ujajy U3 eencKoz CKJiona Kpujia 



<j)HHHor cerMeHTa xpoM030Ma hjih ojjperjHBatfce 
reHa kojh cy BaacHH y KOHTpojincaity jjpynrTBeHe 
(couHjajiHe) aKTHBHOCTH jipyuiTBa. 

3aKOH h peryjiauiija y EU 

yBor)eH>e paca Koje HHcy JipMane ce He Moace 
cnpe^iHTH hh yje/iHoj 3cmjlh EBponcKe yHHJe: 

- ^HpeKTHBa CaBeTa EBponcKe YHHJe 
(91/174/CEE) Koja nocTaBJba 300-TexHHHKe h 
reHeTH^Ke ycjioBe y KojHMa ce )KHBOTHH>e Mory 
KOMepmijajiH30BaTH, HaBojiH y HJiaHy 2 na 
"apacaBe HJiaHHiie Tpe6a na npe#y3My Mepe TaKO 
^a ce KOMepHiijajiH3aiiHJa atHBOTHita ca ne/jnrpe- 
om, yKibytryjynH cnepMy, jajHHKe h eM6pnoHe He 

CMe 3a6paHHTH, OrpaHHHHTH HJIH OMeTaTH H3 300- 

TexHH^KHX hjih reHeTHHKHX pa3Jiora". 

- Ybo3 A.Mellifere ce TaKorje MoacejaBHTH H3 
Tpehe 3eMJbe cajenHHOM o6aBe30M m ce noBHHy- 
je caHHTapHHM h 6npoKpaTCKHM CTaii/iapJiHMa. 

O^JiyKa 2000/462/CE Koja ce rane caHHTapHe 
cepTH(})HKaLiHJe 3a yB03 nnejia/KoinHnna Koje 
Bo^e nopeKJio H3 Tpene 3eMJbe, y ^Jiany 1 HaBOJjn 
jja "flpacase HJiaHHue ayTopH3yjy yB03 nnejia 
(Apis mellifera) / KoiHHHua H3 Tpehe 3eMJbe caMO 
aKO cy OHe y denary ca ycjioBHMa kojh cy 
HeonxojjHH jja ce ,no6HJe caHHTapHH cepTH(J)HKaT 
h aKO hx npaTH noceSaH o6pa3aii". CTora ojj, aco- 
nnjauHJa h HHCTHTyuHJa Koje ce 6aBe annicyjiTyp- 

OM 3aBHCH HH(J)OpMHCaHOCT n^eJiapa O pH3HHHMa 

HeKOHTpojiHcaHor yB03a paca Koje HHcy jjoMahe, 
Kao HiTO cy XH6pHJiH3aHHJa h CMaH>eH>e reHeTCKe 
pa3HOBpcHOCTH yHyTap jjoMahe nonyjiaunje 
Me^oHOCHHX nnejia. Ajih, bpihh ce jjocTa yB03HHX 

H H3B03HHX aKTHBHOCTH, BehHHOM Merjy eBpon- 

ckhm 3eMJbaMa (y KojHMa ce npoH3BojiH oko nojia 
MHJiHOHa MaTHita rojjHiHH>e), a to yiatyHyje 
AMepHKy h AycTpajiHJy. 3eMjbe y KojHMa HeMa 
y3rajan>a y bcjihkoj pa3Mepn (BehHHOM y 3eMJba- 
Ma y KojHMa je A.M. Mellifera JipMaha BpcTa) 
yB03e XHJba^e Maraua ro^HiHH>e; jjok ce H3B03 
THHe 3eMajba A.M.Carnice h HTajinje, Koje 
H3B03e AM.Ligusticu iunpoM CBeTa (cjiHKa 4). 

CeneKUHJa h nporpaiviii y3roja 

riojia3Ha Ta^Ka 6hjio kot nporpaMa y3rajaH>a 
je npoueHa nocTojeher reHeTCKor MaTepnjajia. 
Obo je je^HOCTaBaH, ajiH ochobhh KopaK. 
PerncTpn ysraJHBa^ia n*iejia h acounjauHJe Hyae 
cbojhm HJiaHOBHMa CTaHJjap^He no^aTKe ca 
pe3yjiTaTHMa jja 6h ce npoueHHJie ojja6paHe 
KapaKTepncTHKe. yonuiTeHO roBoperiH, y3rajn- 
Bann nnejia 6h bojicjih ^a no6ojbuiajy JipyniTBa 
3a MHoro KapaKTepHCTHKa y hcto BpeMe, ajiH 
pe3yjiTaTH TaKBe CTpaTernje 3aBHce ojj reHeTHKe 
acejbeHe KapaKTepncTHKe. J\a ce jjo6HJe 3HaHaJHO 
no6ojbiiiaH>e 6poja KapaKTepHCTHKa kojh ce y 
hcto BpeMe Moace CTaBHTH nojx cejieKUHJy je 
npHJiHHHO orpaHH^eH h 3axTeBa ctothhc 
npyuiTaBa CBaKe reHepauHJe. BeriHHa nporpaMa 
cejieKHHJe kophcth o^HHCKe meMe (meMe 
o^HHCTBa) y KojHMa je H36op apyniTaBa 6a3npaH 



454 



nMCAdP, 5p. 10, ^003. 




femclta 



Cjiwca 4. yeo3-u3eo3 Mamui^ay u ean Eepone 

edece eoduuifbe npou3eede npetco 500. 000 

Mamui^a. fl,e6ene nunuje 03Hanaeajy xujbade 

Mamui^a, a mawce Aunuje cmomune 

Ha HyMepn^KOM HHJxeKcy kojh y3HMa y o63Hp h 

HH^HBHJiyaJIHe H nOpOJIHHHe BpeJIHOCTH (kom6h- 

HOBaHa cejieKUHJa) (cjiHKa 6). IlonyjiauHJa Koja 
Tpe6a jja ce cejiejcryje Moxe ce CTpyKTyHpaTH 
(o(})opmhth) y rpynaivia ceciapa h 3a y3ajaMHe 
(pennnpoHHe) KOMSHHaunje uieMe JiHHHJCKor 
y3rajan>a, y KOJHMa cy no/iJiHHHJe cneiiHJajiH30- 
BaHe y npoH3BojjH>H hjih TpyroBa-MaJKH hjih 
hepKH-MaTHua, h y uieMe y3rajaH>a y KOJHMa lie 
cejieKTOBaHO jipyniTBO o6e36e/iHTH MaTHije h 
TpyTOBe kojh cy Heonxo/iHH 3a jip6HJaH>e cjiejjehe 
reHepaiiHJe. IIpejjcejieKnHJa Koja ce cnpoBOHH y 
npBoj tojxkhu XHBOTa MaTHue (cjiHKa 7) Moxe Ra 
CMan>H nonyjiaiiHJy cejieKUHJe 3a 30-40% THMe 
OMoryhaBajyRH inaHcy jja ce cnpoBe/jy ocTajie 
BpcTe HcnHTHBaita. XnrHJeHCKO noHaniaite, Ha 
npHMep, je HopMajmo yKJbyHeHO y nporpaMe 
KOMepuHJajiHe cejieKUHJe y AMepnnn h 
ApreHTHHH. FberoBa yjiora y npeBeHHHJH 
6ojiecTH h CBe Belioj cbcchocth ojj pH3HKa kojh cy 
noBe3aHH ca ynoTpeSoM aHTHSnoTHKa je cajja 
y6e/ybHBoa 3a MHoro eBponcKHX ysraJHBa^a Jia je 
cxBaTe Kao CTaHjiapjiHy KapaKTepHCTHKy Koja ce 
neHH (Bpczmyje). rtpouenypa npoueHe XHrnjeH- 
CKor noHainaH>aje Man>e hjih BHine CTaH£apjiH30- 
BaHa "aHajiH30M Jierjia Koje je ySnjeHO 3aM- 
p3aBaH>eM" yniaBHOM ynoTpe6oM Termor a30Ta. 
JIpyniTBa cy npouetteHa Kao XHrnjeHCKa hjih 
Ka^a je y6njeHO Jierjio KOMnjieTHO yicnoH>eHO y 
poxy or 48 caTH (AiviepHKa) hjih Kaaa JE HAJ- 
MAEbE 80% y6njeHor Jierjia yKJioH>eHO y poxy 
or 24 caTa (ApreHTHHa). 

KoHTpojia ci lapmtai i>a 

Hh jejjaH cejieKHHOHH nporpaM ce He Moate 
cnpoBecTH 6e3 Hexe BpcTe KOHTpojie cnapHBan>a. 
Obo ce Moace nocTHnn ynoTpe6oM CTaHHna 3a 
napen>e h/hjih HHCTpyMeHTajiHHM oce- 
MeH>HBaH>eM. y hckhm 3eMJtaMa CTaHHne 3a 
napeH>e cy nocTajie HHCTHTyunje h 3auiTHheHe cy 
3aKOHOM (Hnp. y AycTpHJH h hckhm (J)eJxepajiHHM 



3eMJi>aMa y HeMaHKOj), y ocTajiHM, acouHJauHJe 
hjih HHCTHTyunje oupxaBajy CTaHHue 3a napeite 
Koje Mory kophcthth h>hxobh ^JiaHOB^a y HeKHM 
cy nocTaBJteHe npHBaTHOM HHHHHJaTHBOM noje- 
Hhhhx nnejiapa. Gramme 3a napetbe Tpe6a jja 
6yny H30JioBaHe ihto je Moryne BHine or hckoh- 
TpojiHcaHHX nHejiHH>aKa, Ra 6h pe3yjiTaTH 6hjih 
MaKCHMajiHH. Y3rojeHe MaTHue ce Mory jjara hjih 
npo/iaTH cycejjHHM nnejiapHMa. TaKorje je 
HeonxojjHO Ra ce OKOJiHHa 3a cnapHBan>e 3acHTH 
(ncnyHH) cejieKTHBHHM TpyTOBHMa (15. 000 - 20. 
000 TpyTOBa 3a CBaicnx 100 Heorniorjemix MaTHna) 
rsl ce yHHHH MHHHMajiHH pH3HK cnapHBaita 
Heno3HaTHX TpyTOBa ca cejieKTHBHHM MaTHnaMa. 
CaBeTyje ce Ra ce Kopncre TpyTOBH kojh cy jto6h- 
jeHH ojj npnpo/iHO cnapemix nepKH MaJKH Koje cy 
ojiaSpaHe 3a y3roj TpyTOBa (cjiHKa 9), jep lie obh 
TpyTOBH BepHO penpojjyKOBaTH reHeTCKe KapaK- 
TepncTHKe "6aKe" MaTime. HHCTpyMeHTajiHO 
oceMeH>aBaH>e OMorynaBa KOMnjieTHy KOHTpojiy 
KaR cnapHBaH>eM, ajiH BeoMa BeuiTa h jjyroTpaJHa 
TexHHKa Koja je noTpe6Ha, Kao h CKyrai HHcrpy- 
MeHTH o6ecxpa6pyjy noje/iHHaHHe nnejiape Ra 
KopncTe OBaj MeToa. y CTBapn, y 3eMJbaMa y 
KOJHMa ce ycaBpuiaBa OBa TexHHKa (3eMjbe ca 
jaKOM TpajjHHHJOM onroja ^HCTe pace hjih TaMO 
me nocTOJH SHa^aJHa npoH3BO£H>a xnGpHua), 
HHCTpyMeHTajiHO oceMeH>aBaH>e ce cnpoBO/ni Ha 
npo(J)ecHOHajiaH HaHHH hjih y cneuHJajiH30BaHHM 
jia6opaTopnjaMa Koje npyacajy ycjiyre onrajn- 
Ba^HMa (Hnp y HeniKoj Peny6jiHHH, HeManKoj h 
llojbCKOj), hjih y noce6HHM HHCTHTyUHJaMa 
cneuHJajiH30BaHHM 3a HCTpaacHBaH>e (Hnp 
OnHCKa h HTajiHJa). no/xauH kojh cy Jxp6HJeHH H3 
aHKeTa (Ta6ejia 1) noKasyjy jxaje nponeHaT 
HHCTpyMeHTajiHO oceMeH>eHHX MaTHua, y nejiHHH 
BeoMa HH3aK uinpoM EBpone, ca H3yseTKOM 
llojbCKe, me je 40% MaTHna Koje cy npoH3Bejin 



l3q = f 1 B»a 


lluponirmj 
rc.icKiiMJJi y 

. M.lJlHMiiMii 




" 




tart** 


u 


3 


_ 


Ei B 


H3 


Tpyni: 
ceciapa 




Lji.t * ,_^ t lw t ]iWm0 limi g^^^- 


WHjieKf 




^-^^^^^ 


CCJICKllHJ? 




<j ■i^^^*^-» r**"^ 


^^^V flpyillTBil 




* brtKixm r&x imwwrl ■ fflJ 1 tit* ' Lrt^ * ilfll "* 


!=&pcAHLX^r 




flpyiii. 1 i 




ape;(i[oeT 




JIHHUJL' A 



Caukci 6. IIIeMa penpodyKufouje y kojoj 

Macoeny cejieKi^ujy Haj6ojbux dpyuimaea 

npamu nopodunna ceneKu.uja (ceaKO cejieic- 

moeano dpyiumeo ce Kopucmu da ce npomee- 

dy zpyne cecmapa Mamui^a) 



rmeAAP, sp. 10, $003 



455 



UPECEJIEKUHOHH nOAAUM 




1 


flpyui.2 


Hpyui.3 


Hpyttt.4 


flpyirj.5 


Apyiu.6 


flpyiu.7 


flpyin... 


CnocoBHocr 3a 

3KKBOT 


4 


5 


2 


4 


5 


4 


3 




FIhtomoct 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


2 




npojiehua MjrpaMHia 


5 


5 


4 


3 


5 


5 


4 




EojtecTH 

















Kpe4Ho 
JTerjid 







PojeHie 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


3 




yjcynaj* pesyaxaT 


19 


19 


16 


16 


20 


17 


12 




^PyiUTBA KOJA CY CEJIEKTOBAHA: 1,2,4,5... 



Caukci 7. npeceneKi^uoHa jcapma: cyMupawe pesyjtmama koju cy dodejbenu ceaKoj KapciKmepucmu- 

u,u, 3a ceaKO dpymmeo daje uudeKC Kojuje o6jeKmueaH nanuu npou.ehbueawa u ynopef}uean>a pada 

dpymmea y npeoj eodunu da 6u ce CMan>ujia eenuHuna nonynamije Koja npojia3u xpo3 ceneKi^ujy 

Ta6ejia 1. Rase Apis mellifera Koje ce KopHCTe 3a y3roj, 6poj y3rojeHHX MaTiiua ro,mniiH>e h 

ynoTpe6a HHCTpyMeHTajiHor oceMeH>HBaH>a y pa3HHM eBponcKHM 3eMJi>aMa. 



3eMJba, 


Rase apis mellifere 


yarojeHe Mantle / 
rojimiiFte 


MHcrpyMeRTajitto oceMei*,HBaH*e (WO) 


AyerpHja 


Camiea, meUifera 


60. 000 (roMHmi 
2001) 


CaMO 1 .000-2.000 HO Marnua roflRiiiHie jep 
nocrajw flo6ap chctcm jaKuHCKH 
^aurmheHHx craHHi;a 3a cnapnBaff*e 


BenrHJa 


Camiea, mellifera, 
hibridi 


2.000-3.000 


KopacTH ce 3a penpt>ayi£U,HJy LUpHMLBJ (300 - 
500) h ereapajte apcTe ByuK^acr 


Xpaaxcita 


Camiea 


4L000 (rojume 
2fK>1 ) 


KopHCTH ra jea;aH yoraJHaa 1 ! 


HeiUKa 
PenyrijmKa 


Camiea 


mooo-*aooo 


yarajwuaiH npHfir h jjpyror hhh«r HMzijy 
concTacHO HO itJiH Moi^yhHoer ycjiyra 3a 
WO, h npow^aofle yKynno 1*000 WO MaTWua 


OHTTCKa 


1 .-igusiica, camiea, 
mellifera, hibridi 


3.500 


KupticTH m y\m\ y^rajtia ana v 
eKCtiepKMeinajiHe cupxe m ormo^e 200 
Marwua TX^Aiiiitibe, aim noTpa?KH»a NHJe 
aejiHKa jep rmcroJK ROCTa tnojioBamix 
ofijiaem nurojpfKX 3a cramJMe 3a napejfee 


4>pam^ciia 


Mc II libra, 
ligustica, 
caucasica, hibridi 


15.000 


KopHcnt ra lecra 10 yarajtrea^ia hhjs 
Mtnme necixi KopHcre npo4*ecHonnjinn 


HeMaMtca 


Camiea, mellifera, 
hibridi 


70.000 ro^HUifbe 
(rojiwia 2tXXI) 


61 JiaSopaTopHJa *a HO 


Tpnica 


Macedonia 


2.000 


nkiHeicaji t 1 a Kopucre jjaa y^raiMEa^ia 


MafjapcKa 


Camiea 


43.000 


KopmstB ce caMO y eKCTiepHMetrra^rie cupsc 


HrarjHJa 


Ugustica,sicula 


120.000 


CaMO y eKcnepHMcHTa/iHe eBpxe (crOTBHe 
rommiHie), ycjiyre ia MO uynn Pei'MCTpoaaii 
YpeAeaoJHM MJianonnMa 


flojbCKa 


Camiea, caueasica, 
mellifera, hibridi 


63.000 (ru/wiia 
2000) 


KopHCTH ce h 3a ysrxij iTejirirpea u y uinpe 
KOMepUHJa/me eapxe: 27.000 Mantua 
(roAmia 201X1) 


rioprynurifja 


Iberica, ligustica, 
camiea, hibridi 


HenosHam 


He KopHCTH ee y KOMcpuHJajiiLc eapxe 


CnoaaHKn 
Peny^JlHKii 


Camiea 


5.0G0(rwma20G0) 


4 y'irajwBaHa Kopwcre WO (150 uanma 


CnoBcnifja 


Camiea 


40.000 (rojpiHB 

2001 ) 


KcipwcTH ce y eKcnepHMeH Tajme cnpxe; 
KoptieTC ce crauHije Ja euapHBuJbc 


LLliiaHnja 


Ibcriea 


HenoiiraTO 


He Kopnen, ce 


UlBeucKa 


Camiea, mellifera, 

' .-iiMJL-.i, hibridi 


5.000 


KopiitTH ra 5 riMejtapn 


UlHajnapcKa 


Camiea, ligustica, 
mellifera, hibridi 


20,000 


He KopuciM ce y KOMepUHJajme eupxe 


BejiHKa 

BpHItiHHJii 


Ugustica. 
mellifera, hibridi 


2,000 


He KopHcrH ce y KOMepuHjajTHe capxe 


JyroCsnaBHJa 


Camiea 


Heno3«aTo 


He KopucTH ee 



456 



n^CAAP. 6p. 10, 2003, 




Cjiwca 9. Y cmaHuu i u3a cnapueaibe mpymoea 

koju cy do6ujenu od npupodno cnapenux 

hepKU MaJKU Koje cy odadpane 3a y3soj mpy- 

moea (DM) ce Moey Kopucmumu 3a 3acuhetbe 

(nonyny) OKonune u cnapuean>e ca hepicaMa 

odadpanuxMaJKU Mamui^a. 

perHCTpoBaHH y3raJHBaHH HHCTpyivieHTajiHO oce- 
Men>eHO. 

Ta6ejia 2. Pa3Boj npo(J)ecHOHajiHor y3roja MaTH- 
ua y EBponn- opraHH3auHJa h 6poj ysraJHBa^a 

AycTpHJa 
237 perHCTpoBaHHX y3raJHBana MaTHua 3a carnicu 
h 38 3a melliferu y ACA ( "Austrijsko Udruzenje 
Carnica"). 

ACA HyuH caBeTe o MeTo^aMa ceneKUHJe, 
ynoTpe6n CTaHHua 3a cnapHBan>e, ycjiyraivia IO h 
o ocTanHM norojiHOCTHMa 3a CBqje HJiaHOBe (per- 
HCTpoBaHe y3raJHBaqe) h HMa CTpHJcraa npaBHJia 
Koja ce THHy ceneKUHOHHX nporpaMa h CTaHHua 
3a cnapiiBaite. Y Yapyaceifcy nnejiapa AycTpnje 
TaKorje nocTOJH ojjceK 3a y3raJHBane MaTHua. 
y 3 (J)e^epajiHe apacaBe £03BOJi>eHa je caMO A.m. 

Bejirnja 
MajiH 6poj npo(t)ecHOHajiHHX y3raJHBana MaTHua, 
oko 10 nojiynpo(j)ecHOHajiaLta ca yxynHOM 

npOM3BO/IH>OM OR HeKOJIHKO XHiba^a MaTHIja, OR 
KOJHX Ce OKO 10% H3B03H. 

rTpoH3BOHH>a Mantua h ceneKLtHJa HHcy hhth per- 
yjiHcaHe hhth cy ueHTpajmo opraHH30BaHe. 
FlocTOJH "Grupa melifica" Koja Texn Ra ca^yBa 
jjoMafiy upHy n^ejiy. 

XpBaTCKa 
38 y3raJHBana MaTHua kojh cy perHCTpoBaHH Kao 
y3rajnBaHH. Ohh npoH3BO,zie npexo 40.000 Mara- 
na ro/iHintbe. 

OBaj ype# 3a perHCTpoBaite y3rajwBa t ia MaTHua 
je uor OKpHibeM IJeHTpa 3a ceneKHHJy 2(HB0THH>a 
kojh o6aBJba TecTHpaita Ha noTOMCTBy h npo- 
neityje copTe 3a y3roj. y 1997, BJia^aje o^o6pH- 
jia HauHOHajiHH nporpaM 3a y3roj MaTHua h 
cejieKUHJy, c uyubeM Ra ce no6ojBiuajy no3HTHBHe 
KapaKTepHCTHKe n^ejie carniolan, a y hcto BpeMe 
na ce onyBajy xpBaTCKH eKOTHnoBH. 

HeuiKa Peny6jiHKa 
IIocToje 4 HMBoa y3roja Mantua. (1) PerHOHajiHH 
y3raJHBaHH: BejiHKa crpy^HOCT; KOHTpojia npo- 
rpaMa y3rajaH>a h IO (8 y3raJHBana); (2) npo(|)e- 
CHOHajiHii: KOHTpojiume ra h Hhcthtyt Dol; 
KOMepuHJajma npoHSBOflita (50 y3raJHBana); (3) 



perHCTpoBaHH y3rajuBaHH: MorynHOCT npoBepe 
pe3yjiTaTa, KOMepuHJajma npoH3BO^H>a; (4) 
FIpHBaTHH y3raJHBa^H: HeMa KOMepuHJajme 

aKTHBHOCTH. 

IT^ejiapcKH HCTpaacHBaMKH HHCTHTyT y Dolu: 
capafjyje ca y3raJHBaHHMa h opraHH3yje npo- 
rpaMe y3rajatta; npoH3BojiH y3roJHe BpcTe (oko 
1.000 Mantua ro/ntniite) Koje ce £HCTpH6yHpajy 
y3raJHBaqHMa; cnpoBO^H 6HOMeTpHJCKy koh- 
Tpony pace. 

<l>HHCKa 

15 npo(J)ecHOHajiHHX y3raJHBana Mantua. 
*t>HHCKa nnejiapcKa opraHH3au,HJa bo^ih Many 
CTaHHuy 3a y3rajaH>e y kojoj ce BpuiH npoueiia 

HeKOJIHKO BpCTa TORHWlhQ. 

OpamrycKa 
Oko 35 npo<J)ecHOHajiHHX y3raJHBana Mantua. 
ANERCEAje yupyaceite Koje ce 6aBH npomnpH- 
BaH>eM 3Han>a o y3rojy nnejia (KypceBH o cejieK- 
Uhohhm nporpaMHMa h IO) h bo#h periicTap ajiH 

HeMa HHKaKBy KOHTpOJiy HaR KBaJIHTeTOM KOMep- 

UHJajiHSOBaHHX nnejia. CETA (IIojbonpHBpe£HH 
HCTpaxHBa^KH HHCTHTyT) opraHH3yje KypceBe 
y3rajan>a h IO iunpoM 3eMJbe. 
IIoctojh Tpa^HUHJa npoH3BO^Hje jaKHX xn6pH,na. 

HeMaHKa 
PerncTpoBaHO h npH3HaTO o^ CTpaHe 
Oe^epajiHor y/ipy>KeHja n^e^apa: 270 y3raJHBa^a 
MaTHua; 71 y3rojno ^pyiuTBo; 68 penpo^yK- 
Uhohhx CTaHHiHTa; 127 CTaHHua 3a napeH>e (4 

HHBOa). 

Oe^epajiHH caBe3 nnejrapa {J)opMyjiHiue npaBHJi- 
hhk 3a: aKTHBHOCTH y3rajaH>a; npH3HaBaH>e y3ra- 
JHBana; npH3HaBaHje CTaHHue 3a napette h Jia6o- 
paTopnja 3a IO; cejieKHHJy h npoueH>HBaH>e y3ro- 
jhhx apyiHTaBa h JiHHHJa. JIoKajma y^pyaceH>a cy, 
3aTHM, o^roBopna 3a H3BpiuaBaH>e npaBHJiHHKa h, 
3ajejjHO ca OejjepajiHHM yapy3ceH>eM, 3a cnpo- 
BorjeH>e HHcneKunje. CTaHHue 3a cnapHBaH^e cy 
opraHH30BaHe Ha 4 HHBoa h y CBaKOM je H3a6paH 
no jenaH HCKycaH nnejiap kojh je o^roBopaH 3a 
aKTHBHOCTH jjaTe oSnacTH. 

y TopH>eM HojeH^op(J)y nnejiapn kojh Kynyjy 
MaTHue Mory HMaTH kophcth or CHCTeMa moji- 
epHor npoueH>HBan>a y3roja, ynope^HBafteM 
no,ziaTaKa or ysrajHBa^a h nocTaBJi>aH>eM 
BajbaHOCTH pe3yjiTaTa Ha HHTepneT. 

TpHKa 
IIoctojh 4 ro 5 y3raJHBana MaTHua A.m. mace- 
donica, ajiH cy TaKo^e npncyTHH ligustica h y3ro- 
jeHH xnSpH^H. 

HH je/IHO 3BaHHHHH TeJIO He KOHTpOJIHHie HHTH 

Koop^HHHpa y3rojeM nnena hjih yBorjeH>eM 
CTpaHHX paca nnejia. 

MatjapcKa 
40 aKTHBHHX perHCTpoBaHHX y3raJHBana non koh- 
TponoM jipacaBe. 
Orcqk 3a y3roj n^ejia h Snojiorajy Ha HHCTHTyTy 

3a HCTpaXHBaH>e 2CHBOTHH.a, H HaHHOHaJIHH 



n^cAAP. ep. to. $003. 



457 



HHCTHTyT 3a KBajin<{)HKanHJy nojbonpHBpe,ne koh- 
TpojiHiuy nporpaMe y3rajaH>a h y3roj MaTHua. 

HTajiHJa 
24 y3raJHBana MaTHna HJiaHOBa HannoHajmor 
perncTpa y3raJHBana MaTHna y KOMe nocTOJH 
KOHTpojiHcaHa cejieKUHJa JiHHnja. BernmoM cy 
BejiHKH npo(J)ecHOHajiHH y3raJHBaHH HJiaHOBH 
PerncTpa, ajiH He h cbh. 

HauHOHanHH HHCTHTyr 3a anHKyjiTypyje o^roBO- 
paH 3a HaiiHOHanHH peracTap ysraJHBa^a MaTH- 
na. YsraJHBaHH HMajy npncTyn PerncTpy axo 
npaTe craH^apfle sa BpcTe ligustica i sicula ( Mop- 
(})OJioinKe h MOJiexyjiapHe rjiaBHe TexHHKe ce 
H3B0^e or CTpaHe HHCTHTyra) . PerncTap Hynp: 
uieMe cejieKUHOHHX nporpaMa; noce6He TecTOBe 
(xHrHJeHCKO noHaiuaH>e, hxh); cjiyac6y 10; npo- 
ueifcHBaibe y3rojeHHX paca Koje cnpoBo^e 
nnejiapn eKcnepTH; caKynjbatke no^aTaica h 
o6pzwy; KoopunHauHJy Merjy y3raJHBa i iHMa h 
n^ejiapHMa. 

llOJLCKa 

YsraJMBa^H npoH3BO,ne hhctc MaTHne (or 3 
pa3JiH x fflTe no^BpcTe) h KOMepuHJajiHa yKpiu- 
Tan>a. Mory Ra Kyne bhcoko KBajiHTeTHe y3roJHe 
pace h Ra yHecTByjy y Koop^HHHpaHHM npo- 
rpaMHMa 3a no6ojbinaH>e KBajiHTeTa. 
Or 1997. 3aKOHOM cy ycTaHOBJteHH PerncTpH 3a 
y3roJHe BpcTe. Ca%a ce KopHCTe 47 cejieKTOBaHHX 
JiHHHJa (5 mellifera, 32 carnica, 10 caucasica) 3a 
KOMepuHJajiHy npoH3BO#H>y. ^oMafte upHe nnejie 
cy He^aBHO yKityneHe y HannoHajmn nporpaM 3a 
reHeTCKO onyBaH>e koji )KHBOTHH>a. HannoHajiHH 
y3roJHH ueHTap (perHOHajiHe Kamiejiapiije) npo- 
nejtyjy pace ne/nirpea. Bpiue ce tcctobh Ha 
TepeHy y 300 nnejiHH>aKa kojh cy yKibyneHH y 
nporpaMe y3rajan>a h y 18 nnejiHitaKa 3a ne,HH- 
rpee. 

JlopTyrajiHJa 
HeMa npo({)ecHOHajiHHX y3raJHBana nnejia (MaT- 
Hne ce Kynyjy H3 HHOdpaHCTBa). 
JcmiHO yupyaceite Koje npe^cTaBJba nopTyrajicKO 
nnejiapeite Ha HannoHajiHOM HHBoy (FNAP) je 
nocTaBHJio npojexaT cejieKnnje h y3roja 
jioKajiHHX eKOTHnoBa A.m.iberice. 

CjioBaHKa Peny6jiHKa 
IIoctojh 31 y3raJHBan ca cjie^efrnM CTaHHuaMa: 1. 
CTaHHLta 3a y3rajan>e, me cy y3raJHBaHH MaTHua 
(5) cneuHJajiH30BaHH y o^pataBaity h no6aib- 
maBaH.y jejjHe or pa3JiHHHTHX paca nnejie 
carnionalan h TaKorje y 10; 2. CTamiue 3a pa3M- 
HoacaBaH>e, y KOJHMa 23 npo(J)ecHOHajiHa n^ejiapa 
aoSHJajy MaTHne H3 craHHua 3a y3rajaH>e h 
npoH3Bone KOMepuHJajiHe MaTHne; 3. KOMepuH- 
jajiHe eraHHue, hhjh cy HJiaHOBH KOMepuHJajiHH h 
nnejiapH-xo6HCTH. 

KoMHCHJa 3a perncTpoBaHe ysraJHBane n^ejia 
(MHHHCTapcTBO noibonpHBpcue) flejryje Kao koh- 
tpojiho h opraHH3auHOHO Tejio Koje cepTH(J)HKy- 
je nHejiHH>aKe 3a y3roj MaTHua. OpraHH30BaHO 
y3rajan>e aoMane carniolan nnejie aajiTRejia h 



KOHTpOJIHUie HcTpaXHBaHKH HHCTHTyT 3a 

anHKyjiTypy or 1929. 

3a6pan>eHJe yB03 paca Me^oHOCHHX n^ejia. 

CjioBeHHJa 
33 perncTpoBaHa y3raJHBana npoH3Bo^e npeKO 
40.000 MaTHna o,n kojhx TperiHHa Hue na ROMafre 
TpxHiHTe, a RBe TperiHHe y EU, XpBaTCKy h 
BocHy. 

Or 1981. je 3aKOHOM peryjincaHa npoH3BO£H>a 
MaTHna. llpoH3BO/iH>a or npeKO 150 MaTHna 
ro^HuiH>e Mopa ce perncTpoBaTH y IJeHTpajiHOM 
perncTpy llojbonpHBpeflHor HHCTHTyTa CjioBe- 
HHJe, kojh je Ha/yieataH 3a KoopnHHHpaH>e npo- 
rpaMa y3rajaH>a. KoHTpojiy cnpoBO^H KOMncnja 
CjioBeHaHKor n^ejiapcKor ynpyxceH>a Koja he 
BepoBaTHo 6hth Ha^jiexHa 3a neo chctcm y3ra- 
jan>a. 
n^ejie pace carnica ce 3aKOHCKH Mory KOMepnn- 

jaJIH30BaTH y OlOBeHHJH. 

HJnaHHJa 
HeMa BHUie or 10 KOMepnnjajiHHX y3raJHBana 
MaTHna, aiiH hx He KOHTpojinuie hh je^Ha hhcth- 
Tyunja. 

Hexa pernoHanHa yapyaceH>a cy opraHH30Bajia 
cejieKunoHe nporpaMe Ra 6h 3aniTHTHJia JioKajiHy 
UPHy nnejiy 36or H3BecHHX yB03a ligustice tokom 
nocjie,ziH.e /leneHnje ann He nocTojn ueHTpajiHO 
ynpy>*ceH>e Koje KoopziHHHpa cejieKunoHHM 
aKTHBHOCTHMa Ha HannoHajiHOM HHBoy. 

UlBQRCKa 

30 nnejiapa kojh y3rajajy h npo/iajy Maraue h 

opraHHSOBaHe rpyne 3a y3roj cbhx eBponcKnx 

paca. 

HeKH y3raJHBaHH n^ejia HMajy perncTpaunje, ajiH 

He nocTojn ueHTpajiHa opraHH3auHJa hjih koh- 

TpOJia y3TOJHHX aKTHBHOCTH. 

Ybo3 ce BeoMa KOHTpojinuie H3 caHHTapHHX 
pa3Jiora. 

IIlBajuapcKa 
CaMO HeKOJiHKO npo({)ecHOHajiHHX y3raJHBa^a 
MaTHna. 

CaMO pernoHajiHa yRpyyKeiha. 
Majio ce H3B03H BpcTa Buckfast. 

BejiHKa BpnTaHHJa 
HeMa 3ancTa bcjihkhx npo<})ecHOHajiHHX y3rajn- 
Ba^a MaTHua; 10 n^ejiapa nponsBe^y yKynHO oko 
2.000 MaTHiia. 

npoH3BO^H>a MaTHua n cejieKUHJa micy ueHTpaji- 
ho opraHH30BaHe hhth peryjincaHe. YRpy^eiba 
opraHH3yjy KypceBe y3rajaH>a Maraua. BIBA h 
ocTajie opraHH3aunje xejie ^a canyBajy jjoMahy 
UPHy nnejiy. HannoHajiHa nnejiapcKa opraHH- 
3annja ce 6aBH caHHTapHHM nHTaH>HMa h Ha^rjie- 
Ra KOMepunjajiHe acneKTe (yrjiaBHOM Be3aHe 3a 

yB03). 

JyrocjiaBHJa 
Oko 15 nnejiapa y3raja MaTnue H3 KOMepHHJaji- 
hhx pa3Jiora or kojhx ^eTBopo 3a H3B03. 



458 



mZMP. 6p, 10. 2003. 



fTCEJIAPEIiE 



HEOBMHHM HBOMATMHHM 
CMCTEMM (H HEO) 



MujbKO ffljbueuh, fAo6odep Kpytueeat^ 



BeJIMKM noGopHMK ^BOMaTHHHOr CHC- 
TeMa nnejiapeita je nnejiap U,BeTKO 
IJaKHn M3 BajteBa. Oh nnejiapM CTa- 
UMOHapHO, ca CTOTMHaK^pyuiTaBa, Ha 20 kmjio- 
MeTapa 3ana,aHO o,a BajteBa. OicojiHHa imejiH- 
H>aKaje 6oraTa mc^ohochmm GmtKaMa TaKO ^a 
MMa BohHy, 6arpeMOBy h jiHBa^CKy nauiy. 
H>eroB CHCTeM nnejiapeiBa je nnenapeifce ca 
/me MaTMue y mctoj DB koiiihmhm tokom nene 
ro^MHe. MaTnue ca cbojhm mecTOOKBMpHHM 
^pyniTBHMa cy o^BOJeHe BepTHKajiHOM npe- 
rpa/moM aacKOM ca otbopom BenMHMHe 100 
xlOO MMJiMMeTapa kojm je 3aMpe^ceH ;>KHHaHOM 
Mpe>KOM ca OKijHMa 2.5-3 mm. 06a ^pyuiTBa, 
TaKO o^BOJeHa 3MMyjy y mctoj koiiihmhm. Y 
npojiehe, 36or cy^iceHor npocTOpa m 6p3or 
pa3BOJa, nnejie paHO HanyHe KOuiHHuy jierjiOM 
m nnejiaMa. OGmhho cpe^MHOM MapTa Ka^a cy 
ApyniTBa cKOpo nyHa Jierjia ao^aje iuio^mihho 
Tejio 6e3 nperpa/ie. y H>era npe6auH paMOBe 

Ca 3aTBOpeHHM JierJIOM M ^CJIMMM^HO OTBOpeH- 

hm H3 o6a apyniTBa. Ha ynpa^meHa MecTa 
nocjie BafjeH>a paMOBa ca JierjiOM flo^aje carae 
ocHOBe hjih, aKO MMa, M3rpar)eHO cane. 
MaTMue 3a^p^caBa y cbojmm npocTOpMMa. 
ITpeKO ruiOflMiuTa ca nperpa^OM nocTaBJba 





ffeoMamuHHO dpymmeo y mony 3UMe 



JleoMamuHHO dpymmeo cpedunoM Mapma 

MaTHHHy pemeTKy m 3aTMM njio^nuiHO Tejio ca 
npeHeTMM JierjiOM. Hape^HMx ^aHa MaTMiie 
HacTaBibajy aa Hoce y HOBOHacTajiOM npoc- 
TOpy. npeHeTO 3aTBopeHO Jierno ce Jie^ce iuto 
#aje Macy MJiamix imejia ojx o6e MaTHue. Ca 
noneTKOM BohHe name (mjim yjtaHe pennne), 
Ha MaTHHHy pemeTKy, a Mcno# ^pyror 
njio^Hinra, ^o/iaje 3aje r o,HM i iKa nojiyMcanniTa 
H3 kojmx ce ue^n utjx n Koja npeMa noTpe6n 
floaaje 3a cjie^ene name. Me,a kojh n^ejie 
caicyne y ropH>eM imojwuny Bpafra ce nnejiaMa 
3a 3HMy npeMa noTpe6n a ocTajio cjryacH 3a 
4)opMMpaH>e pojeBa m onjio^H>aKa. 

KapaKTepHCTMHHO 3a OBaj HannH nnejiape- 
H>a je /ia /me MaTnne pa^e 3ajemro y je^HOM 
ApymTBy tokom uejie ro^MHe n ^ajy nnejie Koje 
3ajemro ynecTByjy y naiiiH. Ha Taj Ha^HH ce 
o6e36erjyje CMiypHO jaKO apyniTBO y nauin ca 
bmuikom M/iaanx nqejia Koje cyjaKO Ba^KHe 3a 
npepa/iy yHeTor HeKrapa. 

Ha KOHrpecy AimMOHnnje y Jby6jbaHH 
je^aH HeMa^KH npOM3Bof)a i i KOuiHMua, npe#- 
CTaBno je DB KomHnny ca nperpa,aoM 3a /mo- 



n4€AAP. 5p. 10, 2003. 



459 



MaTHHHO nnejiapeH>e. ITjio- 
AHiirre je KJiacMHHO ca npe- 
rpa^oM Ha cpe^MHM. Ha iijio- 
AHiirre nocTaBJta MaTMHHy 
peuieTKy m #Ba nonyMe^M- 
iirra ca no mecT OKBMpa, Taico 
#a ohm 3aje^HO HMHe je^HO 
Me^MiiiTe or ^BaHaecT okbh- 
pa. Ha Ta nsa nojiyMe^Miirra 
nocTaBJta je^HO 3aje^HHHK0 
ABaHaecTOpaMHO nojiyMe- 
AMiirre m ^arte kojimko 6yae 
Tpe6ajio. CMMcao nocTaB- 
ibaH>a OBa ^Ba nojiyMe^Miirra 
o^ mecT OKBMpa je j\& ce y 
H.MMa o^BOJeHO CKynM 
3MMHMua 3a 06a ^pyniTBa. 

ByrapCKM CTpymtaK ,ap 
ILiaMeH neTpoB je Ha npe- 
naBaiby y Beorpaay 1996. 
ro^MHe oojacHMO pa# mejia y 
neTpHaecTOpaMHOJ koiiihhuh 
noaejbeHOJ Ha ,aBa ,aejia no 
ce^aM paMOBa. KoniHMna je 




JleoMamuHHO dpyiumeo y moKy 
name 



no^ejbeHa BepTMKajmoM npe- 
rpa^OM TRe je/iHO ^pyniTBO 
MMa jieTO npeivia MCTOKy, a 
flpyro MMa JieTO ca cynpOTHe 
CTpaHe npeMa MCTOKy. Ha 
njio^nnrre ce nocTaBiba MaTM- 
HHa pemeTKa m saje^Hnmco 
Me^nniTe. Jlp neTpoB je Ta#a 
TBp^MO #a apyniTBO ca jieTOM 
npeivia MCTOKy MHoro paHnje 
yjyipy M3Jia3H Ha pa,a, a npeKO 
nnejia y 3aje^HMHK0M Me^H- 
niTy pa,a ce npeHOCM m Ha 
n^ejie /ipyror ApyiiiTBa. IIIto 
ce naK rane ^pyniTBa OKpeHy- 
tmm ca neTOM npeivia 3ana#y, 
TBp^H>aje #a oho .ayace yBene 
pa/in m #a ce pa# npexo 
MeflMinTa npeHOCH m Ha CBe 
nnene. 3aKJByHaK kojh npo- 
M3MJia3M je #a nnejie tmx ,apy- 
niTaBa yKynHO ,ay>Ke pa#e y 
TOKy aaHa, na ne BepOBaTHO 
BHine CKynnTM Me^a. 




a> 







MP 



6) 



3) flpilJTBO TOKOM 3MMe 

6) CpejDiwHOM MapTa 

b) y BoftHoj nauiM 

r) y 6arpeuoBoj nauiM 



mp 



111 *m arc km npMitas nnenapenia Uaarxa UaiCHfia 



460 



n^AAP, Qp. 10, 2003. 



HCKYCTB 



HEKE CMTHMUE KOJE 
TO HMCY (V) 



Ilpupeduo: EyduMup AmanacKoeuh, TpcmenuK 



3a3HMJbHBaibe m /leBiinaiiCKO cahe . 
HepeTKO ce ^oro^H, H3 pa3JiMHTHX 
y3poKa, jja ce Henocpe^HO npejj 3a3H- 
MJbHBaibe irqejia y ueHTpy njiojiHiiiHor npo- 
CTOpa Haje je^aH hjih BHine OKBHpa ca jxcbh- 
^aHCKHM caheM. Ako okbhp ca TaKBHM ca- 
heM, 6e3 o63Hpa jia jih je ca nyHHM hjih npa- 
3hhjhm Me/iHHM BeHueM, 6yjje ocTaBJteH y 
TOKy 3HMe npe^cTaBJbalie Ha tom MecTy (Ha 
KOMe ce o^eKyje (J>opMHpaH>e 3HMCKor Kjiy- 
6eTa) HecaBJiajjHBy npenpexy 3a npaBHJiHO 
H3HMJLHBaH>e nnejia. 

3auiTo ce 0Ba TBp,ziH>a cMaTpa HcnpaB- 

HOM? 

MaTHua, KaKO je npaxca Beh noKa3ajia, 
HHKaKO hjih Gjiaace pe^eHO Hepajjo OTnoHH- 
H>e jaHyapa hjih <J)e6pyapa 3ajieraH>e Ha Ta- 
kbom OKBHpyjep je H3parjeHO cane Ha H>eMy 
xjiajjHHj'e ojj caha ca HeniTO 3aTBOpeHHJOM 
Gojom. y obom cjiyqajy Maraua he OTnoHeTH 
npBO 3ajieraH>e Ha cycejjHOM (jieBO hjih jje- 
cho) OKBHpy ca HeuiTO 3aTBOpeHHJHM caheM. 
y npaKCH cy Moryha jjBa Ha^HHa jjajter 3hm- 
CKor pa3Boja ROTwme n*iejiHH>e 3aje^HHue. 
npBH je jja ce 3hmcko KJiy6e nocTeneHO y 
uejiHHH npecejiH Ha OHy nojioBHHy iuiojjh- 
uiTa y Kojoj je Maraua OTno^iejia 3ajieraH>e. 
y jxpyroM cjrynajy, iuto npejjcTaBJba Heno- 
bojbhhjh pa3Boj, 3hmcko KJiyGe he ce npaK- 
thhho nojjejiHTH noceGHO Tajja Kajja y njio- 
jjHiHTy HMa jxocra 3hmckhx irqejia. 06a cjiy- 
Haja y3poKOBahe cjiaGnp pa3Boj nHejiHH>e 
3aje^HHue y ucjihhh. y npBOM cjiyqajy MaTH- 
ua he (noceGHO y 4>e6pyapy h npBoj nojioBH- 
hh MapTa) CBOje 3ajieraH>e orpaHHHHTH Ha 
OHe OKBHpe ca TaMHHJHM caheM, a okbhp ca 
jieBH^aHCKHM caheM 6nhe HecaBJia/iHBa npe- 
npeKa CBe #0TJie jj,ok He Jjorjy TonjiHJH 
anpHJicKH jjaHH. ynpaBO Taj okbhp he HMaTH 
yjiory nperpa/iHe JiacKe. flocjie^Hua TaKBor 



orpaHHHaBaita Maraue je Man>H 6poj 3ajie- 
xeHHX jajaniaua, a THMe h H3aiHJiHX nnejia. 
CeM Tora HMahe Man>e xpaHe noTpeGHe 3a 
HopMajiaH pa3Boj. npaKTH^HO ojj TaKBe 3a- 
jejjHHue (MajiH 6poj 3arexeHHX OKBHpa, Ma- 
h>h 6poj H0B0H3Jie^ceHHX nqejia, HejjpBOJBHa 
3ajiHxa npHCTynaHHe xpaHe...) He Mo^ce ce 
o^eKHBaTH 6ojlh yHHHaK. HecTO 36or He/ip- 
BOJbHe KOJiHHHHe xpaHe nnejiHtta 3aje/iHHua 
Mo^ce jja yrHHe. TaKO ce TyMann CTpajjaite 
HeKHX n^ejiHHjHX 3aje/iHHua y TOKy 3HMe h 
nope^i nocTojaita xpaHe. Mcto ce ^orarja h y 
jjpyroM HaBejjeHOM cjiyqajy Ka^a je KJiy6e 
pa3JjejbeH0. Join Texe nocjie/iHHe HMahe 3a- 
jejjHHue y KOJHMa ce y ueHTpy njiojjHiHHor 
npocTopa Hatje ^Ba h BHine OKBHpa ca jjeBH- 
^aHCKHM caheM. 

Ako ce obo 3Ha h npHXBara oima je o6a- 
Be3a nnejiapa jja Ha to oGpaTH naxity. He- 
nocpejjHO npe 3a3HMJbHBaH>a nnejiap okbh- 
pe ca ijeBHqaHCKHM caheM CKJian>a BaH jjoMa- 
iuaja MecTa Ha KOMe ce oGhhho (J>opMHpa 
3HMCK0 KJiy6e. 

fla 6h 3aje/jHHua nnejia Morjia HecMeTa- 
ho jja npe3HMH Tpe6a y ueHTpy njiojjHiHTa Jia 
ce Haje HaJBehn 6poj OKBHpa ca HeniTO to- 
ruiHJHM caheM H3 Koraje H3auuio 2-3 reHe- 
paiiHJe n^ejia, o^hocho to cy ohh okbhph ca 
H3parjeHHM h 3ajiexeHHM caheM y nocjiejj- 
H>oj cejjMHUH jyHa h npBoj jjeKajjH jyjia Mece- 

Ua. OBH Cy OKBHpH TonjiHJH Ca HOpMaJlHOM 

3anpeMHH0M hejinja Koje MaTHue pajjo npH- 
XBaTajy. Jlo^pa3yMeBa ce jja th h ocTajin 
okbhph y njiojjHiHTy Mopa Jia HMajy onTH- 
MajiHy KOJiHHHHy o6e BpcTe xpaHe. CBaKaKO 
jja ce y ueHTpy njiojjHiuTa He Tpe6a jj,a Harjy 

HH UpHH OKBHpH CySCeHHX paJJHJIHMKHX he- 

jiHJa (BHine ojj 6-7 H3anuiHX reHepaunja) jep 
he nnejie 6hth 3HaTH0 CHTHHje, a THMe h 

HjHXOB y^HHaK MaH>H. 



ITM€AAP, Bp. 10, $003. 



461 



M nope/j Tora ihto je HCTHHa Kojy cbh 
nnejiapH 3Hajy jja pacnopejj Me/ja, noneHa h 
jjpyro TpeGa npenycTHTH caMHM nnejiaMa 
HpKHaje nnejiapeBa HHTepBeHHHJa npea 3H- 
MOBaite Ka/ja je pen o OKBHpHMa ca jjeBH- 
^aHCKHM h upHHM caheM. 

Maxima y KaBe3y. Ha ocHOBy HCTpaatH- 
Baita y PycnJH yTBpfjeHO je jja GopaBKOM 
omiorjeHe MaTHue yjejjHOM ojj mhoitix Bpcia 
KaBe3a 10 h BHine /jaHa npe h 3a BpeMe yBO- 
rjeita y /jpyniTBO 6e3 MaTHue cMan>yje iteHy 

HOCHBOCT H JJO 70 %. To npaKTH^HO 3HaHH 

jja jjoTHHHa MaTHua Ma KaKBor KBajiHTeTa h 
ocoGHHa 6HJia paHHJe, nocjie TaKO ayror 3a- 
jjpxaBaita y HenoBOJtHHM yanoBHMa je ro- 
tobo noTnyHO H3ryGHJia HaJBaxHnjy CBOjy 
OC06HHy-HOCHBOCT. H yMecTO Jja Ta MaTHua 
3ajejjHO ca nnejiaMa oGe36ejjH moTiho h MaK- 
CHMajiHO pa3BHJeHO jjpyiHTBO OHa he npe/j- 
CTaBibaTH orpaHHHaBajyliH (J>aKTOp pa3Boja. 
Kao TaKBa Guile 3aMeH>eHa ojj CTpaHe nnejia 
thxom 3aMeHOM. Ako ce OBa HHH>eHHii;a npH- 
XBaTH Kao HCTHHHTa jja HOBOKynjbeHa pacHa 
MaTHi